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  1. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  2. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  3. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  4. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  5. Electrical and Pharmacological Stimuli Reveal a Greater Susceptibility for CA3 Network Excitability in Hippocampal Slices from Aged vs. Adult Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Jones, Ryan T.; Tokhi, Ashish; Willingham, Amy L.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Rose, Gregory M.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies in rats have shown that the aged CNS is more susceptible to the proconvulsive effects of the excitotoxic glutamate analogues kainate (KA) and domoate (DA), which bind high-affinity receptors localized at mossy fiber (MF) synapses in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus. Although decreased renal clearance appears to play a role in the hypersensitivity of the aged hippocampus to systemically-administered DA, it is unclear if the excitability of the CA3 network is also altered with age. Therefore, this study monitored CA3 field potential activity in hippocampal slices from aged and adult male Fischer 344 rats in response to electrical and pharmacological network stimulation targeted to the MF-CA3 circuit. Network challenges with repetitive hilar stimulation or bath application of nanomolar concentrations of KA more readily elicited excitable network activity (e.g. population spike facilitation, multiple population spikes, and epileptiform bursts) in slices from aged vs. adult rats, although basal network excitability was comparable between age groups. Additionally, exposure to 200 nM KA often abolished epileptiform activity and revealed theta or gamma oscillations instead. However, slices from aged rats were less sensitive to the rhythmogenic effects of 200 nM KA. Taken together, these findings suggest that aging decreases the capacity of the CA3 network to constrain the spread of excitability during focal excitatory network challenges. PMID:22396884

  6. Greater priming for previously distracting information in young than older adults when suppression is ruled out.

    PubMed

    Ward, Emma V; de Mornay Davies, Paul; Politimou, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The use of previously distracting information on memory tests with indirect instructions is usually age-equivalent, while young adults typically show greater explicit memory for such information. This could reflect qualitatively distinct initial processing (encoding) of distracting information by younger and older adults, but could also be caused by greater suppression of such information by younger adults on tasks with indirect instructions. In Experiment 1, young and older adults read stories containing distracting words, which they ignored, before studying a list of words containing previously distracting items for a free recall task. Half the participants were informed of the presence of previously distracting items in the study list prior to recall (direct instruction), and half were not (indirect instruction). Recall of previously distracting words was age-equivalent in the indirect condition, but young adults recalled more distracting words in the direct condition. In Experiment 2, participants performed the continuous identification with recognition task, which captures a measure of perceptual priming and recognition on each trial, and is immune to suppression. Priming and recognition of previously distracting words was greater in younger than older adults, suggesting that the young engage in more successful suppression of previously distracting information on tasks in which its relevance is not overtly signaled.

  7. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and aging.

    PubMed

    Klempin, Friederike; Kempermann, Gerd

    2007-08-01

    The demographic changes in the foreseeable future stress the need for research on successful cognitive aging. Advancing age constitutes a primary risk factor for disease of the central nervous system most notably neurodegenerative disorders. The hippocampus is one of the brain regions that is prominently affected by neurodegeneration and functional decline even in what is still considered "normal aging". Plasticity is the basis for how the brain adapts to changes over time. The discovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has added a whole new dimension to research on structural plasticity in the adult and aging hippocampus. In this article, we briefly summarize and discuss recent findings on the regulation of adult neurogenesis with relevance to aging. Aging is an important co-variable for many regulatory mechanisms affecting adult neurogenesis but so far, only few studies have specifically addressed this interaction. We hypothesize that adult neurogenesis contributes to a neural reserve, i.e. the maintained potential for structural plasticity that allows compensation in situations of functional losses with aging. As such we propose that adult neurogenesis might contribute to the structural correlates of successful aging. PMID:17401726

  8. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  9. The Association between Filial Piety and Perceived Stress among Chinese Older Adults in Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Zhang, Manrui

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived stress influences the health and well-being of older adults. This study aims to examine the association between the expectation and the receipt of filial piety and perceived stress among U.S Chinese older adults. Methods Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based study of Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area. Perceived stress was assessed by the PSS-10 and was the dependent variable. Independent variables were the expectation and the receipt of filial piety examined in six domains. Negative Binomial Regression and Multivariable Logistic Regression analyses were conducted. Results Of the 3,159 Chinese older adults interviewed, the mean age was 72.8 (SD=8.3) and 58.9% were female. Compared with older adults who received a high level of filial piety, older adults who received a medium level of filial piety were 1.57 (1.29–1.93) times more likely to perceive stress as high, and older adults who received a low level of filial piety were 2.74 (2.26–3.33) times more likely to perceive stress as high, after controlling for the potential confounding variables. The expectation of filial piety was not significantly associated with perceived stress. Conclusion A low level of filial piety receipt may be a risk factor for perceived stress. Our findings suggest incorporating cultural contributors into the analyses of perceived stress. PMID:27642631

  10. Intraindividual Variability in HIV Infection: Evidence for Greater Neurocognitive Dispersion in Older HIV Seropositive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among older adults are on the rise. Older adults are at increased risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, which has historically been characterized as an inconsistent or “spotty” pattern of deficits. Dispersion is a form of intraindividual variability (IIV) that is defined as within-person variability in performance across domains and has been associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning and incipient decline among healthy older adults. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined dispersion in an aging HIV-infected sample. Methods For the current study we examined the hypothesis that age and HIV infection have synergistic effects on dispersion across a battery of clinical and experimental cognitive tasks. Our well-characterized sample comprised 126 HIV-seropositive individuals (HIV+) and 40 HIV-seronegative comparison individuals (HIV−), all of whom were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, an age by HIV serostatus interaction was observed, with the older HIV+ group demonstrating a higher level of dispersion relative to older HIV− and younger HIV+ individuals, even when potentially confounding demographic and medical factors were controlled. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that older HIV+ adults produce greater dispersion, or intraindividual variability in performance across a range of tests, which may be reflective of cognitive dyscontrol to which this population is vulnerable, perhaps driven by the combined effects of aging and HIV infection on prefrontostriatal systems. PMID:21574712

  11. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults.

  12. Viewing Our Aged Selves: Age Progression Simulations Increase Young Adults' Aging Anxiety and Negative Stereotypes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rittenour, Christine E; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2016-04-01

    This experiment tests the effect of an old-age progression simulation on young adults' (N = 139) reported aging anxiety and perceptions about older adults as a social group. College students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: self-aged simulation, stranger-aged simulation, or a control group. Compared with the control group, groups exposed to an age progression experienced more negative affect, and individuals in the self-aged condition reported greater aging anxiety. In accordance with stereotype activation theorizing, the self-age simulation group also perceived older adults as less competent and expressed more pity and less envy for older adults. Compared to the stranger-aged group, participants who observed their own age progression were also the more likely to deny the authenticity of their transformed image.These findings highlight potential negative social and psychological consequences of using age simulations to affect positive health outcomes, and they shed light on how virtual experiences can affect stereotyping of older adults. PMID:27076488

  13. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    PubMed

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  14. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  15. Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Ruth M; Thompson, Vanessa M; Kitt, Meagan M; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W; Frank, Matthew G; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Stamper, Christopher E; Hennessey, Patrick A; Watkins, Linda R; Spencer, Robert L; Lowry, Christopher A; Maier, Steven F

    2015-03-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher corticosterone levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal corticosterone levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia and prevented Escherichia coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia.

  16. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults.

  17. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults.

  18. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  19. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  20. Adult Age Differences in Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lisa Laumann; Shaw, Raymond J.

    2000-01-01

    Younger (n=41, ages 18-27) and older (n=39, ages 55-85) adults were given rare words to define. Older adults gave more complete definitions and had higher vocabulary test scores, but lower working memory scores. For older adults existing vocabulary knowledge contributed more than working memory to the ability to derive meaning from context. (SK)

  1. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  2. Older adults have greater difficulty imagining future rather than atemporal experiences.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Peter G; Bailey, Phoebe E; Henry, Julie D; Phillips, Louise H; Gaskin, Shae; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Episodic future thinking refers to mentally traveling forward in time to preexperience an event, and emerging research suggests that this is more difficult for older adults. The current study was designed to better understand the effect of aging on separate component processes of age differences in episodic future thinking. Young (n = 24) and older (n = 25) adults were asked to construct a) atemporal scenarios, b) future scenarios, and c) a narrative that involved navigation. Each of these conditions assesses the capacity to construct and describe a scene, but only the future scenario requires a subjective sense of self in time (autonoetic consciousness). The composite measure of performance showed that relative to young adults, older adults have substantially reduced capacity for all three types of construction, suggesting that age-related difficulty imagining future episodic events may reflect a more general cognitive decline with age. In addition, older adults were worse at imagining future experiences than atemporal experiences, indicating limited capacity for autonoetic consciousness. Further, this difference between imagining atemporal and future experiences was not as evident among younger adults. These deficits in episodic future thinking have implications for the daily lives of older adults in terms of anticipating and planning for the future.

  3. Individual limb work does not explain the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus D; Farley, Claire T

    2007-06-01

    Elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults. Our study tested the hypothesis that elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults because they perform more individual limb work on the center of mass. Thus we compared how much individual limb work young and elderly adults performed on the center of mass during walking. We measured metabolic rate and ground reaction force while 10 elderly and 10 young subjects walked at 5 speeds between 0.7 and 1.8 m/s. Compared with young subjects, elderly subjects consumed an average of 20% more metabolic energy (P=0.010), whereas they performed an average of 10% less individual limb work during walking over the range of speeds (P=0.028). During the single-support phase, elderly and young subjects both conserved approximately 80% of the center of mass mechanical energy by inverted pendulum energy exchange and performed a similar amount of individual limb work (P=0.473). However, during double support, elderly subjects performed an average of 17% less individual limb work than young subjects (P=0.007) because their forward speed fluctuated less (P=0.006). We conclude that the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults cannot be explained by a difference in individual limb work. Future studies should examine whether a greater metabolic cost of stabilization, reduced muscle efficiency, greater antagonist cocontraction, and/or a greater cost of generating muscle force cause the elevated metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults. PMID:17363623

  4. Preventive Care Service Usage Among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Preventive care is important for reducing morbidity and mortality among the elderly, but racial/ethnic disparities exist in use of preventive care services. We aimed to develop a better understanding of preventive care service utilization among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Methods. We used data collected from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago study, a population-based survey of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Preventive care services assessed include use of flu, pneumonia, and hepatitis B vaccines as well as colon, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening. We also examined sociodemographic, health and quality of life correlates for preventive care service use. Results. We found that although Chinese older adults had lower utilization rates for the pneumonia vaccine and cancer screening, their utilization of the flu shot was consistent with national utilization rates. No sociodemographic, self-reported health, or quality of life characteristics were associated with all nine of the preventive care services. Conclusion. Use of preventive care services except flu vaccination was low among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. However, future longitudinal studies may be necessary to further elucidate preventive care service utilization patterns among Chinese older adults. PMID:25378452

  5. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  6. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  7. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  8. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  9. Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason A; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M; Edwards, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  10. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  11. College-Age & Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... use in this age group, including patterns of marijuana use, non-medical use of prescription drugs, cocaine, and newer trends ... Marijuana Medicine? Revised July 2015 . Offers facts about marijuana as a legal medical treatment and about potential and approved treatments using ...

  12. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  13. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  14. Persistent glucose production and greater peripheral sensitivity to insulin in the neonate vs. the adult.

    PubMed

    Farrag, H M; Nawrath, L M; Healey, J E; Dorcus, E J; Rapoza, R E; Oh, W; Cowett, R M

    1997-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been reported to partially explain the clinical appearance of neonatal hyperglycemia. To determine the relative resistance to insulin of glucose production vs. glucose utilization, the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was employed for the first time in the human neonate and was combined with stable isotopic determination of glucose production and glucose utilization. The basal rates of glucose production and glucose utilization were determined, after which each neonate was clamped at his or her own euglycemic glucose concentration while receiving regular human insulin at one rate of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mU. kg-1.min-1. Persistent glucose production (> or = 1 mg.kg-1.min-1) during the clamp was recorded for all groups. A significant increase in the glucose infusion rate (P < 0.001) and in percent glucose utilization (P < 0.01) occurred in the 2.0 and 4.0 mU.kg-1.min-1 insulin groups. Metabolic clearance rate of insulin was significantly greater in the neonate compared with the adult at the 2.0 mU.kg-1.min-1 insulin infusion rate (P = 0.036). Our results indicate that, in contrast to the adult, the neonate has persistent glucose production (P = 0.001) and greater peripheral sensitivity to insulin (P = 0.015). PMID:9038856

  15. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  16. Developmental Changes in the Perception of Adult Facial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    The author studied children's (aged 5-16 years) and young adults' (aged 18-22 years) perception and use of facial features to discriminate the age of mature adult faces. In Experiment 1, participants rated the age of unaltered and transformed (eyes, nose, eyes and nose, and whole face blurred) adult faces (aged 20-80 years). In Experiment 2,…

  17. Acute Seizures in Old Age Leads to a Greater Loss of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, an Increased Propensity for Developing Chronic TLE and a Severe Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shetty, Ashok K

    2011-02-01

    The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the

  18. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (<25th percentile of DSST score, cutpoint 28 symbols substituted). Higher levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide modified the associations between age and lower cognitive function (Pinteraction<0.01, 0.03, <0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Elders in the 3rd tertile of these chemicals demonstrated a greater risk of lower cognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in

  19. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O.; Kraut, Michael A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n=25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomical regions compared to control participants who remained cognitively normal (n=96). Based on 8 years of annual MRI scans beginning an average of 11 years prior to onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared to controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the two study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe, and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  20. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  1. Isotope and chemical age of the Greater Caucasus basement metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konilov, A. N.; Somin, M. L.; Mukhanova, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that metamorphic basement of the Greater Caucasus is essentially Proterozoic [i.e. Gamkrelidze & Shengelia, 2005 ]. New results of geochronological study, mainly on magmatic zircon, contradict this opinion [Somin, 2007; Somin et al., 2007a, b, c and references therein]. To precise age of metamorphism we tried to apply CHIME method on monazite [Suzuki, Adachi, 1991]. The facility consists of Tescan SEM VEGA II xmu equipped with EDS Energy 400 and WDS Wave 500 from Oxford Instruments. This system and analytical protocol for monazite analysis are close to described by Slagstad [2006]. Samples of three metamorphic units were used with purpose to investigate their PT conditions and chemical composition of accessory monazite, xenotime and zircon. In the Blyb Complex Ky-bearing St-Grt-Bt schist was studied. Temperature calculated using Grt-St and Grt-Bt thermometers are 550-600 oC at 10 kb. Because xenotime absence and very low Y2O3 content in monazite, temperature determination on Mnz thermometer was impossible. Isochron chemical age of monazite is 288±24 Ma. In the Gondary Complex the Sil-bearing Grt-Bt gneiss was studied. Temperature calculated using Grt-Bt thermometer and Grt-Pl-Sil-Qtz geobarometer correspond to 610 oC at 4 kb. Monazite thermometer [Pyle et al., 2001] indicates temperature range 533-640 oC for three samples. Monazite chemical age is 303±31 Ma, zircon of leucosome yields SHRIMP age 321-288 Ma. In the Makera Complex the And-Bt-Ms and Grt-Bt-Ms metapelites were examinated. Temperature calculated using Grt-Bt thermometer and Grt-Pl-And-Qtz geobarometer correspond to 500 oC at 2,5 kb. Monazite thermometer indicates average temperatures 293-433-447 oC. Two isochrones correspond to 239±28 Ma and 282±19 Ma. Our results of monazite dating are close to the U-Pb zircon data although not similar being some younger. Therefore conclusion on Precambrian metamorphic events in the studied complexes of the Greater Caucasus is erroneous. These

  2. Greater flavonoid intake is associated with improved CVD risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that diets high in flavonoids are associated with a reduced risk of CVD. However, evidence on the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors among US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. A total of 4042 US adults aged 19 years and older from the NHANES 2007-2012 participated in this cross-sectional, population-based study. Intakes of total and individual flavonoids were estimated from 2-d 24-h diet recall data by matching with the expanded US Department of Agriculture flavonoid, isoflavone and proanthocyanidin databases. After adjusting for covariates, increased HDL-cholesterol was associated with higher total flavonoid intake (0·54 % change). TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio were inversely associated with anthocyanidin (-1·25 % change for TAG; -1·60 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio) and total flavonoid intakes (-1·31 % change for TAG; -1·83 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio), respectively. Insulin and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were inversely associated with flavone (for insulin, -3·18 % change; 95 % CI -5·85, -0·44; for HOMA-IR, -3·10 % change; 95 % CI -5·93, -0·19) and isoflavone intakes (for insulin, -3·11 % change; 95 % CI -5·46, -0·70; for HOMA-IR, -4·01 % change; 95 % CI -6·67, -1·27). BMI was negatively associated with anthocyanidin intake (-0·60 % change). This study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with improved CVD risk factors. Further research is warranted to confirm the findings from this study as these associations were moderate in strength. PMID:26931451

  3. Age estimation of indian adults from orthopantomographs.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for estimating the chronological age of Indian adults based on the relationship between age and various morphological variables of canine teeth, obtained using orthopantomographs. Orthopantomographs of 120 selected patients were digitized, and radiographic images of the right maxillary canine in each case were processed using a computer aided drafting program. Pulp/tooth area ratio, pulp/root length ratio, pulp/tooth length ratio, pulp/root width ratio at the cemento-enamel junction level, pulp/root width ratio at midroot level, and pulp/root width ratio at the midpoint between the cemento-enamel junction and the midroot of the canine were calculated by measuring various features on the images. Pearson's correlation, multiple linear regression, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Regression equations were developed to estimate age from morphological variables. The observed minus the estimated age in the total study sample ranged from -2.2 to +1.5 years, in males from -0.9 to +0.8 years, while in females it was from -1 to +0.8 years. Differences between observed and estimated ages of subjects were not statistically significant. In conclusion there is a linear relationship of pulp/root width ratio at mid-root level and pulp/tooth area ratio of the right maxillary canine with chronological age in the Indian population. Age of subjects can therefore be estimated with a good degree of accuracy using regression equations. PMID:21503416

  4. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  5. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  6. Aging on the Street: Homeless Older Adults in America.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Older adults are at greater risk for homelessness today than at any time in recent history. Approximately one half of homeless individuals in America are older than 50, which has created serious challenges for how cities, governments, and health care providers care for homeless populations. Systems established in the 1980s to help care for homeless individuals were not designed to address problems of aging. It is critical that nurses and all health professionals have a better understanding of the unique needs and concerns of homeless older adults. Nurses can be an important part of the solution, not only through direct patient care but by advocating for improvements in care for this vulnerable population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 25-29.]. PMID:27576225

  7. Psychic and somatic symptoms of depression among young adults, institutionalized aged and noninstitutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    Zemore, R; Eames, N

    1979-09-01

    Beck Depression Inventory scores were obtained from 48 elderly who had been residing in homes for the aged for more than one year, 31 elderly residing in the community and waiting to enter an old-age home, and 424 young adults enrolled in a fist-year psychology course. The residents of old-age homes reported no more symptoms of depression than the waiting-list controls, a finding that provides no support for the hypothesis that the institional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Both the institutionalized and noninstitutionalized aged reported more somatic symptoms of depression than the young adults, but no greater cognitive or affective symptoms of depression. These results were interpreted as providing no support for the widely belief that the aged are more depressed than any other age group. Finally, it was argued that somatic complaints can be valid indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account.

  8. Intermuscular Coherence in Normal Adults: Variability and Changes with Age

    PubMed Central

    Jaiser, Stephan R.; Baker, Mark R.; Baker, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated beta-band intermuscular coherence (IMC) in 92 healthy adults stratified by decade of age, and analysed variability between and within subjects. In the dominant upper limb, IMC was estimated between extensor digitorum communis and first dorsal interosseous as well as between flexor digitorum superficialis and first dorsal interosseous. In the ipsilateral lower limb, IMC was measured between medial gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum brevis as well as between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum brevis. Age-related changes in IMC were analysed with age as a continuous variable or binned by decade. Intrasession variance of IMC was examined by dividing sessions into pairs of epochs and comparing coherence estimates between these pairs. Eight volunteers returned for a further session after one year, allowing us to compare intrasession and intersession variance. We found no age-related changes in IMC amplitude across almost six decades of age, allowing us to collate data from all ages into an aggregate normative dataset. Interindividual variability ranged over two orders of magnitude. Intrasession variance was significantly greater than expected from statistical variability alone, and intersession variance was even larger. Potential contributors include fluctuations in task performance, differences in electrode montage and short-term random variation in central coupling. These factors require further exploration and, where possible, minimisation. This study provides evidence that coherence is remarkably robust to senescent changes in the nervous system and provides a large normative dataset for future applications of IMC as a biomarker in disease states. PMID:26901129

  9. Who Gets What and Why? Help Middle-Aged Adults Provide to Parents and Grown Children

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Chan, Wai; Birditt, Kira; Franks, Melissa M.; Zarit, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults engage in support exchanges with generations above and below. This study investigated (a) how support to one generation is associated with support to the other and (b) factors accounting for whether parents or offspring receive more support in a family. Methods. Middle-aged adults aged 40–60 years (N = 633) completed telephone interviews regarding their relationships and support exchanges with each grown child and living parent. Results. Multilevel models revealed that most participants provided more support to the average grown child than to the average parent. Yet, a proportion of the sample reversed this pattern, providing more support to parents. Mediation models revealed that middle-aged adults provided greater support to offspring because they viewed offspring as more important than parents and offspring had greater everyday needs (e.g., being a student, not married). Parental disability accounted for greater support to parents. Discussion. Discussion integrates solidarity theory, developmental stake, and contingency theory. Most middle-aged adults provide more to grown offspring than to parents, consistent with their greater stake in their progeny. Middle-aged adults also respond to crises (i.e., parental disability) and everyday needs (i.e., offspring student status) in providing intergenerational support, in accordance with contingency theory. PMID:20223807

  10. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  11. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors. PMID:25267164

  12. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  13. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  14. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  15. Fluctuations in acceleration during voluntary contractions lead to greater impairment of movement accuracy in old adults.

    PubMed

    Christou, Evangelos A; Shinohara, Minoru; Enoka, Roger M

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of movement velocity on the relation between fluctuations in acceleration and the ability to achieve a target velocity during voluntary contractions performed by young (29.5 +/- 4.3 yr) and old (74.9 +/- 6.2 yr) adults. Subjects performed concentric and eccentric contractions with the first dorsal interosseus muscle while lifting a submaximal load (15% of maximum) at six movement velocities (0.03-1.16 rad/s). Fluctuations in acceleration, the accuracy of matching the target velocity, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were determined from three trials for each contraction type and movement velocity. The fluctuations in acceleration increased with movement velocity for both concentric and eccentric contractions, but they were greatest during fast eccentric contractions ( approximately 135%) when there was stronger modulation of acceleration in the 5- to 10-Hz bandwidth. Nonetheless, EMG amplitude for first dorsal interosseus increased with movement velocity only for concentric and not eccentric contractions. Consistent with the minimum variance theory, movement accuracy was related to the fluctuations in acceleration for both types of contractions in all subjects. For a given level of fluctuations in acceleration, however, old subjects were three times less accurate than young subjects. Although the EMG amplitude at each speed was similar for young and old adults, only the young adults modulated the power in the EMG spectrum with speed. Thus the fluctuations in acceleration during voluntary contractions had a more pronounced effect on movement accuracy for old adults compared with young adults, probably due to factors that influenced the frequency-domain characteristics of the EMG.

  16. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  17. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  18. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  19. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  20. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  1. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  2. Adult age similarities in free recall output order and strategies.

    PubMed

    Wright, R E

    1982-01-01

    Adult age differences on a variety of free recall measures were examined. Although primary memory capacity was found to be the same in young and old adults, there was a smaller recency effect in the older group. Recall of primacy items was also less for that group. However, the pattern of serial position effects was the same for the two age groups. Similarly, there was no age difference in the development of the strategy of recalling recency items early in the output sequence. Young adults showed the typical negative recency effect in final free recall, and old adults the absence of a positive recency effect. The results indicate that the lower level of recall of old, relative to young, adults cannot be attributed to a qualitative difference in the way the two age groups approach a free recall task.

  3. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  4. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  5. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  6. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  7. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    PubMed

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. PMID:21534689

  8. Aging has greater impact on anaerobic versus aerobic power in trained masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Gent, Debra Nicole; Norton, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the relative rates of change of the three human energy systems across a 30-year age range. A cross-section of highly trained masters cyclists (n = 156 males and 17 females; 35-64 years) were tested for maximal cycling performance. There were 50 (29%) track sprint cyclists and the remaining (71%) were predominantly road cycling specialists. A 10 s peak power test measured anaerobic power, a 30 s test measured anaerobic capacity, and a progressive test to volitional fatigue was used to determine peak aerobic power. Participants' exercise patterns were recorded using a physical activity recall questionnaire. Linear regression showed significant changes in anaerobic performance with aging. Peak anaerobic power (W · kg⁻¹) declined at a rate (mean ± SEE) of 8.1 ± 4.1% per decade (P < 0.0001) and anaerobic capacity (kJ · kg⁻¹) declined at 8.0 ± 3.3% per decade (P < 0.0001). Peak aerobic power [W · kg⁻¹] did not change significantly with age [-1.8 ± 1.5% per decade (P = 0.218)]. This cross-sectional study showed performance of the two anaerobic energy systems declined significantly across the age spectrum with no change in aerobic capacity.

  9. The Relationship between Greater Pre-Pubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation and Bone Strength during Adolescence†

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Natalie A.; Torner, James C.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Gilmore, Julie M. Eichenberger; Schlechte, Janet A.; Levy, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater pre-pubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using BMI data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy-weight, HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 years for estimates of body composition by DXA, bone compression (bone strength index) and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age – grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in Model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit ageage PHV) as the time variable for Model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in Model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p<0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) in Model 1, while OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck, but not radius (p>0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (Model 1.) Differences were no longer present following adjustment for lean mass (Model 2) in girls (p>0.05) while differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation and bone strength. PMID:26861036

  10. Pain hypervigilance is associated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced experimental pain sensitivity among adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Matthew S.; Goodin, Burel R.; Pero, Samuel T.; Schmidt, Jessica K.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Bulls, Hailey W.; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain hypervigilance is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may help explain individual differences in pain sensitivity among persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of pain hypervigilance to clinical pain severity and experimental pain sensitivity in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 168 adults with symptomatic knee OA. Quantitative sensory testing was used to measure sensitivity to heat pain, pressure pain, and cold pain, as well as temporal summation of heat pain, a marker of central sensitization. Results Pain hypervigilance was associated with greater clinical pain severity, as well as greater pressure pain. Pain hypervigilance was also a significant predictor of temporal summation of heat pain. Conclusions Pain hypervigilance may be an important contributor to pain reports and experimental pain sensitivity among persons with knee OA. PMID:24352850

  11. Greater Bone Formation Induction Occurred in Aged than Young Cancellous Bone Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, H. Z.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ito, H.; Setterberg, R. B.; Li, M.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Ma, Y. F.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the differences in the effects of continual prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2) treatment in aged (non-growing) and young (growing) cancellous bone sites in 7-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The sites involved are the aged distal tibial metaphysis (DTM) with a closed epiphysis and the young proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) with a slow growing, open epiphysis. The study involved rats treated with 0, 1, 3 or 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/d for 60, 120 and 180 days. Static and dynamic histomorphometry of percent trabecular area, and tissue-referent bone formation rate (BFR/TV) were determined in both DTM and PTM. In pretreatment controls, the secondary spongiosa of the two metaphyses contain the same amount of cancellous bone (11% in DTM vs. 13% in PTM), but markedly less bone formation in DTM (0.6%/y in DTM vs. 41.5%/y in PTM). After 60 days of 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/d treatment, %Tb.Ar was increased 607% in DTM and 199% in PTM, BFR/TV was increased to nearly 14 fold in DTM and only 5 fold in PTM. These results indicated the aged metaphysis of the DTM was much more responsive to PGE(sub 2) treatment than young, growing metaphysis of the PTM. The results of 120 and 180 days treatment did not significantly differ from 60 days treatment in both sites, indicating that the effect of continuous daily PGE2 treatment were in equilibrium after 60 days. We concluded that aged metaphysis was much more responsive to PGE(sub 2) treatment than young growing metaphysis.

  12. Greater Bone Fomation Induction Occurred in Aged Than Young Cancellous Bone Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, H. Z.; Jee, Webster S. S.; Ito, H.; Setterberg, R. B.; Li, M.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Ma, Y.F.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the differences in the effects of continual prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment in aged (non-growing) and young (growing) cancellous bone sites in 7 month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The sites involved are the aged Distal Tibial Metaphysis (DTM) with a closed epiphysis and the young Proximal Tibial Metaphysis (PTM) with a slow growing, open epiphysis. The study involved rats treated with 0, 1, 3 or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for 60, 120 and 180 days. Static and dynamic histomorphometty of percent trabecular area, and tissue-referent bone formation rate (BFR/TV) were determined in both DTM and PTM. In pretreatment controls, the secondary spongiosa of the two metaphyses contain the same amount of cancellous bone (11% in DTM vs. 13% in PTM), but markedly less bone formation in DTM (0.6%/y in DTM vs. 41.5%/y in PTM). After 60 days of 6 mg PGE2/kg/d treatment, %Tb.Ar was increased 607% in DTM and 199% in PTM, BFR/TV was increased to nearly 14 fold in DTM and only 5 fold in PTM. These results indicated the aged metaphysis of the DTM was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than young, growing metaphysis of the PTM. The results of 120 and 180 days treatment did not significantly differ from 60 days treatment in both sites, indicating that the effect of continuous daily PGE2 treatment were in equilibrium after 60 days. We concluded that aged metaphysis was much more responsive to PGE2 treatment than young growing metaphysis.

  13. A geospatial analysis of the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and adult severe injury in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Fiona; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year, injuries cost the Canadian healthcare system billions of dollars and result in thousands of emergency room visits, hospitalisations and deaths. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and the rates of all-cause, unintentional and intentional severe injury in Greater Vancouver adults. A second objective was to determine whether the identified associations were spatially consistent or non-stationary. Methods Severe injury cases occurring between 2001 and 2006 were identified using the British Columbia's Coroner's Service records and the British Columbia Trauma Registry, and mapped by census dissemination areas using a geographical information system. Descriptive statistics and exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to gain a better understanding of the data sets and to explore the relationship between the rates of severe injury and two measures of NSES (social and material deprivation). Ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression were used to model these relationships at the global and local levels. Results Inverse relationships were identified between both measures of NSES and the rates of severe injury with the strongest associations located in Greater Vancouver's most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Social deprivation was found to have a slightly stronger relationship with the rates of severe injury than material deprivation. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that policies and programmes aimed at reducing the burden of severe injury in Greater Vancouver should take into account social and material deprivation, and should target the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods in Greater Vancouver. PMID:25694418

  14. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  15. Age Stereotypes in Middle-Aged through Old-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil Carter; Friedrich, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare adult age groups on aging bias, with measures of knowledge of aging in the physical, psychological, and social domains and life satisfaction. The study sample, consisting of 752 men and women, 40 to 95 years of age, was tested using Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Satisfaction Index (LSI)…

  16. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p's<0.05) compared to the young adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p's<0.05). The walking speed and step length of older adults remained less than fully braced young adults (p's<0.05). Overall these results indicate that artificially stiffening the trunk and neck of young individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  17. DECREASED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND GREATER BONE ANABOLISM IN THE AGED, AS COMPARED TO THE YOUNG, MURINE SKELETON BY PARATHYROID HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, R.L.; Almeida, M.; Ambrogini, E.; Han, L.; Roberson, P. K.; Weinstein, R.S.; Manolagas, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Because of recent insights into the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss, we investigated whether intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration antagonizes the molecular mechanisms of the adverse effects of aging on bone. PTH produced a greater increase in vertebral trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume as well as a greater expansion of the endocortical bone surface in the femur of 26 as compared to 6 month old female C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, PTH increased trabecular connectivity in vertebrae and the toughness of both vertebrae and femora in old, but not young, mice. PTH also increased the rate of bone formation and reduced osteoblast apoptosis to a greater extent in the old mice. Most strikingly, PTH reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66Shc phosphorylation and expression of the lipoxygenase Alox15; and it increased glutathione and stimulated Wnt signaling in bone of old mice. PTH also antagonized the effects of oxidative stress on p66Shc phosphorylation, FoxO transcriptional activity, osteoblast apoptosis, and Wnt signaling in vitro. In contrast, administration of the antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine or pegylated catalase reduced osteoblast progenitors, and attenuated proliferation and Wnt signaling. These results suggest that PTH has a greater bone anabolic efficacy in old age because in addition to its other positive actions on bone formation it antagonizes the age-associated increase in oxidative stress and its adverse effects on the birth and survival of osteoblasts. On the other hand, ordinary antioxidants cannot restore bone mass in old age because they slow remodeling and attenuate osteoblastogenesis by interfering with Wnt signaling. PMID:20698835

  18. Greater Healthful Food Variety as Measured by the US Healthy Food Diversity Index Is Associated with Lower Odds of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in US Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Parkeh, Niyati; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consuming a wider variety of nutrient-dense foods may promote adherence to healthful dietary patterns, leading to improved dietary quality and enhanced metabolic health. Objective: We used the US Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index to simultaneously measure dietary variety, quality, and proportionality, hypothesizing a priori that race/ethnicity may moderate associations between diet and health. Methods: A representative sample of adults (n = 7470) aged 20+ y with two 24-h recalls and complete outcome data from the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2006 were selected. US HFD values were generated using a previously validated equation with a theoretical range from 0 to nearly 1, with higher scores indicative of more varied diets with a higher proportion of healthful food groups. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined using the most recent harmonized definition. Survey-weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, energy, screen time, and leisure activity, were used to compute means and ORs (95% CIs). Results: Adults in the third vs. first US HFD tertile had 21% lower odds of MetS [OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.64, 0.98)] as well as lower odds of hypertension [0.83 (0.70, 0.995] and elevated waist circumference [0.75 (0.66, 0.86] after multivariable adjustment (P-trend < 0.05). The age- and sex-adjusted odds of low serum HDL cholesterol and impaired fasting plasma glucose (P-trend < 0.05) were lower in the highest vs. lowest US HFD tertile but attenuated with multivariable adjustment (P = 0.06 and 0.22, respectively). Notably, the US HFD index was only protective against adiposity among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) adults, and MetS associations were driven by NHW adults. No associations were observed among Hispanic adults for any MetS components. Conclusions: Greater healthful food variety was associated with lower odds of MetS and some MetS components in the total population, NHW adults, and

  19. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  20. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  1. Greater Response to Placebo in Children Than in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Drug-Resistant Partial Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rheims, Sylvain; Cucherat, Michel; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    % CI 0.43–0.98], p = 0.004 by metaregression), due to higher withdrawal rate for seizure aggravation in children (5.6%) than in adults (0.7%) receiving placebo (p < 0.001). Finally, there was no significant difference in the seizure-free rate between adult and paediatric studies. Conclusions Children with drug-resistant partial epilepsy receiving placebo in double-blind RCTs demonstrated significantly greater 50% responder rate than adults, probably reflecting increased placebo and regression to the mean effects. Paediatric clinical trial designs should account for these age-dependent variations of the response to placebo to reduce the risk of an underestimated sample size that could result in falsely negative trials. PMID:18700812

  2. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)

  3. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  4. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  5. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults. PMID:27440532

  6. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults.

  7. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Hébert, James R.; Lee, Duck-chul; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.; Sui, Xuemei; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n = 19,003). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one's weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. PMID:23862054

  8. Cosmogenic exposure-age chronologies of Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations in greater Yellowstone and the Teton Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Licciardi, J.M.; Pierce, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained 69 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on moraines deposited by glaciers of the greater Yellowstone glacial system and Teton Range during the middle and late Pleistocene. These new data, combined with 43 previously obtained 3He and 10Be ages from deposits of the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier, establish a high-resolution chronology for the Yellowstone-Teton mountain glacier complexes. Boulders deposited at the southern limit of the penultimate ice advance of the Yellowstone glacial system yield a mean age of 136??13 10Be ka and oldest ages of ???151-157 10Be ka. These ages support a correlation with the Bull Lake of West Yellowstone, with the type Bull Lake of the Wind River Range, and with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. End moraines marking the maximum Pinedale positions of outlet glaciers around the periphery of the Yellowstone glacial system range in age from 18.8??0.9 to 16.5??1.4 10Be ka, and possibly as young as 14.6??0.7 10Be ka, suggesting differences in response times of the various ice-cap source regions. Moreover, all dated Pinedale terminal moraines in the greater Yellowstone glacial system post-date the Pinedale maximum in the Wind River Range by ???4-6 kyr, indicating a significant phase relationship between glacial maxima in these adjacent ranges. Boulders on the outermost set and an inner set of Pinedale end moraines enclosing Jenny Lake on the eastern Teton front yield mean ages of 14.6??0.7 and 13.5??1.1 10Be ka, respectively. The outer Jenny Lake moraines are partially buried by outwash from ice on the Yellowstone Plateau, hence their age indicates a major standstill of an expanded valley glacier in the Teton Range prior to the Younger Dryas, followed closely by deglaciation of the Yellowstone Plateau. These new glacial chronologies are indicative of spatially variable regional climate forcing and temporally complex patterns of glacier responses in this region of the Rocky Mountains during the Pleistocene

  9. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  10. A Study of the Post-Secondary Educational Needs of Adults in the Greater Tuscaloosa (Alabama) Area. Research Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Thomas G.; Diener, Thomas J.

    A 1975 survey of adults (over 18 years old) in the Greater Tuscaloosa, Alabama area was conducted by the University of Alabama Committee on Adult and Part-Time Students, to assess opinions and attitudes on post-secondary educational opportunities and programs within the local area. From a random sample of approximately 400 individuals listed in…

  11. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women.

    PubMed

    Csapo, R; Malis, V; Hodgson, J; Sinha, S

    2014-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4-5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11-12% vs. SW: 6-8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction.

  12. Age differences in adults' scene memory: knowledge and strategy interactions.

    PubMed

    Azmitia, M; Perlmutter, M

    1988-08-01

    Three studies explored young and old adults' use of knowledge to support memory performance. Subjects viewed slides of familiar scenes containing high expectancy and low expectancy items and received free recall (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), cued recall (Experiments 1 and 2), and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) tests. In Experiment 1 encoding intentionality was varied between subjects. Young adults performed better than old adults on all tests, but on all tests, both age groups produced a similar pattern of better memory of high expectancy than low expectancy items and showed an encoding intentionality effect for low expectancy items. In Experiments 2 and 3 all subjects were told to intentionally encode only one item from each scene; the remaining items could be encoded incidentally. Young adults performed better than old adults, although again, the pattern of performance of the two age groups was similar. High expectancy and low expectancy intentional items were recalled equally well, but high expectancy incidental items were recalled better than low expectancy incidental items. Low expectancy intentional items were recognized better than high expectancy intentional items, but incidental high expectancy items were recognized better than incidental low expectancy items. It was concluded that young and old adults use their knowledge in similar ways to guide scene memory. The effects of item expectancy and item intentionality were interpreted within Hasher & Zacks' (2) model of automatic and effortful processes. PMID:3228800

  13. Adult age differences in the perceptual span during reading.

    PubMed

    Risse, Sarah; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2011-06-01

    Following up on research suggesting an age-related reduction in the rightward extent of the perceptual span during reading (Rayner, Castelhano, & Yang, 2009), we compared old and young adults in an N + 2-boundary paradigm in which a nonword preview of word N + 2 or word N + 2 itself is replaced by the target word once the eyes cross an invisible boundary located after word N. The intermediate word N + 1 was always three letters long. Gaze durations on word N + 2 were significantly shorter for identical than nonword N + 2 preview both for young and for old adults, with no significant difference in this preview benefit. Young adults, however, did modulate their gaze duration on word N more strongly than old adults in response to the difficulty of the parafoveal word N + 1. Taken together, the results suggest a dissociation of preview benefit and parafoveal-on-foveal effect. Results are discussed in terms of age-related decline in resilience towards distributed processing while simultaneously preserving the ability to integrate parafoveal information into foveal processing. As such, the present results relate to proposals of regulatory compensation strategies older adults use to secure an overall reading speed very similar to that of young adults. PMID:21401266

  14. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  15. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  16. Adult Age Differences in Categorization and Multiple-Cue Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Karlsson, Linnea; Cupper, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    We often need to infer unknown properties of objects from observable ones, just like detectives must infer guilt from observable clues and behavior. But how do inferential processes change with age? We examined young and older adults' reliance on rule-based and similarity-based processes in an inference task that can be considered either a…

  17. Distance Education: An Information Age Approach to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigerell, James

    This study provides an extensive review of the literature on distance education and of representative distance education projects and institutions in the United States and abroad, emphasizing those using telecommunications technologies. The introductory section includes a sketch of the information age and its implications for adult education and…

  18. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  19. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics, and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for the accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound.

  20. Musical experience strengthens the neural representation of sounds important for communication in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Older adults frequently complain that while they can hear a person talking, they cannot understand what is being said; this difficulty is exacerbated by background noise. Peripheral hearing loss cannot fully account for this age-related decline in speech-in-noise ability, as declines in central processing also contribute to this problem. Given that musicians have enhanced speech-in-noise perception, we aimed to define the effects of musical experience on subcortical responses to speech and speech-in-noise perception in middle-aged adults. Results reveal that musicians have enhanced neural encoding of speech in quiet and noisy settings. Enhancements include faster neural response timing, higher neural response consistency, more robust encoding of speech harmonics, and greater neural precision. Taken together, we suggest that musical experience provides perceptual benefits in an aging population by strengthening the underlying neural pathways necessary for the accurate representation of important temporal and spectral features of sound. PMID:23189051

  1. Using Walk Score™ and Neighborhood Perceptions to Assess Walking Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Towne, Samuel D; Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Sungmin; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Wang, Suojin; Lee, Chanam

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between neighborhood characteristics (walkability, cohesion/safety) and recommended activity levels among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Subjective and objective data on 394 individuals aged ≥50 years were used to assess the likelihood of walking ≥150 min/week. Environmental factors associated with a greater likelihood of any walking ≥150 min/week included living in a neighborhood with high perception of cohesion/safety versus low, living in walkable areas versus car-dependent, and living in an area with a low-moderate median income versus the lowest. Middle-aged and older adults were more likely to walk ≥150 min/week in a walkable, perceived safe/cohesive neighborhood. Identifying neighborhood factors associated with promoting walking among this population can enable stakeholders (e.g., researchers, planners, and policy makers) to direct interventions focusing on the built environment.

  2. Age- and sex-associated differences in isokinetic knee muscle endurance between young children and adults.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Deighan, Martine A; Ratel, Sebastien; Armstrong, Neil

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age- and sex-associated differences of repeated isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Fifty one participants, 30 young children (16 boys and 14 girls; aged 11 and 12 years) and 21 adults (9 males and 12 females; aged 18-35 years), agreed to participate in the study. Isokinetic concentric peak knee extension (PET) and flexion (PFT) torque were measured using a calibrated Biodex System 3. Participants performed 4 concentric extension-flexion cycles with maximum effort; after a 2 min rest, 50 continuous concentric cycles were performed at 1.56 rad.s-1. Total work of the extensors (WKEX) and flexors (WKFL) for the complete 50 repetitions was recorded. Average peak torque and average work for the first and last 3 repetitions were calculated to represent the percentage decline in torque and work. There were no significant differences between groups in the peak torque generated during the pretrial and endurance task, suggesting that participants gave a maximal effort at the start of the endurance task. There was a significant interaction effect in the total work done for both extensors and flexors, with adult males producing the greatest amount of work (6622 and 3444 J, respectively). When total work was divided by body mass, there were no significant sex effects, only main effects for group. The percentage decline for PET (40% vs. 60%), PFT (50% vs. 65%), WKET (43% vs. 61%), and WKFL (60% vs. 69%) demonstrated significant main effects for group, with greater fatigue in adults. We found no significant sex effect for fatigue. This study concludes that females do not resist fatigue from repeated isokinetic muscle actions to a greater extent than males, and that the greater fatigue in adults than in children is probably a product of greater initial torque production and work performed. PMID:19767809

  3. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  4. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  5. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  6. Perceptions of Longevity and Successful Aging in Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Marks, Loren D.; Benedetto, Tim; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Barker, Alyse

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions of longevity and successful aging in young-old (60 to 74 years), old-old (75 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Participants’ responses to three open-ended questions that assessed their attributions for longevity, what they look forward to, and advice for younger persons today were compared. Content analyses yielded three emergent themes: maintaining physical, mental, and relational well-being; living a healthy life; and living a faithful life. Implications of these findings for current views on successful aging and insights for promoting a long and healthy life are considered. PMID:24353480

  7. Electrocortical Dynamics Reflect Age-Related Differences in Movement Kinematics among Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Florian A.; Momen, Bahram; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging and behavioral studies demonstrated structural and functional changes in the motor system across childhood. However, it is unclear what functionally relevant electrocortical processes underlie developmental differences in motor planning and control during multijoint, goal-directed movements. The current study characterized age-related differences in electrocortical processes during the performance of discrete aiming movements in children and adults. Electroencephalography and movement kinematics were recorded from 3 groups of participants (n = 15 each): young children (mean 6.7 years), older children (mean 10.2 years), and adults (mean 22.1 years). Age-related differences were evident in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. First, young children exhibited less movement-related activity in task-relevant motor areas compared with adults (movement-related cortical potentials). Second, young children exhibited greater activation (less alpha power) of the frontal areas and less activation of the parietal areas as compared with the other groups. At the behavioral level, young children made slower and jerkier movements, with less consistent directional planning compared with older children and adults. Significant correlations were also found between EEG and movement kinematic measures. Taken together, the results of this study provide evidence that age-related differences in the quality of motor planning and performance are reflected in the differences in electrocortical dynamics among children and adults. PMID:20805237

  8. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  9. Active Deformation in the Greater Himalayan Zone in Western Nepal from Inversion of New (U-Th)/He Cooling Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the central Himalaya features an abrupt rise in mean elevation from ~1.5 km in the Lesser Himalaya to ~4-5 km Greater Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. This physiographic transition is known as PT2, and is often interpreted as the surface expression of transport over a ramp in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In western Nepal, however, the same rise in elevation occurs over two distinct topographic steps (PT2-N and PT2-S). In previous work, Harvey et al. (2015) argue that this anomalous topography is the result of recent southward-migration of mid-crustal deformation along the MHT. Due to the seismogenic potential of the MHT it is important to constrain its geometry in the western Nepal seismic gap, which has not had a large earthquake in over 600 years. To test the above hypothesis, we perform [U-Th]/He dating on 39 apatite and 47 zircon samples collected along seven relief transects throughout western Nepal. We constrain exhumation histories by inverting these new cooling ages with the 3-D thermo-kinematic model Pecube. Five transects collected from the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N are best fit by relatively rapid exhumation rates (~1-2 km/Myr) since ~4 Ma. The other two, collected from farther south near PT2-S, require rapid (~1-2 km/Myr) exhumation until around 8-11 Ma, followed by much slower (~0.1-0.2 km/Myr) exhumation until at least the late Pliocene. Assuming that exhumation rates reflect uplift rates, the rapid Plio-Pleistocene exhumation in the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N suggest that this physiographic transition is similar to that at the foot of the Greater Himalaya in central Nepal. It follows that active deformation is occurring along a NW-trend as much as 100 km farther north than would be expected if simply projecting PT2 across western Nepal. This finding is consistent with transport over a more northerly MHT ramp or perhaps oblique slip along the recently identified, surface-breaking WNFZ. Although the geomorphology and microseismicity

  10. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  11. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  12. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  13. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  14. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  15. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  16. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Middle-Aged versus Younger Adults Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of a Web-Delivered Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. Methods We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45–62, n = 111) and younger (age 18–44, n = 395) substance abusers entering a web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Results A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were non-Caucasian and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z less than −1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. Conclusions This secondary analysis of a NIDA CTN study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning. PMID:23340711

  17. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  18. The Role of Vitamin D in the Aging Adult

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Meghan; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals aged 65 and older is expected to more than double from 2012 to 2060. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging has not been well studied. Traditionally, the role of vitamin D focused on the maintenance of skeletal health in the older adult. With the discovery of vitamin D receptors in the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, the role of vitamin D and its impact on these systems has become an important area of research. Older adults are at risk for lower levels of vitamin D as a result of decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between low levels of vitamin D and diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline, depression, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Clinical trials to determine the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in preventing and treating such diseases are in progress. This paper highlights current evidence regarding the role that vitamin D may play in diseases associated with aging and addresses the need for well-designed randomized trials to examine its benefit on health outcomes in the older adult. PMID:25893188

  19. ANXIETY AND ITS CORRELATES AMONG OLDER ADULTS ACCESSING AGING SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Thomas M.; Simning, Adam; He, Hua; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the characteristics of anxiety in aging services network (ASN) clients. Methods Interviews were conducted as part of an academic-community partnership for studying the mental health needs of community-dwelling older adults. Participants consisted of ASN clients in Monroe County, NY, that were aged 60 years and older and received an in-home assessment for care management services. The Goldberg Anxiety Scale screened for anxiety symptoms, and instruments covering the domains of associated mental health, physical health and disability, social support, negative life events, and other areas relevant to delivery of aging services were administered. Results Of 378 subjects enrolled, 27% had clinically significant levels of anxiety. In bivariate analyses anxiety was associated with having a current major depressive episode (MDE), five or more medical conditions, pain, younger age, less income, and negative life events. After controlling for MDE in multivariate analyses, medical conditions, pain, negative life events, and younger age were significant correlates of anxiety in ASN clients. Conclusions Anxiety was common among ASN clients who received in-home care management services. These anxious clients suffered from a combination of mental, medical, and social issues that suggests the need for multidisciplinary care. Because aging services providers work with their clients to ameliorate conditions that are highly correlated with anxiety, the ASN represents a promising venue for detecting, managing, and preventing anxiety among older adults. PMID:20066684

  20. Aging and older adults in three Roman Catholic magazines: Successful aging and the Third and Fourth Ages reframed.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2015-12-01

    This article is a qualitative content analysis of how aging and older adults are represented in the articles of three Roman Catholic magazines in the United States: America, Commonweal, and U.S. Catholic. The findings suggest that, as in mainstream secular magazines, the concept of successful aging is common in portrayals of older adults in the Third Age. Distinctive in Catholic magazine portrayals of successful aging is an emphasis on meaningful activity and on the wisdom that is gained and transmitted in this stage of life. In contrast to the lack of attention to Fourth Age decline in mainstream magazines, in the Catholic publications the difficult features of such deterioration are acknowledged but are also reframed as potential sources of value. The theoretical implications of these more complex faith-based renderings of the Third and Fourth Ages are briefly explored.

  1. Age, gender, and reasons for living among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-12-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether age and gender interact to influence reasons for living. A community sample of Australian adults (N = 970) aged 18 to 95 years (M = 48.40, SD = 20.85) completed the Reasons for Living Inventory. Results for the main effects indicated that being female was associated with higher total, child-related concerns and fear of suicide (FS) scores, whereas increasing age was associated with higher total, responsibility to family (RF), FS, and moral objections scores. Age and gender interacted to influence RF, FS, and fear of social disapproval. For each of these reasons for living, increasing age was associated with higher scores for men; however, there was no association between age and these reasons for living scores among women. Overall, the results indicate that the influence of age, gender, or the combination of the two varies according to the reason for living being investigated.

  2. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  3. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  4. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  5. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  6. Subclinical Atherosclerotic Calcification and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Terry, James G.; Loria, Catherine M.; Hazzouri, Adina Zeki Al; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Jacobs, David R.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Zhu, Na; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular risk factors in middle-age are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in older age. Less is known about the burden of calcified subclinical atherosclerosis and cognition, especially in midlife. We examined the association of coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (CAC and AAC, respectively) with cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 2,510 black and white adults (age: 43–55 years) without heart disease or stroke who completed a year 25 follow-up exam (2010–11) as part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. CAC and AAC were measured with non-contrast computed tomography. Cognition was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) (psychomotor speed), Stroop Test (executive function), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (verbal memory). Results A greater amount of CAC and AAC was associated with worse performance on each test of cognitive function after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and study center. Associations were attenuated, but remained significant for the DSST and RAVLT following additional adjustment for vascular risk factors, including adiposity, smoking, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Compared to participants without CAC or AAC, those with both CAC and AAC, but not CAC or AAC alone was associated with lower DSST scores (p<0.05). Conclusions In this community-based sample, greater subclinical atherosclerotic calcification was associated with worse psychomotor speed and memory in midlife. These findings underscore the importance of a life course approach to the study of cognitive impairment with aging. PMID:24125414

  7. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  8. Functional brain connectivity and cognition: effects of adult age and task demands.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ying-Hui; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Madden, David J

    2013-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has documented that patterns of intrinsic (resting state) functional connectivity (FC) among brain regions covary with individual measures of cognitive performance. Here, we examined the relation between intrinsic FC and a reaction time (RT) measure of performance, as a function of age group and task demands. We obtained filtered, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data, and RT measures of visual search performance, from 21 younger adults (19-29 years old) and 21 healthy, older adults (60-87 years old). Age-related decline occurred in the connectivity strength in multiple brain regions, consistent with previous findings. Among 8 pairs of regions, across somatomotor, orbitofrontal, and subcortical networks, increasing FC was associated with faster responding (lower RT). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited a lower strength of this RT-connectivity relation and greater disruption of this relation by a salient but irrelevant display item (color singleton distractor). Age-related differences in the covariation of intrinsic FC and cognitive performance vary as a function of task demands.

  9. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  10. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  11. Phagocytic ability declines with age in adult Drosophila hemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Lucas; Leips, Jeff; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Most multicellular organisms show a physiological decline in immune function with age. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes. We examined Drosophila melanogaster, an important model for identifying genes affecting innate immunity and senescence, to explore the role of phagocytosis in age-related immune dysfunction. We characterized the localized response of immune cells at the dorsal vessel to bacterial infection in 1-week- and 5-week-old flies. We developed a quantitative phagocytosis assay for adult Drosophila and utilized this to characterize the effect of age on phagocytosis in transgenic and natural variant lines. We showed that genes necessary for bacterial engulfment in other contexts are also required in adult flies. We found that blood cells from young and old flies initially engulf bacteria equally well, while cells from older flies accumulate phagocytic vesicles and thus are less capable of destroying pathogens. Our results have broad implications for understanding how the breakdown in cellular processes influences immune function with age. PMID:24828474

  12. Children Age 7 Complete Complex Gait and Postural Tasks Differently Than Adults Under Dual-Task Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    Healthy children (7 years old) and adults (20 years old) completed a simultaneous balancing, reaching, and cognitive task while standing and during gait. Cognitive accuracy rate for children and adults was similar for both postures; however, response latency was greater for children than adults. While standing, trunk, upper arm, and forearm segments moved as individual segments in adults; however, articulated control of the upper arm and forearm in children was not evident. Adults and children showed evidence of articulated segmental control during gait. Absolute gait velocity (m/s) was significantly slower for children; however, there was no effect of age on step length. Children 7 years old can perform a simultaneous motor and cognitive task but their performance strategies do not yet match young adults. PMID:26305113

  13. Consumer-directed personal care: comparing aged and non-aged adult recipient health-related outcomes among those with paid family versus non-relative providers.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Robert; Kang, Taewoon; Faucett, Julia

    2011-10-01

    Risk factors associated with the incidence of recipient injuries, bedsores and contractures, and health care use (i.e., emergency department and hospital use) among aged and non-aged adult personal care recipients are investigated. Data are from a statewide survey of aged and non-aged adult personal assistance service (PAS) recipients (n = 913) in California's In-Home Supportive Services (IHSS) program. This is a consumer-directed PAS program. Outcomes among recipients using relatives (other than spouses or parents) as paid providers are compared with those of recipients having non-relatives as providers. No differences were found by provider-recipient relationships. Non-aged recipients, those in poorer health, those with more than three activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and those changing providers during the year were all at greater risk for adverse health outcomes. African American, Hispanic, and Asian recipients were at lower risk for injuries and hospital stays than were White recipients. PMID:22106901

  14. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  15. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J.D.; Mosley, T.H.; Gottesman, R.F.; Alonso, A.; Heiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as ‘studentized’ residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  16. Cognitive decline and oral health in middle-aged adults in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R F; Alonso, A; Heiss, G

    2013-09-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as 'studentized' residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  17. The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates the consequence of stereotype threat on the well-being of older adults. Older adults were tested on their recall of a prose passage under normal or stereotype threatening conditions. Memory decrements for those in the threat condition were moderated by perceived stereotype threat such that greater decrements were seen for those who reported greater perceived threat. A similar pattern was observed for negative emotion, such that those in the threat condition who reported higher perceptions of threat experienced a greater decrease in positive emotions. Age group identification also proved to be an important factor, with the strongly identified performing worse than the weakly identified. As well, high age-group identification buffered some of the negative affective consequences associated with stereotype threat, which is consistent with some models of coping with stigma.

  18. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  19. Profiles of successful aging in middle-aged and older adult married couples.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kelly J; Berg, Cynthia A; Butner, Jonathan; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W

    2007-12-01

    The study identified coupled profiles of successful aging in middle-aged (n = 139; wives, M = 43.8 years old; husbands, M = 45.6 years old) and older adult married couples (n = 148; wives, M = 62.0 years old; husbands, M = 64.4 years old). Latent profile analysis was applied to variables reflecting the domains of cognition, physical health, personality, and social support. A 2-profile solution and a 4-profile solution were interpreted. Both solutions indicated that a large group of couples scored favorably across domains of successful aging. A small group of largely middle-aged couples who were experiencing extreme marital distress was identified. Unevenness across domains was identified, in that some groups involved a disassociation between marital satisfaction and health outcomes. Spouses were substantially similar in the pattern of their profile of aging. Older adults were not always associated with less favorable profiles. Profiles of successful aging did discriminate on external measures of well-being. The results point to the value of a multidimensional notion of successful aging in couples across the life span.

  20. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  1. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  2. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  3. Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiqin; Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the white matter (WM) is viewed as the neural substrate of age differences in speed of information processing (reaction time, RT). However, the relationship between WM and RT components is rarely examined in healthy aging. We assessed the relationship between RT components derived from the Ratcliff diffusion model and micro-structural properties of normal-appearing WM (NAWM) in 90 healthy adults (age 18-82 years). We replicated all major extant findings pertaining to age differences in RT components and WM: lower drift rate, greater response conservativeness, longer non-decision time, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), greater mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were associated with advanced age. Age differences in anterior regions of the cerebral WM exceeded those in posterior regions. However, the only relationship between RT components and WM was the positive association between DR in the body of the corpus callosum and non-decision time. Thus, in healthy adults, age differences in NAWM diffusion properties are not a major contributor to age differences in RT components. Longitudinal studies with more precise and specific estimates of regional myelin content and evaluation of the contribution of age-related vascular risk factors are necessary to understand cerebral substrates of age-related cognitive slowing.

  4. Faster development does not lead to correlated evolution of greater pre-adult competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shakarad, Mallikarjun; Prasad, N G; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Gadagkar, Vikram; Rajamani, M; Joshi, Amitabh

    2005-03-22

    In comparisons across Drosophila species, faster pre-adult development is phenotypically correlated with increased pre-adult competitive ability, suggesting that these two traits may also be evolutionary correlates of one another. However, correlations between traits within- and among- species can differ, and in most cases it is the within-species genetic correlations that are likely to act as constraints on adaptive evolution. Moreover, laboratory studies on Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the suite of traits that evolves in populations subjected to selection for faster development is the opposite of the traits that evolve in populations selected for increased pre-adult competitive ability. This observation led us to propose that, despite having a higher carrying capacity and a reduced minimum food requirement for completing development than controls, D. melanogaster populations subjected to selection for faster development should have lower competitive ability than controls owing to their reduced larval feeding rates and urea tolerance. Here, we describe results from pre-adult competition experiments that clearly show that the faster developing populations are substantially poorer competitors than controls when reared at high density in competition with a marked mutant strain. We briefly discuss these results in the context of different formulations of density-dependent selection theory.

  5. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  6. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  7. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  8. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  9. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  10. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  11. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Johnson, Cassandra M.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban=734 and rural=1,144), who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake), and household food insecurity. Results The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day) was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home), frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating. PMID:21845142

  12. Marriage behavior response to prime-age adult mortality: evidence from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Mika; Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2009-02-01

    This article examines the effect of AIDS-related mortality of the prime-age adult population on marriage behavior among women in Malawi. A rise in prime-age adult mortality increases risks associated with the search for a marriage partner in the marriage market. A possible behavioral change in the marriage market in response to an increase in prime-age adult mortality is to marry earlier to avoid exposure to HIV/AIDS risks. We test this hypothesis by using micro data from Malawi, where prime-age adult mortality has drastically increased. In the analysis, we estimate the probability of prime-age adult mortality that sample women have observed during their adolescent period by utilizing retrospective information on deaths of their siblings. Empirical analysis shows that excess prime-age adult mortality in the local marriage market lowers the marriage age for females and shortens the interval between the first sex and first marriage.

  13. Gender differences in circulating endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming capacity and migratory activity in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoetzer, Greta L; MacEneaney, Owen J; Irmiger, Heather M; Keith, Rebecca; Van Guilder, Gary P; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Middle-aged women have a lower prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular events compared with men. The mechanisms responsible for this gender-specific difference are unclear. Numeric and functional impairments of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. It is currently unknown whether there are gender-related differences in EPC number and function in middle-aged adults. We tested the hypothesis that EPCs isolated from middle-aged women demonstrate greater colony-forming capacity and migratory activity compared with men of similar age. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 sedentary adults, 25 men (59 +/- 1 years of age) and 25 women (58 +/- 1 years of age). Mononuclear cells were isolated and preplated for 2 days, and nonadherent cells were further cultured for 7 days to determine EPC colony-forming units. Migratory activity of EPCs was determined using a modified Boyden chamber. The number of EPC colony-forming units was significantly higher (approximately 150%) in samples collected from women (16 +/- 3) compared with that collected from men (7 +/- 1). In addition, EPC migration (relative fluorescent units) was approximately 40% greater in women (729 +/- 74) than in men (530 +/- 67). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EPC colony-forming capacity and migratory activity are higher in middle-aged women than in men.

  14. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  15. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  16. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  17. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  18. The impact of dementia, age and sex on category fluency: greater deficits in women with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martínez, F Javier; Laws, Keith R; Schulz, Joerg

    2008-10-01

    A category specific effect in naming tasks has been reported in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Nonetheless, naming tasks are frequently affected by methodological problems, e.g., ceiling effects for controls and "nuisance variables" that may confound results. Semantic fluency tasks could help to address some of these methodological difficulties, because they are not prone to producing ceiling effects and are less influenced by nuisance variables. One hundred and thirty-three participants (61 patients with probable AD; and 72 controls: 36 young and 36 elderly) were evaluated with semantic fluency tasks in 14 semantic categories. Category fluency was affected both by dementia and by age: while in nonliving-thing categories there were differences among the three groups, in living thing categories larger lexical categories produced bigger differences among groups. Sex differences in fluency emerged, but these were moderated both by age and by pathology. In particular, fluency was smaller in female than male Alzheimer patients for almost every subcategory. PMID:18761139

  19. Maternal choline supplementation programs greater activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway in adult Ts65Dn trisomic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Powers, Brian; Alldred, Melissa J; Saltzman, Arthur; Strupp, Barbara J; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-10-01

    Maternal choline supplementation (MCS) induces lifelong cognitive benefits in the Ts65Dn mouse, a trisomic mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that MCS alters choline metabolism in adult Ts65Dn offspring. Deuterium-labeled methyl-d9-choline was administered to adult Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) female littermates born to choline-unsupplemented or choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams. Enrichment of d9-choline metabolites (derived from intact choline) and d3 + d6-choline metabolites [produced when choline-derived methyl groups are used by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] was measured in harvested tissues. Adult offspring (both Ts65Dn and 2N) of choline-supplemented (vs. choline-unsupplemented) dams exhibited 60% greater (P≤0.007) activity of hepatic PEMT, which functions in de novo choline synthesis and produces phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched in docosahexaenoic acid. Higher (P<0.001) enrichment of PEMT-derived d3 and d6 metabolites was detected in liver, plasma, and brain in both genotypes but to a greater extent in the Ts65Dn adult offspring. MCS also yielded higher (P<0.05) d9 metabolite enrichments in liver, plasma, and brain. These data demonstrate that MCS exerts lasting effects on offspring choline metabolism, including up-regulation of the hepatic PEMT pathway and enhanced provision of choline and PEMT-PC to the brain. PMID:24963152

  20. Theory of mind through the ages: older and middle-aged adults exhibit more errors than do younger adults on a continuous false belief task.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Wendy Loken; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n=37), middle-aged (n=20), and older (n=37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited more false belief bias than did younger adults, irrespective of language ability, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The authors conclude that ToM declines from younger to older adulthood, independent of age-related changes to domain-general cognitive functioning.

  1. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  2. A new method to estimate adult age-at-death using the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Calce, Stephanie E

    2012-05-01

    Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) described a method to estimate age-at-death of adult males using seven traits of the fused acetabulum. This study simplifies Rissech et al.'s technique and extends its application to adult females. Rissech et al.'s original scoring method was applied to a sample of 100 known-aged adults, three variables were selected based on stepwise multiple regression, and ages were collapsed into three broad ranges: young adult (17-39 years), middle adult (40-64 years), and old adult (65+ years). The revised method was applied to 249 new known-aged individuals from two other samples. To minimize observer bias, highlight the most critical traits, and encompass more age-related variation, unique digital renderings accompany morphological descriptions of age categories instead of photos. Three statistically significant characteristics highly correlated with age (P < 0.05) are capable of estimating age-at-death with 81% accuracy, both sexes combined. For misidentified individuals the tendency was to underestimate age. Results of both intraobserver error testing and inter-rater reliability demonstrated a moderate to substantial agreement in scoring between observers. When estimating the degree of development of features osteophyte development of the acetabular rim was the most inconsistent between observers. The revised acetabular method shows promise in estimating age for adults, particularly for those over the age of 65 years.

  3. Lap time variation and executive function in older adults: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Resnick, Susan M.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: poor cognitive and motor performance predicts neurological dysfunction. Variable performance may be a subclinical indicator of emerging neurological problems. Objective: examine the cross-sectional association between a clinically accessible measure of variable walking and executive function. Methods: older adults aged 60 or older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 811) with data on the 400-m walk test and cognition. Based on ten 40-m laps, we calculated mean lap time (MLT) and variation in time across ten 40-m laps (lap time variation, LTV). Executive function tests assessed attention and short-term memory (digit span forward and backward), psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) part A] and multicomponent tasks requiring cognitive flexibility [TMT part B, part B-A (Delta TMT) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)]. Multivariate linear regression analysis examined the cross-sectional association between LTV and executive function, adjusted for MLT, age, sex and education, as well as the LTV × MLT interaction. Results: the LTV was univariately associated with all executive function tests except digit span (P < 0.001); after adjustment, the association with TMT part A remained (standardised β = 0.142, P = 0.002). There was an interaction between MLT and LTV; among fast walkers, greater LTV was associated with a greater Delta TMT (β for LTV × MLT = −1.121, P = 0.016) after adjustment. Conclusion: at any walking speed, greater LTV is associated with psychomotor slowing. Among persons with faster walking speed, variation is associated with worse performance on a complex measure of cognitive flexibility. A simple measure of variability in walking time is independently associated with psychomotor slowing. PMID:26082177

  4. [Juvenile arthritis reevaluated in rheumatology in adult age. 30 cases].

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Kahn, M F; Bourgeois, P; Vinceneux, P; Kaplan, G

    1978-06-01

    The authors describe and comment on 30 observations of peripheral polyarthritis starting before puberty and reveluated in an adult rheumatologoy service at the average age of 29 and during an observation period of about 16 years. The actual classification of juvenile polyarthritis proves to be valid in this group since the clinical forms are still observed in adulthood. However, during the evolution, there is a shifting from one form to another. The systemic forms can reoccur in adulthood even after several years of quiescence, accompanied by visceral complications. The pauciarticular forms as a rule remain benign. As in childhood, they frequently show antinuclear factors. Some forms, initially peripheral, can show axial signs. The presence of HLA B27 antigens allow them to be linked up with ankylosing spondylarthritis. But this is not the case for all the forms with sacroiliac functions. The evolution since childhood is often characterized by long remissions which can still persist by the time of the visit, which is then motivated by resulting mechanical and local arthrotic problems. Despite often severe anatomical symptoms, the functional handicap is limited, allowing quite a remarkable adaptation. Most of the patients lead an active professional life. Yet despite this and despite an often satisfactory sex life, half of the patients have a psychological handicap which makes it necessary for them to be placed under special carl. No therapeutic conclusion, particularly about the efficiency of the basic therapy, can be drawn from this study. PMID:308253

  5. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  6. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  7. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  8. Variability of the Aging Process in Dementia-Free Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Raphaele; Kindelberger, Cecile; Freminville, Benedicte; Touraine, Renaud; Bussey, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the typical aging process in adults with Down syndrome, focusing on its variability. The sample comprised 120 adults with Down syndrome who were free of dementia. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years. Each participant was assessed on cognitive functioning and social adaptation, and was checked for…

  9. Barriers to Sustainability in Mature-Age Adult Learners: Working toward Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Akilah R.; Chen, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    While research on K-12 environmental education (EE) has been quite robust, there has been less focus on effective approaches for mature-age adult learners. This qualitative study examined perceptions of barriers to sustainability in American, mature-age adult learners. Results revealed two interacting, superordinate themes: personal relevance and…

  10. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  11. [Studies of the biological age in adult taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodinae)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The history of studies of the biological age in ixodid ticks is discussed. A method of estimation of the biological age in adult ticks of the genus Ixodes by the degree of fat inclusions in midgut cells and in the fat body is developed. An "age scale" for the determination of the calendar age was assumed.

  12. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  13. Aging Ebbs the Flow of Thought: Adult Age Differences in Mind Wandering, Executive Control, and Self-Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Meier, Matthew E.; Touron, Dayna R.; Kane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among adult aging, mind wandering, and executive-task performance, following from surprising laboratory findings that older adults report fewer task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) than do younger adults (e.g., Giambra, 1989; Jackson & Balota, 2011). Because older adults may experience more ability- and performance-related worry during cognitive tasks in the laboratory, and because these evaluative thoughts (known as task-related interference, “TRI”) might be sometimes misclassified by subjects as task-related, we asked subjects to distinguish task-related thoughts from TRI and TUTs when probed during ongoing tasks. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed either a go/no-go or a vigilance version of a sustained attention to response task (SART). Older adults reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than did younger adults while also performing more accurately. In Experiment 2, subjects completed either a 1- or 2-back version of the n-back task. Older adults again reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than younger adults in both versions, while performing better than younger adults in the 1-back and worse in the 2-back. Across experiments, older adults’ reduced TUT rates were independent of performance relative to younger adults. And, although older adults consistently reported more TRI and less mind wandering than did younger adults, overall they reported more on-task thoughts. TRI cannot, therefore, account completely for prior reports of decreasing TUTs with aging. We discuss the implications of these results for various theoretical approaches to mind-wandering. PMID:23261422

  14. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  15. A profile of middle-aged and older adults admitted to nursing homes: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nancy A; Pinet-Peralta, Luis M; Elder, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Middle-aged adults are becoming an increasing share of the nursing home population. Minimum Data Set assessment data for 2000 and 2008 are used to explore similarities and differences in sociodemographic, residential, medical, and psychiatric characteristics of newly admitted middle-aged adults (31-64) compared to their older counterparts (65+). Relative to their share of the state population, Black middle-aged adults are overrepresented in nursing homes across 45 states and the District of Columbia. Chronic conditions, including diabetes, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and circulatory/heart disorders, appeared to contribute to the increasing presence of middle-aged adults. There were substantial increases in diagnoses of psychiatric disorders at admission; psychiatric diagnoses were significantly higher among middle-aged adults. Middle-aged adults were also more likely to have residential histories of prior stays in psychiatric facilities relative to older adults. States' rebalancing efforts need to attend to the increasing presence of disability associated with chronic medical and psychiatric conditions among middle-aged adults. PMID:22720887

  16. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  17. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  18. Adult age differences in information foraging in an interactive reading environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Chin, Jessie; Payne, Brennan R; Fu, Wai-Tat; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2016-05-01

    When learning about a single topic in natural reading environments, readers are confronted with multiple sources varying in the type and amount of information. In this situation, readers are free to adaptively respond to the constraints of the environment (e.g., through selection of resources and time allocation for study), but there may be costs of exploring and switching between sources (e.g., disruption of attention, opportunity costs for study). From an ecological perspective, such properties of the environment are expected to influence learning strategies. In the current study, we used a novel reading paradigm to investigate age differences in the effects of information richness (i.e., sentence elaboration) and costs of switching between texts (i.e., time delay) on selection of sources and study time allocation. Consistent with the ecological view, participants progressed from less informative to more informative texts. Furthermore, increased switch cost led to a tendency to allocate more effort to easier materials and to greater persistence in reading, which in turn, led to better memory in both immediate and delayed recall. Older adults showed larger effects of switch cost, such that the age difference in delayed recall was eliminated in the high switch cost condition. Based on an ecological paradigm of reading that affords choice and self-regulation, our study provided evidence for preservation with age in the ability to adapt to changing learning environments so as to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (β = −0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (β = −0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 ± 25 kcal, NP 541 ± 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 ± 25 kcal, NP 506 ± 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  20. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  1. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  2. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline. PMID:27267208

  3. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline.

  4. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Rickabaugh, Tammy M; Baxter, Ruth M; Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hultin, Patricia M; Hultin, Lance E; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200) and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200). Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9); βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5); βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6), odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are

  5. Like Mother, Like Child: Intergenerational Patterns of Age at First Birth and Associations with Childhood and Adolescent Characteristics and Adult Outcomes in the Second Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Janet B.; Astone, Nan M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Shapiro, Sam; Miller, Therese L.

    1998-01-01

    This study found that continuity in teenage parenting across two generations was associated with family and personal characteristics unfavorable for optimal child development; and also found that delay of first parenting till age 25 or later was associated with more favorable environmental characteristics and greater adult self-sufficiency. (BC)

  6. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  7. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake--A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-07

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%-20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m²) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m²) adults (standardized mean difference: -0.77 (95% confidence interval -0.90 to -0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): -17 (-22 to -13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: -14 (-19 to -9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  8. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults.

  9. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults. PMID:27545519

  10. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacuum noise, and multi-talker babble (MTB)] were presented via a loudspeaker at three SNRs of 5 dB, 0 dB, and -5 dB. Speech recognition was analyzed using the word recognition score. Results 1) Speech recognition in subway noise was the greatest in comparison to vacuum noise and MTB, 2) at the SNR of -5 dB, speech recognition was greater in subway noise than vacuum noise and in vacuum noise than MTB while at the SNRs of 0 and 5 dB, it was greater in subway noise than both vacuum noise and MTB and there was no difference between vacuum noise and MTB, 3) speech recognition decreased as the SNR decreased, and 4) young adults showed better speech recognition performance in all types of noises at all SNRs than middle-aged adults. Conclusions Speech recognition in real-life background noise was affected by the type of noise, SNR, and age. The results suggest that the frequency distribution, amplitude fluctuation, informational masking, and cognition may be important underlying factors determining speech recognition performance in noise. PMID:26185790

  11. Higher Levels of Adiponectin in Vascular Endothelial Cells are Associated with Greater Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Luttrell, Meredith J.; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Recently adiponectin protein has been reported in murine vascular endothelial cells, however, whether adiponectin is present in human vascular endothelial cells remains unexplored. We sought to examine 1) adiponectin protein in vascular endothelial cells collected from older adults free of overt cardiovascular disease; 2) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin and in vivo vascular endothelial function; and 3) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin, circulating (plasma) adiponectin and related factors. We measured vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation using ultrasonography), vascular endothelial cell adiponectin (biopsy coupled with quantitative immunofluorescence) and circulating adiponectin (Mercodia, ELISA) in older, sedentary, non-smoking, men and women (55 – 79 years). We found that higher endothelial cell adiponectin was related with greater flow-mediated dilation (r=0.43, P<0.05) and greater flow-mediated dilation normalized for shear stress (r=0.56, P<0.01), but was not related with vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (r=0.04, P=0.9). Vascular endothelial cell adiponectin was not related with circulating adiponectin (r=−0.14, P=0.6). Endothelial cell and circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with adiposity, metabolic and other factors, but both were inversely associated with renal function (r=0.44 to 0.62, P ≤ 0.04). In conclusion, higher endothelial cell adiponectin levels are associated with higher vascular endothelial function, independent of circulating adiponectin levels in older adults. PMID:25572013

  12. DPOAE suppression tuning: Cochlear immaturity in premature neonates or auditory aging in normal-hearing adults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdala, Carolina

    2001-12-01

    Previous work has shown that distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) suppression tuning curves (STCs) recorded from premature neonates are narrower than adult STCs at both low and high frequencies. This has been interpreted to indicate an immaturity in cochlear function prior to term birth. However, an alternative explanation for this finding is that adult DPOAE STCs are broadened and reflect cochlear hair cell loss in normal-hearing adults due to aging, and natural exposure to noise and ototoxins. This alternative hypothesis can be tested by studying suppression tuning in normal-hearing school-aged children. If normal-hearing children, who have not aged significantly or been exposed to noise/ototoxins, have DPOAE suppression tuning similar to adults, the auditory aging hypothesis can be ruled out. However, if children have tuning similar to premature neonates and dissimilar from adults, it implicates aging or other factors intrinsic to the adult cochlea. DPOAE STCs were recorded at 1500, 3000, and 6000 Hz using optimal parameters in normal-hearing children and adults. DPOAE STCs collected previously from premature neonates were used for age comparisons. In general, results indicate that tuning curves from children are comparable to adult STCs and significantly different from neonatal STCS at 1500 and 6000 Hz. Only the growth of suppression was not adultlike in children and only at 6000 Hz. These findings do not strongly support the auditory aging hypothesis as a primary explanation for previously observed neonatal-adult differences in DPOAE suppression tuning. It suggests that these age differences are most likely due to immaturities in the neonatal cochlea. However, nonadultlike suppression growth observed in children at 6000 Hz warrants further attention and may be indicative of subtle alternations in the adult cochlea at high frequencies.

  13. Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

  14. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  15. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Amanda L.; Taylor, Beth A.; Panza, Gregory A.; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Fernandez, Antonio B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  16. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Panza, Gregory A; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  17. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  18. Adult literacy policy and provision in an age of austerity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1986-12-01

    Against a background of growing concern for the large numbers of semiliterate or completely illiterate school leavers and adults in the industrialized countries, this article examines four key aspects necessary for gauging a nation's response to the problem of adult illiteracy. The four aspects — awareness raising, high-level national commitment, resource allocation, and range and extent of in-school and out-of-school basic education/literacy provision — are analyzed with particular reference to the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Canada. The article indicates that, in a period of economic austerity when education budgets are being cut, provision for adult literacy and for remedial classes in school is one of the first areas to be sacrificed. The article ends on a pessimistic note with respect to the implementation of a `Right to Read' charter in all industrialized countries.

  19. Age-related differences in celiac disease: Specific characteristics of adult presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Santiago; Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Caminero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease may appear both in early childhood and in elderly subjects. Current knowledge of the disease has revealed some differences associated to the age of presentation. Furthermore, monitoring and prognosis of celiac subjects can vary depending on the pediatric or adult stage. The main objective of this review is to provide guidance for the adult diagnostic and follow-up processes, which must be tailored specifically for adults and be different from pediatric patients. PMID:26558154

  20. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  1. Suicide Prevention in Young Adults (Age 18-30).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)

  2. Some Implications of Career Theory for Adult Development and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    Structural-interactive vocational theory shows that both aspirational and work histories have continuity over the life span and provide useful explanations of stability and change. This paper suggests some implications of structural-interactive theory for the study of adult development. Common principles of structural-interactive theories are…

  3. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  4. Association of Aortic Stiffness With Cognition and Brain Aging in Young and Middle-Aged Adults: The Framingham Third Generation Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Himali, Jayandra J; Mitchell, Gary F; Beiser, Alexa; Maillard, Pauline; Tsao, Connie; Larson, Martin G; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-03-01

    Aortic stiffness is associated with cognitive decline and cerebrovascular disease late in life, although these associations have not been examined in young adults. Understanding the effects of aortic stiffness on the brain at a young age is important both from a pathophysiological and public health perspective. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations of aortic stiffness with cognitive function and brain aging in the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort (47% men; mean age, 46 years). Participants completed the assessment of aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), a neuropsychological test battery assessing multiple domains of cognitive performance and magnetic resonance imaging to examine subclinical markers of brain injury. In adjusted regression models, higher aortic stiffness was associated with poorer processing speed and executive function (Trail Making B-A; β±SE, -0.08±0.03; P<0.01), larger lateral ventricular volumes (β±SE, 0.09±0.03; P<0.01) and a greater burden of white-matter hyperintensities (β±SE, 0.09±0.03; P<0.001). When stratifying by age, aortic stiffness was associated with lateral ventricular volume in young adults (30-45 years), whereas aortic stiffness was associated with white-matter injury and cognition in midlife (45-65 years). In conclusion, aortic stiffness was associated with cognitive function and markers of subclinical brain injury in young to middle-aged adults. Prospective studies are needed to examine whether aortic stiffening in young adulthood is associated with vascular cognitive impairment later in life. PMID:26754644

  5. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  6. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  7. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  8. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  9. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  10. Crisis Model for Older Adults: Special Considerations for an Aging Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…

  11. Confusion and the Older Adult. Module A-8. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on confusion and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Three sections present…

  12. Adult Age Differences in Speed and Accuracy of Matching Verbal and Pictorial Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergler, Nancy L.; Zandi, Taher

    1983-01-01

    Assessed age differences in speed of processing verbal and pictorial stimuli in young (N=20) and old (N=20) adults responding to traffic signs. Results showed young adults responded more quickly and all subjects responded more quickly to a verbal standard sign than to a pictorial standard. (Author/JAC)

  13. Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Perspectives on Online Technologies and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…

  14. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  15. Using the acetabulum to estimate age at death of adult males.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2006-03-01

    The acetabular region is often present and adequately preserved in adult human skeletal remains. Close morphological examination of the 242 left male os coxae from the identified collection of Coimbra (Portugal) has enabled the recognition of seven variables that can be used to estimate age at death. This paper describes these variables and argues their appropriateness by analyzing the correlation between these criteria and the age, the intra- and interobserver consistence, and the accuracy in age prediction using Bayesian inference to estimate age of identified specimens. Results show significant close correlation between the acetabular criteria and age, nonsignificant differences in intra- and interobserver test, and 89% accuracy in Bayes prediction. Obtained estimated age of the specimens had similar accuracy in all ages. These results indicate that these seven variables, based on the acetabular area, are potentially useful to estimate age at death for adult specimens.

  16. Age, Gender, and Reasons for Living among Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…

  17. Forensic odontology: age determination from adult human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lampe, H; Roetzscher, K

    1994-01-01

    Dentistry has several recognized specialities. Age, race and sex determination together with dental identification and facial reconstruction on skeletal material are procedures that the forensic odontologist has to master. The use of Gustafson's method to determine age in an examination of 350 teeth of living and/or dead males and females from the Heidelberg area, Germany is discussed. PMID:7772197

  18. Differences in coping effectiveness and well-being among aging mothers and fathers of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Essex, E L; Seltzer, M M; Krauss, M W

    1999-11-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined stress and coping processes among 133 married mothers (age 59 to 83) and fathers (age 56 to 84) of adults with mental retardation (age 19 to 53). There were no differences between mothers and fathers with respect to their frequency of use of emotion-focused coping, but mothers used significantly more problem-focused coping strategies than did their husbands. For mothers, greater use of problem-focused coping strategies and lower use of emotion-focused coping buffered the impacts of caregiving stress on their psychological well-being. However, for fathers, no buffering effects of coping were detected. The implications of gender differences in coping effects were examined in the context of the impact of lifelong caregiving.

  19. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  20. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  1. Relationships of Disability with Age Among Adults Aged 50 to 85: Evidence from the United States, England and Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe) including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions. Methods We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225): the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity). Results Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA. Conclusions This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability. PMID:23977172

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  3. Children's Reasoning about Disclosing Adult Transgressions: Effects of Maltreatment, Child Age, and Adult Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the…

  4. Age-Related Responses in Circulating Markers of Redox Status in Healthy Adolescents and Adults during the Course of a Training Macrocycle

    PubMed Central

    Zalavras, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Deli, Chariklia K.; Draganidis, Dimitris; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Soulas, Dimitrios; Koutsioras, Yiannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2015-01-01

    Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N = 13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N = 11), trained adults (TA, N = 12), and untrained adults (UA, N = 10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body. PMID:25945150

  5. A Comparison of Different Age Estimation Methods of the Adult Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Miranker, Molly

    2016-09-01

    The adult human pelvis is useful to estimate age because it contains three age indicators-the pubic symphysis, auricular surface, and acetabulum. This study tested the accuracy, inaccuracy, and bias of age estimation from the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis, Osborne auricular surface, Rissech and Calce acetabulum aging methods, and a summary age of these indicators. The study sample consisted of 212 White individuals with known age and sex from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The Rissech method performed the best, was the most accurate method with smallest inaccuracy and bias, followed by the Osborne, Suchey-Brooks, summary age, and then Calce methods. Though the Pearson correlation showed only the Suchey-Brooks method to correlate significantly with known age, it is likely the Suchey-Brooks study sample coincidentally reflected the age distribution of this test sample. Results suggested that Bayesian prediction may improve age estimation and should be applied to other age indicators.

  6. Bochdalek hernia: A rare case report of adult age

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Yiğit, Ebral; Babur, Mehmet; Gumuş, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bochdalek hernia is the most common type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and constitutes 85% of cases. Bochdalek hernia (BH) in adults is extremely rare. We present a BH case in an adult patient and discuss the literature. Presentation 22-year-old female patient with abdominal pain, occasional cramps, dysphagic problems, constipation, shortness of breath and choking for about 2 years applied to our clinic. Diagnosis A defect about 5 cm in the left hemidiaphragm posterior area and herniation of intra-abdominal fat plan in the left hemithorax was seen in intravenous and oral whole abdominal CT. Treatment Patient was operated laparoscopically. Transverse colon and a large portion of the omentum entering into hemidiaphragm were pulled in to intraperitoneal area carefully. Approximately 10 × 8 cm intraabdominal mesh was fixed to the defect area with the help of laparoscopic tacker. Conclusion Adult BH is very rare and when confronted laparoscopic treatment with mesh fixation can be performed safely. PMID:26865978

  7. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  8. Android Adiposity and Lack of Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Are Associated With Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Rexach, José A.; Burant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be interdependent “lifestyle” factors and thus, many older adults are at exaggerated risk for preventable diseases. The purposes of this study were to determine the degree of discordance between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity among adults older than 50 years, and to determine the extent to which direct measures of adiposity, and objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) or diabetes. Methods. A population representative sample of 2,816 individuals, aged 50–85 years, was included from the combined 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and android adiposity as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, objectively measured SB and PA, established markers of cardiometabolic risk, IR, and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Results. Approximately 50% of the men and 64% of the women who were normal weight according to BMI had excessive %BF. Adults with the least SB and greatest moderate and vigorous PA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest activity had highest risk. Greater android adiposity stores were robustly associated with IR or diabetes in all adults, independent of SB and activity. Among men, less moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with IR or diabetes; whereas among women, less lifestyle moderate activity was associated with IR or diabetes. Conclusions. Android adiposity and low moderate and vigorous PA are the strongest predictors of IR or diabetes among aging adults. PMID:25711528

  9. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  10. Longitudinal Assessment of Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Exploring Disaster Impact on Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2011-12-01

    The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions.

  11. Adult Age Differences in Frequency Estimations of Happy and Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more negative, which is reflected in expectations that positive events occur with a high likelihood in young adulthood, whereas negative events occur with a high likelihood in old age. Little is known about expectations of social events. Given that younger adults are motivated to establish…

  12. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  13. Mediators of Well-Being in Ageing Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Passey, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increasing numbers of adults with an intellectual disability are being cared for at home by ageing parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether carer resources (i.e. social support and formal service use) and carer appraisals of ageing and stress/burden mediate the relationships between (1) maladaptive behaviour and…

  14. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  15. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski, Zelinski,…

  16. Exploring Career Options and Possibilities Later in Life: Adult (Age 50-75) Career Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angela Carmella

    2009-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed entitled the "Adult (age 50-75) Career Development Survey" (ACDS) to provide an empirical foundation for understanding the current needs of individuals age 50-75 and learning about their attitudes toward, willingness to, and experience in using career counseling and technology in making decisions on whether or not…

  17. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  18. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  19. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  20. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  1. Effects of Age and Training Formats on Basic Computer Skill Acquisition in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echt, Katharina V.; Morrell, Roger W.; Park, Denise C.

    1998-01-01

    Computer procedures were taught with either interactive multimedia CD-ROMs or manuals to 46 adults aged 60-74 and 46 aged 75-89. The younger group made fewer errors, required less help, and took less time. Both groups forgot some facts and procedures over time. Format did not affect performance. Spatial and verbal memory, text comprehension, and…

  2. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  3. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  4. Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

  5. Support Networks of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit; Depner, Charlene

    Research on social supports of the aged indicates that creation and maintenance of supportive interpersonal bonds among the elderly result in an enhancement of their quality of life. The nature of social support networks at different points in the life course was investigated to determine the relative size of social networks and the way men and…

  6. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy.

  7. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy. PMID:26900650

  8. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  9. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Longenecker, Chris T.; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the age and sex of PLWH is associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age (< or > 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-validated survey measurements of stress and isolation, and their heart rate variability over 60 minutes was measured by Holter monitor. The mean (standard deviation) Perceived Stress Scale score was 17.4 (6.94), mean visual analog stress scale score was 3.51 (2.79), and mean Hawthorne Friendship Scale score, a measure of social isolation, was 17.03 (4.84). Mean heart rate variability expressed as the standard deviation of successive N-N intervals was 65.47 (31.16) msec. In multivariable regression models that controlled for selected demographic variables, there was no relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and age (coefficient=−0.09, p=−.23) or female gender (coefficient=−0.12, p=0.93); however, there was a modest relationship between female gender and stress using the visual analog stress scale (coefficient=1.24, p=0.05). Perceived Stress was negatively associated with the Hawthorne Friendship score (coefficient=−0.34, p=0.05). Hawthorne Friendship score was positively associated with younger age (coefficient=0.11, p=0.02). Age was the only independent predictor of physiologic stress as measured by heart rate variability (coefficient=−1.3, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that younger PLWH may experience more social isolation; however, age-related changes in heart rate variability do not appear to be related to perceived stress or social isolation. Future longitudinal research is required to more thoroughly understand this relationship and its impact on the

  10. An investigation of age-related changes at the acetabulum in 18th-19th century AD adult skeletons from Christ Church Spitalfields, London.

    PubMed

    Mays, S

    2012-12-01

    The age-markers described at the adult acetabulum by Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) were scored in the Spitalfields collection of skeletons of documented age and sex (N = 161). The purpose of the work was as a contribution to the evaluation of the general utility of these markers for estimating age at death. To this end, their relationship both with age, and with some other factors, was investigated. The latter comprised sex, general tendency toward bone formation in periarticular soft tissue (as measured by the occurrence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), and occupation (as documented for some of the males). Of the seven Rissech et al. variables, only four were found to show a statistically significant relationship with age. The correlation between a composite score derived from a linear combination of these four variables, and age was similar to or greater than correlations between age and composite scores based on other age indicators reported in the literature for Spitalfields. Male acetabula aged at a greater rate than those of females. There was no relationship with the occurrence of DISH, but for occupation, those in nonmanual professions showed greater acetabular scores-for-age than those in manual trades.

  11. Aging in community: mobilizing a new paradigm of older adults as a core social resource.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy; Dobbs, Debra; Young, Tiffany L

    2015-03-01

    Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed. PMID:25681387

  12. Evolution of intrusive activity in the Greater Antilles: Zircon U-Th-Pb Ages for island arc granitoids in Puerto Rico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.; Perez, R. J.; Gehrels, G.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the timing of island arc construction in the Greater Antilles is central to unraveling the complex history and evolution of the Caribbean plate. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb ages for oceanic island arc granitoids from Puerto Rico to address both the compositional variation and timing of intrusive activity along the northeast margin of the Caribbean plate. Prior geochronology studies of plutonic rocks in PR have used the K-Ar or Ar-Ar methods on minerals and WR, which are susceptible to thermal resetting (Cox et al., 1977; Smith et al., 1998). In this study 14 plutons were analyzed from the three main igneous provinces of Puerto Rico, the southern (SIP) central (CIP), and northeast (NIP) igneous provinces, and include the following stocks/batholiths: SIP: Las Tunas, Tibes, Tea Road; CIP: Utuado, Ciales, Morovis, Barranquitas, Coamo Arriba, Cuyon, Caguas, San Lorenzo, Vieques; NIP: Rio Blanco. While the igneous bodies vary in size (1 to 500 km2), whole-rock analyses show little variation, as the plutons are primarily intermediate in composition (56 to 66 wt. % SiO2), metaluminous (avg. A/CNK = 0.91, n=135), and range from diorite to granodiorite. Exposures of gabbros associated with the above plutons are rare. Zircons were mounted in epoxy rounds, and imaged for internal zoning characteristics prior to U-Pb analysis. Cathodoluminescence images show that the zircons are mostly oscillatory and/or sector zoned, and record simple growth histories, with no single grain demonstrating evidence of inheritance. Zoning patterns are similar within a population, but differ from among samples, regardless of WR composition or pluton size. Zircons were analyzed for age by MC-ICPMS at the Univ. of Arizona. Spot analyses were made on 20-30 grains per sample. The zircon U-Pb ages record a nearly continuous interval of Cretaceous to Eocene intrusive activity from 85 to 39 Ma. Three main pulses of magmatism are distinguished: (1) intrusion of small, intermediate

  13. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  14. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  15. Fluid-Mobile Element Systematics in the Trans-Mexican Belt: Consequences of Slab Age or Evidence for Greater Geodynamic Complexity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.

    2008-05-01

    It is a generally accepted idea that the strong relationship between the age of oceanic lithosphere and its thermal structure will predictably manifest itself in the thermal state of associated subduction systems. Young-warm subducting slabs (eg. Cascadia) should correspond with warmer fore- and sub-arc temperatures and older- colder slabs (eg. Tonga) should feature colder temperatures. Strong support for the causal relationship has been derived from fluid-mobile elements (FME) in arc lavas. Old-cold subduction allows the slab to retain fluid-mobile species in hydrated mineral phases to greater depths resulting in a higher dehydration flux in the subarc. The greater heat contribution of young-warm slabs results in the premature release of bound water in the forearc and FME-depleted material is carried past the melt region. Recent efforts to characterize the along-arc systematics of FME's in the TMVB have shown moderate elevations of the FME B and B/Be in the Eastern Guerrero region, suggested to be a predictable consequence of the moderate increase in age of the downgoing slab (~12 Ma in the west to 16 Ma in the east). However, using thermal modelling techniques I show that low-angle subduction and the greater trench-to-subarc travel time for the Eastern slab results in unexpectedly warmer temperatures in the hydrated crust of the slab as it nears the subarc. Because the Eastern plate is initially colder, the FME data becomes difficult to explain since the old-cold and young-warm dichotomy in the context of subduction does not apply in this region. I suggest that the elevated FME signatures are instead a consequence of the mechanical entrainment of forearc material with the downgoing slab, increasing the inventory of hydrated FME-enriched material introduced into the mantle wedge. This may also suggest that low-angle and flat-slab geometries may help facilitate forearc erosion by increasing shear forces near the thrust interface. Furthermore, because 10B is

  16. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  17. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  18. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  19. Age, Sex, and Contact with Elderly Adults as Predictors of Knowledge about Psychological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested Australian undergraduates' (N=179) knowledge of mental health in old age. Results showed women scored higher than men and scores rose with age and with contact when age was partialed out. Australian students averaged two more items correct than did the American students for whom the test was developed. (Author)

  20. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  1. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  2. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  3. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  4. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  5. The monaural temporal window based on masking period pattern data in school-aged children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Emily; He, Shuman; Grose, John H.; Hall, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that auditory temporal resolution improves over childhood, whereas other data implicate the development of processing efficiency. The present study used the masking period pattern paradigm to examine the maturation of temporal processing in normal-hearing children (4.8 to 10.7 yrs) compared to adults. Thresholds for a brief tone were measured at 6 temporal positions relative to the period of a 5-Hz quasi-square-wave masker envelope, with a 20-dB modulation depth, as well as in 2 steady maskers. The signal was a pure tone at either 1000 or 6500 Hz, and the masker was a band of noise, either spectrally wide or narrow (21.3 and 1.4 equivalent rectangular bandwidths, respectively). Masker modulation improved thresholds more for wide than narrow bandwidths, and adults tended to receive more benefit from modulation than young children. Fits to data for the wide maskers indicated a change in window symmetry with development, reflecting relatively greater backward masking for the youngest listeners. Data for children >6.5 yrs of age appeared more adult-like for the 6500- than the 1000-Hz signal. Differences in temporal window asymmetry with listener age cannot be entirely explained as a consequence of a higher criterion for detection in children, a form of inefficiency. PMID:23464028

  6. Neighborhood walking among overweight and obese adults: age variations in barriers and motivators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanam; Ory, Marcia G; Yoon, Jeongjae; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2013-02-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity that can bring many public health benefits. It can be even more beneficial to those who are currently obese or overweight. However, many barriers discourage people from walking, ranging from lack of motivation to unsafe neighborhood environments, and such barriers vary with age. This study addresses barriers and motivators to walking among overweight and obese adults, and examines their age variations. Particular emphasis was given to modifiable environmental factors as the priority intervention targets. A survey of 161 overweight and obese adults recruited from a large integrated healthcare system in central Texas provided data on walking, demographics, motivators and barriers. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. The respondents had a mean age of 48.4 (20-86), and were predominantly female (80.8%), non-Hispanic White (86.0%), and obese (mean BMI = 32.5). Popular environmental barriers to walking were: bad weather, inadequate lighting, no shade, unattended dogs, disconnected sidewalks, poor walking surfaces, no interesting places to walk nearby, and no benches (74.5-38.5%). Even and smooth walking surfaces and benches were more frequently reported by older adults as motivators. Proximity to recreational facilities was a stronger motivator for younger adults. Two safety related barriers, fear of injury (older adults) and traffic safety concerns (younger adults), also showed significant age differences. Overweight and obese adults experience substantial environmental barriers to walking, but many of them are modifiable. Observed age variations suggest that future interventions may be more effective if tailored to address age-specific barriers.

  7. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  8. Comparison of Statistical Population Reconstruction Using Full and Pooled Adult Age-Class Data

    PubMed Central

    Skalski, John R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Clawson, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-at-harvest data are among the most commonly collected, yet neglected, demographic data gathered by wildlife agencies. Statistical population construction techniques can use this information to estimate the abundance of wild populations over wide geographic areas and concurrently estimate recruitment, harvest, and natural survival rates. Although current reconstruction techniques use full age-class data (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, … years), it is not always possible to determine an animal's age due to inaccuracy of the methods, expense, and logistics of sample collection. The ability to inventory wild populations would be greatly expanded if pooled adult age-class data (e.g., 0.5, 1.5, 2.5+ years) could be successfully used in statistical population reconstruction. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the performance of statistical population reconstruction models developed to analyze full age-class and pooled adult age-class data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a stochastic version of a Leslie matrix model, which generated data over a wide range of abundance levels, harvest rates, and natural survival probabilities, representing medium-to-big game species. Results of full age-class and pooled adult age-class population reconstructions were compared for accuracy and precision. No discernible difference in accuracy was detected, but precision was slightly reduced when using the pooled adult age-class reconstruction. On average, the coefficient of variation increased by 0.059 when the adult age-class data were pooled prior to analyses. The analyses and maximum likelihood model for pooled adult age-class reconstruction are illustrated for a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population in Washington State. Conclusions/Significance Inventorying wild populations is one of the greatest challenges of wildlife agencies. These new statistical population reconstruction models should expand the demographic capabilities of wildlife agencies

  9. Vitamin E Status and Metabolism in Adult and Aged Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G.; Mustacich, Debbie J.; Sullivan, Laura C.; Leonard, Scott W.; Ahern-Rindell, Amelia; Kerkvliet, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in regulation of mechanisms for detoxification of xenobiotics, as well as vitamin A metabolism. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient whose metabolism is initialized via the cytochrome P450 system. Thus, AhR absence could alter hepatic regulation of α-tocopherol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vitamin E status in adult (2–5 m) and old (21–22 m), wildtype and AhR-null mice. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in AhR null mice (2.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, n= 19) were lower than those of wildtype mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n=17, P=0.0131); those in old mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n= 20) were higher than those of adults (2.2 ± 1.0, n=16, p=0.0075). Hepatic α-tocopherol concentrations were not different between genotypes, but were nearly double in old (32 ± 8 nmol/g, n=20) as compared with adult mice (17 ± 2, n=16, p<0.0001). Hepatic Cyp3a concentrations in AhR-null mice were greater than those in wildtypes (p=0.0011). Genotype (p=0.0047), sex (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.0001) were significant modifiers of liver α-tocopherol metabolite (α-CEHC) concentrations. In general, Cyp3a concentrations correlated with hepatic α-tocopherol (r= 0.3957, p<0.05) and α-CEHC (r=0.4260, p<0.05) concentrations. Since there were no significant genotype differences in the hepatic α- or γ-tocopherol concentrations, AhR null mice did not have dramatically altered vitamin E metabolism. Since they did have higher hepatic α-CEHC concentrations, these data suggest metabolism was up-regulated in the AhR null mice in order to maintain the hepatic tocopherol concentrations similar to those of wildtypes. PMID:20153623

  10. Aging in the cerebellum and hippocampus and associated behaviors over the adult life span of CB6F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of normal aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as behaviors associated with these substrates. A total of 67 CB6F1 hybrid mice were tested at one of five ages (4, 8, 12, 18 or 25 months) on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect modification of fear conditioning (CPFE), rotorod, Barnes maze, acoustic startle, Morris water maze (MWM) and 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). Behavioral tasks were chosen to increase the ability to detect age-related changes in learning, as trace EBCC is considered a more difficult paradigm (compared to delay EBCC) and the CPFE has been found to be more sensitive to hippocampus insults than standard contextual fear conditioning. To assess the effects of age on the brain, hippocampus volume was calculated and unbiased stereology was used to estimate the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex. A significant, age-related loss of Purkinje neurons was found—beginning at 12 months of age—and hippocampus volume remained stable over the adult life span. Age-related impairment was found, beginning at 12–18 months in the rotorod, and mice with fewer Purkinje neurons showed greater impairment in this task. CB6F1 mice retained auditory acuity across the life span and mice aged 25 months showed significant age-related impairment in the EBCC task; however, deficits were not associated with the loss of Purkinje neurons. Although the CPFE task is considered more sensitive to hippocampus insult, no age-related impairment was found. Spatial memory retention was impaired in the Barnes maze at 25 months, but no significant deficits were seen in the MWM. These results support the finding of differential aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum. PMID:23764510

  11. Successful Aging: A Psychosocial Resources Model for Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian Study, we proposed a latent factor structure for the Duke OARS domains: Economic Resources, Mental Health, Activities of Daily Living, Physical Health, and Social Resources. Methods. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two waves of the Georgia Centenarian Study to test a latent variable measurement model of the five resources; nested model testing was employed to assess the final measurement model for equivalency of factor structure over time. Results. The specified measurement model fit the data well at Time 1. However, at Time 2, Social Resources only had one indicator load significantly and substantively. Supplemental analyses demonstrated that a model without Social Resources adequately fit the data. Factorial invariance over time was confirmed for the remaining four latent variables. Discussion. This study's findings allow researchers and clinicians to reduce the number of OARS questions asked of participants. This has practical implications because increased difficulties with hearing, vision, and fatigue in older adults may require extended time or multiple interviewer sessions to complete the battery of OARS questions. PMID:22900180

  12. Higher Physiotherapy Frequency Is Associated with Shorter Length of Stay and Greater Functional Recovery in Hospitalized Frail Older Adults: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Hartley, P; Adamson, J; Cunningham, C; Embleton, G; Romero-Ortuno, R

    2016-01-01

    Extra physiotherapy has been associated with better outcomes in hospitalized patients, but this remains an under-researched area in geriatric medicine wards. We retrospectively studied the association between average physiotherapy frequency and outcomes in hospitalized geriatric patients. High frequency physiotherapy (HFP) was defined as ≥0.5 contacts/day. Of 358 eligible patients, 131 (36.6%) received low, and 227 (63.4%) HFP. Functional improvement (discharge versus admission) in the modified Rankin scale was greater in the HFP group (1.1 versus 0.7 points, P<0.001). The mean length of stay (LOS) of the HFP group was 6 days shorter (7 versus 13 days, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity (Charlson index), frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale), dementia and acute illness severity, HFP was an independent predictor of functional improvement, shorter LOS and likelihood of being discharged without a formal care package. Prospective research is needed to examine the effect of physiotherapy frequency and intensity in geriatric wards.

  13. The Instrumented Sit-to-Stand Test (iSTS) Has Greater Clinical Relevance than the Manually Recorded Sit-to-Stand Test in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Maier, Andrea B.; Ainsworth, Erik; Beek, Peter J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to rise from sitting to standing is critical to an individual’s quality of life, as it is a prerequisite for functional independence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the hypothesis that test durations as assessed with the instrumented repeated Sit-To-Stand (STS) show stronger associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity of older adults than manually recorded test durations. Methods In 63 older participants (mean age 83 ±6.9 years, 51 female), health status was assessed using the European Quality of Life questionnaire and functional status was assessed using the physical function index of the of the RAND-36. Physical performance was measured using a wearable sensor-based STS test. From this test, durations, sub-durations and kinematics of the STS movements were estimated and analysed. In addition, physical activity was measured for one week using an activity monitor and episodes of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion were identified. Associations between STS parameters with health status, functional status and daily physical activity were assessed. Results The manually recorded STS times were not significantly associated with health status (p = 0.457) and functional status (p = 0.055), whereas the instrumented STS times were (both p = 0.009). The manually recorded STS durations showed a significant association to daily physical activity for mean sitting durations (p = 0.042), but not for mean standing durations (p = 0.230) and mean number of locomotion periods (p = 0.218). Furthermore, durations of the dynamic sit-to-stand phase of the instrumented STS showed more significant associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity (all p = 0.001) than the static phases standing and sitting (p = 0.043–0.422). Conclusions As hypothesized, instrumented STS durations were more strongly associated with participant health status, functional status and physical activity

  14. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  15. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD.

  16. The emotional blink: adult age differences in visual attention to emotional information.

    PubMed

    Langley, Linda K; Rokke, Paul D; Stark, Atiana C; Saville, Alyson L; Allen, Jaryn L; Bagne, Angela G

    2008-12-01

    To assess age differences in attention-emotion interactions, the authors asked young adults (ages 18-33 years) and older adults (ages 60-80 years) to identify target words in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The second of two target words was neutral or emotional in content (positive in Experiment 1, negative in Experiment 2). In general, the ability to identify targets from a word stream declined with age. Age differences specific to the attentional blink were greatly reduced when baseline detection accuracy was equated between groups. With regard to emotion effects, older adults showed enhanced identification of both positive and negative words relative to neutral words, whereas young adults showed enhanced identification of positive words and reduced identification of negative words. Together these findings suggest that the nature of attention-emotion interactions changes with age, but there was little support for a motivational shift consistent with emotional regulation goals at an early stage of cognitive processing. PMID:19140657

  17. Chronological definitions and expectations of old age among young adults in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Togonu-Bickersteth, F

    1987-01-01

    This article examines (1) chronological definition of old age and (2) expectations about old age held by young adults in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Primary data consist of structured interviews of 113 persons aged 18 to 35. These were supplemented by secondary analysis of data collected from an earlier survey of 432 old persons in Ile-Ife. In respect of chronological definitions of old age, the observed patterns of definition confirm general tendencies reported by previous researchers in Western societies. Concerning expectations about old age, the data points to the centrality of the place of offspring in the definition of a good old age. The article concludes by noting that while chronological definition of old age may show similarity of patterns across cultures and therefore assume the semblance of universal laws, old age expectations are much more culturally specific because of their interdependence with the beliefs, norms, values and other socioeconomic patterns extant in a particular society.

  18. Filtered text reveals adult age differences in reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; McGowan, Victoria A; Jordan, Timothy R

    2013-06-01

    Sensitivity to certain spatial frequencies declines with age and this may have profound effects on reading performance. However, the spatial frequency content of text actually used by older adults (aged 65+), and how this differs from that used by young adults (aged 18-30), remains to be determined. To investigate this issue, the eye movement behavior of young and older adult readers was assessed using a gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm in which text was shown normally within a region centered at the point of gaze, whereas text outside this region was filtered to contain only low, medium, or high spatial frequencies. For young adults, reading times were affected by spatial frequency content when windows of normal text extended up to nine characters wide. Within this processing region, the reading performance of young adults was affected little when text outside the window contained either only high or medium spatial frequencies, but was disrupted substantially when text contained only low spatial frequencies. By contrast, the reading performance of older adults was affected by spatial frequency content when windows extended up to 18 characters wide. Moreover, within this extended processing region, reading performance was disrupted when text contained any one band of spatial frequencies, but was disrupted most of all when text contained only high spatial frequencies. These findings indicate that older adults are sensitive to the spatial frequency content of text from a much wider region than young adults, and rely much more than young adults on coarse-scale components of text when reading.

  19. Intertrochanteric fractures in adults younger than 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hwang, L C; Lo, W H; Chen, W M; Lin, C F; Huang, C K; Chen, C M

    2001-01-01

    This study reviewed 66 intertrochanteric fractures in patients younger than 40 years old (average 33.0 years old; range 17-40 years old). In contrast to the usual population with intertrochanteric fractures, the factors male predominance (46/66), less pre-injury comorbidity (9/66), more outdoor high energy trauma (47/66), and more associated injuries (32/66) were evident. The distribution of associated injuries was wide. Some of them were life threatening. According to Boyd's classification, 20 were type I, 24 were type II, 13 were type III, and 9 were type IV. Twenty-nine were stable, and 37 were unstable. Stratified by the mechanism of injury, the difference in distribution between the subgroups was significant (p = 0.027, two-tail Fisher's exact test). Simple falls only caused Boyd type I and II fractures. Boyd type III or IV fractures were found more often after vehicular trauma or falls from a height. All the intertrochanteric fractures healed on average 70.5 days (range 31-213 days) after operation. The fractures resulting from vehicular trauma or fall from a height healed significantly more slowly (p = 0.02, univariant log-rank test). There were 6 intertrochanteric fracture-related complications. The mechanism of injury determines the character of intertrochanteric fractures in young adults. Given tougher bone stock, better healing ability, and less co-morbidity, proper management can lead to healing of all intertrochanteric fractures. The extent of functional recovery was also determined by the associated injuries.

  20. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  1. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for adult age-related sparing and decrements in emotion perception and attention

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Joshua W.; Khoja, Nadia; Kaut, Kevin P.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Allen, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined adult age differences in processing emotional faces using a psychological refractory period paradigm. We used both behavioral and event-related potential (P1 component) measures. Task 1 was tone discrimination (fuzzy vs. pure tones) and Task 2 was emotional facial discrimination (“happy” vs. “angry” faces). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two tasks was 100, 300, and 900 ms. Earlier research observed larger age deficits in emotional facial discrimination for negative (angry) than for positive (happy) faces (Baena et al., 2010). Thus, we predicted that older adults would show decreased attentional efficiency in carrying out dual-task processing on the P1 (a component linked to amygdalar modulation of visual perception; Rotshtein et al., 2010). Both younger and older groups showed significantly higher P1 amplitudes at 100- and 300-ms SOAs than at the 900-ms SOA, and this suggests that both age groups could process Task 2 faces without central attention. Also, younger adults showed significantly higher P1 activations for angry than for happy faces, but older adults showed no difference. These results are consistent with the idea that younger adults exhibited amygdalar modulation of visual perception, but that older adults did not. PMID:22936901

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for adult age-related sparing and decrements in emotion perception and attention.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Joshua W; Khoja, Nadia; Kaut, Kevin P; Lien, Mei-Ching; Allen, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined adult age differences in processing emotional faces using a psychological refractory period paradigm. We used both behavioral and event-related potential (P1 component) measures. Task 1 was tone discrimination (fuzzy vs. pure tones) and Task 2 was emotional facial discrimination ("happy" vs. "angry" faces). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two tasks was 100, 300, and 900 ms. Earlier research observed larger age deficits in emotional facial discrimination for negative (angry) than for positive (happy) faces (Baena et al., 2010). Thus, we predicted that older adults would show decreased attentional efficiency in carrying out dual-task processing on the P1 (a component linked to amygdalar modulation of visual perception; Rotshtein et al., 2010). Both younger and older groups showed significantly higher P1 amplitudes at 100- and 300-ms SOAs than at the 900-ms SOA, and this suggests that both age groups could process Task 2 faces without central attention. Also, younger adults showed significantly higher P1 activations for angry than for happy faces, but older adults showed no difference. These results are consistent with the idea that younger adults exhibited amygdalar modulation of visual perception, but that older adults did not. PMID:22936901

  4. Promoting successful aging through competitive sports participation: insights from older adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Culp, Brian; Yamada, Naoko; Won, Youngshin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explored the experience of competing in the Senior Games and the resultant contributions to the successful aging of older adults. We used in-depth interviews with older adults who participated in the National Senior Games. Analysis of the data produced five central themes: (a) perseverance, (b) career development and significant effort, (c) personal and social benefits, (d) unique ethos, and (e) identification as a senior athlete. We found that participating in the Senior Games as a form of serious leisure enhanced the well-being of older adults and could be utilized as a means by which to maintain a healthy lifestyle. PMID:22927703

  5. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  6. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  7. Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today industrialized countries face a burgeoning aged population. Thus, there is increasing attention on the functioning and disabilities of aged adults as potential determinants of autonomy and independent living. However, there are few representative findings on the prevalence and determinants of disability in aged persons in the German population. The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability. Methods Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence. Results We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups. Conclusions In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions. PMID:23410010

  8. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  9. Effects of inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths on zircon (U-Th)/He ages and age-eU trends from Greater Himalayan sequence rocks, Mount Everest region, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Devon A.; Reiners, Peter W.; Hourigan, Jeremy K.; Carrapa, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Previous constraints on the timing and rate of exhumation of the footwall of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) north of Mount Everest suggest rapid Miocene cooling from ˜ 700°C to 120°C between ˜14-17 Ma. However, 25 new single grain zircon He ages from leucogranites intruding Greater Himalayan Sequence rocks in the footwall of the STDS are between 9.9 and 15 Ma, with weighted mean ages between 10 and 12 Ma. Zircon grains exhibit a positive correlation between age and effective uranium (eU). Laser ablation zircon U-Pb geochronology, detailed SEM observations, and laser ablation depth-profiling of these zircons reveal low-eU 0.5-2.5 Ga inherited cores overgrown by high-eU 17-22 Ma rims. This intragranular zonation produces ages as much as 32% too young when a standard alpha-ejection correction assuming uniform eU distribution is applied. Modeling of the effects of varying rim thickness and rim eU concentration on the bulk grain eU and alpha-ejection correction suggests that zonation also exerts the primary control on the form of the age-eU correlation observed. Application of grain-specific zonation-dependent age corrections to our data yields zircon He ages between 14 and 17 Ma, in agreement with AFT and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Growth of magmatic rims followed by cooling to < 120°C within 1-6 million years supports rapid tectonic exhumation associated with slip along the STDS in the Miocene. This study highlights the importance of characterizing parent nuclide zonation in zircon He studies which seek to understand the timing of exhumation along exhumed crustal blocks.

  10. Self-Reported Health and Functional Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adults Aged 80 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Chen, Nai-Wei; Wong, Rebeca; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. Method Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000–2001) and Wave VII (2010–2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). Results In 2000–2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS. In the HEPESE, activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties and all health conditions, except heart attack, were greater in 2010–2011 than in 2000–2001. In the MHAS, hypertension and ADL difficulties were greater, and arthritis was lower in 2012 compared with 2001. In 2010–2011, all self-reported health conditions were higher in the HEPESE compared with the 2012 observation of the MHAS. Discussion The observed differences may reflect worse health for Mexican Americans, health care access, reporting bias, and more selective survival to very old age in Mexico. PMID:27590800

  11. Psychic and Somatic Symptoms of Depression among Young Adults, Institutionalized Aged and Noninstitutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; Eames, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that the institutional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Results provided no support that the aged are more depressed. Somatic complaints can be indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account. (Author)

  12. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 45 to 64

    PubMed Central

    Zonderman, Alan B.; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include: interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus since these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. PMID:24512936

  13. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  14. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological tests assessing visual and verbal memory, generativity, and theory of mind (ToM), and a self-report measure assessing cognitive failures were administered to 236 matched participants with and without ASD, aged 20-79 years (IQ > 80). Group comparisons revealed that individuals with ASD had higher scores on visual memory, lower scores on generativity and ToM, and similar performance on verbal memory. However, ToM impairments were no longer present in older (50+ years) adults with ASD. Across adulthood, individuals with ASD demonstrated similar age-related effects on verbal memory, generativity, and ToM, while age-related differences were reduced on visual memory. Although adults with ASD reported many cognitive failures, those were not associated with neuropsychological test performance. Hence, while some cognitive abilities (visual and verbal memory) and difficulties (generativity and semantic memory) persist across adulthood in ASD, others become less apparent in old age (ToM). Age-related differences characteristic of typical aging are reduced or parallel, but not increased in individuals with ASD, suggesting that ASD may partially protect against an age-related decrease in cognitive functioning. Despite these findings, adults with ASD experience many cognitive daily challenges, which highlights the need for adequate social support and the importance of further research into this topic, including longitudinal studies. Autism Res 2016, 9: 666-676. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  16. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    AHN, JI HYEON; CHEN, BAI HUI; SHIN, BICH-NA; LEE, TAE-KYEONG; CHO, JEONG HWI; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; LEE, JAE-CHUL; TAE, HYUN-JIN; LEE, CHOONG-HYUN; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, YUN LYUL; CHOI, SOO YOUNG; HONG, SEONGKWEON

    2016-01-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN-immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  17. Effects of Age, Gender, BMI, and Anatomical Site on Skin Thickness in Children and Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Rademaker, Marius; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Pinto, Teresa E.; Tregurtha, Sheryl; Faherty, Ann; Peart, Jane M.; Drury, Paul L.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and anatomical site on skin thickness in children and adults with diabetes. Methods We studied 103 otherwise healthy children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 5–19 years, and 140 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes aged 20–85 years. The thicknesses of both the dermis and subcutis were assessed using ultrasound with a linear array transducer, on abdominal and thigh skin. Results There was an age-related thickening of both dermis (p<0.0001) and subcutis (p = 0.013) in children and adolescents. Girls displayed a substantial pubertal increase in subcutis of the thigh (+54%; p = 0.048) and abdomen (+68%; p = 0.009). Adults showed an age-related decrease in dermal (p = 0.021) and subcutis (p = 0.009) thicknesses. Pubertal girls had a thicker subcutis than pubertal boys in both thigh (16.7 vs 7.5 mm; p<0.0001) and abdomen (16.7 vs 8.8 mm; p<0.0001). Men had greater thigh dermal thickness than women (1.89 vs 1.65 mm; p = 0.003), while the subcutis was thicker in women in thigh (21.3 vs 17.9 mm; p = 0.012) and abdomen (17.7 vs 9.8 mm; p<0.0001). In boys, men, and women, both dermis and subcutis were thicker on the abdomen compared to thigh; in girls this was only so for dermal thickness. In both children and adults, the skin (dermis and subcutis) became steadily thicker with increasing BMI (p<0.0001). Conclusions Skin thickness is affected by age, pubertal status, gender, BMI, and anatomical site. Such differences may be important when considering appropriate sites for dermal/subcutaneous injections and other transdermal delivery systems. PMID:24466182

  18. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice. PMID:26934764

  19. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  20. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  1. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  2. Characteristics of Physician Office Visits for Obesity by Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Anjali; McCarty, Frances

    2016-03-01

    In 2011–2014, current asthma prevalence was higher among adults with obesity compared with adults in lower weight categories. This pattern was consistent across most demographic subgroups, except among men, for whom no statistically significant difference in current asthma prevalence by weight status was observed. Other epidemiologic studies of asthma prevalence have shown conflicting results about whether obesity is a risk factor for asthma among males. By race and Hispanic origin, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity for all groups. Patterns differed slightly among groups. For non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults, prevalence for those with obesity was higher than for those in the normal weight and overweight categories. For non-Hispanic white adults, there was no signficant difference in asthma prevalence between the obese and overweight categories. For all age groups, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity, and there was no significant difference in asthma prevalence between those in the normal weight and overweight categories. There was an increasing trend in asthma prevalence as weight increased that was observed most clearly in the 60 and over age group. From 2001 to 2014, there was an increasing trend in current asthma prevalence among adults overall and among overweight adults. However, no significant trend was observed among adults in other weight categories. Findings from an American Thoracic Society workshop on obesity and asthma concluded that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, and that obesity-related asthma is likely different from other types of asthma (e.g., allergic, occupational, exercise-induced, nocturnal, aspirin-sensitive, and severe asthma). PMID:27018815

  3. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  4. Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

  5. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  6. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  7. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  8. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  9. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  10. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  11. Aging and the HPA axis: Stress and resilience in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Bergeman, C S; Clark, Lee Anna; Wirth, Michelle M

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may change over the course of aging, and altered diurnal or stress-induced secretion of the hormone cortisol could predispose older adults to negative health outcomes. We propose that psychological resilience may interact with diurnal cortisol to affect health outcomes later in life. Emotion regulation and social support are two constructs that contribute to resilience and exhibit age-specific patterns in older adults. Determining how the use of resilience resources interacts with age-related diurnal cortisol will improve our understanding of the pathways between stress, resilience, and well-being. In this review, we assess published studies evaluating diurnal cortisol in older adults to better understand differences in their HPA axis functioning. Evidence thus far suggests that diurnal cortisol may increase with age, although cross-sectional studies limit the conclusions that can be drawn. We also review extant evidence connecting age-specific signatures of emotion regulation and social support with diurnal cortisol. Conclusions are used to propose a preliminary model demonstrating how resilience resources may modulate the effects of cortisol on health in aging.

  12. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  13. Normal Adult Aging and the Contextual Influences Affecting Speech and Meaningful Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  14. Normal adult aging and the contextual influences affecting speech and meaningful sound perception.

    PubMed

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  15. How old am I? Age estimation in living adults: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; De Angelis, D; Ruspa, M; Gibelli, D; Cameriere, R; Grandi, M

    2008-12-01

    Age estimation is a common task in forensic medicine. Odontologists are frequently involved in the age assessment of human remains or living juveniles. The need to estimate the age of living individuals is becoming more frequent, because of the increasing number of immigrants (illegal or otherwise) without acceptable identification documents and with missing or uncertain birth dates. Whereas age estimation in subadults is usually performed by methods based on the physiological growth of bones and teeth, in the case of living adults age determination is more difficult, because body maturation has come to an end and the most commonly used procedures in forensics on human remains are too invasive for the living individual. The following case report aims at highlighting the difficulties of performing age estimation in the living adult and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach including forensic odontology: a middle-aged woman from Ethiopia who was supposed to be 62 years old (according to one set of documents), was removed from employment lists as she had reached the retirement age for Italy. However another set of documents indicated a younger age (46 years). Hormonal dosage of E2 (17-β estradiol) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) showed an age close to the begininng of menopause. An experimental dental method, based on the decrease of canine pulp chamber with age, was performed in order to obtain more information: the result was an estimation of a 47-57 age range. Combined results suggested that it was more likely that the actual age of the woman was closer to 46 than to 62.

  16. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  17. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  18. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  19. A Comparison of Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adult Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Pathological gambling is an increasing public health concern, but very little is known about this disorder in older adults. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems across age groups in treatment-seeking gamblers. Design and Methods: At intake to gambling treatment programs, 343 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction…

  20. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  1. Citizenship, Adult Learning and Old Age. Conference Report (London, England, United Kingdom, June 6, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Maureen, Ed.; And Others

    This paper contains the text of a keynote speech given at a Study Day attended by older persons and government and industry officials in England, along with summaries of discussion and workshop reports. The keynote speech, "Citizenship, Adult Learning, and Old Age" (Jenny Scribbins), emphasizes the need to recognize the educational requirements of…

  2. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  3. Little Relation of Adult Age with Cognition after Controlling General Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Both general (i.e., shared across different cognitive measures) and specific (i.e., unique to particular cognitive measures) influences can be postulated to contribute to the relations between adult age and measures of cognitive functioning. Estimates of general and specific influences on measures of memory, speed, reasoning, and spatial…

  4. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  5. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  6. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  7. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  8. Proximity as a Mediating Influence on the Perceived Aging Parent-Adult Child Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined proximity and relationship between aging parents (N=224) and adult children. Found no difference in quality of relationships between parents whose children lived near and those whose children lived over 60 miles away. Significant predictors for proximate group were personal sense of control and education; for distant group, child gender…

  9. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  10. Older Adult Education in a Maltese University of the Third Age: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formosa, Marvin

    2000-01-01

    Research using Freire's critical pedagogy and critical educational gerontology revealed that a Maltese University of the Third Age uses traditional one-way models of educational practice that fail to engage learners in transformative learning. Overemphasis on adult participation neglects the question of the purpose of learning. (Contains 72…

  11. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  12. Differentiating Aging Among Adults With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Dementia or Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Anna J; Johnson, Emily Boshkoff; Amaral, Joseph L; Tan, Christine M; Macks, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Differences were examined between three groups of adults with Down syndrome in their behavioral presentation, social life/activities, health, and support needs. We compared those with comorbid dementia, with comorbid psychopathology, and with no comorbid conditions. Adults with comorbid dementia were more likely to be older, have lower functional abilities, have worse health and more health conditions, and need more support in self-care. Adults with comorbid psychopathology were more likely to exhibit more behavior problems and to be living at home with their families. Adults with no comorbidities were most likely to be involved in community employment. Differences in behavioral presentation can help facilitate clinical diagnoses in aging in Down syndrome, and implications for differential diagnosis and service supports are discussed.

  13. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (P<0.001) detected among post-emergence age cohorts for each species, and unique hydrocarbon profiles detected as each adult blow fly species aged. This work provides empirical data that serve as a foundation for future research into improving PMImin estimates made by forensic

  14. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  15. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  16. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  17. Aging Drosophila melanogaster display altered pre- and postsynaptic ultrastructure at adult neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole; Laugks, Ulrike; Heckmann, Manfred; Asan, Esther; Neuser, Kirsa

    2015-11-01

    Although age-related changes in synaptic plasticity are an important focus within neuroscience, little is known about ultrastructural changes of synaptic morphology during aging. Here we report how aging affects synaptic ultrastructure by using fluorescence and electron microscopy at the adult Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of ventral abdominal muscles. Mainly four striking morphological changes of aging NMJs were revealed. 1) Bouton size increases with proportionally rising number of active zones (AZs). 2) Synaptic vesicle density at AZs is increased in old flies. 3) Late endosomes, cisternae, and multivesicular bodies accumulate in the presynaptic terminal, and vesicles accumulate between membranes of the terminal bouton and the subsynaptic reticulum. 4) The electron-dense pre- and postsynaptic apposition is expanded in aging NMJs, which is accompanied by an expansion of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. These findings suggest that aging is possibly accompanied by impaired synaptic vesicle release and recycling and a potentially compensatory expansion of AZs and postsynaptic densities. PMID:25940748

  18. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  19. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  20. Effects of Perceptual and Contextual Enrichment on Visual Confrontation Naming in Adult Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Yvonne; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of enriching line drawings with color/texture and environmental context as a facilitator of naming speed and accuracy in older adults. Method Twenty young and 23 older adults named high-frequency picture stimuli from the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) under three conditions: (a) black-and-white items, (b) colorized-texturized items, and (c) scene-primed colored items (e.g., “hammock” preceded 1,000 ms by a backyard scene). Results With respect to speeded naming latencies, mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that young adults did not benefit from colorization-texturization but did show scene-priming effects. In contrast, older adults failed to show facilitation effects from either colorized-texturized or scene-primed items. Moreover, older adults were consistently slower to initiate naming than were their younger counterparts across all conditions. Conclusions Perceptual and contextual enrichment of sparse line drawings does not appear to facilitate visual confrontation naming in older adults, whereas younger adults do tend to show benefits of scene priming. We interpret these findings as generally supportive of a processing speed account of age-related object picture-naming difficulty. PMID:21498581

  1. M*A*S*H: A Program of Social Interaction Between Institutionalized Aged and Adult Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalson, Leon

    1976-01-01

    Restoration of a major social role to institutionalized aged through a program of social interaction and socialization with adult mentally retarded is described and evaluated. The over-all findings encourage this innovative opportunity for institutionalized aged. (Author)

  2. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  3. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.; Jacobson, Debra J.; St. Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Ebbert, Jon O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults. We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012. We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67–2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74–3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59–1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend). Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  4. Spirometric standard of healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Khuda, K M; Sultana, R; Bari, M R; Islam, R; Erfan, M A

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary function test of various types are utilized clinically and epidemiologically to measures the functional status of the lung and to asses the diseases. Spirometric standard for healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years is conducted in National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). This is cross sectional study is establish normal value of lung functions for Bangladeshi adult. Total of 995 (628 males & 367 females) healthy adults were selected to obtain lung function values; from a healthy adult those who attended in the hospital as a patients attended and healthy stuff of NIDCH. A computerized spirometer was used to measure lung volume and flows in a standard way. The best of the three reading was taken as the correct value. Anthropometric parameters including age, weight and height were recorded appropriately and body mass index was calculated. The statistical package for the social science (SPSS-10.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The pulmonary function data was separated by sex and classified on the basis of height weight age and body surface area. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for every such variable. The lung function variable shows a linear positive correlation with height, weight and age. Force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) increase in height. Males show higher values for lung function variables than female. Stepwise regression analysis was done using age, height and weight, BMI as independent variable strong correlation was found between lung function values and independent variables. Height shows the highest correlation. The regression equation for lung function variables was determined for males and females considering height as independent variable. Lung function values of Bangladeshi adult were significantly lower than Nigerian, British and American result but nearly similar to Indian result. Nomogram was constructed in relation to height for males

  5. Self-Regulated Learning in Younger and Older Adults: Does Aging Affect Metacognitive Control?

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults’ self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults’ self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults’ lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382

  6. Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lance D; Gale, Shawn D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from the United States' Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used linear-regression and multivariate models to examine the association between toxocariasis as assessed by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and three measures of cognitive function - simple reaction time (SRT), symbol-digit substitution (SDS) and serial-digit learning (SDL) in 4 279 adults aged 21 to 59 years. Toxocara seroprevalence did not vary with age or blood-lead concentration but did vary with gender, ethnicity, educational attainment and poverty-to-income ratio. Controlling for gender, age, blood-lead concentration, educational attainment, ethnic background and the poverty-to-income ratio, we found that toxocariasis predicted worse performance on the SDS but not on the SRT or the SDL. Moreover, there were significant interactions between toxocariasis and age, gender and educational attainment. In conclusion, toxocariasis appears to be associated with decreased cognitive function. Interactions between toxocariasis and gender, age and educational attainment further suggest that certain groups may be more susceptible than others to the cognitive dysfunction associated with toxocariasis in adults. PMID:26374832

  7. Exploring the effect of depressive symptoms and ageing on metamemory in an Italian adult sample.

    PubMed

    Fastame, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of depression and age-related factors on metamemory measures in an Italian adult sample. Fifty-eight healthy participants were recruited in Northern Italy and were, respectively, assigned to the following groups: Young (20-30 years old), old (60-70 years old), and Very Old (71-84 years old). Participants were administered a battery of tests, including a word recall task, self-referent mnestic efficiency scales, general beliefs about memory, and depression measures. General beliefs about memory, self-efficacy, and beliefs about the control of personal memory were predicted by age, education, depression, and mnestic and cognitive efficiency. Finally, age-related differences were found in metamemory measures: the accuracy of mnestic control processes is thought to be lower by very old adults than by old and young individuals. PMID:23731341

  8. Social support sources matter: Increased cellular aging among adults with unsupportive spouses.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Cribbet, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    Social support is associated with better health but it is unknown whether the health advantages of social support depend on the support source. Using a probability sample of older U.S. adults (n=1430) we compared leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, between married adults whose support sources either did or did not include their spouse. Despite having social support from other sources, participants who lacked spousal support had shorter telomeres relative to those with spousal support. The size of this telomere difference was comparable to differences between men and women and was independent of sociodemographic variables, coronary heart disease risk, diagnosed chronic disease and other social relationship resources such as the number of support sources, the number of friends, or the availability of financial support. Our findings suggest that relative to other sources of social support, spousal support may be especially important for cellular aging, a general biological mechanism that is implicated in age-related chronic disease risk.

  9. Aging and selective engagement: the moderating impact of motivation on older adults' resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Germain, Cassandra M; Swaim, Elizabeth L; Osowski, Nicole L

    2009-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performed the task under conditions of high versus low accountability. Examination of memory for behavioral information revealed that accountability disproportionately affected older adults' performance, with the locus of this effect being in conscious recollection processes. This supports the aforementioned selective engagement hypothesis by demonstrating that the differential impact of the motivational manipulation was based in deliberative memory processes.

  10. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  11. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  12. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  13. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  14. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  15. Does age at onset have clinical significance in older adults with bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Houck, Patricia R.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective While age at onset may be useful in explaining some of the heterogeneity of bipolar disorder (BD) in large, mixed age groups, investigations to date have found few meaningful clinical differences between early versus late age at onset in older adults with BD. Methods Data were collected from sixty-one subjects aged 60 years and older, mean (SD) age 67.6 (7.0), with BD I (75%) and II (25%). Subjects were grouped by early (<40 years; n=43) versus late (≥40 years; n=18) age at onset. Early versus late onset groups were compared on psychiatric comorbidity, medical burden, and percentage of days well during study participation. Results Except for family history of major psychiatric illnesses, there were no differences between the groups on demographic or clinical variables. Patients with early and late onset experienced similar percentages of days well; however, those with early onset had slightly more percentage of days depressed than those with late onset (22% versus 13%) Conclusion Distinguishing older adults with BD by early or late age at onset has limited clinical usefulness. PMID:20082348

  16. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  17. Childhood Adversities Are Associated with Shorter Telomere Length at Adult Age both in Individuals with an Anxiety Disorder and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kananen, Laura; Surakka, Ida; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ripatti, Samuli; Hovatta, Iiris

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening has been previously associated to self-perceived stress and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood disorders. We set out to investigate whether telomere length is affected in patients with anxiety disorders in which stress is a known risk factor. We also studied the effects of childhood and recent psychological distress on telomere length. We utilized samples from the nationally representative population-based Health 2000 Survey that was carried out between 2000–2001 in Finland to assess major public health problems and their determinants. We measured the relative telomere length of the peripheral blood cells by quantitative real-time PCR from 321 individuals with DSM-IV anxiety disorder or subthreshold diagnosis and 653 matched controls aged 30–87 years, who all had undergone the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. While telomere length did not differ significantly between cases and controls in the entire cohort, the older half of the anxiety disorder patients (48–87 years) exhibited significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls of the same age (P = 0.013). Interestingly, shorter telomere length was also associated with a greater number of reported childhood adverse life events, among both the anxiety disorder cases and controls (P = 0.005). Childhood chronic or serious illness was the most significantly associated single event affecting telomere length at the adult age (P = 0.004). Self-reported current psychological distress did not affect telomere length. Our results suggest that childhood stress might lead to accelerated telomere shortening seen at the adult age. This finding has potentially important implications supporting the view that childhood adversities might have a considerable impact on well being later in life. PMID:20520834

  18. Third-molar development in relation to chronologic age in young adults of central China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuming; Mao, Jing; Zhu, Shengrong; Wei, Wei

    2008-08-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291 orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139 males with a mean age of 14.67+/-3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85+/-3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in third-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r (2)=0.65) and females (r (2)=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  19. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Matz-Costa, Christina; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    "Productive aging" puts forward the fundamental view that the capacity of older adults must be better developed and utilized in activities that make economic contributions to society-working, caregiving, volunteering. It is suggested that productive engagement can lead to multiple positive ends: offsetting fiscal strains of a larger older population, contributing to the betterment of families and civil society, and maintaining the health and economic security of older adults. Advocates claim that outdated social structures and discriminatory behaviors limit participation of older adults in these important social roles as well as prevent the optimization of outcomes for older adults, families, and society. We ask two important questions: (a) How can we shape policies and programs to optimally engage the growing resources of an aging population for the sake of society and older adults themselves? and (b) How can policies pertaining to productive engagement reduce health and economic disparities? We answer these questions by first describing the current state of engagement in each of the three productive activities and summarize some current policies and programs that affect engagement. Next we highlight challenges that cross-cut productive engagement. Finally, we provide policy recommendations to address these challenges. PMID:26035601

  20. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  1. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  2. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline.

  3. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes. PMID:26548377

  4. The relationship between change in self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Luszcz, Mary A

    2012-09-01

    Negative self-perceptions of aging (SPA) have been linked to poor physical health and functioning outcomes in late life, yet the direction of this relationship remain unclear. Using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging, we investigated the directionality of the dynamic relationship between self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in 1,212 adults 65 years and above (mean age = 76.89, SD = 6.12) over 5 waves (up to 16 years). Bivariate Dual Change Score Models (BDCSM) revealed that the best fitting model for the data was that which allowed SPA to predict change in physical functioning over time lags of 1 year. The direction of the relationship remained after controlling for age, gender, partner status, residential care, number of medical conditions, self-rated health, and psychological well-being. Findings suggest that more positive SPA may be protective of decline in physical functioning in late life. PMID:22390161

  5. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  6. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  7. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  8. Food Hypersensitivity in Mexican Adults at 18 to 50 Years of Age: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bedolla-Pulido, Tonatiuh Ramses; Camacho-Peña, Alan Salvador; González-García, Estefanía; Morales-Romero, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is limited epidemiological evidence of food hypersensitivity (FH) in the adult population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of FH in Mexican adults, their clinical features and to establish common food involved in its appearance. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study using a fixed quota sampling; 1,126 subjects answered a structured survey to gather information related to FH. Results The prevalence of FH in adults was 16.7% (95% CI, 14.5% to 18.8%), without statistical significant differences related to gender (women, 17.5% and men, 15.9%) or residential location. The most common clinical manifestations in adults with FH were oral allergy syndrome (70 of 1,126) and urticaria (55 of 1,126). According to category, fruits and vegetables were the most frequent foods to trigger FH (6.12%) and were individually related to shrimp (4.0%), and cow milk (1.5%). Adults under age 25 had a higher frequency of FH (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.91, P <0.001). Personal history of any atopic disease was significantly associated with FH (P <0.0001). Conclusions The prevalence of FH is relatively high in Mexican adults, and FH is significantly associated with atopic diseases. PMID:25374750

  9. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Aimee C; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Haszard, Jillian J; Polak, Maria A; Houghton, Lisa A; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-08-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17-25 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men. PMID:26213963

  11. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  12. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  13. Premature aging of the hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amira A H; Schwarz-Herzke, Beryl; Stahr, Anna; Prozorovski, Timour; Aktas, Orhan; von Gall, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis undergoes dramatic age-related changes. Mice with targeted deletion of the clock geneBmal1 (Bmal1(-/-)) show disrupted regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, accelerated aging, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. As proliferation of neuronal progenitor/precursor cells (NPCs) is enhanced in young Bmal1(-/-) mice, we tested the hypothesis that this results in premature aging of hippocampal neurogenic niche in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice as compared to wildtype littermates. We found significantly reduced pool of hippocampal NPCs, scattered distribution, enhanced survival of NPCs and an increased differentiation of NPCs into the astroglial lineage at the expense of the neuronal lineage. Immunoreaction of the redox sensitive histone deacetylase Sirtuine 1, peroxisomal membrane protein at 70 kDa and expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Waf1/CIP1) were increased in adult Bmal1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, genetic disruption of the molecular clockwork leads to accelerated age-dependent decline in adult neurogenesis presumably as a consequence of oxidative stress.

  14. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-02-05

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures.

  15. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  17. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  18. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  19. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  20. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies.

  1. Wnt protein-mediated satellite cell conversion in adult and aged mice following voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Hidaka, Ryo; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2014-03-14

    Muscle represents an abundant, accessible, and replenishable source of adult stem cells. Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, called satellite cells, play essential roles in regeneration after muscle injury in adult skeletal muscle. Although the molecular mechanism of muscle regeneration process after an injury has been extensively investigated, the regulation of satellite cells under steady state during the adult stage, including the reaction to exercise stimuli, is relatively unknown. Here, we show that voluntary wheel running exercise, which is a low stress exercise, converts satellite cells to the activated state due to accelerated Wnt signaling. Our analysis showed that up-regulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling directly modulated chromatin structures of both MyoD and Myf5 genes, resulting in increases in the mRNA expression of Myf5 and MyoD and the number of proliferative Pax7(+)Myf5(+) and Pax7(+) MyoD(+) cells in skeletal muscle. The effect of Wnt signaling on the activation of satellite cells, rather than Wnt-mediated fibrosis, was observed in both adult and aged mice. The association of β-catenin, T-cell factor, and lymphoid enhancer transcription factors of multiple T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor regulatory elements, conserved in mouse, rat, and human species, with the promoters of both the Myf5 and MyoD genes drives the de novo myogenesis in satellite cells even in aged muscle. These results indicate that exercise-stimulated extracellular Wnts play a critical role in the regulation of satellite cells in adult and aged skeletal muscle.

  2. Age-related decreased inhibitory vs. excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

    PubMed Central

    van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Nijhof, Bonnie; Bosch, Daniëlle G. M.; Kohansal-Nodehi, Mahdokht; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Heimel, J. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behavior and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesized to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an aging phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause. PMID:25538548

  3. Age at trauma exposure and PTSD risk in young adult women.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Sartor, Carolyn E; Pommer, Nicole E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent and early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk, but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence.

  4. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  5. Prefrontal Engagement and Reduced Default Network Suppression Co-occur and Are Dynamically Coupled in Older Adults: The Default-Executive Coupling Hypothesis of Aging.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gary R; Spreng, R Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Reduced executive control is a hallmark of neurocognitive aging. Poor modulation of lateral pFC activity in the context of increasing task challenge in old adults and a "failure to deactivate" the default network during cognitive control tasks have been observed. Whether these two patterns represent discrete mechanisms of neurocognitive aging or interact into older adulthood remains unknown. We examined whether altered pFC and default network dynamics co-occur during goal-directed planning over increasing levels of difficulty during performance on the Tower of London task. We used fMRI to investigate task- and age-related changes in brain activation and functional connectivity across four levels of task challenge. Frontoparietal executive control regions were activated and default network regions were suppressed during planning relative to counting performance in both groups. Older adults, unlike young, failed to modulate brain activity in executive control and default regions as planning demands increased. Critically, functional connectivity analyses revealed bilateral dorsolateral pFC coupling in young adults and dorsolateral pFC to default coupling in older adults with increased planning complexity. We propose a default-executive coupling hypothesis of aging. First, this hypothesis suggests that failure to modulate control and default network activity in response to increasing task challenge are linked in older adulthood. Second, functional brain changes involve greater coupling of lateral pFC and the default network as cognitive control demands increase in older adults. We speculate that these changes reflect an adaptive shift in cognitive approach as older adults come to rely more upon stored representations to support goal-directed task performance.

  6. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis inversely correlates with microglia in conditions of voluntary running and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gebara, Elias; Sultan, Sebastien; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Toni, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The proliferation of adult neural stem or progenitor cells is regulated by several extrinsic factors such as experience, disease or aging and intrinsic factors originating from the neurogenic niche. Microglia is very abundant in the dentate gyrus (DG) and increasing evidence indicates that these cells mediate the inflammation-induced reduction in neurogenesis. However, the role of microglia in neurogenesis in physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we monitored microglia and the proliferation of adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in physiological conditions known to increase or decrease adult neurogenesis, voluntary running and aging respectively. We found that the number of microglia in the DG was strongly inversely correlated with the number of stem/progenitor cells and cell proliferation in the granule cell layer. Accordingly, co-cultures of decreasing neural progenitor/glia ratio showed that microglia but not astroglia reduced the number of progenitor cells. Together, these results suggest that microglia inhibits the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells despite the absence of inflammatory stimulus. PMID:23970848

  7. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis inversely correlates with microglia in conditions of voluntary running and aging.

    PubMed

    Gebara, Elias; Sultan, Sebastien; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Toni, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The proliferation of adult neural stem or progenitor cells is regulated by several extrinsic factors such as experience, disease or aging and intrinsic factors originating from the neurogenic niche. Microglia is very abundant in the dentate gyrus (DG) and increasing evidence indicates that these cells mediate the inflammation-induced reduction in neurogenesis. However, the role of microglia in neurogenesis in physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we monitored microglia and the proliferation of adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in physiological conditions known to increase or decrease adult neurogenesis, voluntary running and aging respectively. We found that the number of microglia in the DG was strongly inversely correlated with the number of stem/progenitor cells and cell proliferation in the granule cell layer. Accordingly, co-cultures of decreasing neural progenitor/glia ratio showed that microglia but not astroglia reduced the number of progenitor cells. Together, these results suggest that microglia inhibits the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells despite the absence of inflammatory stimulus.

  8. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  9. Are childhood abuse and neglect related to age of first homelessness episode among currently homeless adults?

    PubMed

    Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p < .02 for all types of maltreatment). In the simultaneous model, only emotional abuse remained significantly associated (p = .002). In addition, increasing numbers of maltreatment were associated with becoming homeless during youth (p < .0001). These results highlight the unique associations between childhood maltreatment types and becoming homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.

  10. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  11. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  12. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  13. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  14. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  15. Radiological age estimation: based on third molar mineralization and eruption in Turkish children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karadayi, Beytullah; Kaya, Ahsen; Kolusayın, Melek Ozlem; Karadayi, Sükriye; Afsin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Radiographic evaluation of mineralization and eruption stages of third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic sciences and legal medicine. The third molar tooth is utilized for dental age estimation about the age span of 15-23 years because it represents the only tooth still in development. The aim of this study is to obtain and analyze data regarding third molar development and eruption in Turkish population for dental age estimation. A total of 744 dental panoramic radiographies of 394 female and 350 male subjects aged between 8 and 22 years were examined. Third molar development was determined according to the Nolla classification system, and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Mandibular and maxillary third molars were generally found at similar stages of development on both sides. Nolla stage 6 (completed crown calcification) was reached at around the age of 15 in both maxillary and mandibular third molars in both sexes. Alveolar emergence was at around the age of 16 in males and around age of 17 in females. Although third molars' eruption shows greater variability than development of third molars, data which were obtained from this study about eruption of these teeth can be supportive to development data for age estimation.

  16. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  17. Specific ablation of Nampt in adult neural stem cells recapitulates their functional defects during aging

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Liana R; Imai, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and self-renewal, as well as insult-induced differentiation, decrease markedly with age. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these declines remain unclear. Here, we show that levels of NAD+ and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, decrease with age in the hippocampus. Ablation of Nampt in adult NSPCs reduced their pool and proliferation in vivo. The decrease in the NSPC pool during aging can be rescued by enhancing hippocampal NAD+ levels. Nampt is the main source of NSPC NAD+ levels and required for G1/S progression of the NSPC cell cycle. Nampt is also critical in oligodendrocytic lineage fate decisions through a mechanism mediated redundantly by Sirt1 and Sirt2. Ablation of Nampt in the adult NSPCs in vivo reduced NSPC-mediated oligodendrogenesis upon insult. These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, giving rise to the possibility that Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is a mediator of age-associated functional declines in NSPCs. PMID:24811750

  18. Chronic and progressive Parkinson's disease MPTP model in adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Manchado, Ana B; Villadiego, Javier; Romo-Madero, Sonia; Suárez-Luna, Nela; Bermejo-Navas, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Gómez, José A; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-García, José L; Echevarría, Miriam; López-Barneo, José; Toledo-Aral, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the different animal models of Parkinson's disease developed during the last years, they still present limitations modelling the slow and progressive process of neurodegeneration. Here, we undertook a histological, neurochemical and behavioural analysis of a new chronic parkinsonian mouse model generated by the subcutaneous administration of low doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg, 3 times per week) for 3 months, using both young adult and aged mice. The MPTP-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration was progressive and was accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine levels and motor impairment. We also demonstrated the characteristic neuroinflammatory changes (microglial activation and astrogliosis) associated with the neurodegenerative process. Aged animals showed both a faster time course of neurodegeneration and an altered neuroinflammatory response. The long-term systemic application of low MPTP doses did not induce any increase in mortality in either young adult or aged mice and better resembles the slow evolution of the neurodegenerative process. This treatment could be useful to model different stages of Parkinson's disease, providing a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and facilitating the testing of both protective and restorative treatments. Here, we show a new chronic and progressive parkinsonian mouse model, in young and aged mice. This model produces a stable degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, continuous neuroinflammatory reaction and motor deficits. Aged animals showed a faster neurodegeneration and an altered neuroinflammatory response. This treatment could be useful to model different stages of PD and to test both protective and restorative therapeutic approaches.

  19. Perspectives on Aging. Exercise and Wellness Programs for Aging Adults. A Conference Held at Brigham Young University (Provo, Utah, August 22, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    Papers presented at a conference on recreation, exercise, and wellness for aging adults included: (1) "Leisure Activity in the 11th Hour or Physical Pursuits of Old Fossils" (Larry L. Neal); (2) "Exercise and Nutrition for the Senior Adult" (Michele Anderson and Jackie A. Smith); and (3) "Senior Wellness Advocacy Network--S.W.A.N.--An Experiment…

  20. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p < 0.01). Despite similar BSPs in all age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  1. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  2. The Impact of Sex and Age on Serum Prohepcidin Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasiniewska, Joanna; Dymek, Grazyna; Gruszka, Marzenna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the last 8 years, it has become evident that hepcidin has a diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Therefore, it is a great need to establish the reference interval for hepcidin and its precursor. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age and sex on serum prohepcidin concentration in healthy adults. Material and methods: 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled during the 18 months of the study - 56 males and 44 females, mean age 34.8±10.1 yrs. Serum prohepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferring receptor (sTfR) and plasma erythropoietin were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined on ARCHITECT ci8200 (Abbott Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Serum prohepcidin concentrations ranged from 74.9 ng/ml to 300.4 ng/ml in healthy adults of both sexes. However, prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in males (median value 145.7 ng/ml) than in females (median 127.3 ng/ml) (p=0.0016). Serum prohepcidin was not associated with age in the group of healthy adults. Conclusions Serum prohepcidin concentrations were found to be related to sex. Significantly lower prohepcidin levels were observed in females compared with males.

  3. Upper Limb Strength and Muscle Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Saul, Katherine R; Vidt, Meghan E; Gold, Garry E; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group. PMID:26155870

  4. Qualitative Study Exploring the Meaning of Knee Symptoms to Adults Ages 35–65 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Joanna; Badley, Elizabeth M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Davis, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While osteoarthritis (OA) has mainly been viewed as a disease affecting older people, its prevalence in younger adults is substantial. However, there is limited research on how younger adults understand knee symptoms. This article explores the meaning of knee symptoms to adults ages 35–65 years. Methods This qualitative study comprised 6 focus groups and 10 one‐on‐one interviews with 51 participants (median age 49, 61% female), who self‐reported knee OA or reported knee symptoms (i.e., pain, aching, or stiffness) on most days of the past month. Constructivist grounded theory guided the sampling, data collection, and analysis. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results Central to participants’ understanding of knee symptoms was the perception that symptoms were preventable, meaning that there was the potential to prevent the onset of symptoms and to alter the course of symptoms. This understanding was demonstrated in participants’ explanation of symptoms. Participants commented on the cause, prevention, and course of symptoms. Moreover, participants reflected on their experience with symptoms, indicating that symptoms made them feel older than their current age. However, they did not perceive their symptoms as normal or acceptable. Conclusion Participants interpreted knee symptoms as potentially preventable, suggesting that they may be open to primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:26238409

  5. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  6. Age-Related Phasic Patterns of Mitochondrial Maintenance in Adult Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Morsci, Natalia S.; Hall, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive decline and increasing risk of neurodegeneration. Perturbation of mitochondrial function, dynamics, and trafficking are implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this fundamental importance, the critical understanding of how organismal aging affects lifetime neuronal mitochondrial maintenance remains unknown, particularly in a physiologically relevant context. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive in vivo analysis of age-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology, density, trafficking, and stress resistance in individual Caenorhabditis elegans neurons throughout adult life. Adult neurons display three distinct stages of increase, maintenance, and decrease in mitochondrial size and density during adulthood. Mitochondrial trafficking in the distal neuronal processes declines progressively with age starting from early adulthood. In contrast, long-lived daf-2 mutants exhibit delayed age-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology, constant mitochondrial density, and maintained trafficking rates during adulthood. Reduced mitochondrial load at late adulthood correlates with decreased mitochondrial resistance to oxidative stress. Revealing aging-associated changes in neuronal mitochondria in vivo is an essential precedent that will allow future elucidation of the mechanistic causes of mitochondrial aging. Thus, our study establishes the critical foundation for the future analysis of cellular pathways and genetic and pharmacological factors regulating mitochondrial maintenance in aging- and disease-relevant conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we address long-standing questions: How does aging affect neuronal mitochondrial morphology, density, trafficking, and oxidative stress resistance? Are these age-related changes amenable to genetic manipulations that slow down the aging process? Our study illustrates that mitochondrial

  7. Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Michelle C; Courtney, Christopher G; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E; Davison, Gerald C

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older and younger adults. Younger adults showed the typical startle blink pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing negative pictures compared to positive pictures. Older adults, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing positive pictures compared to viewing negative and neutral pictures. Potential underlying mechanisms for this interaction are evaluated. This pattern suggests that, compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to spontaneously suppress responses to negative stimuli and process positive stimuli more deeply.

  8. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  9. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  10. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  11. Amyloid Burden Is Associated With Self-Reported Sleep In Non-Demented Late Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Racine, Annie M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Christian, Bradley T.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Midlife may be an ideal window for intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether sleep is associated with early signs of AD neuropathology (amyloid deposition) in late midlife, we imaged brain amyloid deposits using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), and assessed sleep with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale in 98 cognitively healthy adults (aged 62.4 ± 5.7 years) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention. We used multiple regression to test the extent to which sleep scores predicted regional amyloid burden. Participants reporting less adequate sleep, more sleep problems and greater somnolence on the MOS had greater amyloid burden in AD-sensitive brain regions (angular gyrus, frontal medial orbital cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus). Amyloid was not associated with reported sleep amount, symptoms of sleep disordered breathing, trouble falling asleep or ESS. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for AD and a potential early marker of AD or target for preventative interventions in mid-life. PMID:26059712

  12. Impact of Increasing Age on Outcomes of Spinal Fusion in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Verla, Terence; Adogwa, Owoicho; Toche, Ulysses; Farber, S. Harrison; Petraglia, Frank; Murphy, Kelly R.; Thomas, Steven; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Bagley, Carlos A.; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of advancing age on postoperative complications and revision surgery after fusion for scoliosis. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was performed using the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, examining patients with adult scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2000 to 2009. Primary outcomes included infection, hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days of surgery, and refusion. The effect of increasing age was estimated using the odds ratio (OR) of complications in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, and a Cox proportional hazard model estimated the hazard ratio of refusion. Results A total of 8432 patients were included in this study. Overall, the average age was 53.3 years, with 26.90% males and 39% with a Charlson Comorbidity Score of ≥1. Most patients had commercial insurance (66.81%), with 26.03% and 7.16% covered by Medicare and Medicaid, respectively. Increasing age (per 5-year increment) was a significant predictor of hemorrhagic complication (OR, 1.06; confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.11; P = 0.0196), PE (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03–1.16; P = 0.0031), infection (OR, 1.04; CI, 1.01–1.07; P = 0.0053), and refusion (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 1.02–1.13; P = 0.0103). Conclusions In this study, age was associated with increased risk of hemorrhage, PE, infection, and refusion. With the aging population, the role of patient age on postoperative healing and outcomes deserves deeper investigation after repair of adult idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26546999

  13. Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barikroo, Ali; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reduced movement velocity has been identified as a risk marker for movement impairment in older adults. Hyolaryngeal excursion is a key movement feature of normal swallowing function which is known to change with age and other extrinsic variables such as bolus volume. However, velocity of hyolaryngeal excursion has received limited attention in the literature on normal or abnormal swallowing. This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20-35 years, middle age: 36-55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and maximum excursion (excursion duration) were calculated. Velocity was calculated as a ratio of distance over time. Superior hyoid excursion magnitude was significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. Anterior laryngeal excursion magnitude was also significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. No kinematic duration measure demonstrated significant change across age or bolus conditions. Superior hyoid excursion velocity was significantly faster for the 20 mL volume. Superior and anterior laryngeal excursion velocity were significantly faster for the 20 mL volume only in the older group. Results of this study indicate that magnitude and velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion vary with age and volume. Comprising both excursion magnitude and duration, kinematic velocity may be a more complete metric to evaluate age-related swallowing performance.

  14. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods. PMID:23244690

  15. Reducing the noise in behavioral assays: sex and age in adult zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J; Cousin, Margot A; Pierret, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods.

  16. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  17. Intima Media Thickness and Cognitive Function in Stroke-Free Middle-Aged Adults: Findings from the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hazzouri, Adina Zeki; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sidney, Stephen; Reis, Jared P.; Jacobs, David R.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The relationship between carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and cognitive function in midlife remains relatively unexplored. We examined the association between IMT and cognitive function in a middle-aged epidemiologic cohort of 2,747 stroke-free participants. Methods At the Year 20 visit (our study baseline), participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study had IMT measured by ultrasound at the common carotid artery. Five years later, participants completed a cognitive battery consisting of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test of verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test of processing speed, and the Stroop test of executive function. We transformed cognitive scores into standardized z-scores, with negative values indicating worse performance. Results Mean age at baseline was 45.3 years (SD=3.6). Greater IMT (per 1SD difference of 0.12mm) was significantly associated with worse performance on all cognitive tests (z-scores) in unadjusted linear regression models (Verbal Memory=−0.16, 95%CI=−0.20 to −0.13; Processing Speed=−0.23, 95%CI=−0.27 to −0.19; and Executive Function=−0.17, 95%CI= −0.20 to −0.13). In models adjusted for socio-demographics and vascular risk factors that lie earlier in the causal pathway, greater IMT remained negatively associated with processing speed (−0.06,95%CI=−0.09 to −0.02; p=0.003) and borderline associated with executive function (−0.03, 95%CI=−0.07 to 0.00; p=0.07) but not with verbal memory. Conclusions We observed an association between greater IMT and worse processing speed – a key component of cognitive functioning- at middle-age above and beyond traditional vascular risk factors. Efforts targeted at preventing early stages of atherosclerosis may modify the course of cognitive aging. PMID:26106116

  18. Validity of the gait variability index in older adults: effect of aging and mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Clark, David J; Gouelle, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    Gait variability, defined as the fluctuation in spatiotemporal characteristics between steps, is suggested to be a sensitive indicator of mobility deficits with aging and pathological processes. A challenge in quantifying gait variability is the decision of which spatiotemporal parameters to assess because gait parameters may exhibit different amounts of variability and may differentially relate to mobility performance. The Gait Variability Index (GVI), a composite measure of variability across several gait parameters, was previously developed to overcome this challenge. The present study seeks to validate the use of GVI in the older adult population. A retrospective analysis of gait and clinical data was conducted using data pooled from five prior studies. The final data set included 105 younger adults (YA, age<65) and 81 older adults (OA, age≥65). The GVI of OA (91.92±8.75) was significantly lower compared to the GVI of YA (100.79±7.99). Within OA, the GVI was significantly lower (p<0.0001) in individuals with mobility deficits (84.35±9.03) compared to those with high mobility function (96.35±8.86). Furthermore, GVI was associated with mobility function, including walking speed and performance on the Berg Balance Scale. Our findings imply that the GVI is a valid assessment for gauging spatiotemporal gait variability in older adults, is sensitive to differentiate between high-functioning older adults and those with mild to moderate mobility deficits and is associated with some clinical measures of functional mobility and balance.

  19. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  20. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  1. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  2. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T.; Blackman, Marc R.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Roy J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (1) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (2) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (3) a higher serum active GLP-1. Third, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (1) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and that (2) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

  3. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast.

  4. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults.

  5. Dissociative global and local task-switching costs across younger adults, middle-aged adults, older adults, and very mild Alzheimer's disease individuals.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Balota, David A; Minear, Meredith; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Duchek, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A pure block consisting of single-task trials and a switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed. Local (switch vs. nonswitch trials) and global (nonswitch vs. pure trials) costs in mean error rates, mean response latencies, underlying reaction time (RT) distributions, along with stimulus-response congruency effects were computed. Local costs in errors were group invariant, but global costs in errors systematically increased as a function of age and AD. Response latencies yielded a strong dissociation: Local costs decreased across groups whereas global costs increased across groups. Vincentile distribution analyses revealed that the dissociation of local and global costs primarily occurred in the slowest response latencies. Stimulus-response congruency effects within the switch block were particularly robust in accuracy in participants in the very mild AD group. We argue that the results are consistent with the notion that the impaired groups show a reduced local cost because the task sets are not as well tuned, and hence produce minimal cost on switch trials. In contrast, global costs increase because of the additional burden on working memory of maintaining 2 task sets.

  6. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Gano, Lindsey B; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P < 0.05; mmΔ: r = 0.25, P < 0.01]. In subjects with above-average dietary niacin intake (≥ 22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression revealed that dietary niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P < 0.05). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, was inversely related to niacin intake (r = -0.23, P < 0.05) and was lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Intravenous infusion of the antioxidant vitamin C improved brachial FMD in subjects with below-average niacin intake (P < 0.001, n = 33), but not above-average (P > 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = -0.30, P < 0.05, n = 55), and expression of the prooxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase (r = -0.44, P < 0.01, n = 37), and these markers were lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P < 0.05]. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher dietary niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  7. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  8. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait.

  9. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  10. Age of acquisition effects on the functional organization of language in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-10-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and did not vary in relation to age of acquisition. For both tasks, a more left lateralized pattern of activation was observed, with activity for grammatical judgment being more anterior than that observed for phonemic-hand judgment, which was more posterior by comparison. Age of acquisition was linearly and negatively related to activation levels in anterior language regions and positively related to activation levels in posterior visual regions for both tasks.

  11. A reevaluation of the common factor theory of shared variance among age, sensory function, and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anstey, K J; Luszcz, M A; Sanchez, L

    2001-01-01

    The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the relationship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors including memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population based and comprised very old adults (n = 894; mean age = 77.7, SD = 5.6 years) from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The results showed that there was common variance in the cognitive factor shared by age, speed, vision, and hearing but that specific effects of age on cognition remained. Furthermore, speed did not fully mediate the effect of age or sensory function on cognition. Some age differences in cognitive performance are not explained by the same processes that explain age differences in sensory function and processing speed.

  12. Employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders: a state of the States report.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population served by VR for the same time period. Although there was variability both within and among states, the results of this study indicate that, over time, the number of young adults with ASD seeking VR services has increased; however, employment outcomes including the percent of adults with ASD achieving employment, the number of hours worked, and wages earned have not improved for this group. The cost to provide VR services to transition-aged adults with ASD was relatively stable over time. Transition-aged adults with ASD were more likely to become successfully employed as a result of receiving VR services than the overall population of transition-aged adults served by VR. However, the employed transition-aged adults consistently worked fewer hours and earned lower wages than those in the overall population. Factors that may influence variability within and among states, and between groups, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Mental imagery and idiom comprehension: a comparison of school-age children and adults.

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Duthie, Jill K

    2003-08-01

    Previous research has shown that transparent idioms (e.g., paddle your own canoe) are generally easier for children to interpret than opaque idioms (e.g., paint the town red), results that support the metasemantic hypothesis of figurative understanding (M. A. Nippold, 1998). This is the view that beyond exposure to idioms and attention to the linguistic context, the learner analyzes the expressions internally to infer meaning, a process that is easier to execute when the literal and nonliteral meanings overlap. The present study was designed to investigate mental imagery in relation to the discrepancy in difficulty between transparent and opaque expressions. Twenty familiar idioms, half transparent and half opaque, were presented to 40 school-age children (mean age = 12;3 [years;months]) and 40 adults (mean age = 27;0) who were asked to describe in writing their own mental images for each expression. The participants were also given a written multiple-choice task to measure their comprehension of the idioms. The results indicated that mental imagery for idioms undergoes a developmental process and is associated with comprehension. Although school-age children were able to report relevant mental images for idioms, their images were less sophisticated than those of adults and were more likely to be concrete and to reflect only a partial understanding of the expressions. In contrast, the images reported by adults were more likely to be figurative. The findings suggest that the mental images people report for idioms may serve as a barometer of their depth of understanding of the expressions.

  14. Lexical influences on competing speech perception in younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Karen S; Jesse, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The influence of lexical characteristics of words in to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech streams was examined in a competing speech task. Older, middle-aged, and younger adults heard pairs of low-cloze probability sentences in which the frequency or neighborhood density of words was manipulated in either the target speech stream or the masking speech stream. All participants also completed a battery of cognitive measures. As expected, for all groups, target words that occur frequently or that are from sparse lexical neighborhoods were easier to recognize than words that are infrequent or from dense neighborhoods. Compared to other groups, these neighborhood density effects were largest for older adults; the frequency effect was largest for middle-aged adults. Lexical characteristics of words in the to-be-ignored speech stream also affected recognition of to-be-attended words, but only when overall performance was relatively good (that is, when younger participants listened to the speech streams at a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio). For these listeners, to-be-ignored masker words from sparse neighborhoods interfered with recognition of target speech more than masker words from dense neighborhoods. Amount of hearing loss and cognitive abilities relating to attentional control modulated overall performance as well as the strength of lexical influences. PMID:26233036

  15. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  16. Nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Amella, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited income, isolation, chronic illness, and physiologic changes. Assessment and nursing interventions are also addressed.

  17. Adult age differences in the realism of confidence judgments: overconfidence, format dependence, and cognitive predictors.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Patrik; Rönnlund, Michael; Juslin, Peter; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-09-01

    Realistic confidence judgments are essential to everyday functioning, but few studies have addressed the issue of age differences in overconfidence. Therefore, the authors examined this issue with probability judgment and intuitive confidence intervals in a sample of 122 healthy adults (ages: 35-40, 55-60, 70-75 years). In line with predictions based on the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), substantial format dependence was observed, with extreme overconfidence when confidence was expressed as an intuitive confidence interval but not when confidence was expressed as a probability judgment. Moreover, an age-related increase in overconfidence was selectively observed when confidence was expressed as intuitive confidence intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that the age-related increases in overconfidence were mediated by a general cognitive ability factor that may reflect executive processes. Finally, the results indicated that part of the negative influence of increased age on general ability may be compensated for by an age-related increase in domain-relevant knowledge. PMID:18808243

  18. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  19. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  20. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E; Brennan, Mark; Enah, Comfort; Smith, Glenda L; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided. PMID:21753865

  1. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  2. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  3. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  4. Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal’s method

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ridhima; Srivastava, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is a well-known fact that the assessment of the dental development can be related to an individual’s age, but after the age of 21 years when the wisdom teeth also complete their development, there arises a need for an optimal age estimation procedure. With advancing age, there is a reduction in the size of the pulp due to secondary dentin deposition and a measurement of this reduction can also be used as a parameter to assess the age of the individuals, both in the living and dead. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in the estimation of age of adults, using Kvaal’s method in the set sample. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of the digital long-cone intraoral periapical radiographs from 50 subjects of either sex in the age group of 15–60 years, who were selected after evaluation for the set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pulp width and length from radiographs of 6 selected teeth, namely, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, and second premolar and mandibular lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar of either right or left side were measured using the RVG trophy software [Trophy® Windows is a software program supplied by Trophy Radiologie (Trophy Windows Version 5.03, Copyright 1993-2002,Trophy RVG patented by Trophy, Chicago)]. In order to compensate for the differences in magnification and angulation, various ratios were calculated and the mean of all ratios (M) was taken as the first predictor, while the difference between the mean of 2 width ratios and the mean of 2 length ratios (W – L) was taken as the second predictor. Different regression formulae for all 6 teeth, 3 maxillary teeth, 3 mandibular teeth, and each of the individual teeth were derived and the age was assessed. The assessed age was then co-related with the actual age of the patient using the Student’s t test. Results: The results showed that the coefficient of determination

  5. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Kanakamedala; Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  6. Neurologic disorders in Medicaid vs privately insured children and working-age adults.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J; Geer, Joseph P; Frick, Kevin; Carone, Marco

    2014-04-01

    This retrospective, observational study reports health utilization and access patterns of Medicaid recipients for neurologic diseases compared to privately insured individuals seen in 2 hospitals at a single institution in the same time period. We reviewed records of patients and compared demographic characteristics, visit types, neurologic diagnoses, and all-cause mortality, by age group, when seen with Medicaid vs private insurance. Adults insured by Medicaid were more likely to present as inpatients and with life-threatening neurologic disease compared to privately insured patients. Moreover, adult patients presenting with neurologic disease on Medicaid had a higher all-cause mortality rate than privately insured patients. Similar disparities in neurologic disease were not observed in children. The relationship of these findings to patient educational status, household income, comorbidities, and the reasons prompting Medicaid eligibility require additional study.

  7. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  8. You Never Lose the Ages You’ve Been: Affective Perspective Taking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Aging appears to be associated with a growing preference for positive over negative information (Carstensen, Mikels, & Mather, 2006). In this study, we investigated potential awareness of the phenomenon by asking older people to recollect material from the perspective of a younger person. Younger and older participants listened to stories about 25 and 75-year-old protagonists, and then were asked to retell the stories from the perspective of the protagonists. Older adults used relatively more positive than negative words when retelling from the perspective of a 75 versus 25-year-old. Younger adults, however, used comparable numbers of positive and negative words regardless of perspective. These findings contribute to a growing literature that points to developmental gains in the emotion domain. PMID:20230142

  9. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  10. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  11. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Department (ED) Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals* among Adults Aged 18 to 34, by Alcohol ... 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 * Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals includes taking more than the prescribed dose of ...

  12. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  13. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  14. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

  15. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  16. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  17. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  18. TAp63 prevents premature aging by promoting adult stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohua; Paris, Maryline; Gi, Young Jin; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Cho, Min Soon; Lin, Yu-Li; Biernaskie, Jeffrey A.; Sinha, Satrajit; Prives, Carol; Pevny, Larysa H.; Miller, Freda D.; Flores, Elsa R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mechanisms that regulate the maintenance of adult tissue stem cells are still largely unknown. We show here that the p53 family member, TAp63, is essential for maintenance of epidermal and dermal precursors and that, in its absence, these precursors senesce and skin ages prematurely. Specifically, we have developed a TAp63 conditional knockout mouse and used it to ablate TAp63 in the germline (TAp63−/−) or in K14-expressing cells in the basal layer of the epidermis (TAp63fl/fl;K14cre+). TAp63−/− mice age prematurely and develop blisters, skin ulcerations, senescence of hair follicle-associated dermal and epidermal cells, and decreased hair morphogenesis. These phenotypes are likely due to loss of TAp63 in dermal and epidermal precursors since both cell types show defective proliferation, early senescence, and genomic instability. These data indicate that TAp63 serves to maintain adult skin stem cells by regulating cellular senescence and genomic stability, thereby preventing premature tissue aging. PMID:19570515

  19. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  20. Health status and well-being of older adults living in the community and in residential care settings: are differences influenced by age?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to identify the differences and the main factors influencing health status and well-being variables between institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults, as well as the interaction effect of institutionalization and age. Data on a total of 468 older adults from a national survey on non-institutionalized and from a study on institutionalized older people were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables and measures on well-being (Personal Well-being Index, PWI), health status (EQ-5D), functional ability (Barthel Index), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale), loneliness and comorbidity were used. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses to identify factors associated to health and well-being were performed. Significant differences in health status variables, but not in well-being were detected between groups. Controlling for age, differences in health status (EQ-VAS) were found to be not significant in both groups. In the non-institutionalized group, people aged 78 years or more reported a significantly lower well-being (PWI) than younger counterparts. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that depression, functional dependence, loneliness and sex were associated with health status; while depression, health status, loneliness and the interaction of age-institutionalization were related to well-being. The results suggest that age influences community-dwelling older adults' well-being to a greater extent than it does to institutionalized older people. This finding has implications for resource allocation and interventions addressed to improve health and well-being in older adults.

  1. No smile like another: adult age differences in identifying emotions that accompany smiles

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Michaela; Studtmann, Markus; Westphal, Andrea; Rauers, Antje; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    People smile in various emotional contexts, for example, when they are amused or angry or simply being polite. We investigated whether younger and older adults differ in how well they are able to identify the emotional experiences accompanying smile expressions, and whether the age of the smiling person plays a role in this respect. With this aim, we produced 80 video episodes of three types of smile expressions: positive-affect smiles had been spontaneously displayed by target persons as they were watching amusing film clips and cartoons. Negative-affect smiles had been displayed spontaneously by target persons during an interaction in which they were being unfairly accused. Affectively neutral smiles were posed upon request. Differences in the accompanying emotional experiences were validated by target persons' self-reports. These smile videos served as experimental stimuli in two studies with younger and older adult participants. In Study 1, older participants were less likely to attribute positive emotions to smiles, and more likely to assume that a smile was posed. Furthermore, younger participants were more accurate than older adults at identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles. In Study 2, both younger and older participants attributed positive emotions more frequently to smiles shown by older as compared to younger target persons, but older participants did so less frequently than younger participants. Again, younger participants were more accurate than older participants in identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles, but this effect was attenuated for older target persons. Older participants could better identify the emotional state accompanying smiles shown by older than by younger target persons. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decipher the emotional meaning of smiles presented without context, which, however, is attenuated when the smiling person is also an older adult

  2. No smile like another: adult age differences in identifying emotions that accompany smiles.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Studtmann, Markus; Westphal, Andrea; Rauers, Antje; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    People smile in various emotional contexts, for example, when they are amused or angry or simply being polite. We investigated whether younger and older adults differ in how well they are able to identify the emotional experiences accompanying smile expressions, and whether the age of the smiling person plays a role in this respect. With this aim, we produced 80 video episodes of three types of smile expressions: positive-affect smiles had been spontaneously displayed by target persons as they were watching amusing film clips and cartoons. Negative-affect smiles had been displayed spontaneously by target persons during an interaction in which they were being unfairly accused. Affectively neutral smiles were posed upon request. Differences in the accompanying emotional experiences were validated by target persons' self-reports. These smile videos served as experimental stimuli in two studies with younger and older adult participants. In Study 1, older participants were less likely to attribute positive emotions to smiles, and more likely to assume that a smile was posed. Furthermore, younger participants were more accurate than older adults at identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles. In Study 2, both younger and older participants attributed positive emotions more frequently to smiles shown by older as compared to younger target persons, but older participants did so less frequently than younger participants. Again, younger participants were more accurate than older participants in identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles, but this effect was attenuated for older target persons. Older participants could better identify the emotional state accompanying smiles shown by older than by younger target persons. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decipher the emotional meaning of smiles presented without context, which, however, is attenuated when the smiling person is also an older adult.

  3. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  4. Working Memory and Postural Control: Adult Age Differences in Potential for Improvement, Task Priority, and Dual Tasking

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Michael A.; Krampe, Ralf Th.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic posture control and working memory (NBack) retest practice in young and older adults, focusing on older adults' potential for improvement in the component tasks but more importantly in dual-task performance. Participants performed the 2 tasks in 11 sessions under single- and dual-task conditions. Posture improvement was observed with retest practice for both groups. Increase in cognitive load after initial practice led to greater dual-task costs in both tasks in older adults and higher costs in memory in young adults. With continued practice, costs were reduced by both groups; however, the 2 groups focused improvement on different tasks: Older adults focused on posture but young adults on cognition. These results emphasize older adults’ potential for improvement in dual-task performance and their flexibility to utilize the practice gains in posture to optimize cognitive performance. PMID:19255088

  5. Updating UK estimates of age, sex and period specific cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption per adult

    PubMed Central

    Forey, B.; Lee, P.; Fry, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In 1993 we presented age and sex specific estimates of cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption (CCTCC) per adult for five year periods to 1986-90. These were derived from annual surveys conducted for the Tobacco Manufacturers' Association (TMA) since 1946, extrapolated back to 1891 for men and to 1921 for women and corrected for the decline in average (machine smoked) tar levels. We now provide estimates for 1991-5.
METHODS—TMA surveys having ceased, 1991-5 estimates of manufactured cigarette consumption per adult (MCA) were derived from the General Household Survey (GHS) and corrected for the continuing decline in tar. These estimates were divided by 0.75 (men) and 0.80 (women), based on a comparison of GHS and TMA data for 1971-90, to allow accumulation with the TMA derived estimates prior to 1991.
RESULTS—For both sexes the GHS/TMA ratio of MCA varied little by age or five year period, justifying the use of the correction factors when adjusting GHS estimates for 1991-95. TMA estimates were higher than GHS estimates as only TMA sales-corrected their data for understatement of smoking and the surveys differed in questions on handrolled cigarette smoking. The 1991-95 data confirm the continuing decline in CCTCC at all ages in men. Women show a less steep decline for ages 30-64 and an increase for ages 65-84.
CONCLUSION—The GHS data can validly be used to update the CCTCC estimates. Some reservations about the use of CCTCC are discussed.

 PMID:10193376

  6. Non-destructive dental-age calculation methods in adults: intra- and inter-observer effects.

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy; Moulin-Romsee, Christian; Solheim, Tore

    2002-05-23

    The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the reliability and reproducibility of two non-destructive dental-age estimation methods in adults by calculating inter- and intra-observer effects. Both a morphological and a radiological technique available in the scientific literature were evaluated on a number of recently extracted teeth: the morphological technique was evaluated on a total of 160 teeth by two examiners, while three examiners applied the radiological technique on apical radiographs of 72 extracted teeth. Paired t-tests were used to calculate intra- and inter-observer differences. For the morphological method, both examiners were able to produce dental-age estimations that did not differ significantly from the real age of the teeth, obtaining a mean error between 0.5 and 1.8 years and a standard deviation of this error between 9.0 and 11.3 years. When using the radiological technique according to the original protocol, all three examiners produced age estimations that were statistically comparable to the real age of the teeth with a mean error of 0.5-2.5 years and a standard deviation of 4.6-9.8 years. For both techniques, intra-observer differences were observed. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that both non-destructive dental-age estimation techniques were able to produce reasonably accurate dental-age estimations, at least when these techniques were applied appropriately. However, the forensic odontologist is recommended to use different age estimation techniques and perform repetitive measurements in order to verify the reproducibility of the calculations performed. PMID:12062945

  7. Higher Education is Not Associated with Greater Cortical Thickness in Brain Areas Related to Literacy or Intelligence in Normal Aging or Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jagan A.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J.; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Salmon, David P.; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into High (≥18 yrs) and Low (≤13 yrs) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency, or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve. PMID:22905705

  8. Depression and its correlates in South Africa and Ghana among people aged 50 and above: Findings from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Suraj Bahadur; Martinez, Priscilla; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective The growth of the older adult population in Africa demands more knowledge about their chronic health problems, such as depression. The aim of this paper is to estimate depression prevalence and identify correlates of depression among older adults in Ghana and South Africa. Method The WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE study) was conducted in Ghana and South Africa from 2007 to 2009 by the World Health Organization, using a standardized questionnaire among an adult population. Our analyses included 4289 adults aged 50 and above in Ghana and 3668 in South Africa. Depression was measured using self-reported symptoms over the last 12 months according to ICD-10 criteria. Results The prevalence of mild depression was 6.7% and 2.7% in Ghana and South Africa, respectively (p<.001), with a gender difference only in Ghana. Factors independently associated with depression among women in Ghana were migration and lack of current work.. Similarly, higher age, lack of current work and lower quality of life were independently associated with depression among women in South Africa, whereas higher age and lower quality of life were associated with depression among men in South Africa. Conclusions Ghana had a higher depression rate than South Africa and we identified different factors associated with depression among men and women in these two countries. Our finding underscores the need for culture- and gender-sensitive approaches for the prevention and management of depression among the older adult population in Ghana and South Africa. PMID:25914902

  9. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  10. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  11. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity.

  12. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Morganti, Josh M.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Mitchell, Staten H.; Brewster, Kaelin W.; Hudson, Charles E.; Cole, Michael J; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Bickford, Paula C.; Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Microglia have neuroprotective capacities, yet chronic activation can promote neurotoxic inflammation. Neuronal fractalkine (FKN), acting on CX3CR1, has been shown to suppress excessive microglia activation. We found that disruption in FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling in young adult rodents decreased survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells through IL-1β. Aged rats were found to have decreased levels of hippocampal FKN protein; moreover, interruption of CX3CR1 function in these animals did not affect neurogenesis. The age-related loss of FKN could be restored by exogenous FKN reversing the age-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. There were no measureable changes in young animals by the addition of exogenous FKN. The results suggest that FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling has a regulatory role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis via mechanisms that involve indirect modification of the niche environment. As elevated neuroinflammation is associated with many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, enhancing FKN/ CX3CR1 interactions could provide an alternative therapeutic approach to slow age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:20018408

  13. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  14. Digital Inclusion for Older Adults based on Physical Activities: an Age Concern.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Cristine; Menezes, Júlio; Pina, Carmelo; Lima, Juliana; Barbosa Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in an interdependent and interconnected world during an age that is driven by technological progress. It has extraordinary potential to improve the quality of later life: creating social networks to tackle isolation and loneliness; transforming services to help people live independently at home for longer; empowering consumers; and enabling civil participation. In light of this, this poster aims to present the development process of a digital booklet for mobile devices--smartphones and tablets that illustrate the benefits of doing physical exercises for older adults aiming to improve life quality and minimizing digital exclusion.

  15. Digital Inclusion for Older Adults based on Physical Activities: an Age Concern.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Cristine; Menezes, Júlio; Pina, Carmelo; Lima, Juliana; Barbosa Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in an interdependent and interconnected world during an age that is driven by technological progress. It has extraordinary potential to improve the quality of later life: creating social networks to tackle isolation and loneliness; transforming services to help people live independently at home for longer; empowering consumers; and enabling civil participation. In light of this, this poster aims to present the development process of a digital booklet for mobile devices--smartphones and tablets that illustrate the benefits of doing physical exercises for older adults aiming to improve life quality and minimizing digital exclusion. PMID:26262272

  16. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  17. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  18. Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] The study recruited 80 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged ≥65 years) in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing. For each subject, the peak value of three measurements was recorded and analyzed. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was statistically significantly higher for the young adults group than the older adults group. Conversely, tongue strength used during swallowing was statistically significantly higher for the older adults group than the young adults group. The percentages of tongue strength used during swallowing for the young adults and older adults groups were approximately 38.8% and 53.8%, respectively. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength than young adults, but a higher tongue strength used during swallowing. PMID:27064477

  19. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-08-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of cortical volume, thickness, surface area, and gyrification index in 51 adults with and 49 without ASD, between 30 and 75 years. There was significant age-related volume loss and cortical thinning, but there were no group differences. The lack of significant anatomical differences between intellectual able individuals with and without ASD, suggests that ASD is not (strongly) related to gray matter morphology in mid and late adulthood.

  20. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Possible Strategies to Prevent Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The adult brain of humans and other mammals continuously generates new neurons throughout life. However, this neurogenic capacity is limited to two brain areas, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle. Although the DG generates new neurons, its neurogenic capacity declines with age and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Huntington's disease (HD. This review focuses on the role of newly-born neurons in cognitive processes, and discusses some of the strategies proposed in humans and animals to enhance neurogenesis and counteract age-related cognitive deficits, such as physical exercise and intake of natural products like omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin and flavanols. PMID:26059358

  1. White matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ryan, John; Zgibor, Janice C.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Costacou, Tina; Maynard, John D.; Miller, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although microvascular complications are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), few studies have quantified the severity, risk factors, and implications of cerebral microvascular damage in these patients. As life expectancy in patients with T1DM increases, patients are exposed to age- and disease-related factors that may contribute to cerebral microvascular disease. Methods: Severity and volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts were quantified in 97 middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM (mean age and duration: 50 and 41 years, respectively) and 81 non-T1DM adults (mean age: 48 years), concurrent with cognitive and health-related measures. Results: Compared with non-T1DM participants, patients had more severe WMH (Fazekas scores 2 and 3 compared with Fazekas score 1, p < 0.0001) and slower information processing (digit symbol substitution, number correct: 65.7 ± 10.9 and 54.9 ± 13.6; pegboard, seconds: 66.0 ± 9.9 and 88.5 ± 34.2; both p < 0.0001) independent of age, education, or other factors. WMH were associated with slower information processing; adjusting for WMH attenuated the group differences in processing speed (13% for digit symbol, 11% for pegboard, both p ≤ 0.05). Among patients, prevalent neuropathies and smoking tripled the odds of high WMH burden, independent of age or disease duration. Associations between measures of blood pressure or hyperglycemia and WMH were not significant. Conclusions: Clinically relevant WMH are evident earlier among middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM and are related to the slower information processing frequently observed in T1DM. Brain imaging in patients with T1DM who have cognitive difficulties, especially those with neuropathies, may help uncover cerebral microvascular damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to fully characterize WMH development, risk factors, and long-term effects on cognition. PMID:25904692

  2. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary. PMID:14527133

  3. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  4. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary.

  5. Lycopene intake by Canadian women is variable, similar among different ages, but greater than that reported for women in other countries.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, E S; Rao, A V; Rao, L G

    2009-08-01

    Lycopene is an antioxidant associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases common in women such as osteoporosis and cancer; however, no official recommendation for lycopene consumption exists, and intake data from Canadian women are limited. This study was designed to generate information about average lycopene intake in Canadian women of different ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. One hundred one women, between the ages of 25 and 70 years, who were not on any medications, were recruited to record their diet for 7 days. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the types of lycopene-containing foods consumed, associations between intake of lycopene and macro/micronutrients, and whether participant characteristics, such as body mass index, could predict lycopene intake. Average lycopene intake was 6.14 +/- 5.35 mg/day, which is higher than reported in other countries. Intake was similar among age groups but was highly variable. Raw tomatoes were the most frequently consumed source of lycopene, while participants with the highest lycopene intake consumed more cooked/processed tomato products than those with lower intake (P < .005). Participants 25-49 years old consumed more dried/powdered tomatoes (P < .05), pizza (P < .002), and ketchup (P < .10) than 50-70 year olds. Lycopene intake could not be predicted by any participant characteristics. In older participants, lycopene intake was positively correlated with intake of calcium, niacin, and vitamins A, D, and K (P < or = .05). These findings are significant to women's health and may contribute to the establishment of nutritional and health recommendations regarding consumption of lycopene by Canadian women to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:19735184

  6. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  7. HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Nicola W; Haynes, Michele; Wilson, Lee-Ann M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Oldenburg, Brian F; Brown, Wendy J; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i) physical activity change over five years (2007–2011) in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii) the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007) were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000). A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011), with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities), sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities), social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation), health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent growth models

  8. Adult stem cells: simply a tool for regenerative medicine or an additional piece in the puzzle of human aging?

    PubMed

    Tollervey, James R; Lunyak, Victoria V

    2011-12-15

    Adult stem cells have taken center stage in current research related to regenerative medicine and pharmacogenomic studies seeking new therapeutic interventions. As we learn more about these cells, it is becoming apparent that the next big leap in our understanding of adult stem cell biology and adult stem cell aging will depend on the integration of approaches from various disciplines. Major advances and technological breakthroughs at the crossroad of fields such as biomaterials, genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics will enable the design of better tools to model human diseases, and warrant safe usage of adult stem cells in the clinic.

  9. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  10. Inflammation Partially Mediates the Association of Multimorbidity and Functional Limitations in a National Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The MIDUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Elliot M.; Christ, Sharon L.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Older adults are increasingly likely to have two or more chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity) and are consequently at greater risk of disability. Here we examine the role of inflammation in mediating the relationship between multimorbidity and disability. Method Data are from the Survey of Mid-Life in the United States (MIDUS), a national sample of middle-aged and older adults. Structural equation models were used to assess direct relationships between multimorbidity and activities of daily living as well as indirect associations with a latent variable for inflammation (indicated by circulating levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) as a mediator. Results After adjustment for potential confounds, multimorbidity was positively associated with inflammation (p < .001) and functional limitations (p < .001), and inflammation partially mediated the link between multimorbidity and functional limitations (p < .01). Discussion Inflammation may be an important biological mechanism through which chronic medical conditions are linked to disability in later life. PMID:25649677

  11. Dose intensification in acute myeloid leukaemia: greater effectiveness at lower cost. Principal report of the Medical Research Council's AML9 study. MRC Leukaemia in Adults Working Party.

    PubMed

    Rees, J K; Gray, R G; Wheatley, K

    1996-07-01

    Between 1984 and 1990, 972 patients aged 1-79 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), from 85 British hospitals, were entered into the MRC's 9th AML trial. Patients were randomized between DAT 1 + 5 (daunorubicin for 1 d, with cytarabine and 6-thioguanine for 5 d) and DAT 3 + 10 (same dose drugs for 3 and 10 d respectively) as induction therapy. The 63% who achieved complete remission (CR) were randomized to receive two courses of DAT 2 + 7 alternating with two courses of either MAZE (m-AMSA, 5-azacytidine, etoposide) or COAP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytarabine, prednisone). Finally, those still in CR were randomized to receive either 1 year of maintenance treatment with eight courses of cytarabine and thioguanine followed by four courses of COAP, or no further cytotoxic therapy. Resistance to induction therapy was less common with the DAT 3 + 10 regimen than with DAT 1 + 5 (13% v 23%; P = 0.0001) and hence, despite a 5% increase in the risk of induction death, the CR rate was higher (66% v 61%; P = 0.15). Moreover, CR was achieved more rapidly with DAT 3 + 10 (median 34 v 46 d; P < 0.0001) and thus patients required less time in hospital (mean 20 v 29 d) and less blood product support. 5-year relapse-free survival (28% v 23%; P = 0.05) and survival (23% v 18%; P < 0.05) were also better with DAT 3 + 10. Post-remission intensification of therapy with MAZE resulted in fewer relapses (66% v 74% at 5 years; P = 0.03) but patients allocated MAZE required considerably more supportive care and 14 (4.5%) died following 312 MAZE courses, whereas no deaths occurred following COAP. 5-year survival was not significantly higher with MAZE (37% v 31%). Finally, although 1 year of outpatient maintenance treatment appeared to delay, but not prevent, recurrence it did not improve 5-year survival which was non-significantly worse for those allocated maintenance treatment (41% v 44%). We conclude that the more intensive induction regimen, DAT 3 + 10, is not only more

  12. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  13. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  14. Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place.

  15. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  16. Spain: Promoting the Welfare of Older Adults in the Context of Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Juan P.; Latorre, José M.; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, act