Science.gov

Sample records for adults completed measures

  1. Tight informationally complete quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. J.

    2006-10-01

    We introduce a class of informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures which are, in analogy with a tight frame, 'as close as possible' to orthonormal bases for the space of quantum states. These measures are distinguished by an exceptionally simple state-reconstruction formula which allows 'painless' quantum state tomography. Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures are both members of this class, the latter being the unique minimal rank-one members. Recast as ensembles of pure quantum states, the rank-one members are in fact equivalent to weighted 2-designs in complex projective space. These measures are shown to be optimal for quantum cloning and linear quantum state tomography.

  2. Locus of Control and Completion in an Adult Retraining Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    Since attrition is often a problem in adult training programs, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and course completion of adults enrolled in a retraining program. Rotter's Social Learning Theory of Personality was used as a starting point for the study. The study population was a sample of 108…

  3. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  4. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  5. Feasibility of completing an accelerated vaccine series for homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, A M; Sinha, K; Saab, S; Marfisee, M; Greengold, B; Leake, B; Tyler, D

    2009-09-01

    Homeless adults are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In addition to culturally sensitive programmes designed to enhance vaccination compliance, accelerated HBV vaccination (three doses over 21 days) have also been suggested to improve compliance among high-risk groups. In this paper, we examined predictors of completers of two of three doses of a HAV/HBV vaccine series, normally delivered over a 6-month period, to simulate compliance with an accelerated series, dosed over 4 weeks. A convenience sample of 865 homeless adults was randomized into a nurse case-managed approach (NCMIT) vs standard programmes with (SIT) and without tracking (SI). Each group was assessed for completion of two of the three dose HAV/HBV vaccine series as well as the full three dose vaccine series. Sixty-eight percent of the NCMIT participants completed the three dose vaccination series at 6 months compared to 61% of SIT participants and 54% of SI participants. Eighty-one percent of the NCMIT participants completed two of the vaccinations compared to 78% of SIT participants and 73% of SI participants. The NCMIT approach resulted in greater numbers of completers of two of three doses and of the full three dose vaccine series. Predictors of completers of two doses and the full three dose vaccine series are provided. A greater number of homeless persons completed two doses across the three groups compared to the three dose vaccine series. The use of nurse case-management and tracking, coupled with an accelerated HAV/HBV vaccination schedule, may optimize vaccination compliance in homeless adults.

  6. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-15

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  7. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-01

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg-Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  8. Complete Health: Prevalence and Predictors among U.S. Adults in 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed 3,032 U.S. adults to operationalize, estimate the prevalence, and ascertain the epidemiology of complete health. Overall, 19 percent of adults were completely healthy, 18.8 percent were completely unhealthy, and 62.2 percent had a version of incomplete health. Completely healthy adults were likely to be young (age 25-34 years) or old…

  9. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an increased likelihood of volunteering in young adulthood (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20 - 1.39; N = 2,648) and of Grade 12 completion (OR 1.14; CI 1.03 - 1.28; N = 2,648), after controlling for family socioeconomic status and adolescent school adjustment. These findings suggest that adolescent volunteering may lead to further involvement in young adult volunteering and have a positive effect on school completion.

  10. Strategies for Success: Promising Ideas in Adult College Completion. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…

  11. Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Student Services Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary…

  12. Informationally complete joint measurements on finite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We show that there are informationally complete joint measurements of two conjugated observables on a finite quantum system, meaning that they enable the identification of all quantum states from their measurement outcome statistics. We further demonstrate that it is possible to implement a joint observable as a sequential measurement. If we require minimal noise in the joint measurement, then the joint observable is unique. If d is odd, then this observable is informationally complete. But if d is even, then the joint observable is not informationally complete, and one has to allow more noise in order to obtain informational completeness.

  13. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  14. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  15. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Program Completion among Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiste, Mildred M.

    2014-01-01

    Program completion among adult learners attending adult basic education programs has been found to be an area of struggle. Cognitive ability has always been the primary factor for determining an individual's ability. However, non-cognitive ability has been proposed as a significant factor in academic success. Many attrition models have been…

  16. Complete tubular duplication of colon in an adult: a rare cause of colovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hae Il; Lee, Hyoung Uk; Ahn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Eun; Lee, Hyun Yong; Mun, Seong Taek; Baek, Moo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Alimentary tract duplications are uncommon congenital anomalies that usually present during the first decade of life. Complete duplication of the colon in adults is very rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with complete tubular duplication which was initially misdiagnosed as a salpingeal abscess due to colovaginal fistula. PMID:27757399

  17. Hepatitis A/B vaccine completion among homeless adults with history of incarceration.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N= 297) who reported histories of incarceration and who participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men.

  18. Equivalence of measurement space solution data fusion and complete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many observation systems are operating on space-borne and airborne platforms, as well as from ground-based stations, providing measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. When independent measurements of the same profile are available data fusion methods can be used to combine them and exploit all the available information for a more comprehensive and accurate description of the atmospheric state. Several data fusion methods can be used. Among the others, both the measurement space solution data fusion method and the complete fusion method have the remarkable properties of using all the acquired information and of providing results that are independent from a priori information used in the individual retrievals. For this reason, though the two methods use two completely different procedures, it is reasonable to expect that they give the same results and in this paper the rigorous proof of the equivalence of the two methods is given. Therefore, the choice between them is only driven by the advantages of the different implementations.

  19. Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and Completion Rates: A Guide for Student Affairs Leaders and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Marguerite McGann, Ed.; Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    More than a third of all undergraduate students are 25 or older, and their presence on college and university campuses is growing. However, institutions of higher learning are struggling to meet the needs of, and improve persistence and completion rates for, this significant student population. "Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and…

  20. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  1. THE HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION PROGRAM FOR ADULTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Instruction, Lansing.

    DETAILED RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR A PROGRAM OF HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION STUDIES FOR ADULTS AND TEENAGERS IN MICHIGAN. THE BACKGROUND AND THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE DROPOUT PROBLEM ARE REVIEWED, AND THE OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS (PRINCIPALLY ACCREDITATION AND FINANCIAL POLICY) PRESENTED BY EXISTING PROGRAMS IN MICHIGAN AND CERTAIN OTHER…

  2. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements determine onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and volume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  3. Measure representation and multifractal analysis of complete genomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z G; Anh, V; Lau, K S

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces the notion of measure representation of DNA sequences. Spectral analysis and multifractal analysis are then performed on the measure representations of a large number of complete genomes. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the multifractal property of the measure representation and the classification of bacteria. From the measure representations and the values of the D(q) spectra and related C(q) curves, it is concluded that these complete genomes are not random sequences. In fact, spectral analyses performed indicate that these measure representations, considered as time series, exhibit strong long-range correlation. Here the long-range correlation is for the K-strings with dictionary ordering, and it is different from the base pair correlations introduced by other people. For substrings with length K=8, the D(q) spectra of all organisms studied are multifractal-like and sufficiently smooth for the C(q) curves to be meaningful. With the decreasing value of K, the multifractality lessens. The C(q) curves of all bacteria resemble a classical phase transition at a critical point. But the "analogous" phase transitions of chromosomes of nonbacteria organisms are different. Apart from chromosome 1 of C. elegans, they exhibit the shape of double-peaked specific heat function. A classification of genomes of bacteria by assigning to each sequence a point in two-dimensional space (D(-1),D1) and in three-dimensional space (D(-1),D1,D(-2)) was given. Bacteria that are close phylogenetically are almost close in the spaces (D(-1),D1) and (D(-1),D1,D(-2)).

  4. Measure representation and multifractal analysis of complete genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo; Lau, Ka-Sing

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces the notion of measure representation of DNA sequences. Spectral analysis and multifractal analysis are then performed on the measure representations of a large number of complete genomes. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the multifractal property of the measure representation and the classification of bacteria. From the measure representations and the values of the Dq spectra and related Cq curves, it is concluded that these complete genomes are not random sequences. In fact, spectral analyses performed indicate that these measure representations, considered as time series, exhibit strong long-range correlation. Here the long-range correlation is for the K-strings with dictionary ordering, and it is different from the base pair correlations introduced by other people. For substrings with length K=8, the Dq spectra of all organisms studied are multifractal-like and sufficiently smooth for the Cq curves to be meaningful. With the decreasing value of K, the multifractality lessens. The Cq curves of all bacteria resemble a classical phase transition at a critical point. But the ``analogous'' phase transitions of chromosomes of nonbacteria organisms are different. Apart from chromosome 1 of C. elegans, they exhibit the shape of double-peaked specific heat function. A classification of genomes of bacteria by assigning to each sequence a point in two-dimensional space (D-1,D1) and in three-dimensional space (D-1,D1,D-2) was given. Bacteria that are close phylogenetically are almost close in the spaces (D-1,D1) and (D-1,D1,D-2).

  5. Measuring the complete force field of an optical trap.

    PubMed

    Jahnel, Marcus; Behrndt, Martin; Jannasch, Anita; Schäffer, Erik; Grill, Stephan W

    2011-04-01

    The use of optical traps to measure or apply forces on the molecular level requires a precise knowledge of the trapping force field. Close to the trap center, this field is typically approximated as linear in the displacement of the trapped microsphere. However, applications demanding high forces at low laser intensities can probe the light-microsphere interaction beyond the linear regime. Here, we measured the full nonlinear force and displacement response of an optical trap in two dimensions using a dual-beam optical trap setup with back-focal-plane photodetection. We observed a substantial stiffening of the trap beyond the linear regime that depends on microsphere size, in agreement with Mie theory calculations. Surprisingly, we found that the linear detection range for forces exceeds the one for displacement by far. Our approach allows for a complete calibration of an optical trap.

  6. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  7. Complete strangeness measurements in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris; Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions within and around the energy range of the planned NICA facility. We describe a minimal statistical model, in which the total strangeness yield is fixed by the observed or calculated K+ multiplicity. We show how the exact strangeness conservation can be taken into account on event-by-event basis in such a model. We argue that from strange particle yields one can reveal information about the collision dynamics and about possible modifications of particle properties in medium. This can be best achieved if the complete strangeness measurement is performed, i.e. kaons, antikaons, hyperons and multistrange hyperons are registered in the same experimental setup. In particular, production of hadrons containing two and more strange quarks, like Ξ and Ω baryons could be of interest.

  8. Surgical repair of chronic complete hamstring tendon rupture in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Cross, M J; Vandersluis, R; Wood, D; Banff, M

    1998-01-01

    Complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in the adult is a rare injury. This report discusses complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in nine patients treated by late operative repair. All patients were referred from outside centers for a second opinion after failed nonoperative treatment. The diagnosis was made quite easily on clinical grounds and was confirmed at surgery. Surgical treatment in all cases consisted of reattachment of the hamstring tendons to the origin on the ischium, and in all cases it was necessary to perform neurolysis of the sciatic nerve. Good results were achieved in all cases, at follow-up all patients were satisfied with the surgery.

  9. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance.

  10. Multimedia decision support intervention: A promising approach to enhance the intention to complete an advance directive among hospitalized adults

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Ronald L.; Lipson, Amy R.; Pinto, Melissa D.; Pignatiello, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the acceptability and initial efficacy of a multimedia decision support (MDS) intervention to improve intention to complete an advanced directive (AD) among hospitalized adults following an episode of critical illness. Data sources This study used comparative quasi-experimental post-test only design. Forty-nine hospitalized adults, recovering from a critical illness, received either MDS or AD educational brochure. Demographic characteristics and self-report measures of AD knowledge were captured at baseline and used as covariates. Helpfulness of the intervention (acceptability) and the outcome variable, intention to complete an AD decision, were assessed after exposure to the MDS intervention or educational brochure (information-only control condition). Conclusions The MDS was a more acceptable form of education compared to a brochure. After adjusting for covariates, participants exposed to the MDS intervention were 24.7 times more likely to intend to complete an AD compared to those who were assigned to the information-only control condition. Implications for practice This pilot study establishes the acceptability and initial efficacy of the MDS intervention among individuals with critical illness, who are at high risk for hospital readmission life-sustaining treatment. This study illuminates a teachable moment in which patients are more receptive to interventions to complete an AD. PMID:24170705

  11. Mild Sensory Stimulation Completely Protects the Adult Rodent Cortex from Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Frostig, Ron D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in reducing ischemic stroke damage, complete protection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that, after permanent occlusion of a major cortical artery (middle cerebral artery; MCA), single whisker stimulation can induce complete protection of the adult rat cortex, but only if administered within a critical time window. Animals that receive early treatment are histologically and behaviorally equivalent to healthy controls and have normal neuronal function. Protection of the cortex clearly requires reperfusion to the ischemic area despite permanent occlusion. Using blood flow imaging and other techniques we found evidence of reversed blood flow into MCA branches from an alternate arterial source via collateral vessels (inter-arterial connections), a potential mechanism for reperfusion. These findings suggest that the cortex is capable of extensive blood flow reorganization and more importantly that mild sensory stimulation can provide complete protection from impending stroke given early intervention. Such non-invasive, non-pharmacological intervention has clear translational potential. PMID:20585659

  12. Age Differences in Attachment Orientations among Younger and Older Adults: Evidence from Two Self-Report Measures of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Needham, Tracy N.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    The attachment patterns of younger and older adults were studied using two-dimensional self-report measures of adult attachment. Community-dwelling younger (n = 144, M = 22.5 years, SD = 3.6) and older (n = 106, M = 68.6 years, SD = 8.3) adults completed the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ; Carver, 1997) and the Relationship Style…

  13. Measuring attentional biases for threat in children and adults.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-10-19

    Investigators have long been interested in the human propensity for the rapid detection of threatening stimuli. However, until recently, research in this domain has focused almost exclusively on adult participants, completely ignoring the topic of threat detection over the course of development. One of the biggest reasons for the lack of developmental work in this area is likely the absence of a reliable paradigm that can measure perceptual biases for threat in children. To address this issue, we recently designed a modified visual search paradigm similar to the standard adult paradigm that is appropriate for studying threat detection in preschool-aged participants. Here we describe this new procedure. In the general paradigm, we present participants with matrices of color photographs, and ask them to find and touch a target on the screen. Latency to touch the target is recorded. Using a touch-screen monitor makes the procedure simple and easy, allowing us to collect data in participants ranging from 3 years of age to adults. Thus far, the paradigm has consistently shown that both adults and children detect threatening stimuli (e.g., snakes, spiders, angry/fearful faces) more quickly than neutral stimuli (e.g., flowers, mushrooms, happy/neutral faces). Altogether, this procedure provides an important new tool for researchers interested in studying the development of attentional biases for threat.

  14. The spatiotemporal properties of visual completion measured by response classification.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jason M; Shubel, Erin

    2006-03-03

    A constant problem faced by the visual system is the identification of partly occluded objects within the visual scene. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the visual system engages in a process of visual completion, where the hidden parts of objects are filled into the visual representation. Recent experiments have also suggested that there may be a time course to this completion process. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal properties of visual completion by having observers classify figures defined by either luminance-defined or illusory contours and then correlating their decisions with externally added spatiotemporal visual noise. This "response classification" technique allowed us to derive a spatiotemporal correlation map (a "classification movie") that revealed the locations used by observers at each point in space and time during the stimulus presentation. We found that observers gradually became more influenced by noise at locations corresponding to illusory contours across the first 175 ms of stimulus presentation. Our results are consistent with the idea that there is a time course to the completion process on the order of approximately 175 ms.

  15. Complete regression of adult pineoblastoma following radiotherapy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    AI, PING; PENG, XINGCHEN; JIANG, YONG; ZHANG, HONG; WANG, SHICHAO; WEI, YUQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Adult pineoblastomas (PBs) are rare central nervous system tumors. Little is known with regard to the clinical features and outcomes of adult PB, and optimal treatment strategies for adult PB remain to be determined. The current report describes a case of PB in a 46-year-old male, who presented with obstructive hydrocephalus due to a large pineal region mass. Considering the potential effect on quality of life, the patient underwent a partial resection. Postoperative radiotherapy, comprising prophylactic craniospinal irradiation at a dose of 34.2 Gy followed by a local 25.3-Gy ‘boost’ to the tumor site for a total dose of 59.5 Gy, resulted in the complete regression of the tumor without neurological deficits. The patient has remained free of recurrence for 36 months after radiotherapy. This case highlights a minimally invasive strategy to treat a rare pineal region tumor with significant involvement of critical structures that resulted in a favorable response and an excellent neurological outcome. The radiographic and histopathological features of PB are also reviewed, and the various treatment options reported in the literature are discussed. PMID:26622845

  16. The Adult Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A): A Self-Report Measure of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah L.; Uljarevic, Mirko; Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Leekam, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and…

  17. Reasons for the Slow Completion of Masters and Doctoral Degrees by Adult Learners in a South African Township

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motseke, Masilonyana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons why adult learners took longer than required to complete their Master's and Doctoral degrees. A questionnaire and focus group interviews were used to collect data. Twenty adult learners who registered for the Master's and Doctoral degrees at one township campus of a university were targeted, and…

  18. Androgen-dependent measurements of female genitalia in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crouch, N S; Michala, Lina; Creighton, S M; Conway, G S

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance were made and analysed for a relationship in a group of 19 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)attending a specialist clinic for adult women with disorders of sexual development. These were compared with a control group of 50 women attending hospital for a gynaecological procedure.There was a positive correlation between clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance for women with CAIS. In contrast, a negative correlation was seen between clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance for women in the control group. Women with CAIS had a reduced mean clitoral length compared with controls(P = 0.001), but no difference was observed for the clitoral to urethral distance between the two groups (P = 0.116).

  19. Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV measured EA of Eu correspond to the actual EA of Eu. We conclude that the EA in corresponds to the BE of an excited (metastable) state of the Euanion and that in to a shape resonance. We have also investigated the EA of atomic Nd and found the value of 1.88 eV, consistent with the measurement. These significant EA values of Eu and Nd could be important in the use of their negative ions in catalyzing the oxidation of water to peroxide and of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. These new results call for immediate experimental and theoretical verification.

  20. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  1. The Completion Arch: Measuring Community College Student Success--2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Laura; Radwin, David

    2012-01-01

    Essential to tracking student success at community colleges is the availability of solid data and commonly defined metrics that go beyond measuring the traditional (and limited) enrollment and graduation rates that these colleges report to the federal government. In particular, what is needed are metrics that illuminate what happens to students…

  2. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  3. Two modulator generalized ellipsometer for complete mueller matrix measurement

    DOEpatents

    Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Modine, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) comprising two polarizer-photoelastic modulator (PEM) pairs, an optical light source, an optical detection system, and associated data processing and control electronics, where the PEMs are free-running. The input light passes through the first polarizer-PEM pair, reflects off the sample surface or passes through the sample, passes through the second PEM-polarizer pair, and is detected. Each PEM is free running and operates at a different resonant frequency, e.g., 50 and 60 kHz. The resulting time-dependent waveform of the light intensity is a complicated function of time, and depends upon the exact operating frequency and phase of each PEM, the sample, and the azimuthal angles of the polarizer-PEM pairs, but can be resolved into a dc component and eight periodic components. In one embodiment, the waveform is analyzed using a new spectral analysis technique that is similar to Fourier analysis to determine eight sample Mueller matrix elements (normalized to the m.sub.00 Mueller matrix element). The other seven normalized elements of the general 4.times.4 Mueller matrix can be determined by changing the azimuthal angles of the PEM-polarizer pairs with respect to the plane of incidence. Since this instrument can measure all elements of the sample Mueller matrix, it is much more powerful than standard ellipsometers.

  4. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  5. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  6. Adult patients with treated complete cleft lip and palate. Methodological and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Marcusson, A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, prevalence of temporomandibular disorders, psychosocial distress, and occlusal stability in a treated group of adults with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP). Sixty-eight adults (44 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 24.2 years (range 19.5-29.2) with treated CLP were compared with a gender- and age-matched group with no clefts. The CLP subjects were born between 1968 and 1977 and had undergone standardised plastic surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. Logopaedic, phoniatric, otological, and orthodontic examinations and treatment had been provided locally, supervised by the Cleft Plate Team. The subjects answered a multidimensional, self-report, standardised questionnaire regarding psychological and somatic conditions. The subjects underwent a clinical TMD examination and an evaluation of the occlusion. The reliability of the multidimensional questionnaire was analysed for the CLP group by a test-retest study within a 2-3 week interval and most questions showed an overall good reliability. A panel of professionals judged the outcome of the surgical treatment on colour slides of the CLP subjects. The dental plaster casts of 39 subjects born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were analysed (mean age 24.7 years, range 20.2-29.3) and compared with the dental plaster casts taken at mean age of 19.1 years (range 16.0-20.6). The overall level of quality of life was rather high in both groups. The CLP group rated some detached aspects, such as life meaning, family life, and private economy, significantly lower than did the group without clefts. Overall aspects such as well-being and social life were affected by having a treated cleft but not the more practical and tangible aspects of their daily living. There was an overall high level of satisfaction with all the different part of the body in both groups

  7. Proxy Measurement of Adult Basic Skills: Lessons from Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, T. Scott

    "Proxy" measures have been developed and applied that extend the usefulness of direct assessments of adult basic skills. Three categories of users of data on adult literacy are as follows: (1) government authorities who need objective data to inform the decision-making process; (2) program delivery institutions who require an assessment…

  8. The Impact of Adult Degree-Completion Programs on the Organizational Climate of Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…

  9. A Comparison of the Cognitive Moral Development of Christian University Seniors in Traditional versus Adult Degree Completion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This research uses the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT-2) to investigate the cognitive moral development of college seniors in adult degree completion (ADC) programs and traditional undergraduate (TU) programs at three Council of Christian College and University institutions. Overall, TU students had significantly higher scores on the DIT-2, TU…

  10. Continuous Video Modeling to Prompt Completion of Multi-Component Tasks by Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Purrazzella, Kaitlin; Purrazzella, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the ability of four adults with moderate intellectual disability to complete multi-component tasks using continuous video modeling. Continuous video modeling, which is a newly researched application of video modeling, presents video in a "looping" format which automatically repeats playing of the video while…

  11. Effects of a Nurse-Managed Program on Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Completion Among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Liu, Yihang; Marfisee, Mary; Shoptaw, Steven; Gregerson, Paul; Saab, Sammy; Leake, Barbara; Tyler, Darlene; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a major health problem for homeless persons. Ability to complete an HBV vaccination series is complicated by the need to prioritize competing needs, such as addiction issues, safe places to sleep, and food, over health concerns. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-case-managed intervention compared with that of two standard programs on completion of the combined hepatitis A virus (HAV) and HBV vaccine series among homeless adults and to assess socio-demographic factors and risk behaviors related to the vaccine completion. Methods A randomized, three-group, prospective, quasi-experimental design was conducted with 865 homeless adults residing in homeless shelters, drug rehabilitation sites, and outdoor areas in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. The programs included (a) nurse-case-managed sessions plus targeted hepatitis education, incentives, and tracking (NCMIT); (b) standard targeted hepatitis education plus incentives and tracking (SIT); and (c) standard targeted hepatitis education and incentives only (SI). Results Sixty-eight percent of the NCMIT participants completed the three-series vaccine at 6 months, compared with 61% of SIT participants and 54% of SI participants. NCMIT participants had almost 2 times greater odds of completing vaccination than those of participants in the SI program. Completers were more likely to be older, to be female, to report fair or poor health, and not to have participated in a self-help drug treatment program. Newly homeless White adults were significantly less likely than were African Americans to complete the vaccine series. Discussion The use of vaccination programs incorporating nurse case management and tracking is critical in supporting adherence to completion of a 6-month HAV/HBV vaccine. The finding that White homeless persons were the least likely to complete the vaccine series suggests that programs tailored to

  12. Not Just Kid Stuff Anymore: The Economic Imperative for More Adults to Complete College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; Strawn, Julie

    2011-01-01

    From 2000 to 2008, enrollments by recent high school graduates grew faster than enrollments by adults age 25 and older (25.3 percent v. 23.6 percent). Between 2009 and 2019, this trend is expected to reverse, with adult enrollments increasing by twice as much as enrollments by traditional age students (22.6 percent vs. 9.7 percent). This paper…

  13. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  14. Reliability and validity of the Lower Limb Function Questionnaire when completed by young adult orthotic and prosthetic device users.

    PubMed

    Funk, Luke; Thiessen, Danielle; Wright, Virginia; Andrysek, Jan; Rispin, Karen

    2016-02-17

    Purpose The Lower Limb Function Questionnaire (LLFQ) was developed as a self-report assessment of lower-limb functional ability for orthotic and prosthetic (O&P) device users to be suitable for a wide range of conditions, cultures, and ages. The measure aims to address an existing gap in tools for the assessment of functional ability in this population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate LLFQ reliability and validity in a sample of young adult O&P users. Methods Adolescents from a secondary school in Kenya completed the LLFQ twice, 6 d apart, and test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity evaluations involved Timed Up-and-Go, 6-min walk, 6-min obstacle course, and/or spatiotemporal gait assessments. Oxygen consumption was measured during walk tests. Associations between the LLFQ and each measure were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients for construct validity. Results LLFQ reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.79, 95% CIs 0.64-0.89). Construct validity was demonstrated via moderate correlation (r  >  0.60) with obstacle course distance, gait velocity, stride length, and stance/single support/double support percent of gait cycle. Conclusions Both LLFQ reliability and validity were acceptable in the sample of youth in Kenya. Further testing is required to determine applicability in other cultural contexts. Implications for Rehabilitation The LLFQ may be clinically useful across a variety of cultures and conditions to provide feedback on the effectiveness of rehabilitative treatment or assistive devices for youth with lower limb impairments. The LLFQ may enable specific strengths and challenges to lower limb function to be identified to enable planning of well-targeted rehabilitation.

  15. The use of dysprosium to measure endogenous zinc excretion in feces eliminates the necessity of complete fecal collections.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Sheng, Xiao-Yang; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Sian, Lei; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-08-01

    The secretion of endogenous zinc (Zn) into the gut and subsequent excretion in the feces is understood to play a major role in maintaining Zn homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the measurement of endogenous Zn losses in the feces (EFZ) can be an important aspect of the study of Zn metabolism and homeostasis. The methods currently used to measure EFZ have the disadvantage of requiring complete fecal collections over multiple days. We have investigated the use of dysprosium (Dy), a nonabsorbable rare earth metal, in a method of determining EFZ that does not require complete fecal collections and permits the measurement of EFZ from several fecal samples. The method was evaluated using data from a study of free-living adult females in which Dy was administered 3-4 times/d over a period of 5 or 6 d to monitor completeness of fecal collections. The results did not differ from those obtained using an established isotope dilution method. We found that the measurement of the sample Dy:Zn ratio was useful for selecting samples for measurement. We conclude that the Dy method of determining EFZ is a valid and less burdensome alternative to current techniques.

  16. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  17. Measuring insulin adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Gonzalez, Jeffery S

    2016-08-01

    Non-adherence to insulin is common and associated with suboptimal health. We adapted the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to specify insulin adherence (MIAS) and compared it to the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale for Diabetes (ARMS-D) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities medications subscale (SDSCA-MS) and an insulin-specific (SDSCA-IS) version. A sample of 144 insulin-treated adults (58 % African American/Black, 34 % Caucasian/White, 8 % Other/Mixed race; 6.9 % Hispanic) completed these measures along with a HbA1C test. The internal consistency and factor structure of the MIAS were adequate; 59 % of participants forgot to take insulin and 46 % reported non-adherence. The MIAS was associated with the ARMS-D, SDSCA-MS, and SDSCA-IS (p < 0.001), and higher MIAS scores were marginally associated with better self-rated health (p = 0.057), but significantly associated with fewer emergency room visits (p = 0.001), and better HbA1C (p = 0.001). The MIAS is a valid and reliable insulin adherence assessment tool for practice and research applications.

  18. Comparison of Problem-Solving Performance between Adults Receiving Credit via Assessment of Prior Learning and Adults Completing Classroom Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGrow, Maryanne R.; Scheckley, Barry G.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2002-01-01

    Business management students who earned prior learning credit through portfolios (n=27) and 27 who completed coursework were compared. Results indicated that metacognitive skills can be developed outside the classroom to an equal or greater level. Portfolio development assisted learners in articulating tacit knowledge they acquired through…

  19. Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity…

  20. ACA Provisions Associated With Increase In Percentage Of Young Adult Women Initiating And Completing The HPV Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Brandy J; Decker, Sandra L

    2015-05-01

    Affordable Care Act provisions implemented in 2010 required insurance plans to offer dependent coverage to people ages 19-25 and to provide targeted preventive services with zero cost sharing. These provisions both increased the percentage of young adults with any source of health insurance coverage and improved the generosity of coverage. We examined how these provisions affected use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which is among the most expensive of recommended vaccines, among young adult women. Using 2008-12 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we estimated that the 2010 policy implementation increased the likelihood of HPV vaccine initiation and completion by 7.7 and 5.8 percentage points, respectively, for women ages 19-25 relative to a control group of women age 18 or 26. These estimates translate to approximately 1.1 million young women initiating and 854,000 young women completing the vaccine series.

  1. Children from Disrupted Families as Adults: Family Structure, College Attendance and College Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ver Ploeg, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between family structure and 4-year college enrollment and completion. Uses 1980 High School and Beyond Sophomore cohort and its subsequent followup surveys. Finds that family-income differences can explain much of the differences in college attendance and completion rates between students from disrupted families and…

  2. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  3. Construct validity of four exercise stage of change measures in adults.

    PubMed

    Astroth, Kim S; Fish, Anne F; Mitchell, G Lynn; Bachman, Jean A; Hsueh, Kuei-Hsiang

    2010-06-01

    Measuring readiness to exercise, or exercise stage of change (ESOC), is an important first step when counseling adults about exercise. However, minimal construct validity testing of ESOC measures has been reported. With a sample of 95 adults, we estimated the construct validity of four ESOC measures with commonly used response formats (true/false, ladder, 5 choice, interview). Participants completed all four ESOC measures in random order as well as six validation measures: physical activity performed, exercise self-efficacy, decisional balance pros and cons, and behavioral and experiential processes of change. Few participants were in the earliest stage of change. The true/false measure demonstrated the strongest validity. Further studies are needed in diverse samples with more representation across the stages of change.

  4. The Impact of Institutional Collaborations on the Earnings of Adult Workforce Education Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Joshua D.; Sommers, Dixie; Melendez, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a mixed-methods study of the impact of collaborations between adult education organizations and nonprofit or business partners on the earnings of program participants. The project uses survey data collected from a network of state-sponsored educational institutions and unemployment insurance data from program…

  5. Complete and sustained response of adult medulloblastoma to first-line sonic hedgehog inhibition with vismodegib.

    PubMed

    Lou, Emil; Schomaker, Matthew; Wilson, Jon D; Ahrens, Mary; Dolan, Michelle; Nelson, Andrew C

    2016-08-12

    Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum that is rare in adults. Medulloblastomas fall into 4 prognostically significant molecular subgroups that are best defined by experimental gene expression profiles: the WNT pathway, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, and subgroups 3 and 4 (non-SHH/WNT). Medulloblastoma of adults belong primarily to the SHH category. Vismodegib, an SHH-pathway inhibitor FDA-approved in 2012 for treatment of basal cell carcinoma, has been used successfully in the setting of chemorefractory medulloblastoma, but not as a first-line therapy. In this report, we describe a sustained response of an unresectable multifocal form of adult medulloblastoma to vismodegib. Molecular analysis in this case revealed mutations in TP53 and a cytogenetic abnormality, i17q, that is prevalent and most often associated with subgroup 4 rather than the SHH-activated form of medulloblastoma. Our findings indicate that vismodegib may also block alternate, non-canonical forms of downstream SHH pathway activation. These findings provide strong impetus for further investigation of vismodegib in clinical trials in the first-line setting for pediatric and adult forms of medulloblastoma.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  7. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  8. The complete genome sequences, unique mutational spectra and developmental potency of adult neurons revealed by cloning

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alberto R.; Ferguson, William C.; Shumilina, Svetlana; Clark, Royden A.; Boland, Michael J.; Martin, Greg; Chubukov, Pavel; Tsunemoto, Rachel K.; Torkamani, Ali; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Hall, Ira M.; Baldwin, Kristin K.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation in neurons is linked to neurologic disease and implicated in cell type diversification. However, the origin, extent and patterns of genomic mutation in neurons remain unknown. We established a nuclear transfer method to clonally amplify the genomes of neurons from adult mice for whole genome sequencing. Comprehensive mutation detection and independent validation revealed that individual neurons harbor ~100 unique mutations from all classes, but lack recurrent rearrangements. Most neurons contain at least one gene disrupting mutation and rare (0-2) mobile element insertions. The frequency and gene bias of neuronal mutations differs from other lineages, potentially due to novel mechanisms governing post-mitotic mutation. Fertile mice were cloned from several neurons, establishing the compatibility of mutated adult neuronal genomes with reprogramming to pluripotency and development. PMID:26948891

  9. The Complete Genome Sequences, Unique Mutational Spectra, and Developmental Potency of Adult Neurons Revealed by Cloning.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Jennifer L; Faust, Gregory G; Rodriguez, Alberto R; Ferguson, William C; Shumilina, Svetlana; Clark, Royden A; Boland, Michael J; Martin, Greg; Chubukov, Pavel; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Torkamani, Ali; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Hall, Ira M; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2016-03-16

    Somatic mutation in neurons is linked to neurologic disease and implicated in cell-type diversification. However, the origin, extent, and patterns of genomic mutation in neurons remain unknown. We established a nuclear transfer method to clonally amplify the genomes of neurons from adult mice for whole-genome sequencing. Comprehensive mutation detection and independent validation revealed that individual neurons harbor ∼100 unique mutations from all classes but lack recurrent rearrangements. Most neurons contain at least one gene-disrupting mutation and rare (0-2) mobile element insertions. The frequency and gene bias of neuronal mutations differ from other lineages, potentially due to novel mechanisms governing postmitotic mutation. Fertile mice were cloned from several neurons, establishing the compatibility of mutated adult neuronal genomes with reprogramming to pluripotency and development.

  10. A complete diet-based algorithm for predicting nonheme iron absorption in adults.

    PubMed

    Armah, Seth M; Carriquiry, Alicia; Sullivan, Debra; Cook, James D; Reddy, Manju B

    2013-07-01

    Many algorithms have been developed in the past few decades to estimate nonheme iron absorption from the diet based on single meal absorption studies. Yet single meal studies exaggerate the effect of diet and other factors on absorption. Here, we propose a new algorithm based on complete diets for estimating nonheme iron absorption. We used data from 4 complete diet studies each with 12-14 participants for a total of 53 individuals (19 men and 34 women) aged 19-38 y. In each study, each participant was observed during three 1-wk periods during which they consumed different diets. The diets were typical, high, or low in meat, tea, calcium, or vitamin C. The total sample size was 159 (53 × 3) observations. We used multiple linear regression to quantify the effect of different factors on iron absorption. Serum ferritin was the most important factor in explaining differences in nonheme iron absorption, whereas the effect of dietary factors was small. When our algorithm was validated with single meal and complete diet data, the respective R(2) values were 0.57 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.0001). The results also suggest that between-person variations explain a large proportion of the differences in nonheme iron absorption. The algorithm based on complete diets we propose is useful for predicting nonheme iron absorption from the diets of different populations.

  11. The Adult Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A): A Self-Report Measure of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sarah L; Uljarević, Mirko; Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L; Jones, Catherine R G; Leekam, Susan R

    2015-11-01

    In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and Insistence on Sameness. In Study 2, the mean RBQ-2A scores of a group of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 29) were compared to an adult neurotypical group (N = 37). The ASD sample had significantly higher total and subscale scores. These results indicate that the RBQ-2A has utility as a self-report questionnaire measure of RRBs suitable for adults, with potential clinical application.

  12. Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Langhelle, A; Sunde, K; Wik, L; Steen, P A

    2000-04-01

    In a previous case report a standard chest compression successfully removed a foreign body from the airway after the Heimlich manoeuvre had failed. Based on this case, standard chest compressions and Heimlich manoeuvres were performed by emergency physicians on 12 unselected cadavers with a simulated complete airway obstruction in a randomised crossover design. The mean peak airway pressure was significantly lower with abdominal thrusts compared to chest compressions, 26.4+/-19.8 cmH(2)O versus 40.8+/-16.4 cmH(2)O, respectively (P=0.005, 95% confidence interval for the mean difference 5.3-23.4 cmH(2)O). Standard chest compressions therefore have the potential of being more effective than the Heimlich manoeuvre for the management of complete airway obstruction by a foreign body in an unconscious patient. Removal of the Heimlich manoeuvre from the resuscitation algorithm for unconscious patients with suspected airway obstruction will also simplify training.

  13. Factors Associated with Hispanic Adults Attending Spanish-Language Disease Self-Management Program Workshops and Workshop Completion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Jiang, Luohua; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Many factors influence ways in which middle-aged and older Hispanic adults prefer to receive health-related information. While Spanish-language disease management programs are increasingly offered in community and healthcare settings, less is known about their utilization among the Hispanic population. This study aimed to identify participant and workshop factors associated with middle-aged and older Hispanic adults attending Spanish-language disease self-management program workshops and receiving the recommended intervention dose (i.e., successful workshop completion is defined as attending four or more of the six workshop sessions). Data were analyzed from 12,208 Hispanic adults collected during a national dissemination of the Stanford suite of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs spanning 45 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Two logistic regression analyses were performed. Over 65% of participants attended Spanish-language workshops, and 78.3% of participants successfully completed workshops. Relative to participants in English-language workshops, participants who attended Spanish-language CDSME workshops were more likely to successfully complete workshops, as were those aged 80 years and older, females, and those who lived alone. Participants who were aged 50–79 years and female were significantly more likely to attend Spanish-language workshops than their counterparts under age 50. Conversely, those with more chronic conditions were less likely to attend Spanish-language workshops. Those who attended workshops with more participants and where the Hispanic population was less affluent were more likely to attend Spanish-language workshops. This study provides insight into Spanish-language CDSME program recruitment and utilization with implications for program adoption in underserved Hispanic community settings. PMID:25964900

  14. Complete remission of diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma in a young adult after GSP-TACE: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Zhang, Yuewei; Zhao, Guangsheng; Liu, Ying

    2014-09-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver. It mostly occurs in older age groups (usually those 50 to 60 years old), and rarely in young adults. The survival rate of these young HCC patients is usually very low. The authors report a case of a 22-year old man with diffuse-type HCC who successfully achieved complete remission for 46 months after second transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using gelatin sponge particles (Eric Kang Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd. Hangzhou, China) combined with pirarubicin.

  15. Measuring Adult Memory: The Development and Validation of a New Instrument To Measure Long-term Memory in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Jeb

    2001-01-01

    An instrument measuring visual memory span in long-term memory was tested on 239 adults using pictures of common objects. Correlations were found between the number of images recalled and age, level of education, level of income, intelligence, sex, and social activity. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/JOW)

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Using Regression Residuals to Measure Institutional Effectiveness in Promoting Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Aaron S.; Lee, Giljae

    2016-01-01

    A relatively simple way of measuring institutional effectiveness in relation to degree completion is to estimate the difference between an actual and predicted graduation rate, but the reliability and validity of this method have not been thoroughly examined. Longitudinal data were obtained from IPEDS for both public and private not-for-profit…

  17. Operational link between mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneduci, Roberto; Bullock, Thomas J.; Busch, Paul; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We exhibit an operational connection between mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures. Assuming that the latter exists, we show that there is a strong link between these two structures in all prime power dimensions. We also demonstrate that a similar link cannot exist in dimension 6.

  18. Single-shot measurement of the complete temporal intensity and phase of supercontinuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tsz Chun; Rhodes, Michelle; Trebino, Rick

    2016-03-01

    We solve the problem of single-shot complete temporal measurement of continuum using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating, achieving the necessary large spectral range using a polarization-gating geometry and the necessary large temporal range by significantly tilting the reference pulse. In addition, we simultaneously cancel the previously unavoidable longitudinal geometrical temporal smearing by using a carefully chosen combination of pulse tilt and beam-crossing angle, thus simultaneously achieving the required temporal resolution. The result is that we are able to make a complete measurement of an individual complex continuum pulse generated in photonic-crystal fiber. By enabling measurement of single optical rogue waves, this technique could provide insight and perhaps even lead to the prediction of when mathematically similar, destructive, oceanic rogue waves may occur.

  19. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sabir; Ahmad, Tauseeef; Kumar, Kamal; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Chaubey, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs) populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  20. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  1. Measuring Theory of Mind in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn L; Barnett, Emily

    2017-03-09

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM)-the ability to interpret others' beliefs, intentions and emotions-undermine the ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to interact in socially normative ways. This study provides psychometric data for the Adult-Theory of Mind (A-ToM) measure using video-scenarios based in part on Happé's (Instructions for theory of mind story task, 1999) Strange Stories test. The final items discriminated IQ-matched adults with ASD from controls on the social but not the physical items. Additional validity data included a two-component principal components solution, correlations with existing ToM scales, and the absence of correlations with self-report measures of empathy and social anxiety (not requiring inferences about the intent of others). The expected group differences in ToM were accompanied by marked variability in the ASD sample.

  2. Spontaneous complete remission of type 1 diabetes mellitus in an adult - review and case report.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Moole, Vishnu; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Taneja, Deepak; Sfeir, Hady; Gajula, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune condition that results in low plasma insulin levels by destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. As part of the natural progression of this disease, some patients regain beta cell activity transiently. This period is often referred to as the 'honeymoon period' or remission of T1DM. During this period, patients manifest improved glycemic control with reduced or no use of insulin or anti-diabetic medications. The incidence rates of remission and duration of remission is extremely variable. Various factors seem to influence the remission rates and duration. These include but are not limited to C-peptide level, serum bicarbonate level at the time of diagnosis, duration of T1DM symptoms, haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels at the time of diagnosis, sex, and age of the patient. Mechanism of remission is not clearly understood. Extensive research is ongoing in regard to the possible prevention and reversal of T1DM. However, most of the studies that showed positive results were small and uncontrolled. We present a 32-year-old newly diagnosed T1DM patient who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and HbA1C of 12.7%. She was on basal bolus insulin regimen for the first 4 months after diagnosis. Later, she stopped taking insulin and other anti-diabetic medications due to compliance and logistical issues. Eleven months after diagnosis, her HbA1C spontaneously improved to 5.6%. Currently (14 months after T1DM diagnosis), she is still in complete remission, not requiring insulin therapy.

  3. What is the Best Measure of Daytime Sleepiness in Adults with Heart Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Barbara; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Zhang, Xuemei; Fleck, Desiree; Sayers, Steven L.; Goldberg, Lee R.; Weintraub, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the best screening measure of daytime sleepiness in adults with heart failure (HF). Data sources 280 adults with HF completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and a single Likert item measuring daytime sleepiness. The sensitivity and specificity of these self-report measures were assessed in relation to a measure of daytime dysfunction from poor sleep quality. Conclusions Only 16% of the sample reported significant daytime dysfunction due to poor sleep quality. Those reporting daytime dysfunction were likely to be younger (p<0.001), to be unmarried (p=0.002), to have New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF (p=0.015), and to report low income (p=0.006) and fewer hours of sleep (p=0.015). The measure of daytime sleepiness that was most sensitive to daytime dysfunction was a single Likert item measured on a 10-point (1–10) scale. Patients with a score ≥ 4 were 2.4 times more likely to have daytime dysfunction than those with a score <4. Implications for practice Complaints of daytime dysfunction due to poor sleep are not common in adults with HF. Routine use of a single question about daytime sleepiness can help nurse practitioners to identify those HF patients with significant sleep issues that may require further screening. PMID:24170569

  4. Results of the first complete static calibration of the RSRA rotor-load-measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The compound Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make high-accuracy, simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight. Physical calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft is required to account for known errors and to ensure that measurement-system accuracy is traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. The first static calibration and associated analysis have been completed with good results. Hysteresis was a potential cause of static calibration errors, but was found to be negligible in flight compared to full-scale loads, and analytical methods have been devised to eliminate hysteresis effects on calibration data. Flight tests confirmed that the calibrated rotor-load-measurement system performs as expected in flight and that it can dependably make direct measurements of fuselage vertical drag in hover.

  5. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT)

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Yund, E. William; Wyma, John M.; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26042021

  6. Relationship between Objectively Measured Transportation Behaviors and Health Characteristics in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Michelle; Carlson, Jordan A.; Moran, Kevin; Godbole, Suneeta; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This study used objective Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to investigate the relationship between pedestrian and vehicle trips to physical, cognitive, and psychological functioning in older adults living in retirement communities. Older adults (N = 279; mean age = 83 ± 6 years) wore a GPS and accelerometer for 6 days. Participants completed standard health measures. The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System (PALMS) was used to calculate the average daily number of trips, distance, and minutes traveled for pedestrian and vehicle trips from the combined GPS and accelerometer data. Linear mixed effects regression models explored relationships between these transportation variables and physical, psychological and cognitive functioning. Number, distance, and minutes of pedestrian trips were positively associated with physical and psychological functioning but not cognitive functioning. Number of vehicle trips was negatively associated with fear of falls; there were no other associations between the vehicle trip variables and functioning. Vehicle travel did not appear to be related to functioning in older adults in retirement communities except that fear of falling was related to number of vehicle trips. Pedestrian trips had moderate associations with multiple physical and psychological functioning measures, supporting a link between walking and many aspects of health in older adults. PMID:26528999

  7. Relationship between Objectively Measured Transportation Behaviors and Health Characteristics in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Michelle; Carlson, Jordan A; Moran, Kevin; Godbole, Suneeta; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-10-30

    This study used objective Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to investigate the relationship between pedestrian and vehicle trips to physical, cognitive, and psychological functioning in older adults living in retirement communities. Older adults (N = 279; mean age = 83 ± 6 years) wore a GPS and accelerometer for 6 days. Participants completed standard health measures. The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System (PALMS) was used to calculate the average daily number of trips, distance, and minutes traveled for pedestrian and vehicle trips from the combined GPS and accelerometer data. Linear mixed effects regression models explored relationships between these transportation variables and physical, psychological and cognitive functioning. Number, distance, and minutes of pedestrian trips were positively associated with physical and psychological functioning but not cognitive functioning. Number of vehicle trips was negatively associated with fear of falls; there were no other associations between the vehicle trip variables and functioning. Vehicle travel did not appear to be related to functioning in older adults in retirement communities except that fear of falling was related to number of vehicle trips. Pedestrian trips had moderate associations with multiple physical and psychological functioning measures, supporting a link between walking and many aspects of health in older adults.

  8. Piloting the older adult financial exploitation measure in adult safeguarding services.

    PubMed

    Phelan, A; Fealy, G; Downes, C

    2017-01-27

    Financial abuse is arguably the most complex form of elder abuse as it may occur remote to the older person and it is impacted by issues such as cultural values, perpetrator intent and family expectations. Financial abuse may not be recognised by either the older person or the perpetrator, thus, its prevention, early identification and amelioration are important. The (Irish) National Centre for the Protection of Older People undertook a study to determine the appropriateness of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure for use by the national safeguarding older person services. Findings from a small pilot study involving 16 safeguarding staff's use of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure with 52 community dwelling older people referred to their service demonstrate a higher suspicion of financial abuse as well as identifying multiple instances of possible financial exploitation in a single individual. Thus, the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure is considered appropriate to assist safeguarding personnel's assessment of older people related to a suspicion of financial abuse.

  9. Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, W. P.

    2011-10-15

    A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.

  10. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    PubMed Central

    Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS

  11. Preliminary Findings of The Brief Everyday Activities Measurement (BEAM) in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scharaga, Elyssa A.; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Functional losses are common in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. However, subtle declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not always detected in self-reports. Performance IADL measurements are financially and time burdensome, restricting their use in varied settings. To address these limitations, we developed the Brief Everyday Activities Measure (BEAM), a short (< 5 minutes) objective IADL measure that assesses medication and finance management. Design & Participants The BEAM was administered to 209 cognitively non-demented community-dwellers (ages 65–95 years). Measurements Participants completed standardized motor, neuropsychological, psychological, and self-report functional assessments. Results BEAM completion time ranged from 54.16 to 259.31 seconds. Interclass correlations (ICC) for total BEAM completion time was moderate (0.65, 95% CI [.43 –.78]). Accuracy for total BEAM performance was in the low-moderate range (Kappa = 0.38, p < .001, 95% CI [.18 –.54]). As predicted, lower accuracy and longer time to complete the BEAM were both associated with worse executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Conclusions Medication and finance management can be efficiently assessed within five minutes. The BEAM may be a valuable screening tool to evaluate these functional abilities. PMID:26482695

  12. Contractile force measured in unskinned isolated adult rat heart fibres.

    PubMed

    Brady, A J; Tan, S T; Ricchiuti, N V

    1979-12-13

    A number of investigators have succeeded in preparing isolated cardiac cells by enzymatic digestion which tolerate external [Ca2+] in the millimolar range. However, a persistent problem with these preparations is that, unlike in situ adult ventricular fibres, the isolated fibres usually beat spontaneously. This spontaneity suggests persistent ionic leakage not present in situ. A preferable preparation for mechanical and electrical studies would be one which is quiescent but excitable in response to electrical stimulation and which does not undergo contracture with repeated stimulation. We report here a modified method of cardiac fibre isolation and perfusion which leaves the fibre membrane electrically excitable and moderately resistant to mechanical stress so that the attachment of suction micropipettes to the fibre is possible for force measurement and length control. Force generation in single isolated adult rat heart fibres is consistent with in situ contractile force. The negative staircase effect (treppe) characteristic of adult not heart tissue is present with increased frequency of stimulation. Isometric developed tension increases with fibre length as in in situ ventricular tissue.

  13. Relating Wrist Accelerometry Measures to Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Kocherginsky, Masha; Magett, Elizabeth; Rush, Patricia; Dale, William; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective This analysis assessed the extent to which: 1) wrist accelerometer measures were associated with difficulty performing specific activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living and 2) these measures contributed important information about disability beyond a typical self-reported vigorous activity frequency question. Methods We used data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) accelerometry sub-study (n=738). Activity was assessed using two wrist-accelerometer measures assessed over 3 days (routine activity expressed as mean count/15 second epoch during wake time, and immobile time expressed as the proportion of wake time spent immobile), and self-reported average vigorous activity frequency. The association between routine activity, immobile time and difficulty performing fourteen activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) plus two summary measures (any ADL or IADL difficulty), was assessed using logistic regression models, with and without controlling for self-reported vigorous activity. Results Self-reported activity was mildly correlated with routine activity (r = 0.27) and immobile time (r = −0.21). Routine activity, immobile time, and self-reported vigorous activity were significantly associated with twelve, ten, and fourteen disability measures, respectively. After controlling for self-reported activity, significant associations remained between routine activity and eight disabilities, and immobile time and six disabilities. Conclusion Wrist accelerometry measures were associated with many ADL and IADL disabilities among older adults. Wrist acclerometry in older adults may be useful to help assess disability risks and set individualized physical activity targets. PMID:26452423

  14. Boundedness of completely additive measures with application to 2-local triple derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Kudaybergenov, Karimbergen; Peralta, Antonio M.; Russo, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    We prove a Jordan version of Dorofeev's boundedness theorem for completely additive measures and use it to show that every (not necessarily linear nor continuous) 2-local triple derivation on a continuous JBW∗-triple is a triple derivation. 2-local triple derivations are well understood on von Neumann algebras. JBW*-triples, which are properly defined in Section I, are intimately related to infinite dimensional holomorphy and include von Neumann algebras as special cases. In particular, continuous JBW∗-triples can be realized as subspaces of continuous von Neumann algebras which are stable for the triple product xy∗z + zy∗x and closed in the weak operator topology.

  15. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. Finally, we demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ± 0.018, and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  16. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ±0.018 , and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  17. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  18. Correlations among four measures of thoracic kyphosis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T. H.; Wing, D.; Davis, A.; Bergstrom, J.; Schousboe, J. T.; Nichols, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There are many ways to measure thoracic kyphosis ranging from simple clinical to more complex assessments. We evaluated the correlation among four commonly used kyphosis measures: Cobb angle, Debrunner kyphometer, kyphotic index, and the blocks method. Each measure was correlated with the others, confirming high clinical and research applicability. Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess the associations among four commonly used measures of thoracic kyphosis in older adults. Methods Seventy two men and women aged 65–96 were recruited from the San Diego community. Four kyphosis measures were assessed in the same person during a baseline clinic visit. Two measures were done in the lying (L) and two in the standing (ST) position: (1) Cobb angle calculated from dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) images (L), (2) Debrunner kyphometer (DK) angle measured by a protractor (ST), (3) kyphotic index (KI) calculated using an architect’s flexicurve ruler (ST), and (4) the blocks method involving counting the number of 1.7 cm-thick blocks required to achieve a neutral head position while lying flat on the DXA table (L). Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to determine the strength of the association between each kyphosis measure. Results Using the Cobb angle as the gold standard, the blocks method demonstrated the lowest correlation (rs =0.63, p<0.0001), the Debrunner method had a moderate correlation (rs=0.65, p<0.0001), and the kyphotic index had the highest correlation (rs=0.68, p<0.0001). The correlation was strongest between the kyphotic index and the Debrunner kyphometer (rs=0.76, p<0.0001). Conclusion In older men and women, all four measures of thoracic kyphosis were significantly correlated with each other, whether assessed in the lying or standing position. Thus, any of these measures demonstrate both potential clinical and research utility. PMID:26475287

  19. Pediatric-inspired Therapy compared to Allografting for Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult ALL in First Complete Remission

    PubMed Central

    Seftel, Matthew D.; Neuberg, Donna; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Wang, Hai-Lin; Ballen, Karen Kuhn; Bergeron, Julie; Couban, Stephen; Freytes, César O.; Hamadani, Mehdi; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Nishihori, Taiga; Paulson, Kristjan; Saber, Wael; Sallan, Stephen E.; Soiffer, Robert; Tallman, Martin S.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    For adults with Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission (CR1), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established curative strategy. However, pediatric-inspired chemotherapy may also offer durable leukemia free survival in the absence of HCT. We compared 422 HCT recipients aged 18-50 years with Ph-ALL in CR1 reported to the CIBMTR with an age-matched concurrent cohort of 108 Ph- ALL CR1 patients who received a Dana-Farber Consortium pediatric-inspired non-HCT regimen. At four years follow-up, incidence of relapse after HCT was 24% [95% C.I. 19-28] vs. 23% [95% C.I. 15-32] for the non-HCT (“chemo”) cohort (p=0.97). Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was higher in the HCT cohort (HCT 37% [95% C.I. 31-42] vs. chemo 6% [95% C.I. 3 – 12], p<0.0001). DFS in the HCT cohort was 40% [95% C.I. 35-45] vs. 71% [95% C.I. 60-79] for chemo, p<0.0001. Similarly, OS favored chemo (HCT 45% [95% C.I. 40-50]) vs. chemo 73% [95% C.I. 63-81], p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, the sole factor predictive of shorter OS was the administration of HCT (HR 3.12 [1.99 – 4.90], p<0.0001). For younger adults with Ph- ALL, pediatric-inspired chemotherapy had lower TRM, no increase in relapse, and superior overall survival compared to HCT. PMID:26701142

  20. Testing the reliability and validity of computer-mediated social support measures among older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Gaines, Jean

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of older adult online users, the Internet and e-mail are becoming a new source of social support for older adults. To assess this computer-mediated social support, two traditional social support measures were modified: (1) the Lubben Social Network Scale and (2) the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of these modified measures. This study was a single group descriptive study with two data collection points. Data were collected using Web surveys. A total of 38 older adult participants completed the first survey; 35, the second survey. The findings of this preliminary study provided evidence for the reliability, content validity, and, to a limited extent, construct validity, of the modified measures. Additional studies with a larger representative sample are needed to further examine the psychometric aspects of these measures.

  1. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Filos, S

    1982-05-01

    Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

  2. Presaddle and postsaddle dissipative effects in fission using complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-12-01

    A complete kinematics measurement of the two fission fragments was used for the first time to investigate fission dynamics at small and large deformations. Fissioning systems with high excitation energies, compact shapes, and low angular momenta were produced in inverse kinematics by using spallation reactions of lead projectiles. A new generation experimental setup allowed for the first full and unambiguous identification in mass and atomic number of both fission fragments. This measurement permitted us to accurately determine fission cross sections, the charge distribution, and the neutron excess of the fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data are compared with different model calculations to extract information on the value of the dissipation parameter at small and large deformations. The present results do not show any sizable dependence of the nuclear dissipation parameter on temperature or deformation.

  3. Measuring Students' Engagement on College Campuses: Is the NSSE an Appropriate Measure of Adult Students' Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Karen; Baker, Sandra Nicks

    2012-01-01

    As institutions seek to promote student engagement, the National Survey of Student Engagement has become a measure commonly used to document how institutions are meeting educational goals, but there is some question as to its applicability for certain undergraduate populations. 2010 survey results were analyzed for 125 adult and 69 traditional-age…

  4. Complete kinematics measurement of the 11B(p,γ)3α reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diget, C. Aa; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Laursen, K. L.; Madsbøl, K. O.; Jørgensen, L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Riisager, K.

    2012-09-01

    One of the first nuclear reactions measured after the invention of the accelerator by Cockroft and Walton was 11B+p, measured by Rutherford and Oliphant in 1933 [1, 2]. This reaction, however, is not yet fully understood at low incident proton energies [3], and the present paper therefore presents a new measurement with complete-kinematics data utilising modern large-area segmented silicon-strip detectors. The aim of the measurement is twofold: firstly, to fully characterise the triple-α decay of the T=1, 2+ state at 16.11 MeV in 12C; secondly, to search for γ decay of the 2+ state to lower lying states, in particular the newly suggested 2+ state around 9-10 MeV [4]. The isovector M1 population of lower lying 2+ states is strongly favoured over isovector E2 transitions to 0+ states, and the method is therefore a promising method to elucidating this timely question.

  5. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  6. Program Completion of a Web-Based Tailored Lifestyle Intervention for Adults: Differences between a Sequential and a Simultaneous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; van Osch, Liesbeth ADM; van Nierop, Peter WM; Kremers, Stef PJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors often co-occur and are related to chronic diseases. One effective method to change multiple lifestyle behaviors is web-based computer tailoring. Dropout from Internet interventions, however, is rather high, and it is challenging to retain participants in web-based tailored programs, especially programs targeting multiple behaviors. To date, it is unknown how much information people can handle in one session while taking part in a multiple behavior change intervention, which could be presented either sequentially (one behavior at a time) or simultaneously (all behaviors at once). Objectives The first objective was to compare dropout rates of 2 computer-tailored interventions: a sequential and a simultaneous strategy. The second objective was to assess which personal characteristics are associated with completion rates of the 2 interventions. Methods Using an RCT design, demographics, health status, physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking were self-assessed through web-based questionnaires among 3473 adults, recruited through Regional Health Authorities in the Netherlands in the autumn of 2009. First, a health risk appraisal was offered, indicating whether respondents were meeting the 5 national health guidelines. Second, psychosocial determinants of the lifestyle behaviors were assessed and personal advice was provided, about one or more lifestyle behaviors. Results Our findings indicate a high non-completion rate for both types of intervention (71.0%; n = 2167), with more incompletes in the simultaneous intervention (77.1%; n = 1169) than in the sequential intervention (65.0%; n = 998). In both conditions, discontinuation was predicted by a lower age (sequential condition: OR = 1.04; P < .001; CI = 1.02-1.05; simultaneous condition: OR = 1.04; P < .001; CI = 1.02-1.05) and an unhealthy lifestyle (sequential condition: OR = 0.86; P = .01; CI = 0.76-0.97; simultaneous condition

  7. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  8. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): Validation of Executive Function Measures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zelazo, Philip David; Anderson, Jacob E.; Richler, Jennifer; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Conway, Kevin P.; Gershon, Richard; Weintraub, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study describes psychometric properties of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) executive function measures in an adult sample. The NIHTB-CB was designed for use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials for ages 3 to 85. A total of 268 self-described healthy adults were recruited at four university-based sites, using stratified sampling guidelines to target demographic variability for age (20–85 years), gender, education and ethnicity. The NIHTB-CB contains two computer-based instruments assessing executive function: the Dimensional Change Card Sort (a measure of cognitive flexibility) and a flanker task (a measure of inhibitory control and selective attention). Participants completed the NIHTB-CB, corresponding gold standard convergent and discriminant measures, and sociodemographic questionnaires. A subset of participants (N = 89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. Results reveal excellent sensitivity to age-related changes during adulthood, excellent test–retest reliability, and adequate to good convergent and discriminant validity. The NIH Toolbox EF measures can be used effectively in epidemiologic and clinical studies. PMID:24960301

  9. Use of the WAIS-III picture completion subtest as an embedded measure of response bias.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ryan E; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Miora, Deborah; Skidmore, Sherry; Cottingham, Maria; Victor, Tara; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    In the present study a large sample of credible patients (n = 172) scored significantly higher than a large sample of noncredible participants (n = 195) on several WAIS-III Picture Completion variables: Age Adjusted Scaled Score, raw score, a "Rarely Missed" index (the nine items least often missed by credible participants), a "Rarely Correct" index (nine items correct <26% of the time in noncredible participants and with at least a 25 percentage-point lower endorsement rate as compared to credible participants), and a "Most Discrepant" index (the six items that were the most discrepant in correct endorsement between groups-at least a 40 percentage point difference). Comparison of the various scores showed that the "Most Discrepant" index outperformed all the others in identifying response bias (nearly 65% sensitivity at 92.8% specificity as compared to at most 59% sensitivity for the other scores). While no differences in Picture Completion scores were observed between less-educated (<12 years) and better-educated (≥12 years) credible participants, noncredible participants with <12 years of education scored significantly poorer than noncredible participants with 12 or more years of education. On the "Most Discrepant" index, 76.7% of less-educated noncredible participants were detected as compared to 58.3% of better-educated noncredible participants. Results of the current study suggest that the Picture Completion subtest of the WAIS-III is an effective measure of response bias, and that it may have a unique role in identifying suboptimal effort in less-educated test takers.

  10. College Student Performance on the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full…

  11. Comparison of the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Matthews, T. Darin; Bell, Nancy L.; Maher, Carrie M.

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-four college students were administered the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations…

  12. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts.

  13. Poroelastic measurement schemes resulting in complete data sets for granular and other anisotropic porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.

  14. A Follow-up Study of the One Hundred and Eleven Graduates -- Class of 1968 of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School Completion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, James R.

    After one year, a folloup study was made of graduates of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School Completion Program; it supplemented teacher and student evaluations and a followup study made the year before of the first year graduates. The questionnaire used was about the same as the one used the year before (1967). It was found that age,…

  15. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Techniques on Non-Traditional, Adult Student Engagement in a Baccalaureate Nursing Completion Program for Registered Nurses (RN-BSN) Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of differentiated instructional techniques on non-traditional, adult student engagement in an RN-BSN completion program course. Differentiated instructional techniques have been a staple method of teaching in K-12 education for a number of years. Differentiated instruction (DI) is a…

  16. Reading Profiles for Adults with Low-Literacy: Cluster Analysis with Power and Speeded Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Mark, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The United States' National Institute for Literacy's (NIFL) review of adult literacy instruction research recommended adult education (AE) programs assess underlying reading abilities in order to plan appropriate instruction for low-literacy learners. This study developed adult reading ability groups using measures from power tests and speeded…

  17. Measuring the Attitudes of Adult Learners: A First Application of RAACES in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamouli, Lamprini; Valkanos, Efthymios; Economou, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article made use of the model "Revised adult attitudes toward continuing education scale" (RAACES) to investigate the attitudes of adult learners in Vocational Training Centers (VTC/KEK) in Greece. The work aims to confirm the scale-measuring attitudes of adults resulting from the adoption of the RAACES model. Based on the results…

  18. Retention of complete maxillary dentures measured as resistance against unilateral occlusal loading.

    PubMed

    Fløystrand, F; Orstavik, J S

    1984-02-01

    Complete maxillary dentures were tested for their ability to remain in place when subjected to unilateral occlusal loads. The test material comprised five persons, each supplied with three identical dentures. The denture design was based on the principles of 1) functionally determined filling-in of the vestibular sulcus, 2) palatal coverage to the vibration line without post dam, 3) aesthetically governed positioning of the front teeth, and 4) positioning of the lateral teeth in the plane connecting the top of the residual ridge with the central part of the occlusal surface of the antagonizing natural teeth. Resistance to unilateral occlusal loads was measured by means of a miniature bite force sensor. In the pooled material, an average load of 70 N was tolerated before the dentures were dislodged. For a given participant/denture combination, the resistance against dislodgment varied considerably when tested on different days. Marked differences were also found among three identical dentures in one person. The tolerance against unilateral occlusal loads could feasibly be quantified. However, the influence of specific clinical and/or technological factors on denture retention during function should be studied only if strict definitions as to the test conditions are given. These conditions must include the time, person, and denture tested.

  19. Phase-space representations of symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measure fiducial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Marcos; Ermann, Leonardo; Cormick, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    The problem of finding symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measures (SIC-POVMs) has been solved numerically for all dimensions d up to 67 [A. J. Scott and M. Grassl, J. Math. Phys. 51, 042203 (2010), 10.1063/1.3374022], but a general proof of existence is still lacking. For each dimension, it was shown that it is possible to find a SIC-POVM that is generated from a fiducial state upon application of the operators of the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We draw on the numerically determined fiducial states to study their phase-space features, as displayed by the characteristic function and the Wigner, Bargmann, and Husimi representations, adapted to a Hilbert space of finite dimension. We analyze the phase-space localization of fiducial states, and observe that the SIC-POVM condition is equivalent to a maximal delocalization property. Finally, we explore the consequences in phase space of the conjectured Zauner symmetry. In particular, we construct a Hermitian operator commuting with this symmetry that leads to a representation of fiducial states in terms of eigenfunctions with definite semiclassical features.

  20. Measuring Achievement in Non-vocational Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trodd, Geoff

    1996-01-01

    When records of achievement were introduced in Hillingdon (England) Adult and Continuing Education Service, 78% of adult students used them and some were motivated to persist because of them. Tutors found the increased emphasis on learning outcomes and assessment made their teaching more systematic, although their workload was increased. (SK)

  1. Attachment in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Attachment Scale-Third Party Observational Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penketh, Victoria; Hare, Dougal Julian; Flood, Andrea; Walker, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Manchester Attachment Scale-Third party observational measure (MAST) was developed to assess secure attachment style for adults with intellectual disabilities. The psychometric properties of the MAST were examined. Materials and Methods: Professional carers (N = 40) completed the MAST and measures related to the construct of…

  2. Measuring Success by Degrees: The Status of College Completion in SREB States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) convened an advisory panel of state leaders to study college completion, answer key questions and make policy recommendations to guide states toward improvement. The commitment of these leaders and philanthropic groups to address the problems of college completion--both nationwide and in SREB…

  3. A Comparison of Time Needed To Complete Measurement Tasks Using Customary and Metric Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, E. James, Jr.

    Adult students taking a dimensional metrology course usually do so to fulfill a need for their present employment, advancement, or expected employment. In order to assure that the quality of training is maintained it has become necessary to investigate alternatives to existing instructional approaches whereby the contents of the course can be…

  4. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities.

  5. Measuring genetic knowledge: a brief survey instrument for adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald-Butt, S M; Bodine, A; Fry, K M; Ash, J; Zaidi, A N; Garg, V; Gerhardt, C A; McBride, K L

    2016-02-01

    Basic knowledge of genetics is essential for understanding genetic testing and counseling. The lack of a written, English language, validated, published measure has limited our ability to evaluate genetic knowledge of patients and families. Here, we begin the psychometric analysis of a true/false genetic knowledge measure. The 18-item measure was completed by parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) (n = 465) and adolescents and young adults with CHD (age: 15-25, n = 196) with a mean total correct score of 12.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.5, range: 0-18]. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, we determined that one to three correlated factors, or abilities, were captured by our measure. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we determined that the two factor model was the best fit. Although it was necessary to remove two items, the remaining items exhibited adequate psychometric properties in a multidimensional item response theory analysis. Scores for each factor were computed, and a sum-score conversion table was derived. We conclude that this genetic knowledge measure discriminates best at low knowledge levels and is therefore well suited to determine a minimum adequate amount of genetic knowledge. However, further reliability testing and validation in diverse research and clinical settings is needed.

  6. Development of a Five-Dimensional Measure of Adult Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Vincent J.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of adult sleep quality: the Adult Sleep-Wake Scale (ADSWS). The ADSWS is a self-report pencil-and-paper measure of sleep quality consisting of five behavioral dimensions (Going to Bed, Falling Asleep, Maintaining Sleep, Reinitiating Sleep, and Returning to Wakefulness). Data were collected from…

  7. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  8. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: Building an Adult-Centered Degree Completion Program at a Traditional University's Satellite Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson Norton, Susan; Pickus, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This essay will discuss the creation of adult-learner degree programs at Wichita State University's satellite campuses with a particular focus on how such programs complement the mission of a traditional urban-serving research institution. It will assess the decision-making process that led to the transformation of satellite campuses into…

  9. Performance Measurement and Accountability in Higher Education: The Puzzle of Qualification Completions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alach, Zhivan

    2016-01-01

    This study explores difficulties in the conceptual positioning of the higher education performance indicator of qualification completion within a standard logic model taken from the public sector performance literature, involving inputs, processes, impacts and outcomes. Organisations are held to be more accountable for the delivery of outputs than…

  10. Completion Rates--A False Trail to Measuring Course Quality? Let's Call in the HEROEs Instead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creelman, Alastair; Reneland-Forsman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Statistics are often used to reveal significant differences between online and campus-based education. The existence of online courses with low completion rates is often used to justify the inherent inferiority of online education compared to traditional classroom teaching. Our study revealed that this type of conclusion has little substance. We…

  11. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Cost and Efficiency Consequences of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to improve completion rates and efficiency despite limited economic evidence on how to do so and the consequences of different reform strategies. Here, we set out an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate…

  12. Complete Parameter Identification of Gough-Stewart Platform with Partial Pose Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Abdul; Ryu, Jeha

    Kinematic calibration of Gough-Stewart platform using a new measurement device is presented in this paper. The device simultaneously measures components of position and orientation using commercially available gadgets. Additional kinematic parameters are defined to model the sources of inaccuracies for the proposed measurement device. Computer simulations reveal that all kinematic parameters of the Gough-Stewart platform and the additional kinematic parameters of the measurement device can be identified with the partial pose measurements from the proposed device. Results also show that identification is robust for the initial errors in the parameters and the noise in measurements. The device is general and can be used for other parallel manipulators. The measurement procedure can easily be automated with the proposed measurement device.

  13. The Use of Expert Judgment in the Assessment of Demonstrated Learning in the Antioch College-Yellow Springs Adult Degree Completion Program. CAEL Institutional Report No. 1. Antioch College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    The implementation of the Adult Degree Completion Program (ADCP) at Antioch-Yellow Springs is described. The ADCP is a transfer program designed to enable adults who have never finished colege to complete their undergraduate degree work, often without having to abandon their obligations to families or to professions. To enroll in the program,…

  14. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Hilton, James; Gould, Richard; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-06-01

    Limited functional mobility in older adults has been associated with declines in tests of motor, psychomotor, and executive function. Animal studies have demonstrated reversals in indices of motor and psychomotor function via supplementation with polyphenolic-rich foods such as blueberries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 6 weeks of daily consumption of 2 cups of frozen blueberries affects functional mobility in older adults. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of grip strength, simple reaction time, adaptive gait, and executive function were completed for older adults (age >60 years) partially randomly assigned to a blueberry (BB) supplementation or a carrot juice drink control (CAR) group. Paired t tests were used to assess within-group effects for outcome variables in each supplementation group, and a mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine group (CAR vs. BB) differences. Mixed-model analysis indicated that the BB group demonstrated significant improvements relative to the CAR group in performance (i.e., number of step errors) of a challenging dual-task adaptive gait test that were independent of differences in gait speed. Within only the BB group, significant improvements were also seen in 3 other measures (i.e., usual gait speed; number of step errors during single-task adaptive gait; and gait speed during dual-task adaptive gait). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that blueberry supplementation may provide an effective countermeasure to age-related declines in functional mobility and serve as justification for an expansion to larger trials to more fully assess this nonpharmacologic approach to maintaining optimal mobility and independence.

  15. Complete equation for the measurement of organic molecules using stable isotope labeled internal standards, exact matching, and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daniel G; Mackay, Lindsey G

    2008-07-01

    Highly accurate measurements of the amount of substance of organic molecules in a test material can be obtained using exactly matched calibration solutions and internal standards that are labeled with stable isotope atoms by measuring the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard using mass spectrometry. Estimating the uncertainty of quantitative measurements of organic molecules is a means of evaluating accuracy and of establishing traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and requires a measurement function that fully describes the measuring system. This paper presents the derivation of the equation (measurement function) that describes this complete measurement after the internal standard has equilibrated with the test material matrix. It is similar to the equation for inorganic measurements using isotope dilution techniques, but potential biases during chemical processing arising from whole organic molecule analysis compared to inorganic atomic analysis required greater investigation of the yield factors that occur during organic molecule measurements. In the new equation, a series of ratios of proportionality factors are used to relate the amount of substance in a test material to chromatographic peak area ratios corresponding to mass spectrometer ion current ratios. All the proportionality factors are grouped together to define a measuring system factor F(X), the value of which is determined by the fundamental chemical processes affecting the yields of analyte, internal standard, and reference standard of the analyte in the measurement process. Any factors in the measurement process that affect the mole ratio of analyte to internal standard in the calibration solution differently from the test solution will result in a nonunity value for F(X) and a proportional bias to the measurement, and in this way F(X) represents the concept of recovery of the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard. Thus highly accurate measurements require F(X) or

  16. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  17. An Exploration of High School Completion and Its Psychosocial Correlates in Adult Males with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbun, Sara Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are a prominent public health problem in the United States of America. Substance use disorders, by definition, beget significant health and social consequences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between negative educational outcomes (failure to complete high school and low-literacy) and…

  18. Ged® Completers' Perceptions of College Readiness and Social Capital: Linking Adult Literacy to a Greater Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Donalyn; O'Dell, Jade

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of general education development (GED®) acquisition and GED® completers' perceptions of college readiness and social capital using a quantitative methodology. Also, the study used a descriptive, cross-sectional research design framed by the social capital theoretical perspective. The conceptual framework developed…

  19. Applying Event History Analysis to Investigate the Impacts of Developmental Education on Emerging Adults' Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The low degree completion rate for college students is problematic in the U.S. Many scholars and practitioners focus on the effects of developmental education due to its cost and effort incurred by students and institutions. However, research has not decisively concluded that developmental education is either bad or good. This study extended this…

  20. Amelogenesis imperfecta with multiple impacted teeth and skeletal class III malocclusion: complete mouth rehabilitation of a young adult.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a group of hereditary diseases showing abnormal enamel density and crown malformation. This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young adult diagnosed with a variant of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with multiple impacted teeth and skeletal class III malocclusion. The treatment procedures of teeth extractions, endodontic treatment of remaining teeth followed by post and core restorations, esthetic and functional crown lengthening, and metal ceramic fixed dental prostheses were performed sequentially in the maxillary arch. The mandibular arch was restored with an overdenture. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory results.

  1. Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire: Development of a Caregiver-Completed Attachment Measure for Children Younger than 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappenberg, Erin Setsuko; Halpern, Diane F.

    2006-01-01

    The Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire (KCAQ) is a newly developed screening instrument completed by the caregiver and appropriate for use with children younger than 6 years. The KCAQ is different from other attachment instruments because it is a time-efficient, quantitative measure of child attachment that is capable of tracking change in…

  2. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  3. Identification of Hearing Loss in Children and Young Adults Using Measures of Transient Otoacoustic Emission Reproducibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glattke, Theodore J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Measures of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) reproducibility were obtained for 506 ears of 260 children and young adults. Findings suggest that TEOAEs provide useful information in routine clinical practice and may be employed to screen for the presence of hearing loss in children and young adults. (DB)

  4. Measuring Adult Literacy Students' Reading Skills Using the Gray Oral Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…

  5. Cochlear gene therapy with ancestral AAV in adult mice: complete transduction of inner hair cells without cochlear dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Hashimoto, Ken; Xiao, Ru; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2017-01-01

    The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal. We used a “designer” AAV, AAV2/Anc80L65, in which the main capsid proteins approximate the ancestral sequence state of AAV1, 2, 8, and 9. Our injections also transduced ~10% of spiral ganglion cells and a much larger fraction of their satellite cells. In the vestibular sensory epithelia, the virus transduced large numbers of hair cells and virtually all the supporting cells, along with close to half of the vestibular ganglion cells. We conclude that this viral vector and this delivery route hold great promise for gene therapy applications in both cochlear and vestibular sense organs. PMID:28367981

  6. Cochlear gene therapy with ancestral AAV in adult mice: complete transduction of inner hair cells without cochlear dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Hashimoto, Ken; Xiao, Ru; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Liberman, M Charles

    2017-04-03

    The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal. We used a "designer" AAV, AAV2/Anc80L65, in which the main capsid proteins approximate the ancestral sequence state of AAV1, 2, 8, and 9. Our injections also transduced ~10% of spiral ganglion cells and a much larger fraction of their satellite cells. In the vestibular sensory epithelia, the virus transduced large numbers of hair cells and virtually all the supporting cells, along with close to half of the vestibular ganglion cells. We conclude that this viral vector and this delivery route hold great promise for gene therapy applications in both cochlear and vestibular sense organs.

  7. Measurement of Speech Effort during Fluency-Inducing Conditions in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Bothe, Anne K.; Jang, Erin; Yates, Lauren; Cotton, John; Seybold, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of 4 fluency-inducing (FI) conditions on self-rated speech effort and other variables in adults who stutter and in normally fluent controls. Method: Twelve adults with persistent stuttering and 12 adults who had never stuttered each completed 4 ABA-format experiments. During A phases, participants read aloud…

  8. Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kulik, S P; Shih, Y

    2001-02-12

    We report a quantum teleportation experiment in which nonlinear interactions are used for the Bell state measurements. The experimental results demonstrate the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary polarization state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that all four Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a polarization state can thus occur with certainty in principle.

  9. Four classification schemes of adult motivation: current views and measures.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E

    2006-04-01

    Classification of perspectives on motivation and recommendations for measurement are provided. Motivation is classified into four broad categories: content theories, process theories, decision-making theories, and sustained-effort theories--drawing from different theories and measures. Recommendations on measurement are developed for each classification scheme of motivation.

  10. Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Shahriar, M S; Shapiro, J H; Hemmer, P R

    2001-10-15

    We propose a scheme for creating and storing quantum entanglement over long distances. Optical cavities that store this long-distance entanglement in atoms could then function as nodes of a quantum network, in which quantum information is teleported from cavity to cavity. The teleportation is conducted unconditionally via measurements of all four Bell states, using a novel method of sequential elimination.

  11. Entorhinal cortex volume in older adults: reliability and validity considerations for three published measurement protocols.

    PubMed

    Price, C C; Wood, M F; Leonard, C M; Towler, S; Ward, J; Montijo, H; Kellison, I; Bowers, D; Monk, T; Newcomer, J C; Schmalfuss, I

    2010-09-01

    Measuring the entorhinal cortex (ERC) is challenging due to lateral border discrimination from the perirhinal cortex. From a sample of 39 nondemented older adults who completed volumetric image scans and verbal memory indices, we examined reliability and validity concerns for three ERC protocols with different lateral boundary guidelines (i.e., Goncharova, Dickerson, Stoub, & deToledo-Morrell, 2001; Honeycutt et al., 1998; Insausti et al., 1998). We used three novice raters to assess inter-rater reliability on a subset of scans (216 total ERCs), with the entire dataset measured by one rater with strong intra-rater reliability on each technique (234 total ERCs). We found moderate to strong inter-rater reliability for two techniques with consistent ERC lateral boundary endpoints (Goncharova, Honeycutt), with negligible to moderate reliability for the technique requiring consideration of collateral sulcal depth (Insausti). Left ERC and story memory associations were moderate and positive for two techniques designed to exclude the perirhinal cortex (Insausti, Goncharova), with the Insausti technique continuing to explain 10% of memory score variance after additionally controlling for depression symptom severity. Right ERC-story memory associations were nonexistent after excluding an outlier. Researchers are encouraged to consider challenges of rater training for ERC techniques and how lateral boundary endpoints may impact structure-function associations.

  12. Complete Measurement of S(1D2) Photofragment Alignment from Abel-Invertible Ion Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitzis, T. Peter; Samartzis, Peter C.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.

    2001-09-01

    A novel method to measure directly the photofragment alignment from Abel-invertible two-dimensional ion images, as a function of photofragment recoil velocity, is demonstrated for S(1D2) atoms from the photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide at 223 nm. The results are analyzed in terms of coherent and incoherent contributions from two dissociative states, showing that the phase differences of the asymptotic wave functions of the fast and slow recoil-velocity channel are approximately π/2 and 0, respectively.

  13. Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables.

  14. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea. PMID:25671075

  15. Treatment of deep caries lesions in adults: randomized clinical trials comparing stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, and direct pulp capping vs. partial pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars; Reit, Claes; Bruun, Gitte; Markvart, Merete; Kjaeldgaard, Marianne; Näsman, Peggy; Thordrup, Marianne; Dige, Irene; Nyvad, Bente; Fransson, Helena; Lager, Anders; Ericson, Dan; Petersson, Kerstin; Olsson, Jadranka; Santimano, Eva M; Wennström, Anette; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Less invasive excavation methods have been suggested for deep caries lesions. We tested the effects of stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, 1 yr after the procedure had been carried out, in 314 adults (from six centres) who had received treatment of a tooth with deep caries. The teeth had caries lesions involving 75% or more of the dentin and were centrally randomized to stepwise or direct complete excavation. Stepwise excavation resulted in fewer pulp exposures compared with direct complete excavation [difference: 11.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2; 21.3)]. At 1 yr of follow-up, there was a statistically significantly higher success rate with stepwise excavation, with success being defined as an unexposed pulp with sustained pulp vitality without apical radiolucency [difference: 11.7%, 95% CI (0.5; 22.5)]. In a subsequent nested trial, 58 patients with exposed pulps were randomized to direct capping or partial pulpotomy. We found no significant difference in pulp vitality without apical radiolucency between the two capping procedures after more than 1 yr [31.8% and 34.5%; difference: 2.7%, 95% CI (-22.7; 26.6)]. In conclusion, stepwise excavation decreases the risk of pulp exposure compared with direct complete excavation. In view of the poor prognosis of vital pulp treatment, a stepwise excavation approach for managing deep caries lesions is recommended.

  16. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  17. Completing the Picture: Importance of Considering Participatory Mapping for REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV)

    PubMed Central

    Rafanoharana, Serge; Boissière, Manuel; Wijaya, Arief; Wardhana, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping land cover and is considered key to monitoring changes in forest areas in the REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. But Remote Sensing as a desk study cannot capture the whole picture; it also requires ground checking. Therefore, complementing remote sensing analysis using participatory mapping can help provide information for an initial forest cover assessment, gain better understanding of how local land use might affect changes, and provide a way to engage local communities in REDD+. Our study looked at the potential of participatory mapping in providing complementary information for remotely sensed maps. The research sites were located in different ecological and socio-economic contexts in the provinces of Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty-one maps of land cover and land use were drawn with local community participation during focus group discussions in seven villages. These maps, covering a total of 270,000ha, were used to add information to maps developed using remote sensing, adding 39 land covers to the eight from our initial desk assessment. They also provided additional information on drivers of land use and land cover change, resource areas, territory claims and land status, which we were able to correlate to understand changes in forest cover. Incorporating participatory mapping in the REDD+ MRV protocol would help with initial remotely sensed land classifications, stratify an area for ground checks and measurement plots, and add other valuable social data not visible at the RS scale. Ultimately, it would provide a forum for local communities to discuss REDD+ activities and develop a better understanding of REDD+. PMID:27977685

  18. Completing the Picture: Importance of Considering Participatory Mapping for REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV).

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume; Rafanoharana, Serge; Boissière, Manuel; Wijaya, Arief; Wardhana, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping land cover and is considered key to monitoring changes in forest areas in the REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. But Remote Sensing as a desk study cannot capture the whole picture; it also requires ground checking. Therefore, complementing remote sensing analysis using participatory mapping can help provide information for an initial forest cover assessment, gain better understanding of how local land use might affect changes, and provide a way to engage local communities in REDD+. Our study looked at the potential of participatory mapping in providing complementary information for remotely sensed maps. The research sites were located in different ecological and socio-economic contexts in the provinces of Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty-one maps of land cover and land use were drawn with local community participation during focus group discussions in seven villages. These maps, covering a total of 270,000ha, were used to add information to maps developed using remote sensing, adding 39 land covers to the eight from our initial desk assessment. They also provided additional information on drivers of land use and land cover change, resource areas, territory claims and land status, which we were able to correlate to understand changes in forest cover. Incorporating participatory mapping in the REDD+ MRV protocol would help with initial remotely sensed land classifications, stratify an area for ground checks and measurement plots, and add other valuable social data not visible at the RS scale. Ultimately, it would provide a forum for local communities to discuss REDD+ activities and develop a better understanding of REDD+.

  19. Interpretation of standard distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements in light of the complete parametric response.

    PubMed

    Mills, David M

    2002-10-01

    Emission characteristics (at 2f1-f2) are measured in Mongolian gerbil as a function of the independent variation of all four stimulus parameters, the frequencies (f1 and f2) and the intensities (L1 and L2) of the two stimulus tones. The main five-dimensional display chosen is a logarithmic grid of frequencies, where for each frequency pair there is a contour map of the emission amplitude as a function of the two stimulus levels. The feature which leads to the greatest complexity in the proper interpretation of emission responses is the widespread presence of "notches" in these contour maps. Notches are lines of relative minima in the emission amplitude, and are found at either: (1) constant L1, but only in regions where L1 > L2; or (2) at constant L2, only where L2 > or = L1. Notches are not found at any other orientations, and are associated with emission phase shifts of about 180 degrees as the notch line is traversed. These notch characteristics are explained by phase cancellation in a simple cochlear amplifier model in which there is a change, as a function of the stimulus level alone, of relevant characteristics of the cochlear response to a single tone. Only one mechanism of emission generation is required to explain the observed patterns, i.e., there is no need to invoke different "active" and "passive" mechanisms. Unless properly accounted for, the presence of notches adversely affects all of the standard emission measurements, i.e., all methods which cover a restricted parameter set such as DPgrams, input-output or "growth" functions, and frequency ratio functions. Conversely, because the notch location appears approximately invariant in the cochlea, notches potentially make it possible to use certain emission growth functions to estimate forward and reverse middle-ear transfer functions.

  20. Developing a Tool for Measuring the Decision-Making Competence of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Melissa L.; Gullion, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a tool for measuring older adults’ decision-making competence (DMC). Two-hundred-five younger adults (25-45 years), 208 young-older adults (65-74 years), and 198 old-older adults (75-97 years) made judgments and decisions related to health, finance, and nutrition. Reliable indices of comprehension, dimension weighting, and cognitive reflection were developed. Unlike previous research, the authors were able to compare old-older with young-older adults’ performance. As hypothesized, old-older adults performed more poorly than young-older adults; both groups of older adults performed more poorly than younger adults. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a large amount of variance in decision performance across age groups (including mean trends) could be accounted for by social variables, health measures, basic cognitive skills, attitudinal measures, and numeracy. Structural equation modeling revealed significant pathways from three exogenous latent factors (crystallized intelligence, other cognitive abilities, and age) to the endogenous DMC latent factor. Further research is needed to validate the meaning of performance on these tasks for real-life decision making. PMID:20545413

  1. The use of routine outcome measures in two child and adolescent mental health services: a completed audit cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is important for assessing the clinical effectiveness of health services and for monitoring patient outcomes. Within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK the adoption of ROM in CAMHS has been supported by both national and local initiatives (such as government strategies, local commissioning policy, and research). Methods With the aim of assessing how these policies and initiatives may have influenced the uptake of ROM within two different CAMHS we report the findings of two case-note audits: a baseline audit conducted in January 2011 and a re-audit conducted two years later in December 2012-February 2013. Results The findings show an increase in both the single and repeated use of outcome measures from the time of the original audit, with repeated use (baseline and follow-up) of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) scale increasing from 10% to 50% of cases. Re-audited case-notes contained more combined use of different outcome measures, with greater consensus on which measures to use. Outcome measures that were applicable across a wide range of clinical conditions were more likely to be used than symptom-specific measures, and measures that were completed by the clinician were found more often than measures completed by the service user. Conclusions The findings show a substantial improvement in the use of outcome measures within CAMHS. These increases in use were found across different service organisations which were subject to different types of local service priorities and drivers. PMID:24139139

  2. Measuring the complete cross-cell carrier mobility distributions in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifter, Jason; Sun, Yanming; Choi, Hyosung; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Heeger, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube-enabled, vertical, organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) based on the small molecule dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) have demonstrated high current, low-power operation suitable for driving active matix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. This performance is achieved without the need for costly high-resolution patterning, despite the low mobility of the organic semiconductor, by employing sub-micron channel widths, defined in the vertical devices by the thickness of the semiconducting layer. Replacing the thermally evaporated small molecule semiconductor with a solution-processed polymer would possibly further simplify the fabrication process and reduce manufacturing cost. Here we investigate several polymer systems as wide bandgap semiconducting channel layers for potentially air stable and transparent CN-VFETs. The field effect mobility and optical transparency of the polymer layers are determined, and the performance and air stability of CN-VFET devices are measured. A. S. gratefully acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under DMR-1156737.

  3. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Stéphanie A; Adamo, Kristi B; Hamel, Meghan E; Hardt, Jill; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Tremblay, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary) and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water) assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals the need for valid, accurate

  4. Efficacy of atomoxetine in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An integrated analysis of the complete database of multicenter placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, Philip; Bushe, Chris; Saylor, Keith; Tanaka, Yoko; Deberdt, Walter; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adulthood can be disabling or lead to substantial impairment. Several clinical trials of atomoxetine (ATX) in adults with ADHD have been reported following the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines issued in 2008. We performed an integrated analysis of all Eli Lilly-sponsored, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of ATX in adults with ADHD completed as of May 2012. Individual patient data were pooled from six short-term (10–16 week) studies (1961 patients) and three longer-term (six-month) studies (1413 patients). In the short-term analysis, ATX patients achieved a significantly greater mean reduction in ADHD symptoms than placebo patients (−12.2 vs −8.1; Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale–Investigator-Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv: SV); p<0.001). In the longer-term analysis, respective improvements after six months were −13.2 vs −9.7 (p<0.001). Response rates at study endpoints for ATX vs placebo, based on CAARS-Inv: SV improvement ≥30% and Clinical Global Impressions of ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) ≤3 were 34.8% vs 22.3% in the short-term and 43.4% vs 28.0% after six months, and CAARS-Inv: SV improvements ≥40% were 41.3% vs 25.3% in the short-term and 44.0% vs 31.4% after six months (all p<0.001). Overall, ATX had a clinically significant effect in adults with ADHD, with reductions in core symptoms and clinically meaningful responder rates. PMID:25035246

  5. The premonitory urge to tic: measurement, characteristics, and correlates in older adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Reese, Hannah E; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L; Crowe, Katherine; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    In addition to motor and/or vocal tics, many individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) report frequent, uncomfortable sensory phenomena that immediately precede the tics. To date, examination of these premonitory sensations or urges has been limited by inconsistent assessment tools. In this paper, we examine the psychometric properties of a nine-item self-report measure, the Premonitory Urge to Tic Scale (PUTS) and examine the characteristics and correlates of the premonitory urge to tic in a clinical sample of 122 older adolescents and adults with TS or CTD. The PUTS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, temporal stability, and concurrent validity. Premonitory urges were endorsed by the majority of individuals. Most individuals reported some relief from the urges after completing a tic and being able to stop their tics even if only temporarily. Degree of premonitory urges was not significantly correlated with age, and we did not observe any gender differences. Degree of premonitory urges was significantly correlated with estimated IQ and tic severity, but not severity of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Also, it was not related to concomitant medication status. These findings represent another step forward in our understanding of the premonitory sensations associated with TS and CTD.

  6. Effectiveness of symptom validity measures in identifying cognitive and behavioral symptom exaggeration in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul; Schroeder, Ryan; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Fischer, Rebecca; Ries, Adam; Blesi, Brita; Barker, Jessica

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of symptom validity measures to detect suspect effort in cognitive testing and invalid completion of ADHD behavior rating scales in 268 adults referred for ADHD assessment. Patients were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, and clinical interview. Suspect effort was diagnosed by at least two of the following: failure on embedded and free-standing SVT measures, a score > 2 SD below the ADD population average on tests, failure on an ADHD behavior rating scale validity scale, or a major discrepancy between reported and observed ADHD behaviors. A total of 22% of patients engaged in symptom exaggeration. The Word Memory test immediate recall and consistency score (both 64%), TOVA omission errors (63%) and reaction time variability (54%), CAT-A infrequency scale (58%), and b Test (47%) had good sensitivity as well as at least 90% specificity. Clearly, such measures should be used to help avoid making false positive diagnoses of ADHD.

  7. Brain tissue pressure measurements in perinatal and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hornig, G W; Lorenzo, A V; Zavala, L M; Welch, K

    1987-12-01

    Brain tissue pressure (BTP) in pre- and post-natal anesthetized rabbits, held in a stereotactic head holder, was measured with a fluid filled 23 gauge open-ended cannula connected distally to a pressure transducer. By advancing the cannula step wise through a hole in the cranium it was possible to sequentially measure pressure from the cranial subarachnoid space, cortex, ventricle and basal ganglia. Separate cannulas and transducers were used to measure CSFP from the cisterna magna and arterial and/or venous pressure. Pressure recordings obtained when the tip of the BTP cannula was located in the cranial subarachnoid space or ventricle exhibited respiratory and blood pressure pulsations equivalent to and in phase with CSF pulsations recorded from the cisterna magna. When the tip was advanced into brain parenchymal sites such pulsations were suppressed or non-detectable unless communication with a CSF compartment had been established inadvertently. Although CSF pressures in the three spinal fluid compartments were equivalent, in most animals BTP was higher than CSFP. However, after momentary venting of the system BTP equilibrated at a pressure below that of CSFP. We speculate that venting of the low compliance system (1.20 x 10(-5) ml/mmHg) relieves the isometric pressure build-up due to insertion of the cannula into brain parenchyma. Under these conditions, and at all ages examined, BTP in the rabbit is consistently lower than CSFP and, as with CSFP, it increases as the animal matures.

  8. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  9. NIRS Measurement of Venous Oxygen Saturation in the Adult Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Haensse, Daniel; Bauschatz, Andrea; Wolf, Martin

    Provided that both the breathing frequency remains constant and that the temporal resolution of the instrument is sufficiently high, NIRS spiroximetry enables measurement of cerebral SvO2 in healthy human adults. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of StO2, SaO2, and SvO2 enable calculation of both OEF and the compartmental distribution of cerebral blood volume.

  10. Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test-Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method: Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12-octave…

  11. Therapy Expectations: Preliminary Exploration and Measurement in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane, Amy L.; Jahoda, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To carry out a preliminary exploration and measurement of therapy expectancy in adults with intellectual disabilities through the development and psychometric evaluation of the therapy expectation measure (TEAM). Design: The initial scale development phase combined top-down theory-driven and bottom-up data-driven processes to identify…

  12. Measuring the Continuum of Literacy Skills among Adults: Educational Testing and the LAMP Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Cesar; Cardoso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The field of educational testing has become increasingly important for providing different stakeholders and decision-makers with information. This paper discusses basic standards for methodological approaches used in measuring literacy skills among adults. The authors address the increasing interest in skills measurement, the discourses on how…

  13. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the 'ABC' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Morosov, B.

    2009-02-06

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the {pi}{pi} invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a ({pi}{pi}){sub I=L=0} channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a {delta}{delta} system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data.

  14. Definitions, measurement and prevalence of sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melville, Craig A; Oppewal, Alyt; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte; Freiberger, Ellen; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Einarsson, Ingi; Izquierdo-Gómez, Rocio H; Sansano-Nadal, Oriol; Rintala, Pauli; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Giné-Garriga, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Supporting positive change in lifestyle behaviours is a priority in tackling the health inequalities experienced by adults with intellectual disabilities. In this systematic review, we examine the evidence on the definition, measurement and epidemiology of sedentary behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities. A systematic literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies published from 1990 up to October 2015. Nineteen papers met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Many researchers do not distinguish between insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviour. None of the studies reported the reliability and validity of the methods used to measure sedentary behaviour. Sedentary time, assessed objectively, ranged from 522 to 643min/day: higher than in adults without intellectual disabilities. This first-ever review of sedentary behaviour and intellectual disabilities found that at present the evidence base is weak. Studies calibrating accelerometer data with criterion measures for sedentary behaviour are needed to determine specific cut-off points to measure sedentary behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities. Researchers should also examine the reliability and validity of using proxy-report questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in this group. A better understanding of sedentary behaviour will inform the design of novel interventions to change lifestyle behaviours of adults with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Collop, Nancy A.; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Thomas, Sherene M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Aronsky, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care measures presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care measures aimed at optimizing care for adult patients with OSA. These quality care measures developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcomes that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After selecting these relevant outcomes, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing these outcomes. In the future, the measures described in this document may be reported through the PQRS in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality measures will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. Citation: Aurora RN, Collop NA, Jacobowitz O, Thomas SM, Quan SF, Aronsky AJ. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with

  16. Complete angular distribution measurements of two-body deuteron photodisintegration between 0.5 and 3 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mirazita; F. Ronchetti; P. Rossi; E. De Sanctis; CLAS Collaboration

    2004-07-12

    Nearly complete angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section have been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer detector and the tagged photon beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data cover photon energies between 0.5 and 3.0 GeV and center-of-mass proton scattering angles 10{sup o}-160{sup o}. The data show a persistent forward-backward angle asymmetry over the explored energy range, and are well described by the nonperturbative quark gluon string model.

  17. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  18. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J.E.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N = 133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N = 132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05 – 0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  19. The Aging Semantic Differential in Mandarin Chinese: Measuring Attitudes toward Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Marchiondo, Lisa A; Tan, Jing; Wang, Yi; Chen, Huajuan

    2017-02-16

    The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) is the most widely used instrument to measure young people's attitudes towards older adults. This study translated the ASD to Mandarin and examined its psychometric properties. The Mandarin-ASD contains three latent factors (Personality and Mental Health, Societal Participation, and Physical) that have high internal reliability and reasonable discriminate validity. Social work researchers, practitioners and allied professionals may utilize the ASD-Mandarin instrument to measure young people's attitudes towards older adults in China. We issue a call for a universal-ASD that can be applied across different cultural contexts.

  20. Observation of two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 by complete-kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. X.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, F.; Jia, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Chen, R. F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, C.; Lei, X. G.; Xu, Z. G.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 was studied by complete-kinematics measurements. The Ne18 beam at the energy of 51.8 MeV/u was bombarding a Au197 target to populate the excited states via Coulomb excitation. Products of two-α emission, C10-α-α, were measured by an array of silicon strip detectors and a CsI + PIN telescope. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the experimental results show the characteristics of sequential two-α emission via O14 excited states. Sequential two-α and two-proton emissions from Ne18 via one-particle daughter states are compared and the distinction of the opening angles of these two modes originates from the difference of the mass ratio of emitted particles to daughter nuclei.

  1. Minimal Residual Disease as a Predictive Factor for Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First and Second Complete Remission

    PubMed Central

    Grubovikj, Rada M.; Alavi, Asif; Koppel, Ahrin; Territo, Mary; Schiller, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is potentially curative for patients with high-risk leukemia, but disease recurrence remains the leading cause of treatment failure. Our objective was to determine the impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) by any technique in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in morphologic first and second complete remission undergoing allo-SCT. Fifty nine patients were eligible for the study of 160 patients transplanted over ten years. For the MRD assessment we used multiparametric flow cytometry, cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization; 19 patients (32.2%) were identified as MRD positive. Patients with MRD had a consistently worse outcome over those without MRD, with 3-years leukemia-free survival (LFS) of 15.8% vs. 62.4% and overall survival (OS) of 17.5% vs. 62.3%. Relapse rate was significantly higher in MRD-positive patients; 3 years relapse rate in MRD-positive patients was 57.9% vs. 15.1% in MRD-negative patients. Detection of MRD in complete remission was associated with increased overall mortality (HR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.45–7.57; p = 0.0044) and relapse (HR = 5.26; 95% CI: 2.0–14.0; p = 0.001), even after controlling for other risk factors. Our study showed that for patients in morphologic complete remission the presence of MRD predicts for significantly increased risk of relapse and reduced LFS and OS. PMID:24213327

  2. Measuring adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus

    PubMed Central

    Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) occurs in approximately 5% of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants. Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity using a continuous performance test, and hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. A predictive variable for the detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD yielded 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed using a Weighed Core Symptoms scale that indicated the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100. The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential sex and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments. PMID:24294490

  3. Measurement Properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): A Pain Scale for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Scored in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    The 18 items' Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC) has been developed from the 27 items Non-Communicating Children Pain Checklist to better capture pain behavior of adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). As part of the NCAPC's measurement properties, internal consistency, reliability and sensitivity to pain have…

  4. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  5. The Timing of Calcium Measurements in Helping to Predict Temporary and Permanent Hypocalcaemia in Patients Having Completion and Total Thyroidectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, AG; Ahmad, N; Draper, MR; Vrotsou, K; Smith, WK

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative hypocalaemia commonly occurs after extensive thyroid surgery and may require calcium and/or vitamin D supplements to alleviate or prevent the symptoms. In this study, we determined the risk factors for developing hypocalcaemia and whether early serum calcium levels can predict the development of or differentiate between temporary or permanent hypocalcaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 162 patients who either had a completion or total thyroidectomy formed the basis of this prospective study. Serial serum calcium measurements were recorded as well as details of the operation, pathology, indications for surgery, number of parathyroids identified at operation and any complications. RESULTS Eighty-four (52%) patients did not develop hypocalcaemia but 69 (43%) were found to have temporary hypocalcaemia and 9 (5%) had permanent hypocalcaemia. Hypocalcaemia was more common after total than completion thyroidectomies and the identification of parathyroids at operation appears to have a significant adverse effect on outcome. The calcium levels measured on day 1 postoperatively and the slope (serum calcium levels of day 1 postoperative minus day of operation) were statistically significant in predicting the development of hypocalcaemia and possibly to differentiate between temporary or permanent hypocalcaemia. DISCUSSION Although almost half the patients having extensive thyroid surgery developed hypocalcaemia (as defined by any postoperative corrected serum calcium level of < 2.12 mmol/l) only 24% had a serum calcium of < 2.12 mmol/l associated with clinical symptoms of hypocalcaemia or a calcium level of < 2.0 mmol/l. Only 5% had persistent hypocalcaemia defined as requiring exogenous supplements at 6 months' postoperatively. Patients having a completion thyroidectomy appear to be less likely to develop hypocalcaemia perhaps as a result of any iatrogenic effects on the parathyroids at the first operation being reversed before the second

  6. Development of a New Multidimensional Individual and Interpersonal Resilience Measure for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A’verria Sirkin; Distelberg, Brian; Palmer, Barton W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Develop an empirically grounded measure that can be used to assess family and individual resilience in a population of older adults (aged 50-99). Methods Cross-sectional, self-report data from 1,006 older adults were analyzed in two steps. The total sample was split into two sub-samples and the first step identified the underlying latent structure through principal component Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The second step utilized the second half of the sample to validate the derived latent structure through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results EFA produced an eight-factor structure that appeared clinically relevant for measuring the multidimensional nature of resilience. Factors included self-efficacy, access to social support network, optimism, perceived economic and social resources, spirituality and religiosity, relational accord, emotional expression and communication, and emotional regulation. CFA confirmed the eight-factor structure previously achieved with covariance between each of the factors. Based on these analyses we developed the Multidimensional Individual and Interpersonal Resilience Measure (MIIRM), a broad assessment of resilience for older adults. Conclusion This study highlights the multidimensional nature of resilience and introduces an individual and interpersonal resilience measure developed for older adults which is grounded in the individual and family resilience literature. PMID:24787701

  7. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  9. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beadnell, Blair; Molina, Yamile

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a three-phase, mixed-methods study to develop a self-report measure assessing the unique aspects of minority stress for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire has 50 items and nine subscales with acceptable internal reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Mean sexual orientation and gender differences were found. PMID:24058262

  10. The Dimensions of Successful Young Adult Development: A Conceptual and Measurement Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Peter C.; Benson, Peter L.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David; Pashak, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we draw on the theoretical and empirical literature to name what appear to be core dimensions of successful young adult development. We also describe some possible indicators and measures of those dimensions and sketch the kinds of developmental relationships and opportunities young people need in adolescence to effectively…

  11. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  12. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  13. Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

  14. Sustained attention in adult ADHD: time-on-task effects of various measures of attention.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults with ADHD. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the hypothesis of sustained attention deficits of adults with ADHD. Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 30 healthy individuals were assessed on four 20-min tests of sustained attention, measuring alertness, selective attention, divided attention and flexibility. The deterioration of performance over time (time-on-task effects) was compared between patients with ADHD and healthy individuals to conclude on sustained attention performance. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with ADHD showed significant deficits of medium size in selective attention and divided attention. Furthermore, medium sustained attention deficits was observed in measures of alertness, selective attention and divided attention. This study supports the notion of sustained attention deficits of adults with ADHD.

  15. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  16. Reliability and predictive validity of energy intake measures from the 24-hour dietary recalls of homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L

    2010-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults' eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total energy intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. Two hundred thirty homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two subsamples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n=52), sufficient test-retest reliability of energy intake was observed (r=0.59), but energy intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r=0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n=143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient energy intake (odds ratio 3.49, P=0.009), and in white participants compared to African-American participants (odds ratio 3.13, P=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals is needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of energy intake measures for this population.

  17. Validation of a Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed with Cancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona E J; Patterson, Pandora; Costa, Daniel S J; Shepherd, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    Health literacy can influence long-term health outcomes. This study aimed to validate an adapted version of the Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy measure for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients and survivors (N = 105; age 12-24 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to validate the measure, and indicated that a slightly modified item structure better fit the results. Furthermore, item response theory analysis highlighted location and discrimination parameter differences among items. Acceptability of the measure was high. This is the first validation of a health literacy measure among AYAs with an illness such as cancer.

  18. Measurement of activity in older adults: reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Nahm, E S; Orwig, D; Zimmerman, S S; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor (SAM) when used with older adults. A total of 30 subjects with a mean age of 86 +/- 6.1 participated in the study. Sixty one-minute walks were measured with the SAM, and two observers visually counted steps. Four participants wore the SAM for 6 to 48 hours and maintained activity diaries. The intraclass correlation for the SAM recordings was R = .84. There was an overall step counting accuracy of 96%. The diaries supported the SAM data for those who wore the SAM for extended periods. The SAM is an easy to use, comfortable, valid, and reliable measure of activity in older adults and particularly may be useful to triangulate measurement of activity in these individuals.

  19. Complete positive ion, electron, and ram negative ion measurements near Comet Halley (COPERNIC) plasma experiment for the European Giotto Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    Participation of U.S. scientists on the COPERNIC (COmplete Positive ions, Electrons and Ram Negative Ion measurements near Comet Halley) plasma experiment on the Giotto mission is described. The experiment consisted of two detectors: the EESA (electron electrostatic analyzer) which provided three-dimensional measurements of the distribution of electrons from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the PICCA (positive ion cluster composition analyzer) which provided mass analysis of positively charged cold cometary ions from mass 10 to 210 amu. In addition, a small 3 deg wide sector of the EESA looking in the ram direction was devoted to the detection of negatively charged cold cometary ions. Both detectors operated perfectly up to near closest approach (approx. 600 km) to Halley, but impacts of dust particles and neutral gas on the spacecraft contaminated parts of the data during the last few minutes. Although no flight hardware was fabricated in the U.S., The U.S. made very significant contributions to the hardware design, ground support equipment (GSE) design and fabrication, and flight and data reduction software required for the experiment, and also participated fully in the data reduction and analysis, and theoretical modeling and interpretation. Cometary data analysis is presented.

  20. Exploring the use of social network analysis to measure social integration among older adults in assisted living.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Social integration is measured by a variety of social network indicators each with limitations in its ability to produce a complete picture of the variety and scope of interactions of older adults receiving long-term services and supports. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of collecting sociocentric (whole network) data among older adults in one assisted living neighborhood. The sociocentric approach is required to conduct social network analysis. Applying social network analysis is an innovative way to measure different facets of social integration among residents. Sociocentric data are presented for 12 residents. Network visualization or sociograms are used to illustrate the level of social integration among residents and between residents and staff. Measures of network centrality are reported to illustrate the number of personal connections and cohesion. The use of resident photographs helped residents with cognitive impairment to nominate individuals with whom they interacted. The sociocentric approach to data collection is feasible and allows researchers to measure levels and different aspects of social integration in assisted living environments. Residents with mild to moderate cognitive impairment were able to participate with the aid of resident and staff photographs. This approach is sensitive to capturing routine day-to-day interactions between residents and assisted living staff members that are often not reported in person-centered networks. This study contributes to the foundation for larger more representative studies of entire assisted living organizations that could in the future inform interventions aimed at improving social integration and cohesion among recipients of long-term services and supports.

  1. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  2. Red blood cell velocity measurements of complete capillary in finger nail-fold using optical flow estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chieh; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2009-12-01

    A new approach for the measurement of the red blood cell (RBC) velocity from capillary video by using optical flow estimation has been developed. An image registration function based on mutual information was used for stabilizing images in order to cope with slight finger movement during video acquisition. After image alignment, a skeleton extraction algorithm implemented by thinning was followed which enabled tracking blood flow entirely in arteriolar and venular limbs, and the curved segment as well. Optical flow and cross-correlation approaches were applied individually for velocity estimation of twelve microcirculation videos acquired independently from three healthy volunteers. The RBC velocity of 12 vessels at three given measurement sites (arteriolar, curve and venular sites) in a 45-second period of occlusion-release condition of vessel were examined. There were four stages of flow conditions: resting (T(1)), pre-occlusion (T(2)), post-occlusion (T(3)) and release (T(4)). The results from both approaches revealed that the velocity difference among the three sites were not significant. The pattern of distribution of RBC velocity was also reported. The correlation coefficient (r) of the velocity calculated using optical flow and cross-correlation in four stages of blood flow conditions and the overall correlation were: 1-window: r(T1)=0.68, r(T2)=0.67, r(T3)=0.92, r(T4)=0.88 and r(All)=0.79; 2-window: r(T1)=0.84, r(T2)=0.88, r(T3)=0.87, r(T4)=0.93 and r(All)=0.88. The averaged velocity results showed no significant differences between optical flow and 2-window cross-correlation in all flow conditions. Optical flow estimation is not only independent to the direction of flow, but also able to calculate the intensity displacement of all pixels. The proposed velocity measurement system has been shown to provide complete velocity information for the whole vessel limb which demonstrates the advantage of measuring blood flow at the level of microcirculation more

  3. Limited Accuracy of Colour Doppler Ultrasound Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurement in Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoperka, Felix; Karger, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) is a pre-described and available method in pediatric ultrasound to quantify tissue perfusion in renal Doppler ultrasound by particular video analysis software. This study evaluates DTPM during single and between repeated visits after 6 months, calibrates repeated DTPM within different region of interest (ROI) and compares DTPM with kidney function markers in adult patients with early diabetic nephropathy (n = 17). During repeated measurements, no association of readings at the same patients in the same (n = 3 readings) as well as repeated visit (n = 2 visits) could be retrieved. No association between DTPM, MDRD-GFR, albuminuria, age and duration of diabetes was observed. These negative results are presumably related to inconsistency of DTPM due to non-fixed ROI position as could be shown in calibrating series. Further development of the method should be performed to enable reproducible DTPM readings in adults. PMID:28033403

  4. Measuring Complete 3D Vegetation Structure With Airborne Waveform Lidar: A Calibration and Validation With Terrestrial Lidar Derived Voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, S.; Anderson, K.; Disney, M.; Gaston, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of vegetation are vital to understand habitats and their provision of ecosystem services as well as having applications in satellite calibration, weather modelling and forestry. The majority of humans now live in urban areas and so understanding vegetation structure in these very heterogeneous areas is of importance. A number of previous studies have used airborne lidar (ALS) to characterise canopy height and canopy cover, but very few have fully characterised 3D vegetation, including understorey. Those that have either relied on leaf-off scans to allow unattenuated measurement of understorey or else did not validate. A method for creating a detailed voxel map of urban vegetation, in which the surface area of vegetation within a grid of cuboids (1.5m by 1.5m by 25 cm) is defined, from full-waveform ALS is presented. The ALS was processed with deconvolution and attenuation correction methods. The signal processing was calibrated and validated against synthetic waveforms generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, taken as "truth". The TLS data was corrected for partial hits and attenuation using a voxel approach and these steps were validated and found to be accurate. The ALS results were benchmarked against the more common discrete return ALS products (produced automatically by the lidar manufacturer's algorithms) and Gaussian decomposition of full-waveform ALS. The true vegetation profile was accurately recreated by deconvolution. Far more detail was captured by the deconvolved waveform than either the discrete return or Gaussian decomposed ALS, particularly detail within the canopy; vital information for understanding habitats. In the paper, we will present the results with a focus on the methodological steps towards generating the voxel model, and the subsequent quantitative calibration and validation of the modelling approach using TLS. We will discuss the implications of the work for complete vegetation canopy descriptions in

  5. Radionuclide measurement of right ventricular function in atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and complete transposition of the great arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.J.; Shubao, C.; Clarke, S.E.; Fogelman, I.; Maisey, M.N.; Tynan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed in 80 patients with congenital heart disease by first-pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In 30 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) the mean RV ejection fraction (+/- standard deviation) was 64 +/- 7%. In 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect it was 61 +/- 9% and in 20 patients with surgically corrected complete transposition of the great arteries it was 49 +/- 13%. These values are in close agreement with values established with cineangiography for similar groups of patients. The mean ejection fraction in the group with transposition of the great arteries was significantly less than in the group with VSD (p less than 0.001). Phase analysis of the equilibrium studies showed that there was delayed RV contraction in many patients in the absence of conduction abnormalities. This delay was significantly greater in patients with atrial septal defect than in those with VSD (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between size of left-to-right shunt and phase delay in patients with VSD (r = -0.72). Thus, first-pass gated radionuclide angiography provides a valid measurement of RV ejection fraction, and delayed RV contraction on phase analysis may be a sensitive index of early RV dysfunction.

  6. Chandra measurements of a complete sample of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters: the luminosity-mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, P. A.; Maughan, B. J.; Dahle, H.; Bonamente, M.; Landry, D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Murray, S. S.; van der Pyl, N.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of work involving a statistically complete sample of 34 galaxy clusters, in the redshift range 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 observed with Chandra. We investigate the luminosity-mass (LM) relation for the cluster sample, with the masses obtained via a full hydrostatic mass analysis. We utilize a method to fully account for selection biases when modelling the LM relation, and find that the LM relation is significantly different from the relation modelled when not account for selection effects. We find that the luminosity of our clusters is 2.2 ± 0.4 times higher (when accounting for selection effects) than the average for a given mass and its mass is 30 per cent lower than the population average for a given luminosity. Equivalently, using the LM relation measured from this sample without correcting for selection biases would lead to the underestimation by 40 per cent of the average mass of a cluster with a given luminosity. Comparing the hydrostatic masses to mass estimates determined from the YX parameter, we find that they are entirely consistent, irrespective of the dynamical state of the cluster.

  7. Review of how we should define (and measure) adherence in studies examining older adults' participation in exercise classes

    PubMed Central

    Hawley-Hague, H; Horne, M; Skelton, D A; Todd, C

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits to older adults, reducing risk of illness, promoting functional ability and improving well-being. However, to be effective and achieve long-term outcomes, exercise needs to be maintained. Adherence is poor and reporting of adherence differs considerably between studies. Objective To explore how adherence to exercise classes for older people is defined in the literature and devise a definition for pooling data on adherence in future studies. Design Methodological review of the approaches used to measure adherence. Methods A review of the literature was carried out using narrative synthesis, based on systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO. 2 investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. Results 37 papers including 34 studies were identified. 7 papers (7 studies) defined adherence as completion (retention). 30 papers (27 studies) identified adherence using attendance records. 12 papers (11 studies) based adherence on duration of exercise and 5 papers (4 studies) specified the intensity with which participants should exercise. Several studies used multiple methods. Conclusions There was little consensus between studies on how adherence should be defined, and even when studies used the same conceptual measure, they measured the concept using different approaches and/or had different cut-off points. Adherence related to health outcomes requires multiple measurements, for example, attendance, duration and intensity. It is important that future studies consider the outcome of the intervention when considering their definition of adherence, and we recommend a series of definitions for future use. PMID:27338884

  8. Psychometric characteristics and race-related measurement invariance of stress and coping measures in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Heckman, Timothy G; Feaster, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    Measurement invariance is the extent to which scales have the same meaning across groups, a condition that is necessary prior to conducting between-group comparisons. As stress and coping research increasingly examines the adjustment efforts of African Americans and Caucasians living with chronic health conditions, it is first necessary to assess the equivalence of existing stress and coping measures for both racial groups. This study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of four measures used frequently in stress and coping research. African Americans (n = 204) and Caucasians (n = 83) completed pre- and post-intervention surveys as part of a randomized clinical trial that tested if telephone-administered psychotherapies could reduce depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Participants completed the ways of coping checklist (WOCC), the coping self-efficacy scale (CSES), the provision of social relations scale (PSRS), and the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Several WOCC subscales initially evidenced poor internal consistency (when computed using summated composites) that improved when measurement models were applied. The 12-week test-retest reliabilities of PSRS total and subscale scores were notably lower in African Americans than Caucasians. Analyses of race-related measurement invariance showed acceptable invariance for the GDS and the CSES but less certain invariance for the WOCC and PSRS. Stress and coping researchers should examine carefully the psychometric properties of study measures within and between racial groups prior to conducting tests of between-group differences.

  9. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Morse, C.I.; Smith, J.; Denny, A.; Tweedale, J.; Searle, N.D.; Winwood, K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Methods: Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker’s (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross sectional area (TAACSA) was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Grip strength was measured in all but DMD. Results: Physical activity was lower in DMD, FSH and BeMD than CTRL (P<0.05), and lower in DMD than other MDs (P<0.01). T and Z scores were lower in DMD and Be than CTRL (DR, P<0.05); and lower in DMD than CTRL, LG, and FSH (MST, P<0.01). TAACSA and grip strength was 35-59% and 50-58% smaller in MD than CTRL, respectively (P<0.01). Within MD, BPAQ correlated with bone QUS measures (r=0.42-0.38, P<0.01). PASIPD correlated with grip strength (r=0.65, P<0.01) and TAACSA (r=0.46, P<0.01). Conclusion: Muscle size, strength, and bone health was lower in adult males with MD compared to adult males without MD, the extent of this is partially determined by physical activity. PMID:27973386

  10. The 3D scanner for measuring body surface area: a simplified calculation in the Chinese adult.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chi-Yuan; Lo, Yu-Hung; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2003-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. A model is presented for estimation of human body surface area (BSA), which is identical in form to the one proposed in 1916 by DuBois and DuBois is presented. The purpose of this study is to measure BSA, using 3D scanner, and to derive a simple BSA estimation formula for the Chinese adults. In as little as 12s, the Chang Gung Whole-Body Scanner (CGWBS) allows you to capture the shape of the entire human body. The total error in BSA measurement due to scanning measurement and software computational error is less than 1%. The 3D anthropometric measures in a healthy population (n=3951) were investigated, and the results were used to derive a BSA estimation formula. The results seem to be comparable to previous data that measured BSA using traditional methods. The BSA estimation model of this study also validated using 300 new measurements along with the formulae proposed in previous researches. The result suggests that our formula better fits our adults.

  11. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  12. Comparison of impedance measurements near the skin of newborns and adults.

    PubMed

    Amm, Bruce; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Newell, Jonathan; Isaacson, David; Saulnier, Gary; Shoudy, David; Boverman, Greg; Sahni, Rakesh; Weindler, Marilyn; Chong, David; DiBardino, David; Davenport, David; Ashe, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technology that has been extensively studied for monitoring lung function of neonatal and adult subjects, especially in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) environments. The sources of the total impedance in these applications include internal organs, near-boundary tissues, electrode-skin impedance, electrodes and conducting wires. This total impedance must be considered for system design and setting voltage gain since it will contribute to the measured voltage. To adapt a single instrument for use on infants and adults, we studied the difference between the impedance near the skin in both classes of patients. We used a simultaneous multi-source EIT (SMS-EIT) system to make impedance measurements. Characteristic resistance was calculated for two different current patterns: one that is more sensitive to boundary region impedance and another that is more sensitive to interior changes. We present ratios of these resistances to assess the relative contribution of near-skin effects to the overall impedance. Twenty adult ICU subjects (10 male, 10 female, age: 49.05  ±  16.32 years (mean  ±  standard deviation)) and 45 neonates (23 male, 22 female, gestational age: 37.67  ±  2.11 weeks, postnatal age, 2.56  ±  2.67 d) were studied at Columbia University Medical Center. Impedance measurements at 10 kHz were collected for approximately one hour from each subject. The characteristic resistance ratio for each subject was computed and analyzed. The result shows the impedance at or near the skin of newborns is significantly higher than in adult subjects.

  13. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  14. Ambivalence in Older Parent–Adult Child Relationships: Mixed Feelings, Mixed Measures

    PubMed Central

    Lendon, Jessica P.; Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2014-01-01

    This research compared direct and indirect measures of ambivalence, 2 commonly used strategies for measuring intergenerational ambivalence between older parents and their adult children. Directly and indirectly measured ambivalence, corresponding to felt and potential manifestations of the construct, were contrasted with each other and across generations. Data were derived from 253 older parent–adult child dyads participating in the Longitudinal Study of Generations in 2005. Direct and indirect measures of ambivalence were moderately correlated with each other within each generation. Children expressed greater indirect ambivalence than their parents but were no different than their mothers or fathers in their levels of direct ambivalence. Multivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between each type of ambivalence with individual and relationship characteristics found differences in associations across equations. The results suggest that direct and indirect measures are related but represent 2 distinct conceptions of ambivalence. This research highlights the challenges in understanding the full complexity of intergenerational relations and suggests that both generational perspectives be considered in future research. PMID:25378714

  15. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Yu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm3) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans. PMID:28168046

  16. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  17. Factor analyses of an Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI).

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam; Bamps, Yvan; LaFrance, W Curt; Stoll, Shelley; Shegog, Ross; Buelow, Janice; Shafer, Patricia; Thompson, Nancy J; McGee, Robin E; Hatfield, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of an enhanced Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI). An instrument of 113 items, covering 10 a priori self-management domains, was generated through a multiphase process, based on a review of the literature, validated epilepsy and other chronic condition self-management scales and expert input. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 422 adults with epilepsy. The instrument was reduced to 65 items, converging on 11 factors: Health-care Communication, Coping, Treatment Management, Seizure Tracking, Social Support, Seizure Response, Wellness, Medication Adherence, Safety, Stress Management, and Proactivity. Exploratory factors supported the construct validity for 6 a priori domains, albeit with significant changes in the retained items or in their scope and 3 new factors. One a priori domain was split in 2 subscales pertaining to treatment. The configuration of the 11 factors provides additional insight into epilepsy self-management behaviors. Internal consistency reliability of the 65-item instrument was high (α=.935). Correlations with independent measures of health status, quality of life, depression, seizure severity, and life impact of epilepsy further validated the instrument. This instrument shows potential for use in research and clinical settings and for assessing intervention outcomes and self-management behaviors in adults with epilepsy.

  18. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rebecca Jermyn; Graff, J Carolyn; Esbensen, Anna J; Hathaway, Donna K; Wan, Jim Y; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2016-07-01

    This study examined self- and caregiver-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 60 adults with Down syndrome (DS) using the QualityMetric Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2). All HRQOL scores exceeded means and fell within one standard deviation of the SF-12v2 normative sample. Similarities between eight self- and caregiver-reported HRQOL scales were found with the exception of role physical scores (impact of health problems on typical accomplishments), which were lower when obtained by caregiver-report. A positive association was found between self- and caregiver-reported physical functioning scores (impact of health problems on physical activity). The SF-12v2 had high construct validity in this study. These findings support the feasibility of measuring HRQOL of adults with DS using self-report rather than reliance on caregiver-report.

  19. Measurement in saliva from neurotypical adults of biomarkers pertinent to autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Helen V; Sothern, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Measure biomarkers pertinent to autism in saliva from humans. Materials & methods: At 7:30 PM (reading instructions) and 8:30 PM (hearing instructions), neurotypical adults (6 M, 6 F) each spat into tubes containing protease inhibitors. Cells were counted, samples aliquoted, frozen and thawed. Rationale was given for choice of biomarkers. ELISA: CD26, IL-12, carnitine, C4B, GSH, GSSG, MT-2, testosterone, IFN-γ. Mass spectrometry: cystine, glutamine, glutamic acid, GABA, serotonin. Electrochemiluminescentimmunoassay: cortisol. Radioimmunoassay: melatonin. Results: Cells averaged 2.16 × 106/ml. M > F: CD-26, C4B, MT-2. Testosterone, cortisol. Glutamine, glutamic acid, IFN-γ, melatonin and GSSG were measurable. Remaining biomarkers were measured in <50% of samples. Concentrations were equal at both times. Conclusion: Saliva can be collected by literate individuals without added instruction. Ten biomarkers were measurable. PMID:28031921

  20. A Comparison of the Self-Descriptions of High School Completion (GED) Dropouts and Persisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Paula G.; Wilson, Russell C.

    Differences in self-descriptive patterns of adults who dropped out of high school completion courses and those who completed their courses were examined using the Adjective Check List (ACL) to measure adult personality attributes. Subjects (N=142) were asked to endorse those adjectives which best described themselves and to skip those which did…

  1. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  2. The discriminant capabilities of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics in classifying successful and failed compensatory stepping responses by young adults.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Grabiner, Mark D

    2012-01-03

    This study evaluated the discriminant capability of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics to classify successful and failed compensatory stepping responses. In addition, the shared variance between stability measures, step kinematics, and trunk kinematics is reported. The stability measures included the anteroposterior distance (d) between the body center of mass and the stepping limb toe, the margin of stability (MOS), as well as time-to-boundary considering velocity (TTB(v)), velocity and acceleration (TTB(a)), and MOS (TTB(MOS)). Kinematic measures included trunk flexion angle and angular velocity, step length, and the time after disturbance onset of recovery step completion. Fourteen young adults stood on a treadmill that delivered surface accelerations necessitating multiple forward compensatory steps. Thirteen subjects fell from an initial disturbance, but recovered from a second, identical disturbance. Trunk flexion velocity at completion of the first recovery step and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second step had the greatest overall classification of all measures (92.3%). TTB(v) and TTB(a) at completion of both steps had the greatest classification accuracy of all stability measures (80.8%). The length of the first recovery step (r ≤ 0.70) and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second recovery step (r ≤ -0.54) had the largest correlations with stability measures. Although TTB(v) and TTB(a) demonstrated somewhat smaller discriminant capabilities than trunk kinematics, the small correlations between these stability measures and trunk kinematics (|r| ≤ 0.52) suggest that they reflect two important, yet different, aspects of a compensatory stepping response.

  3. Measuring Self-Perceived Change of Adult Bible Teachers as They Incorporate the Three Learning Domains into Their Teaching Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Waid Timothy, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    In this mixed methodology study, the researcher became the research practitioner through Educational Action Research. His personal practice of training adult Bible teachers was examined by measuring the self-perceived changes of a group of adult Bible teachers as they were trained to change from their traditional mode of primarily teaching the…

  4. Association between Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Objectively Measured Hearing Sensitivity among U.S. Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Gilham, Ben; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and hearing sensitivity among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with diabetes. Method: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. One hundred eighty-four U.S. adults with diabetes…

  5. Visual acuity measured with luminance-modulated and contrast-modulated noise letter stimuli in young adults and adults above 50 years old

    PubMed Central

    Woi, Pui Juan; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Waugh, Sarah J.; Hairol, Mohd Izzuddin

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system is sensitive in detecting objects that have different luminance level from their background, known as first-order or luminance-modulated (LM) stimuli. We are also able to detect objects that have the same mean luminance as their background, only differing in contrast (or other attributes). Such objects are known as second-order or contrast-modulated (CM), stimuli. CM stimuli are thought to be processed in higher visual areas compared to LM stimuli, and may be more susceptible to ageing. We compared visual acuities (VA) of five healthy older adults (54.0±1.83 years old) and five healthy younger adults (25.4±1.29 years old) with LM and CM letters under monocular and binocular viewing. For monocular viewing, age had no effect on VA [F(1, 8)= 2.50, p> 0.05]. However, there was a significant main effect of age on VA under binocular viewing [F(1, 8)= 5.67, p< 0.05].  Binocular VA with CM letters in younger adults was approximately two lines better than that in older adults. For LM, binocular summation ratios were similar for older (1.16±0.21) and younger (1.15±0.06) adults. For CM, younger adults had higher binocular summation ratio (1.39±0.08) compared to older adults (1.12±0.09). Binocular viewing improved VA with LM letters for both groups similarly. However, in older adults, binocular viewing did not improve VA with CM letters as much as in younger adults. This could reflect a decline of higher visual areas due to ageing process, most likely higher than V1, which may be missed if measured with luminance-based stimuli alone. PMID:28184281

  6. Visual acuity measured with luminance-modulated and contrast-modulated noise letter stimuli in young adults and adults above 50 years old.

    PubMed

    Woi, Pui Juan; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Waugh, Sarah J; Hairol, Mohd Izzuddin

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system is sensitive in detecting objects that have different luminance level from their background, known as first-order or luminance-modulated (LM) stimuli. We are also able to detect objects that have the same mean luminance as their background, only differing in contrast (or other attributes). Such objects are known as second-order or contrast-modulated (CM), stimuli. CM stimuli are thought to be processed in higher visual areas compared to LM stimuli, and may be more susceptible to ageing. We compared visual acuities (VA) of five healthy older adults (54.0±1.83 years old) and five healthy younger adults (25.4±1.29 years old) with LM and CM letters under monocular and binocular viewing. For monocular viewing, age had no effect on VA [F(1, 8)= 2.50, p> 0.05]. However, there was a significant main effect of age on VA under binocular viewing [F(1, 8)= 5.67, p< 0.05].  Binocular VA with CM letters in younger adults was approximately two lines better than that in older adults. For LM, binocular summation ratios were similar for older (1.16±0.21) and younger (1.15±0.06) adults. For CM, younger adults had higher binocular summation ratio (1.39±0.08) compared to older adults (1.12±0.09). Binocular viewing improved VA with LM letters for both groups similarly. However, in older adults, binocular viewing did not improve VA with CM letters as much as in younger adults. This could reflect a decline of higher visual areas due to ageing process, most likely higher than V1, which may be missed if measured with luminance-based stimuli alone.

  7. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  8. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry.

    PubMed

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., "fast thinking" in Daniel Kahneman's words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children's conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need "prefrontal pedagogy" in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks.

  9. Measuring inhibitory control in children and adults: brain imaging and mental chronometry

    PubMed Central

    Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Jean Piaget underestimated the cognitive capabilities of infants, preschoolers, and elementary schoolchildren, and overestimated the capabilities of adolescents and even adults which are often biased by illogical intuitions and overlearned strategies (i.e., “fast thinking” in Daniel Kahneman’s words). The crucial question is now to understand why, despite rich precocious knowledge about physical and mathematical principles observed over the last three decades in infants and young children, older children, adolescents and even adults are nevertheless so often bad reasoners. We propose that inhibition of less sophisticated solutions (or heuristics) by the prefrontal cortex is a domain-general executive ability that supports children’s conceptual insights associated with more advanced Piagetian stages, such as number-conservation and class inclusion. Moreover, this executive ability remains critical throughout the whole life and even adults may sometimes need “prefrontal pedagogy” in order to learn inhibiting intuitive heuristics (or biases) in deductive reasoning tasks. Here we highlight some of the discoveries from our lab in the field of cognitive development relying on two methodologies used for measuring inhibitory control: brain imaging and mental chronometry (i.e., the negative priming paradigm). We also show that this new approach opens an avenue for re-examining persistent errors in standard classroom-learning tasks. PMID:24994993

  10. Measuring Social Isolation Among Older Adults Using Multiple Indicators From the NSHAP Study

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data contain multiple indicators of social connectedness, social participation, social support, and loneliness among older adults. We suggest that these indicators can be combined to measure two aspects of social isolation: social disconnectedness (i.e., physical separation from others) and perceived isolation (i.e., feelings of loneliness and a lack of social support). We use the NSHAP data to create scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation and examine their distribution among older adults. Methods We assess the reliability of the scales using Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations and perform confirmatory factor analysis to test the model against the data. Finally, we test differences in scale means across subgroups to assess the distribution of social disconnectedness and perceived isolation among older adults. Results We find that 17 indicators combine into two reliable scales. The social disconnectedness scale has a two-factor structure, including the restricted social network dimension and the social inactivity dimension. The perceived isolation scale also comprises two dimensions: lack of support and loneliness. We find that social disconnectedness does not vary across age groups, but the oldest old feel more isolated than the young old. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are greater among those who have worse health. Discussion The creation of scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation provides one way to utilize the wide variety of indicators of social isolation collected in the NSHAP study. Although individual indicators of social connectedness or isolation are useful in their own right, these scales provide parsimonious, continuous variables that account for a variety of aspects of social isolation, which may be especially useful for inclusion in multivariate analyses predicting health outcomes. PMID:19508982

  11. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  12. Depression and its measurement in verbal adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition item descriptives in this autism spectrum disorder sample were compared to previously published data from a large typically developing sample, with results suggesting that cognitive-attributional symptoms of depression may be particularly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder. Scores on a variety of self- and parent-report depression measures were not associated with chronological age or verbal IQ, and were relatively highly correlated with each other and with clinical diagnosis of a mood disorder. The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the Adult Self-Report "Depressive" scale best identified both depressed and non-depressed participants in this sample, though neither was particularly strong. Validation studies of depression measures in the autism spectrum disorder population are necessary to advance research into this prevalent and impairing comorbidity.

  13. Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…

  14. Eustachian Tube Opening Measurement by Sonotubometry Using Perfect Sequences for Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beleskiene, Vilma; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Januskiene, Vaida; Daunoraviciene, Kristina; Rauba, Darius; Ivaska, Justinas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to establish the rate variation of sonotubometric measurements using a specific broadband class of signals, the so-called perfect sequences (PSEQ) among healthy adults and to identify an optimal and technically simple test to provoke Eustachian tube (ET) openings. Methods Sonotubometry was performed on 105 healthy adult subjects. Three different consecutive maneuvers were performed for ET opening: dry swallowing, water swallowing (a small [2 mL] and a large [5 mL] water bolus). Values of the amplitude and duration of each measured ET opening were calculated. Results A total of 6,300 measurements were performed. Sonotubometric ET openings were detected for all subjects but not for each measurement. In 6,180 of 6,300 measurements (98.1%), objective ET openings were registered. In 11 of 105 subjects (10.5%) at least one sonotubometric ET opening was not detected. The mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound amplitude similar for all performed test and were 270 (SD, ±96) msec, 13.48 (SD, ±6.57) dB. Conclusion Sonotubometry based on PSEQ stimuli is a reliable methodology to assess the ET opening function in healthy subjects. Mean ET opening duration time and the mean sound wave amplitude performed similarly in all analysed tests, hence it might be concluded that dry (saliva) and water swallowing are reliable sonotubometric maneuvers and may be used when examining ET opening function. The size of a sip during water swallowing does not affect the sonotubometry result. All maneuvers can be equally used as the optimal test, and water swallow is most comfortable for the subject. PMID:27090279

  15. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  16. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  17. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  18. Simultaneous orientation and cellular force measurements in adult cardiac myocytes using three-dimensional polymeric microstructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Lim, Chee Chew; Sawyer, Douglas Brian; Liao, Ronglih; Zhang, Xin

    2007-09-01

    A number of techniques have been developed to monitor contractile function in isolated cardiac myocytes. While invaluable observations have been gained from these methodologies in understanding the contractile processes of the heart, they are invariably limited by their in vitro conditions. The present challenge is to develop innovative assays to mimic the in vivo milieu so as to allow a more physiological assessment of cardiac myocyte contractile forces. Here we demonstrate the use of a silicone elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), to simultaneously orient adult cardiac myocytes in primary culture and measure the cellular forces in a three-dimensional substrate. The realignment of adult cardiac myocytes in long-term culture (7 days) was achieved due to directional reassembly of the myofibrils along the parallel polymeric sidewalls. The cellular mechanical forces were recorded in situ by observing the deformation of the micropillars embedded in the substrate. By coupling the cellular mechanical force measurements with on-chip cell orientation, this novel assay is expected to provide a means of a more physiological assessment of single cardiac myocyte contractile function and may facilitate the future development of in vitro assembled functional cardiac tissue.

  19. A quality-of-life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia: QOL–PCD

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Alpern, Adrianne; Morris, Anjana M.; Carroll, Mary P.; Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterised by chronic suppurative lung disease, rhino-sinusitis, hearing impairment and sub-fertility. We have developed the first multidimensional measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with PCD (QOL–PCD). Following a literature review and expert panel meeting, open-ended interviews with patients investigated the impact of PCD on HRQoL in the UK and North America (n=21). Transcripts were content analysed to derive saturation matrices. Items were rated for relevance by patients (n=49). Saturation matrices, relevance scores, literature review, evaluation of existing measures, and expert opinion contributed to development of a preliminary questionnaire. The questionnaire was refined following cognitive interviews (n=18). Open-ended interviews identified a spectrum of issues unique to adults with PCD. Saturation matrices confirmed comprehensive coverage of content. QOL–PCD includes 48 items covering the following seven domains: Physical Functioning, Emotional Functioning, Treatment Burden, Respiratory and Sinus Symptoms, Ears and Hearing, Social Functioning, and Vitality and Health Perceptions. Cognitive testing confirmed that content was comprehensive and the items were well-understood by respondents. Content validity and cognitive testing supported the items and structure. QOL–PCD has been translated into other languages and is awaiting psychometric testing. PMID:25976687

  20. No association between latent toxoplasmosis and multiple body measures in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Berrett, Andrew N; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-10-14

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an intracellular parasite that can cause ongoing latent infection persisting for the duration of a non-definitive host's life. Affecting approximately one-third of the world's population, latent toxoplasmosis has been associated with neuropsychological outcomes and a previous report suggested an association between latent toxoplasmosis and adult height. Given the large number of people with latent toxoplasmosis and its potential associations with human height, we sought to better understand the association between latent toxoplasmosis and human morphology by evaluating seropositivity for T. gondii and multiple body measures reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) and in the more recent continuous NHANES data sets from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for which data on T. gondii are available. In these analyses, latent toxoplasmosis was not associated with any of the body measures assessed in the NHANES datasets even after taking into account interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and testosterone suggesting that in these samples, latent toxoplasmosis is not associated with adult morphology including height.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary-time are associated with arterial stiffness in Brazilian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211

  2. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Vicente E.; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a non-clinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled: 1) Interactions with strangers, 2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, 3) Interactions with the opposite sex, 4) Criticism and embarrassment, and 5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. PMID:25774643

  3. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults.

    PubMed

    Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score.

  4. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  5. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  6. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  7. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  8. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  9. Comparison of measures of adiposity in identifying cardiovascular disease risk among Ethiopian adults.

    PubMed

    Wai, Wint S; Dhami, Ranjodh S; Gelaye, Bizu; Girma, Belaineh; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Bekele, Tamrat; Khali, Atsede; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-09-01

    We sought to determine which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to evaluate the extent to which overall and abdominal adiposity are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among working adults in Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,853 individuals (1,125 men, 728 women) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach was used to collect sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples among study subjects. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid concentrations were measured using standard approaches. Spearman's rank correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and logistic regression were employed to determine the association and predictive ability (with respect to CVD risk factors) of four measures of adiposity: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Overall, FBG is best associated with WHtR in men and WC in women. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is most strongly associated with BMI in men, but with WC in women. Compared to those with low BMI and low WC, the risk of having CVD is the highest for those with high BMI and high WC and those with high WC and low BMI. Review of ROC curves indicated that WC is the best predictor of CVD risk among study subjects. Findings from our study underscore the feasibility and face validity of using simple measures of central and overall adiposity in identifying CVD risk in resource-poor settings.

  10. Making College Completion Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Heather

    2011-01-01

    There are countless justifications for why young adults, faced with so many distractions, do not complete their educations. Many students fail to finish college because of a lack of information and understanding about healthy relationships and sex education. The author's own struggles and eventual successes as a student and mother compelled her to…

  11. Evaluation of a Portable DVD Player and System of Least Prompts to Self-Prompt Cooking Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Fields, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a portable DVD player plus the system of least prompts (SLP) for DVD player use as a self-prompting device to teach cooking tasks to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three cooking tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the…

  12. A Four-Year Follow-up Study of the One Hundred Graduates - Class of "69" of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School Completion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, James R.

    A four-year followup study was conducted among the 1969 graduating class of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School to assess the educational, social, and/or financial benefits of the program. Comparisons were made with the results of the one-year follow study. Results, based on the 90% of questionnaires that were returned, include the…

  13. Crossing the Finish Line: Helping Adults with Significant College Credit Get Back on Track to a College Degree. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all states are grappling with the question of how to boost college attainment to meet workforce needs with the resources available. For many states, that task is complicated by the fact that the young adult population is projected neither to grow nor decline over the next several years. There is a significant opportunity, however, for…

  14. Measurement of neural respiratory drive via parasternal intercostal electromyography in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    MacBean, V; Hughes, C; Nicol, G; Reilly, C C; Rafferty, G F

    2016-11-01

    Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres. To measure EMGpara in a large, unselected cohort of healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate relevant technical and anthropometric factors. Surface second intercostal space EMGpara was measured during resting breathing and maximal inspiratory efforts in 63 healthy adult subjects, median (IQR) age 31.0 (25.0-47.0) years, 28 males. Detailed anthropometry, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were also recorded. Median (IQR EMGpara was 4.95 (3.35-6.93) µV, EMGpara%max 4.95 (3.39-8.65)% and neural respiratory drive index (NRDI, the product of EMGpara%max and respiratory rate) was 73.62 (46.41-143.92) %.breath/min. EMGpara increased significantly to 6.28 (4.26-9.93) µV (p  <  0.001) with a mouthpiece, noseclip and pneumotachograph in situ. Median (IQR) EMGpara was higher in female subjects (5.79 (4.42-7.98) µV versus 3.56 (2.81-5.35) µV, p  =  0.003); after controlling for sex neither EMGpara, EMGpara%max or NRDI were significantly related to anthropometrics, age or respiratory muscle strength. In subjects undergoing repeat measurements within the same testing session (n  =  48) or on a separate occasion (n  =  19) similar repeatability was observed for both EMGpara and EMGpara%max. EMGpara is higher in female subjects than males, without influence of other anthropometric characteristics. Reference values are provided for EMGpara-derived measures. Expressing EMGpara as a percentage of maximum confers no

  15. Plantar measurements to determine success of surgical correction of Stage IIb adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Erika A; Spratley, E Meade; Hayes, Curtis W; Adelaar, Robert S; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    demonstrated that surgical treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity can be accurately assessed using patient-reported outcome measures and plantar pressures.

  16. Vision Therapy in Adults with Convergence Insufficiency: Clinical and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Tara L.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Alkan, Yelda; Kim, Eun H.; Gohel, Suril; Barrett, Anna M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). Methods Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18 h of vision therapy. Clinical parameters quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. Neural correlates of the CI subjects were quantified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans comparing random vs. predictable vergence movements using a block design before and after vision therapy. Images were quantified by measuring the spatial extent of activation and the average correlation within five regions of interests (ROI). The ROIs were the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a portion of the frontal lobe, part of the parietal lobe, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. All measurements were repeated 4 months to 1 year post-therapy in three of the CI subjects. Results Convergence average peak velocities to step stimuli were significantly slower (p = 0.016) in CI subjects compared with controls; however, significant differences in average peak velocities were not observed for divergence step responses (p = 0.30). The investigation of CI subjects participating in vision therapy showed that the nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, and near dissociated phoria significantly decreased. Furthermore, the positive fusional vergence, average peak velocity from 4° convergence steps, and the amount of functional activity within the frontal areas, cerebellum, and brain stem significantly increased. Several clinical and cortical parameters were significantly correlated. Conclusions Convergence peak velocity was significantly slower in

  17. Head, Neck, Trunk and Pelvis Tissue Mass Predictions for Young Adults using Anthropometric Measures and DXA.

    PubMed

    Gyemi, Danielle L; Kahelin, Charles; George, Nicole C; Andrews, David M

    2017-03-24

    Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans. Prediction equations exhibited adjusted R(2) values ranging from .249 to .940, with more explained variance for LM and WM than BMC and FM, especially for the head and neck. Mean relative errors between predicted and actual tissue masses ranged from -11.07% (trunk FM) to 7.61% (neck FM). Actual and predicted tissue masses from all equations were significantly correlated (R(2) = .329 to .937), except head BMC (R(2) = .046). These results show promise for obtaining in-vivo head, neck, trunk and pelvis tissue mass estimates in young adults. Further research is needed to improve head and neck FM and BMC predictions and develop tissue mass prediction equations for older populations.

  18. Destinations That Older Adults Experience Within Their GPS Activity Spaces Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Meghan; Ashe, Maureen C.; Clarke, Philippa; McKay, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation. PMID:26783370

  19. [Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Müters, S; Krug, S; Hölling, H; Kuhnert, R; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A state of good fitness is related to a better health state and a lower mortality risk. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), aerobic fitness was measured among adults between 18 and 64 years old using a submaximal cycle ergometry test. The total sample comprised 5,263 persons, amongst those 3,111 were categorized as being test-qualified according to the Physical Activity Readiness-Questionnaire. There were 3,030 persons who absolved a submaximal exercise test according to the exercise protocol of the WHO (25/25/2). The test-participation rate was 57.2 % in relation to the total sample and 97.4 % among test-qualified persons. Apart from the continuous heart-rate monitoring, capillary blood was taken prior to starting the test and at the end of each workload stage for performing blood lactate analyses. The test ended when 85 % of the age-predicted maximal heart rate was exceeded. In all 11.9 % of the tests were terminated earlier, the mean exercise duration was 10.8 min, and the anticipated submaximal exertion in the highest workload stage was on average achieved with a mean of 15 on the 20-point RPE scale. The nationwide data can now be used for the national health monitoring system, epidemiological research and for the calculation of reference values. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  20. The determination of correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Mahakizadeh, S; Moghani-Ghoroghi, F; Moshkdanian, Gh; Mokhtari, T; Hassanzadeh, G

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of stature is an important issue, which is significantly considered in forensic anthropology. It will be difficult to predict the identification of an individual when only some parts of dead body are discovered following disasters or criminal events. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between stature and upper limb and hand length in Iranian adults to generate regression formulae for stature estimation. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Upper Limb Length (ULL) and Hand Length (HL) were taken on subjects, comprising 142 male students (18-25 years) using standard measuring instruments. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Then linear regression models were used to estimate stature. The results indicated a positive correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements. The correlation coefficient with upper limb length was r = 0.89 & p = 0.0001 and with hand length was r = 0.78 & p = 0.0001. In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between stature and upper limb and hand length. The regression analysis also showed that the Upper Limb Length give better prediction of stature compared to Hand length measurements.

  1. Age-related invariance of abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Navaneetham J; Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of measurement invariance across populations is essential for meaningful comparison of test scores, and is especially relevant where repeated measurements are required for educational assessment or clinical diagnosis. Establishing measurement invariance legitimizes the assumption that test scores reflect the same psychological trait in different populations or across different occasions. Examination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) U.S. standardization samples revealed that a first-order 5-factor measurement model was best fitting across 9 age groups from 16 years to 69 years. Strong metric invariance was found for 3 of 5 factors and partial intercept invariance for the remaining 2. Pairwise comparisons of adjacent age groups supported the inference that cognitive-trait group differences are manifested by group differences in the test scores. In educational and clinical settings these findings provide theoretical and empirical support to interpret changes in the index or subtest scores as reflecting changes in the corresponding cognitive abilities. Further, where clinically relevant, the subtest score composites can be used to compare changes in respective cognitive abilities. The model was supported in the Canadian standardization data with pooled age groups but the sample sizes were not adequate for detailed examination of separate age groups in the Canadian sample. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pastouret, Alan; Gooijer, Frans; Overton, Bob; Jonker, Jan; Curley, Jim; Constantine, Walter; Waterman, Kendall Miller

    2015-11-13

    High Temperature insulated wire and optical fiber cable is a key enabling technology for the Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). Without insulated electrical wires and optical fiber, downhole temperature and pressure sensors, flow meters and gauges cannot communicate with the surface. Unfortunately, there are currently no insulated electrical wire or fiber cable constructions capable of surviving for extended periods of deployment in a geothermal well (240-325°C) or supercritical (374°C) reservoir. This has severely hindered engineered reservoir creation, management and utilization, as hot zones and cool water intrusions cannot be understood over time. The lack of a insulated electrical wire and fiber cable solution is a fundamental limitation to the viability of this energy source. The High Temperature Downhole Tools target specification is development of tools and sensors for logging and monitoring wellbore conditions at depths of up to 10,000 meters and temperatures up to 374oC. It well recognized in the industry that no current electronic or fiber cable can be successfully deployed in a well and function successfully for more a few days at temperatures over 240oC. The goal of this project was to raise this performance level significantly. Prysmian Group’s objective in this project was to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. In particular, the overall project objective was to produce a manufacturable cable design that can perform without serious degradation: • At temperatures up to 374°C; • At pressures up to 220 bar; • In a hydrogen-rich environment; and • For the life of the well (> 5 years). This cable incorporates: • Specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed temperature and pressure sensing, and • High

  3. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  4. Validity of the Neurology Quality of Life (Neuro-QoL) Measurement System in Adult Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Cavazos, Jose E.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Reder, Anthony T.; Wojna, Valerie; Nowinski, Cindy; Miller, Deborah; Buono, Sarah; Mueller, Allison; Moy, Claudia; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that results in recurring seizures and can have a significant adverse effect on health related quality of life (HRQL). Neuro-QoL is an NINDS-funded system of patient reported outcome measures for neurology clinical research, which was designed to provide a precise and standardized way to measure HRQL in epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Using mixed-methods and item response theory-based approaches, we developed generic item banks and targeted scales for adults and children with major neurological disorders. This paper provides empirical results from a clinical validation study with a sample of adults diagnosed with epilepsy. One hundred twenty one people diagnosed with epilepsy participated, of which the majority were male (62%), Caucasian (95%), with a mean age of 47.3 (SD=16.9). Baseline assessments included Neuro-QoL short forms and general and external validity measures. Neuro-QoL short forms that are not typically found in other epilepsy-specific HRQL instruments include Stigma, Sleep Disturbance, Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol and Positive Affect & Well-being. Neuro-QoL short forms demonstrated adequate reliability (internal consistency range = .86–.96; test-retest range = .57–.89). Pearson correlations (p<.01) between Neuro-QoL forms of emotional distress (Anxiety, Depression, Stigma) and the QOLIE-31 Emotional Well-being Subscale were in the moderate to strong range (r’s = .66, .71 & .53, respectively), as were relations with the PROMIS Global Mental Health subscale (r’s = .59, .74 & .52, respectively). Moderate correlations were observed between Neuro-QoL Social Role Performance and Satisfaction and the QOLIE-31 Social Function (r’s = .58 & .52, respectively). In measuring aspects of physical function, the Neuro-QoL Mobility and Upper Extremity forms demonstrated moderate associations with the PROMIS Global Physical Function Subscale (r’s = .60 & .61, respectively). Neuro-QoL measures of

  5. Photographic Measurements Partially Correlate to Nasal Function and Appearance among Adult Cleft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Keijser, Klara; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) affects nasal function and appearance. There is a lack of objective measurements to evaluate these features. This study analyzes whether objective measurements on photographs correlate with nasal function and/or appearance among adults treated for UCLP. Methods: All patients with UCLP born from 1960 to 1987 treated at the Uppsala University Hospital were invited (n = 109). Participation rate was 68% (n = 74); mean follow-up was 35 years. An age-matched control group (n = 61) underwent the same tests. Nostril area, nasal tip deviation angle, and width of the nostril were measured on photographs and were compared with functional tests and with appearance as assessed by self-assessment questionnaire, professional panel, or laymen panel. Results: The photographically measured nostril area correlated with nasal volume (acoustic rhinometry) among UCLP patients, both cleft side and noncleft side, and controls (0.331, P = 0.005; 0.338, P = 0.004; and 0.420, P < 0.001, respectively). For the patients’ noncleft side and controls, the area correlated inversely with airflow resistance at inspiration (noncleft side: −0.245, P = 0.043; controls: −0.226, P = 0.013). Laymen assessment of nasal appearance correlated with width ratio of the patients (0.27, P = 0.022) and with nasal tip deviation angle and area ratio of the controls (0.26, P = 0.041, and 0.31, P = 0.015, respectively). Conclusions: Photographic measurements correlate partially with both functional tests of the nose and panel ratings of appearance. No correlation was found with self-assessment of appearance. Evaluation of photographs needs to be combined with patient-reported outcome measures to be a valuable endpoint of nasal appearance. PMID:27579244

  6. Two Measures of Self-Regulation for Young Adults and Late Adolescents in the Academic and Social Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, John; Little, Todd D.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present domain-specific measures of academic and social self-regulation in young adults. We base our scales on Baltes and colleagues' Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) model, and establish the factor structure of our new measures using data collected from a sample of 152 college students. We then compare the…

  7. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  8. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  9. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  10. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  11. Tilted Magnetic Levitation Enables Measurement of the Complete Range of Densities of Materials with Low Magnetic Permeability.

    PubMed

    Nemiroski, Alex; Soh, Siowling; Kwok, Sen Wai; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-02-03

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) of diamagnetic or weakly paramagnetic materials suspended in a paramagnetic solution in a magnetic field gradient provides a simple method to measure the density of small samples of solids or liquids. One major limitation of this method, thus far, has been an inability to measure or manipulate materials outside of a narrow range of densities (0.8 g/cm(3) < ρ < 2.3 g/cm(3)) that are close in density to the suspending, aqueous medium. This paper explores a simple method-"tilted MagLev"-to increase the range of densities that can be levitated magnetically. Tilting the MagLev device relative to the gravitational vector enables the magnetic force to be decreased (relative to the magnetic force) along the axis of measurement. This approach enables many practical measurements over the entire range of densities observed in matter at ambient conditions-from air bubbles (ρ ≈ 0) to osmium and iridium (ρ ≈ 23 g/cm(3)). The ability to levitate, simultaneously, objects with a broad range of different densities provides an operationally simple method that may find application to forensic science (e.g., for identifying the composition of miscellaneous objects or powders), industrial manufacturing (e.g., for quality control of parts), or resource-limited settings (e.g., for identifying and separating small particles of metals and alloys).

  12. PREDICTING FOOT PROGRESSION ANGLE DURING GAIT USING TWO CLINICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY ADULTS, A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Kyle; Kampwerth, Teri; McAfee, Blake; Payne, Lisa; Roeckenhaus, Tara; Ross, Sandy A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The foot progression angle (FPA) is related to the transverse plane rotation of the lower extremities and associated with many lower extremity conditions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how two commonly used clinical measures, tibio-fibular torsion (TF) and hip rotation, can be used to predict FPA during gait in healthy adults. Study Design Cross-sectional study design Methods Passive hip internal and external rotation ranges of motion and TF torsion were measured with a 12-inch goniometer while the FPA (degree of toe-in/out) was measured with the GAITRite during midstance in sixty participants. The data was analyzed using a multiple regression model. Results Hip ER was not significant and was therefore excluded from the final model. The final model included passive hip IR and TF torsion (F = 19.64; p < .001; multiple R2 = .41; adjusted R2 = .39). Simple binary correlations showed that hip IR had a moderate negative correlation (r = -.40) with FPA (the greater the hip IR, the greater the in-toeing) while TF torsion had a positive correlation (r = .39) with FPA (the greater the external TF torsion. the greater the out-toeing). Conclusions Greater amount of passive hip IR predicts in-toeing while greater TF torsion predicts out-toeing of the foot during midstance phase of gait. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27274426

  13. A Kinematically Complete Measurement of the Proton Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Evaluation of Its Moments

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail Osipenko; Et. Al.

    2003-05-01

    We measured the inclusive electron-proton cross section in the nucleon resonance region (W<2.5 GeV) at momentum transfers Q2 below 4.5 (GeV/c)2 with the CLAS detector. The large acceptance of CLAS allowed the measurement of the cross section in a large, contiguous two-dimensional range of Q2 and x, making it possible to perform an integration of the data at fixed Q2 over the significant x interval. >From these data we extracted the structure function F2 and, by including other world data, we studied the Q2 evolution of its moments, Mn(Q2), in order to estimate higher twist contributions. The small statistical and systematic uncertainties of the CLAS data allow a precise extraction of the higher twists and will require significant improvements in theoretical predictions if a meaningful comparison with these new experimental results is to be made.

  14. Evaluation of locally induced osteoarthritis by the complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant in mice. The application of DEXA measurements.

    PubMed

    Włodarski, K H; Dickson, G R

    2002-01-01

    The inflammatory reactions elicited in mice by subcutaneous injections of IFA and CFA had opposite effects when tested on local metacarpal shank bones and the distal epiphysis of shank bones. Although the intensity of the immune reactions was similar, IFA induced bone loss, while CFA induced bone formation, which was mostly periosteal in nature. BMC and BMD measurements were assessed by means of high resolution DEXA, using a hologic 4500A bone scanner with software dedicated for the analysis of small animal bones. DEXA scans were evaluated and related to histological and bone ash content analyses. The morphological and quantitative ash weight analyses of bones exposed to the adjuvants were consistent with DEXA bone density scan measurements.

  15. Standing balance and strength measurements in older adults living in residential care communities.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Bader A; Ferchak, Mary Ann; Huppert, Theodore J; Sejdic, Ervin; Perera, Subashan; Greenspan, Susan L; Sparto, Patrick J

    2016-12-20

    Research on balance and mobility in older adults has been conducted primarily in lab-based settings in individuals who live in the community. Although they are at greater risk of falls, residents of long-term care facilities, specifically residential care communities (RCCs), have been investigated much less frequently. We sought to determine the feasibility of using portable technology-based measures of balance and muscle strength (i.e., an accelerometer and a load cell) that can be used in any RCC facility. Twenty-nine subjects (age 87 ± 6 years) living in RCCs participated. An accelerometer placed on the back of the subjects measured body sway during different standing conditions. Sway in antero-posterior and mediolateral directions was calculated. Lower extremity strength was measured with a portable load cell and the within-visit reliability was determined. Assessments of grip strength, gait speed, frailty, and comorbidity were also examined. A significant increase in postural sway in both the AP and ML directions occurred as the balance conditions became more difficult due to alteration of sensory feedback (p < 0.001) or reducing the base of support (p < 0.001). There was an association between increased sway and increased frailty, more comorbidities and slower gait speed. All strength measurements were highly reliable (ICC = 0.93-0.99). An increase in lower extremity strength was associated with increased grip strength and gait speed. The portable instruments provide inexpensive ways for measuring balance and strength in the understudied RCC population, but additional studies are needed to examine their relationship with functional outcomes.

  16. Complete and Partial Lesions of the Pyramidal Tract in the Rat Affect Qualitative Measures of Skilled Movements: Impairment in Fixations as a Model for Clumsy Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Whishaw, Ian Q.; Piecharka, Dionne M.; Drever, Felicia R.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about prenatal and perinatal brain injury resulting in subsequent clumsy behavior in children. One candidate motor system is the pyramidal tract. The tract traverses the entire central nervous system and, through direct and indirect connections to the brainstem and spinal cord sensory and motor nuclei, is involved in the learning and execution of skilled movements. Here, rats, either naive or pretrained on a number of motor tasks, were assessed for acute and chronic impairments following complete or incomplete pyramidal tract lesions. Postsurgery rats with complete lesions were impaired on the qualitative measures of limb aiming, supination, and posture. Impaired movements require fixations, complementary movements in different body segments. The impairment in fixations was manifest acutely and underwent no improvement with subsequent training/testing. The finding that complete and partial pyramidal tract lesions produce chronic impairment in fixations provides insight for understanding clumsy behavior in humans and its potential remediation via specific training in making fixations. PMID:14640310

  17. General and Specific Goal Orientations as Correlates of Adult Student Degree Completion: Lessons from the Community College of the Air Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jeffrey S.; Smith, Albert B.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined degree completion through the lens of Snyder's hope theory (Snyder, 2000) in an effort to expand the research on student retention from Tinto's sociological theory to a theory that focuses on the psychological orientations that might help explain student success. The study focused on a sample of 443 master sergeants enrolled…

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Video Modeling, Video Prompting, and Video Modeling on Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effects of three procedures (video prompting: VP, video modeling: VM, and continuous video modeling: CVM) on task completion by three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. The comparison was made across three sets of fundamentally different tasks (putting away household items in clusters of two items;…

  19. A complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the myoanatomy of Loricifera: comparative morphology of an adult and a Higgins larva stage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Loricifera is a group of small, marine animals, with undetermined phylogenetic relationships within Ecdysozoa (molting protostome animals). Despite their well-known external morphology, data on the internal anatomy of loriciferans are still incomplete. Aiming to increase the knowledge of this enigmatic phylum, we reconstruct for the first time the three-dimensional myoanatomy of loriciferans. Adult Nanaloricus sp. and the Higgins larva of Armorloricus elegans were investigated with cytochemical labeling techniques and CLSM. We discuss our findings with reference to other loriciferan species and recently established phylogenies. Results The somatic musculature of both adult and larval stages is very complex and includes several muscles arranged in three orientations: circular, transverse and longitudinal. In adult Nanaloricus sp., the introvert is characterized by a net-like muscular arrangement, which is composed of five thin circular fibers crossed by several (up to 30) thin longitudinal fibers with bifurcated anterior ends. Two sets of muscles surround the pre-pharyngeal armature: 6 buccal tube retractors arranged 3 × 2 in a conical shaped structure, and 8 mouth cone retractors. Additionally, a thick, circular muscle marks the neck region and a putative anal sphincter is the posteriormost myoanatomical feature. In the Higgins larva of A. elegans, two circular muscles are distinguished anteriorly in the introvert: a dorsal semicircular fiber and a thin ring muscle. The posteriormost region of the body is characterized by an anal sphincter and a triangular muscle. Conclusions Based on the currently available knowledge, the myoanatomical bodyplan of adult loriciferans includes: (i) 8 mouth cone retractors, (ii) a pharynx bulb composed of transversal fibers arranged radially, (iii) circular muscles of the head and neck, (iv) internal muscles of the spinoscalids, (v) longitudinal muscles spanning all body regions, and (vi) transverse (circular

  20. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  1. Zinc protoporphyrin IX concentrations between normal adults and the lead-exposed workers measured by HPLC, spectrofluorometer, and hematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Roh, Y M; Kim, K; Kim, H

    2000-10-01

    To establish the relationship between Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations and blood lead (PbB) levels and to identify reliable analytical methods of ZPP and Protoporhyrin (PP), blood samples were obtained from 263 office workers without the history of occupational lead exposure and 49 lead-acid battery workers. The mean concentrations of PbB for the normal adults and the battery workers were 9.26 microg/dl and 42.60 microg/dl, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by HPLC were 18.73 microg/dl and 2.27 microg/dl for normal adults and were 46.99 microg/dl and 5.53 microg/dl for the exposed workers, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by a spectrofluorometer (SF) were 30.27 microg/dl and 5.16 microg/dl for normal adults and were 50.91 microg/dl and 6.69 +/- 1.39 microg/dl for the exposed workers. The geometric mean ZPP concentration measured by a hematofluorometer (HF) was 30.88 microg/dl for normal adults. The results showed that ZPP concentrations measured by HF were consistently higher than those by HPLC and SF for normal adults, and lower for the exposed workers. ZPP concentrations were not correlated with PbB levels for normal adults but a statistically significant correlation was found among the exposed workers.

  2. Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults' ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. PMID:22315685

  3. Measurement of M-mode echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult Van cats.

    PubMed

    Kayar, Abdullah; Ozkan, Cumali; Iskefli, Onur; Kaya, Abdullah; Kozat, Suleyman; Akgul, Yakup; Gonul, Remzi; Or, Mehmet Erman

    2014-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies are the most common type of cardiac diseases in cats. Although some normal echocardiographic values for cats have been published, there are variations based on breeds and gender. The objective of this study is to determine normal reference values for M-mode echocardiographic parameters in nonsedated healthy adult Van cats and to compare those values with data reported for nonsedated healthy cats of other breeds. A total of 40 clinically healthy Van cats of both sexes belonging to the Van Cat Research and Application Center of Yuzuncu Yil University were used. Body weight (BW) and 16 M-mode echocardiographic variables were measured in 40 healthy Van cats. The effect of gender and age on each echocardiographic parameter was analyzed and the relationship between BW and each parameter investigated. There was a significant relationship between gender and left atrial dimension during ventricular systole (LAD) and aortic root dimension at end-diastole (AOD) as well as between BW and interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd) and end-systole (IVSs), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), LAD, AOD, the left ventricular end diastolic volume (EDV) and the stroke volume (SV). A relationship between age and the SV parameter alone was also established. This present study is the first work on cardiac reference values for Van cats highlighting the differences in some M-mode echocardiographic parameters of healthy adult Van cats and other cat breeds, which should be considered when interpreting echocardiographic findings, in order to draw the correct conclusions regarding cardiac health.

  4. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labeled as ‘Executive Functions’ (EF) required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). The aim: of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 24–41, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC). Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system Computerised Penmanship Evaluation Toll (ComPET). Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r = 0.50/0.58, p < 0.05). Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration) predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B) [F(3, 54) = 38.37, β = 0.40, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical

  6. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  7. The socioeconomic status of older adults: How should we measure it in studies of health inequalities?

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, E; Holt, G

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To identify which of seven indicators of socioeconomic status used singly or combined with one other would be most useful in studies of health inequalities in the older population.
DESIGN—Secondary analysis of socioeconomic and health data in a two wave survey.
SETTING—Great Britain. Participants were interviewed at home by a trained interviewer.
PARTICIPANTS—Nationally representative sample of 3543 adults aged 55-69 interviewed in 1988/9, 2243 of whom were interviewed again in 1994.
METHODS—Desirable features of socioeconomic measurement systems for identifying health inequalities in older populations were identified with reference to the literature. Logistic regression was used to examine variations in self reported health by seven indicators of socioeconomic status. The pair of indicators with the greatest explanatory power was identified.
MAIN RESULTS—All indicators were significantly associated with differences in self reported health. The best pair of variables, according to criteria used, was educational qualification or social class paired with a deprivation indicator.
DISCUSSION—For a range of reasons the measurement of socioeconomic status is particularly challenging in older age groups. Extending our knowledge of which indicators work well in analyses and are relatively easy to collect should help both further study of health inequalities in the older population and appropriate planning.


Keywords: health inequalities; elderly people; socioeconomic status PMID:11707484

  8. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyan; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k('), j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD3(v1 = 1, |jK⟩ = |10⟩) molecules with Cl((2)P3/2) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the "know-how" behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD3 reaction is used for illustration.

  9. Complete unilateral right-sided absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in an adult male cadaver of South Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Stephen; Bhat, Rashmi; Shankar, Nachiket

    2014-01-01

    The unilateral complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in the absence of other anomalies is very rare. The complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior on the right side was observed during routine dissection of an elderly male cadaver of South Indian origin. Nodularity of the right fifth rib near the fifth costochondral junction was seen. The lateral pectoral and long thoracic nerves were present on the right side. Moderate right-sided disuse atrophy was noted in the pectoralis minor and the rotator cuff muscles due to a shoulder arthrodesis performed on that side. No abnormalities were noted on the left side. There was no family history of any upper limb anomalies suggestive of Poland's syndrome. The findings in the present case could be either due to a sporadic variant of Poland's syndrome or an isolated congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior.

  10. Adult Brains Don't Fully Overcome Biases that Lead to Incorrect Performance during Cognitive Development: An fMRI Study in Young Adults Completing a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Gaelle; Spiess, Jeanne; Zago, Laure; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Turbelin, Marie-Renee; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houde, Olivier; Joliot, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A current issue in developmental science is that greater continuity in cognition between children and adults may exist than is usually appreciated in Piaget-like (stages or "staircase") models. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at the behavioural level, but never at the brain level. Here we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  11. Physical working capacity at fatigue threshold (PWCFT) is associated with sarcopenia-related body composition and measures of functionality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Nadia S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Robinson, Edward H; McCormack, William P; Scanlon, Tyler C; Warren, Ashlee M; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between PWCFT and common measures used to assess sarcopenia in older adults were examined. Fifty-eight older adults [age: 71.1 ± 6.2 years; body mass index (BMI): 28.0 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)] completed the testing procedures. Sarcopenia-related body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and participants performed a discontinuous cycle ergometry test to determine PWCFT. Functionality assessments included maximal isometric grip strength (GRIP) and sit-to-stand (STS) repetitions in 30s. Muscle quality (MQ) was defined as GRIP relative to appendicular lean soft tissue (ALM), while skeletal muscle index (SMI) was defined as ALM/height(2). Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships among dependent variables. PWCFT showed significant relationships with ALM (r=0.57), SMI (r=0.47), body fat percentage (BF%) (r=-0.50), GRIP (r=0.49), and STS (r=0.44). For follow-up analyses, study participants were categorized into low sarcopenia risk (n=31) or high sarcopenia risk (n=27) groups by SMI. Sarcopenia risk was associated with PWCFT [odds ratio (OR): 1.051, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.016-1.087] and STS (OR: 1.305, CI: 1.060-1.607), but not GRIP (OR: 1.098, CI: 0.989-1.218). Using receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, both PWCFT [area under the curve (AUC): 0.737, CI: 0.608-0.866, optimal cutoff: 37.5 W] and STS (AUC: 0.749, CI: 0.623-0.874, optimal cutoff: 12.5 repetitions) showed discriminative ability with regard to sarcopenia risk. The current data suggest that the neuromuscular fatigue threshold, as measured by PWCFT, is related to measures of body composition and function in older adults.

  12. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fengyan E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k{sup ′}, j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1, |jK〉 = |10〉) molecules with Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the “know-how” behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD{sub 3} reaction is used for illustration.

  13. Recommended Patient-Reported Core Set of Symptoms to Measure in Adult Cancer Treatment Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Basch, Ethan; Cella, David; Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Minasian, Lori M.; Denicoff, Andrea M.; O’Mara, Ann M.; Fisch, Michael J.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Aaronson, Neil K.; Coens, Corneel; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee held a clinical trials planning meeting (September 2011) to identify a core symptom set to be assessed across oncology trials for the purposes of better understanding treatment efficacy and toxicity and to facilitate cross-study comparisons. We report the results of an evidence-synthesis and consensus-building effort that culminated in recommendations for core symptoms to be measured in adult cancer clinical trials that include a patient-reported outcome (PRO). Methods We used a data-driven, consensus-building process. A panel of experts, including patient representatives, conducted a systematic review of the literature (2001–2011) and analyzed six large datasets. Results were reviewed at a multistakeholder meeting, and a final set was derived emphasizing symptom prevalence across diverse cancer populations, impact on health outcomes and quality of life, and attribution to either disease or anticancer treatment. Results We recommend that a core set of 12 symptoms—specifically fatigue, insomnia, pain, anorexia (appetite loss), dyspnea, cognitive problems, anxiety (includes worry), nausea, depression (includes sadness), sensory neuropathy, constipation, and diarrhea—be considered for inclusion in clinical trials where a PRO is measured. Inclusion of symptoms and other patient-reported endpoints should be well justified, hypothesis driven, and meaningful to patients. Conclusions This core set will promote consistent assessment of common and clinically relevant disease- and treatment-related symptoms across cancer trials. As such, it provides a foundation to support data harmonization and continued efforts to enhance measurement of patient-centered outcomes in cancer clinical trials and observational studies. PMID:25006191

  14. SATURN’S G AND D RINGS PROVIDE NEARLY COMPLETE MEASURED SCATTERING PHASE FUNCTIONS OF NEARBY DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Stark, Christopher C. E-mail: cstark@stsci.edu

    2015-09-20

    The appearance of debris disks around distant stars depends upon the scattering/phase function (SPF) of the material in the disk. However, characterizing the SPFs of these extrasolar debris disks is challenging because only a limited range of scattering angles are visible to Earth-based observers. By contrast, Saturn’s tenuous rings can be observed over a much broader range of geometries, so their SPFs can be much better constrained. Since these rings are composed of small particles released from the surfaces of larger bodies, they are reasonable analogs to debris disks and so their SPFs can provide insights into the plausible scattering properties of debris disks. This work examines two of Saturn’s dusty rings: the G ring (at 167,500 km from Saturn’s center) and the D68 ringlet (at 67,600 km). Using data from the cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to estimate the rings’ brightnesses at scattering angles ranging from 170° to 0.°5. We find that both of the rings exhibit extremely strong forward-scattering peaks, but for scattering angles above 60° their brightnesses are nearly constant. These SPFs can be well approximated by a linear combination of three Henyey–Greenstein functions, and are roughly consistent with the SPFs of irregular particles from laboratory measurements. Comparing these data to Fraunhofer and Mie models highlights several challenges involved in extracting information about particle compositions and size distributions from SPFs alone. The SPFs of these rings also indicate that the degree of forward scattering in debris disks may be greatly underestimated.

  15. Sex-specific associations of low birth weight with adult-onset diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Chor, Dóra; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Appel, Lawrence J; Barreto, Sandhi M; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests sex differences in the early origins of adult metabolic disease, but this has been little investigated in developing countries. We investigated sex-specific associations between low birth weight (LBW; <2.5 kg) and adult-onset diabetes in 12,525 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Diabetes was defined by self-reported information and laboratory measurements. In confounder-adjusted analyses, LBW (vs. 2.5–4 kg) was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes in women (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32–1.79), not in men (PR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.91–1.25; Pheterogeneity = 0.003). The association was stronger among participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.35–1.91), than those without (PR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.99–1.32; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). When jointly stratified by sex and maternal diabetes, the association was observed for women with (PR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.37–2.29) and without (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.20–1.75) maternal diabetes. In contrast, in men, LBW was associated with diabetes in participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83), but not in those without (PR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.74–1.14). These sex-specific findings extended to continuous measures of glucose homeostasis. LBW was associated with higher diabetes prevalence in Brazilian women, and in men with maternal diabetes, suggesting sex-specific intrauterine effects on adult metabolic health. PMID:27845438

  16. Adult brains don't fully overcome biases that lead to incorrect performance during cognitive development: an fMRI study in young adults completing a Piaget-like task.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Spiess, Jeanne; Zago, Laure; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amélie; Turbelin, Marie-Renée; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier; Joliot, Marc

    2009-03-01

    A current issue in developmental science is that greater continuity in cognition between children and adults may exist than is usually appreciated in Piaget-like (stages or 'staircase') models. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at the behavioural level, but never at the brain level. Here we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for the first time, that adult brains do not fully overcome the biases of childhood. More specifically, the aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate whether the perceptual bias that leads to incorrect performance during cognitive development in a Piaget-like task is still a bias in the adult brain and hence requires an executive network to overcome it. Here, we compared two numerical-judgment tasks, one being a Piaget-like task with number-length interference (called 'INT') and the other being a control task with number-length covariation ('COV'). We also used a colour-detection task to control for stimuli numerosity, spatial distribution, and frequency. Our behavioural results confirmed that INT remains a difficult task for young adults. Indeed, response times were significantly higher in INT than in COV. Moreover, we observed that only in INT did response times increase linearly as a function of the number of items. The fMRI results indicate that the brain network common to INT and COV shows a large rightward functional asymmetry, emphasizing the visuospatial nature of these two tasks. When INT was compared with COV, activations were found within a right frontal network, including the pre-supplementary motor area, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus, which probably reflect detection of the number/length conflict and inhibition of the 'length-equals-number' response strategy. Finally, activations related to visuospatial and quantitative processing, enhanced or specifically recruited in the Piaget-like task, were found in bilateral posterior areas.

  17. Measurement and Validity Characteristics of the Short Version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiTommaso, Enrico; Brannen, Cyndi; Best, Lisa A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a psychometric study of the short form of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S). Data were collected via self-report measures and mail surveys from several samples including university students, spouses of military personnel, and psychiatric patients. A total of 1,526 individuals took part in this…

  18. Measuring Older Adults Filial Responsibility Expectations: Exploring the Application of a Vignette Technique and an Item Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pas, Suzan; van Tilburg, Theo; Knipscheer, Kees C. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on two conceptually distinct measures of the filial responsibility expectations of older adults: a vignette technique and an attitude item scale. Data were based on 1,553 respondents aged 61 to 92 years who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in 1998 to 1999.The results showed that the item scale had multiple…

  19. Development of a Self-Description Test to Measure Community Adjustment of Mildly Retarded Young Adults. Working Paper No. 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJung, John

    Seventy-seven educable retarded adults (17- to 29-years old) who were former special education students were involved in the evaluation of a Forced Choice Self-Description Inventory (FCI) designed to measure community adjustment. Ss had been rated by their vocational rehabilitation counselors on a multiple criterion scale of community adjustment…

  20. Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adult Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis; Roset, Montse; Badia, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Tested the metric properties of a Spanish version of the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire through Rasch analysis with a sample of 356 adult patients in Spain. Results suggest that the Spanish AGHDA could be a useful complement of the clinical evaluation of growth hormone deficiency patients at group and…

  1. Measuring Self-Directed Learning: A Diagnostic Tool for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khiat, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Self-directed learning is an important form of adult learning (Caffarella, 1993; Knowles, 1975; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2005; Merriam, 2001; Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). The strategies of self-directed learning allow adult learners to cope better with their studies while fulfilling family, work and other commitments. This study…

  2. Faculty Perspectives and Needs in Supporting Adult English Learners: Linking Measurement to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Jane; Lentini, Jennifer; Molloy, Hillary; Steinberg, Jonathan; Holtzman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Results from a survey of 227 adult English learner (EL) faculty in community and technical colleges in the United States reveal a clear desire to better serve adult ELs, but a lack of resources specifically designed to do so. Faculty want and need more resources to support the teaching and learning process, in the form of thoughtful assessments,…

  3. Adult Attachment States of Mind: Measurement Invariance across Ethnicity and Associations with Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.; Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Supple, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Plamondon, André

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental significance of mothers' adult attachment representations assessed prenatally with the Adult Attachment Interview in relation to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months postpartum in an ethnically diverse sample (N = 131 African American; N = 128 European American). Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  4. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  5. The influence of pre- and posterror responses on measures of intraindividual variability in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of responses on error-adjacent trials (i.e., those immediately preceding or following errors) on age differences in measures of intraindividual variability and the shape of response time (RT) distributions on a two-back task. Removing error-adjacent responses reduced variability as measured by the coefficient of variation, but did so similarly for younger and older adults. However, older adults' standard deviations (SDs) were less than those of younger adults with comparable RTs, raising questions regarding the validity of the coefficient of variation. An ex-Gaussian analysis revealed that removing the RTs on error-adjacent trials reduced the length of the tails of distributions and the skewness of the distributions. These properties were reduced more for older adults than for younger adults. These results indicate that the influence of error-adjacent trials should be considered when analyzing intraindividual variability and the shape of RT distributions to test theories of cognitive aging.

  6. Recommendations for a Core Outcome Set for Measuring Standing Balance in Adult Populations: A Consensus-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Howe, Tracey; Lamb, Sarah E.; Lord, Stephen R.; Maki, Brian E.; Rose, Debra J.; Scott, Vicky; Stathokostas, Liza; Straus, Sharon E.; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing balance is imperative for mobility and avoiding falls. Use of an excessive number of standing balance measures has limited the synthesis of balance intervention data and hampered consistent clinical practice. Objective To develop recommendations for a core outcome set (COS) of standing balance measures for research and practice among adults. Methodology A combination of scoping reviews, literature appraisal, anonymous voting and face-to-face meetings with fourteen invited experts from a range of disciplines with international recognition in balance measurement and falls prevention. Consensus was sought over three rounds using pre-established criteria. Data sources The scoping review identified 56 existing standing balance measures validated in adult populations with evidence of use in the past five years, and these were considered for inclusion in the COS. Results Fifteen measures were excluded after the first round of scoring and a further 36 after round two. Five measures were considered in round three. Two measures reached consensus for recommendation, and the expert panel recommended that at a minimum, either the Berg Balance Scale or Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test be used when measuring standing balance in adult populations. Limitations Inclusion of two measures in the COS may increase the feasibility of potential uptake, but poses challenges for data synthesis. Adoption of the standing balance COS does not constitute a comprehensive balance assessment for any population, and users should include additional validated measures as appropriate. Conclusions The absence of a gold standard for measuring standing balance has contributed to the proliferation of outcome measures. These recommendations represent an important first step towards greater standardization in the assessment and measurement of this critical skill and will inform clinical research and practice internationally. PMID:25768435

  7. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  8. Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE11 isolated from a healthy adult.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Kenshiro; Toh, Hidehiro; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroyuki; Morita, Hidetoshi; Park, Sang-Hee; Ooka, Tadasuke; Iyoda, Sunao; Taylor, Todd D; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Kikuji; Hattori, Masahira

    2008-12-01

    We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain SE11 (O152:H28) recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B1. SE11 harbored a 4.8 Mb chromosome encoding 4679 protein-coding genes and six plasmids encoding 323 protein-coding genes. None of the SE11 genes had sequence similarity to known genes encoding phage- and plasmid-borne virulence factors found in pathogenic E. coli strains. The comparative genome analysis with the laboratory strain K-12 MG1655 identified 62 poorly conserved genes between these two non-pathogenic strains and 1186 genes absent in MG1655. These genes in SE11 were mostly encoded in large insertion regions on the chromosome or in the plasmids, and were notably abundant in genes of fimbriae and autotransporters, which are cell surface appendages that largely contribute to the adherence ability of bacteria to host cells and bacterial conjugation. These data suggest that SE11 may have evolved to acquire and accumulate the functions advantageous for stable colonization of intestinal cells, and that the adhesion-associated functions are important for the commensality of E. coli in human gut habitat.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Wild-type Commensal Escherichia coli Strain SE11 Isolated from a Healthy Adult

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kenshiro; Toh, Hidehiro; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroyuki; Morita, Hidetoshi; Park, Sang-Hee; Ooka, Tadasuke; Iyoda, Sunao; Taylor, Todd D.; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Kikuji; Hattori, Masahira

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain SE11 (O152:H28) recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B1. SE11 harbored a 4.8 Mb chromosome encoding 4679 protein-coding genes and six plasmids encoding 323 protein-coding genes. None of the SE11 genes had sequence similarity to known genes encoding phage- and plasmid-borne virulence factors found in pathogenic E. coli strains. The comparative genome analysis with the laboratory strain K-12 MG1655 identified 62 poorly conserved genes between these two non-pathogenic strains and 1186 genes absent in MG1655. These genes in SE11 were mostly encoded in large insertion regions on the chromosome or in the plasmids, and were notably abundant in genes of fimbriae and autotransporters, which are cell surface appendages that largely contribute to the adherence ability of bacteria to host cells and bacterial conjugation. These data suggest that SE11 may have evolved to acquire and accumulate the functions advantageous for stable colonization of intestinal cells, and that the adhesion-associated functions are important for the commensality of E. coli in human gut habitat. PMID:18931093

  10. Pooled patient-level meta-analysis of children and adults completing a computer-based anxiety intervention targeting attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca B; Wallace, Meredith; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader; Graur, Simona; Cummings, Logan; Popa, Paul; Carlbring, Per; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction. Diagnostic remission and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were clinical outcomes available in enough studies to enable pooling. Per-patient data were obtained on at least one outcome from 13/16 eligible studies [86% of eligible participants; n=778]. Significant main effects of ABM on diagnostic remission (ABM-22.6%, control-10.8%; OR=2.57; p=0.006) and AB (β* (95%CI)=-0.63 (-0.83, -0.42); p<0.00005) were observed. There was no main effect of ABM on LSAS. However, moderator analyses suggested ABM was effective for patients who were younger (≤37y), trained in the lab, and/or assessed by clinicians. Under the same conditions where ABM was effective, mechanistic links between AB and anxiety reduction were supported. Under these specific circumstances, ABM reduces anxiety and acts through its target mechanism, supporting ABM's theoretical basis while simultaneously suggesting clinical indications and refinements to improve its currently limited clinical potential.

  11. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    PubMed

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  12. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk.

  13. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  14. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Jones, T Todd; Jones, David R; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2) = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C) had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2) = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  15. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background For several decades, global public health efforts have focused on the development and application of disease control programs to improve child survival in developing populations. The need to reliably monitor the impact of such intervention programs in countries has led to significant advances in demographic methods and data sources, particularly with large-scale, cross-national survey programs such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although no comparable effort has been undertaken for adult mortality, the availability of large datasets with information on adult survival from censuses and household surveys offers an important opportunity to dramatically improve our knowledge about levels and trends in adult mortality in countries without good vital registration. To date, attempts to measure adult mortality from questions in censuses and surveys have generally led to implausibly low levels of adult mortality owing to biases inherent in survey data such as survival and recall bias. Recent methodological developments and the increasing availability of large surveys with information on sibling survival suggest that it may well be timely to reassess the pessimism that has prevailed around the use of sibling histories to measure adult mortality. Methods and Findings We present the Corrected Sibling Survival (CSS) method, which addresses both the survival and recall biases that have plagued the use of survey data to estimate adult mortality. Using logistic regression, our method directly estimates the probability of dying in a given country, by age, sex, and time period from sibling history data. The logistic regression framework borrows strength across surveys and time periods for the estimation of the age patterns of mortality, and facilitates the implementation of solutions for the underrepresentation of high-mortality families and recall bias. We apply the method to generate estimates of and trends in adult mortality, using the summary measure 45q

  16. A Reaction Time Experiment on Adult Attachment: The Development of a Measure for Neurophysiological Settings.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Theresia; Buchheim, Anna; Menning, Hans; Schenk, Ingmar; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time (RT) experiment using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals' attachment system is activated. We aimed to combine attachment methodology with knowledge from implicit measures by using a decision RT paradigm. This should serve as a means to capture implicit aspects of attachment. This experiment evaluated participants' response to prototypic attachment sentences in association with their own attachment classification, measured with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). First the AAP was administered as the standardized interview procedure to 30 healthy participants, which were classified into a secure or insecure group. In the following experimental session, both experimenter and participants were blind with respect to classifications. One hundred twenty eight prototypically secure or insecure sentences related to the eight pictures of the AAP were presented to the participants. Their response and RTs were recorded. Based on the response (accept, reject) a continuous security scale was defined. Both the AAP classification and security scale were related to the RTs. Differentiated study hypotheses were confirmed for insecure sentences, which were accepted faster by participants from the insecure attachment group (or with lower security scale), and rejected faster by participants from secure attachment group (or with higher security scale). The elaborating unconscious processes were more activated by insecure sentences with potential attachment

  17. A Reaction Time Experiment on Adult Attachment: The Development of a Measure for Neurophysiological Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Theresia; Buchheim, Anna; Menning, Hans; Schenk, Ingmar; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase of experimental research on automatic unconscious processes concerning the evaluation of the self and others. Previous research investigated implicit aspects of romantic attachment using self-report measures as explicit instruments for assessing attachment style. There is a lack of experimental procedures feasible for neurobiological settings. We developed a reaction time (RT) experiment using a narrative attachment measure with an implicit nature and were interested to capture automatic processes, when the individuals’ attachment system is activated. We aimed to combine attachment methodology with knowledge from implicit measures by using a decision RT paradigm. This should serve as a means to capture implicit aspects of attachment. This experiment evaluated participants’ response to prototypic attachment sentences in association with their own attachment classification, measured with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). First the AAP was administered as the standardized interview procedure to 30 healthy participants, which were classified into a secure or insecure group. In the following experimental session, both experimenter and participants were blind with respect to classifications. One hundred twenty eight prototypically secure or insecure sentences related to the eight pictures of the AAP were presented to the participants. Their response and RTs were recorded. Based on the response (accept, reject) a continuous security scale was defined. Both the AAP classification and security scale were related to the RTs. Differentiated study hypotheses were confirmed for insecure sentences, which were accepted faster by participants from the insecure attachment group (or with lower security scale), and rejected faster by participants from secure attachment group (or with higher security scale). The elaborating unconscious processes were more activated by insecure sentences with potential

  18. The Relative Utility of Three English Language Dominance Measures in Predicting the Neuropsychological Performance of HIV+ Bilingual Latino/a Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Caitlin; Rentería, Miguel Arce; Fuentes, Armando; Coulehan, Kelly; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Rosario, Ana; Monzones, Jennifer; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the disproportionate impact of neurologic disorders such as HIV on racial/ethnic minorities, neuropsychologists are increasingly evaluating individuals of diverse linguistic backgrounds. This study compares the utility of two brief and one comprehensive language measure to account for variation in English neuropsychological performance within a bilingual population. Method Sixty-two HIV+ English/Spanish bilingual Latino adults completed three language measures in English and Spanish: Self-Reported Language Ability; Verbal Fluency (FAS/PMR); and the Woodcock Munoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R). All participants also completed an English language neuropsychological (NP) battery. Results It was hypothesized that the comprehensive English/Spanish WMLS-R language dominance index (LDI) would be significantly correlated with NP performance, as well as the best predictor of NP performance over and above the two brief language measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, the WMLS-R LDI was not significantly correlated to NP performance, whereas the easily administered Verbal Fluency and Self-Report LDIs were each correlated with global NP performance and multiple NP domains. After accounting for Verbal Fluency and Self-Report LDI in a multivariate regression predicting NP performance, the WMLS-R LDI did not provide a unique contribution to the model. Conclusions These findings suggest that the more comprehensive WMLS-R does not improve understanding of the effects of language on NP performance in an HIV+ bilingual Latino population. PMID:26934820

  19. A complete treatment of adult living donor liver transplantation: a review of surgical technique and current challenges to expand indication of patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-G

    2015-01-01

    The growing disparity between the number of liver transplant candidates and the supply of deceased donor organs has motivated the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Over the last two decades, the operation has been markedly improved by innovations rendering modern results comparable with those of deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). However, there remains room for further innovation, particularly in adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). Unlike whole-size DDLT and pediatric LDLT, size-mismatching between ALDLT graft and recipient body weight and changing dynamics of posttransplant allograft regeneration have remained major challenges. A better understanding of the complex surgical anatomy and physiologic differences of ALDLT helps avoid small-for-size graft syndrome, graft congestion from outflow obstruction and graft hypoperfusion from portal flow steal. ALDLT for high-urgency patients (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >30) can achieve results comparable to DDLT in high volume centers. Size limitations of partial grafts and donor safety issues can be overcome with dual grafts and modified right-lobe grafts that preserve the donor's middle hepatic vein trunk. Extended application of LDLT for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma above Milan criteria is an optional strategy at the cost of slightly compromised survival. ABO-blood group incompatibility obstacles have been broken down by introducing a paired donor exchange program and refined peri-operative management of ABO-incompatible ALDLT. This review focuses on recent innovations of surgical techniques, safe donor selection, current strategies to expand ALDLT with broadened patient selection criteria and important aspects of teamwork required for success.

  20. Measurements of speech intelligibility in common rooms for older adults as a first step towards acoustical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reinten, Jikke; van Hout, Nicole; Hak, Constant; Kort, Helianthe

    2015-01-01

    Adapting the built environment to the needs of nursing- or care-home residents has become common practice. Even though hearing loss due to ageing is a normal occurring biological process, little research has been performed on the effects of room acoustic parameters on the speech intelligibility for older adults. This article presents the results of room acoustic measurements in common rooms for older adults and the effect on speech intelligibility. Perceived speech intelligibility amongst the users of the rooms was also investigated. The results have led to ongoing research at Utrecht University of Applied Sciences and Eindhoven University of Technology, aimed at the development of acoustical guidelines for elderly care facilities.

  1. Reliability of accelerometric measurement of physical activity in older adults-the benefit of using the trimmed sum.

    PubMed

    Trampisch, Ulrike Sonja; Platen, Petra; Trampisch, Matthias; Moschny, Anna; Thiem, Ulrich; Hinrichs, Timo

    2012-10-01

    There is general consensus that physical activity is important for preserving functional capacities of older adults and positively influencing quality of life. While accelerometry is widely accepted and applied to assess physical activity in studies, several problems with this method remain (e.g., low retest reliability, measurement errors). The aim of this study was to test the intra-instrumental retest reliability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in a 3-day measurement of physical activity in older adults and to compare different estimators. A sample of 123 older adults (76.5 ± 5.1 years, 59 % female) wore a uniaxial accelerometer continuously for 1 week. The data were split into two repeated measurement values (week set) of 3 days each. The sum, the 80-99th quantiles and the 80-99th trimmed sums were built for each week set. Retest reliability was assessed for each estimator and graphically demonstrated by Bland-Altman plots. The intraclass correlation of the retest reliability ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. Retest reliability increases when a more robust estimator than the overall sum is used. Therefore, the trimmed sum can be recommended as a conservative estimate of the physical activity level of older adults.

  2. The principles of the complete measurement of an off-centred elementary magnet on a spinner magnetometer with a coil sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present treatise is to show that, albeit a precise measurement of a magnetically inhomogeneous sample may not be obtained on a traditional spinner magnetometer, it is still possible to get one on a modified spinner provided that magnetic inhomogeneity can be correctly modelled by an elementary magnet of moment m which is offset (l) relative to the geometrical centre of the sample. Following the deduction of the equations of the response of the pick-up coils to such a magnet rotated within the coils (forward problem), a proposal is presented as to how to modify the pick-up unit in order to make the magnetometer adaptable to the complete measurement of both magnetic moment (m) and eccentricity (l) (inverse problem). The proposed modification, pick-up coils that can be set both vertically as well as about the vertical axis, makes it theoretically possible first to measure |l|, then to eliminate the effect of it from the response of the pick-up coils leaving a record from which m can be extracted unequivocally. In practical realisation, the measurements will have to be carried out with the pick-up unit tuned in resonance with the frequency of the sample rotation, and optionally with the treble of it if it is deemed necessary for checking or improving upon the precision of measurement.

  3. Line parameters measurements and modeling for the ν6 band of CH3F: Generation of a complete line list for atmospheric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, D.; Guinet, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 8.5 μm-spectral region of methyl fluoride was studied in terms of line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients at room temperature. A multispectrum fitting was used to retrieve from 7 high-resolution Fourier transform spectra line parameters for 787 transitions belonging to the ν6 band between 1078 and 1240 cm-1. The accuracy of line intensities and widths measurements were estimated to be around 5% and 5-10% respectively. J- and K-rotational dependences of the transition dipole moment squared and the self-broadening coefficients were observed and modeled from the measurements. A complete line list of almost 1500 transitions was generated for atmospheric or industrial detection of CH3F. Comparisons with previous studies from the literature were also performed.

  4. Patient-rated versus proxy-rated cognitive and functional measures in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Molly; Allan, Kevin C; Carlton, Caitlin E; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Smyth, Kathleen A; Sajatovic, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Patients with cognitive impairment may have difficulty reporting their functional and cognitive abilities, which are important clinical outcomes. Health care proxies may be able to corroborate patient self-reports. Several studies reported discrepancy between patient and proxy ratings, though the literature is sparse on changes over time of these ratings. Our goals in this 12-month study were to compare patient and proxy reports on functioning, cognition, and everyday executive function, and to further elucidate correlates of patient–proxy discrepancy. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of individuals older than 70 years who ranged from having no cognitive impairment to having moderate dementia who had a proxy available to complete instruments at baseline (N=76). Measurements included Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADLI), Neuro-QOL Executive Function, PROMIS Applied Cognition (PROMIS-Cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Patient- and proxy-rated ADCS-ADLI were correlated at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Patient and proxy ratings were discrepant on Neuro-QOL Executive Function and PROMIS-Cog. Greater patient–proxy discrepancy on PROMIS-Cog was associated with younger age and less depression, and greater patient–proxy discrepancy on Neuro-QOL Executive Function was associated with less depression and worse cognitive impairment. Patient–proxy discrepancy increased over time for everyday executive function. Changes in proxy-rated but not patient-rated ADCS-ADLI correlated with MMSE changes. Conclusion Patients and proxies generally agree in reporting on activities of daily living. Patient and proxy reports differ in their respective evaluation of cognitive functioning and everyday executive function. Ratings from both sources may be preferred for these two domains, though studies using gold standard measures are necessary. It is important

  5. A Novel Analytic Technique to Measure Associations Between Circulating Biomarkers and Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew J; Thompson, Dana K; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Kraus, Virginia B; Kraus, William E; Sullivan, Patrick; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Cohen, Harvey J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding associations between circulating biomarkers and physical performance across the adult life span could aid in better describing mechanistic pathways leading to disability. We hypothesized that high concentrations of circulating biomarkers would be associated with lower functioning across study populations representing the adult life span. The data were from four intervention and two observational studies with ages ranging 22-89 years. Biomarkers assayed included inflammatory, coagulation, and endothelial function markers. Physical performance was measured either by VO2peak (studies of young and middle-aged adults) or usual gait speed (studies of older adults). Partialled (by age, body mass index, race, and sex) and weighted common correlations were calculated between biomarkers and physical performance. Homogeneity of the associations was also assessed. Interleukin-6 (weighted r = -.22), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (weighted r = -.19), D-dimer (weighted r = -.16), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (weighted r = -.15), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (weighted r = -.14), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (weighted r = -.10) were all significantly inversely correlated with physical performance (p < .05). All significant correlations were homogeneous across studies. In summary, we observed consistent inverse associations between six circulating biomarkers and objective measures of physical performance. These results suggest that these serum biomarkers may be broadly applicable for detection, trajectory, and treatment monitoring of physical function across the life span or possibly for midlife predictors of functionally deleterious conditions.

  6. The effect of interburst intervals on measures of hippocampal LTP in the freely moving adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Fortin, D A; Bronzino, J D

    2001-08-01

    An important factor in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) is the tetanization paradigm. This paper presents the changes associated with the induction and maintenance of hippocampal LTP in the freely moving adult male rat, subjected to three different tetanization paradigms. These results indicate that specific LTP measures including (1) synaptic activation, as measured by the slope of the dentate granule cell population excitatory postsynaptic potential, and (2) cellular response, as measured by the dentate population spike amplitude, evoked by single-pulse stimulation of the medial perforant pathway are dependent on the interburst interval of the bursting paradigm commonly used in LTP studies.

  7. A meta-analysis of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults: Variability in effects across alcohol measures

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Risser, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief alcohol interventions are one approach for reducing drinking among youth, but may vary in effectiveness depending on the type of alcohol assessments used to measure effects. Objectives To conduct a meta-analysis that examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on exploring variability in effects across outcome measurement characteristics. Method Eligible studies were those using an experimental or quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention on a post-intervention alcohol use measure for youth ages 11–30. A comprehensive literature review identified 190 unique samples that were included in the meta-analysis. Taking a Bayesian approach, we used random-effects multilevel models to estimate the average effect and model variability across outcome measurement types. Results Brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in self-reported alcohol use among adolescents ( g¯ = 0.25, 95% CrI [0.13, 0.37]) and young adults ( g¯ = 0.15, 95% CrI [0.12, 0.18]). These results were consistent across outcomes with varying reference periods, but varied across outcome construct type and assessment instruments. Among adolescents, effects were larger when measured using the Timeline Followback; among young adults, effects were smaller when measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Conclusion The strength of the beneficial effects of brief alcohol interventions on youth’s alcohol use may vary depending upon the outcome measure utilized. Nevertheless, significant effects were observed across measures. Although effects were modest in size, they were clinically significant and show promise for interrupting problematic alcohol use trajectories among youth. PMID:26905387

  8. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  9. Complete Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  10. PM2: a partitioning-mining-measuring method for identifying progressive changes in older adults' sleeping activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daqing; Connelly, Kay; Zhou, Xingshe; Ni, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  11. Improving results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: an analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giebel, Sebastian; Labopin, Myriam; Socié, Gerard; Beelen, Dietrich; Browne, Paul; Volin, Liisa; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Wu, Depei; Michallet, Mauricette; Arnold, Renate; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is widely used to treat adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the results changed over time and to identify prognostic factors. Adult patients treated between 1993 and 2012 with myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched sibling (n=2681) or unrelated (n=2178) donors in first complete remission were included. For transplantations from sibling donors performed between 2008 and 2012, 2-year probabilities of overall survival were: 76% (18–25 years old), 69% (26–35 and 36–45 years old) and 60% (46–55 years old). Among recipients of transplantations from unrelated donors, the respective survival rates were 66%, 70%, 61%, and 62%. In comparison with the 1993–2007 period, significant improvements were observed for all age groups except for the 26–35-year old patients. In a multivariate model, transplantations performed between 2008 and 2012, when compared to 1993–2007, were associated with significantly reduced risks of non-relapse mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.77, P=0.00006), relapse (Hazard Ratio 0.85, P=0.007), treatment failure (Hazard Ratio 0.81, P<0.00001), and overall mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.79, P<0.00001). In the analysis restricted to transplantations performed between 2008 and 2012, the use of total body irradiation-based conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse (Hazard Ratio 0.48, P=0.004) and treatment failure (Hazard Ratio 0.63, P=0.02). We conclude that results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia improved significantly over time. Total body irradiation should be considered as the preferable type of myeloablative conditioning. PMID:27686376

  12. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  13. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.

  14. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures of neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Stark, Daniel; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosenberg, Abby R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral neuropathy is an important, yet poorly studied, side effect of pediatric cancer treatment. There are many measures of patient-reported peripheral neuropathy in adults but very few in children. We aimed to systematically review and summarize reliable and valid patient-reported peripheral neuropathy scales used in pediatrics. Methods Four major electronic databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) were reviewed for studies that measured peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients. Studies eligible for inclusion were those that described use of any patient-reported scale of peripheral neuropathy among children, adolescents, and young adults with any underlying diagnosis (not limited to cancer). Results From a total of 765 articles retrieved, 5 met eligibility criteria and were included. One was a neuropathy symptom score used in patients with diabetes, and the remaining four were in oncology patients and all were based on the total neuropathy score. All involved objective assessments conducted by trained professionals; none relied purely on patient report. Conclusions There are no validated instruments that consist solely of a patient-reported outcome measure of neuropathy in pediatrics and adolescents. Because the clinical evaluation of neuropathy requires specialized training, it is not generalizable in large studies conducted in many diverse institutions. Future studies should validate adult patient-reported neuropathy scales in pediatric and adolescent populations, or develop novel instruments designed for this population. PMID:27037813

  15. Validation of Self-Reported Smokeless Tobacco Use by Measurement of Serum Cotinine Concentration Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003–2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non–tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 97.0%, specificity = 93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL. PMID:25125690

  16. Validation of self-reported smokeless tobacco use by measurement of serum cotinine concentration among US adults.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A

    2014-10-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncertain. We used aggregated data from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 administrations of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to compare self-reported SLT use with serum concentrations of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, among US adults aged ≥18 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal serum cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from nonusers of tobacco, and concordance analysis was used to compare self-reported SLT use with cotinine levels. Among the 30,298 adult respondents who completed the NHANES during 2003-2010, 418 reported having exclusively used SLT and no other type of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes) during the past 5 days, while 23,457 reported not using any tobacco. The optimal cotinine cutpoint for discriminating SLT users from non-tobacco users was 3.0 ng/mL (sensitivity=97.0%, specificity=93.0%), which was comparable to a revised cutpoint recommended for identifying adult cigarette smokers. Concordance with cotinine was 96.4% and 93.7% for self-reported SLT use and tobacco nonuse, respectively. These findings indicate that self-reported SLT use among adults correlates highly with serum cotinine levels and that the optimal cutpoint for minimizing misclassification of self-reported use is a serum cotinine concentration of 3.0 ng/mL.

  17. Frequency analysis of the visual steady-state response measured with the fast optical signal in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Gordon, Brian A.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Relatively high frequency activity (>4 Hz) carries important information about the state of the brain or its response to high frequency events. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is commonly used to study these changes because it possesses high temporal resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio. However, it provides limited spatial information. Non-invasive fast optical signals (FOS) have been proposed as a neuroimaging tool combining spatial and temporal resolution. Yet, this technique has not been applied to study high frequency brain oscillations because of its relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. Here we investigate the sensitivity of FOS to relatively high-frequency brain oscillations. We measured the steady-state optical response elicited in medial and lateral occipital cortex by checkerboard reversals occurring at 4, 6, and 8 Hz in younger and older adults. Stimulus-dependent oscillations were observed at the predicted stimulation frequency. In addition, in the younger adults the FOS steady-state response was smaller in lateral than medial areas, whereas in the older adults it was reversed in these two cortical regions. This may reflect diminished top-down inhibitory control in the older adults. The results indicate that FOS can be used to study the modulation of relatively high-frequency brain oscillations in adjacent cortical regions. PMID:20566389

  18. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  19. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  20. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  1. Measuring Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating in Obese, Treatment-Seeking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Flood, Andrew P.; Jaeb, Melanie A.; Laqua, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize perceived barriers to healthful eating in a sample of obese, treatment-seeking adults and to examine whether changes in barriers are associated with energy intake and body weight. Design: Observational study based on findings from a randomized, controlled behavioral weight-loss trial. Participants: Participants were 113…

  2. Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Adult Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Ryan, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a substitute for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). IPS scores were correlated with the three WAIS IQs, and regression equations were computed to obtain estimated Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ. (Author)

  3. Constructing Proxy Variables to Measure Adult Learners' Time Management Strategies in LMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun; Kim, Dongho; Yoon, Meehyun

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of constructing proxy variables from recorded log data within a Learning Management System (LMS), which represents adult learners' time management strategies in an online course. Based on previous research, three variables of total login time, login frequency, and regularity of login interval were selected as…

  4. Measuring and Understanding Authentic Youth Engagement: The Youth-Adult Partnership Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Heng-Chieh Jamie; Kornbluh, Mariah; Weiss, John; Roddy, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Commonly described as youth-led or youth-driven, the youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) model has gained increasing popularity in out-of-school time (OST) programs in the past two decades (Larson, Walker, & Pearce, 2005; Zeldin, Christens, & Powers, 2013). The Y-AP model is defined as "the practice of (a) multiple youth and multiple…

  5. Social Capital Outcomes of Adult Learning and Literacy Initiatives. How Do We Measure Them? Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This literature review provides an overview of the main lines of discussion and enquiry around social capital and adult learning and literacy. It was written as a background paper for "The Centre for Literacy's 2010 Summer Institute" on workplace literacy and essential skills (LES). The Institute focus was "what…

  6. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  7. Accounting for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity With Pre- and Posttrauma Measures: A Longitudinal Study of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older adults, we analyzed the most extensive set of known correlates of PTSD symptoms obtained from a single sample to examine the measures’ independent and combined utility in accounting for PTSD symptom severity. Fifteen measures identified as PTSD risk factors in published meta-analyses and 12 theoretically and empirically supported individual difference and health-related measures were included. Individual difference measures assessed after the trauma, including insecure attachment and factors related to the current trauma memory, such as self-rated severity, event centrality, frequency of involuntary recall, and physical reactions to the memory, accounted for symptom severity better than measures of pre-trauma factors. In an analysis restricted to prospective measures assessed before the trauma, the total variance explained decreased from 56% to 16%. Results support a model of PTSD in which characteristics of the current trauma memory promote the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. PMID:27004143

  8. An examination of the relationships between service use and alternative measures of obesity among community-dwelling adults in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Edel; Queally, Michelle; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has received increased attention arising from its increasing prevalence and the implications of obesity-related problems for society and the wider economy. To estimate healthcare and non-healthcare obesity impacts, many studies rely on body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity. However BMI is considered to be a noisy measure of total body fat that unlike some other measures does not capture fat distribution. This study uses one such measure, the waist-to-hip ratio, as both an alternative and in conjunction with BMI in the estimation of the relationship between adiposity and health service use. The article uses data from a large-scale study of older adults living in Ireland (the Tilda data set). The findings indicate that studies that include both measures of general and central adiposity may provide a more comprehensive characterisation of the relationship between healthcare service use and adiposity.

  9. Complete elastic characterization of viscoelastic materials by dynamic measurements of the complex bulk and Young's moduli as a function of temperature and hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, François M.; Trivett, D. H.

    2011-07-01

    Two independent systems to measure the dynamic complex Young's and bulk moduli of viscoelastic materials as a function of temperature and hydrostatic pressure are described. In the Young's modulus system, a bar-shaped sample is adhered to a piezoelectric shaker and mounted vertically inside an air-filled pressure vessel. Data are obtained using both the traditional resonant approach and a wave-speed technique. In the bulk modulus system, the compressibility of a sample of arbitrary shape immersed in Castor oil and placed inside a pressure chamber is measured. Data can be obtained at frequencies typically ranging from 50 Hz to 5 kHz, at temperatures comprised between -2 and 50 °C and under hydrostatic pressures ranging from 0 to 2 MPa (Young's), or 6.5 MPa (bulk). Typical data obtained with both systems are presented, and it is shown how these data can be combined to completely characterize the elasticity of the material under investigation. In particular, they can be used to obtain experimental values of the complex Poisson's ratio, whose accurate measurement is otherwise quite challenging to perform directly. As an example, the magnitude and loss tangent of Poisson's ratio are presented for a nearly incompressible rubber.

  10. Food patterns measured by principal component analysis and obesity in the Nepalese adult

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Gary Chan, Kwun Chuen; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2016-01-01

    Objective About one-fourth of Nepalese adults are overweight or obese but no studies have examined their risk factors, especially pertaining to diet. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in a suburban Nepalese community and assess their associations with overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 1073 adults (18 years or older) participating in the baseline survey of the Dhulikhel Heart Study. We derived major dietary patterns from a principal component analysis of reported intake from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Overweight was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or higher and obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised estimating equations with multivariate logistic regression (with household as cluster) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, religion, marital status, income, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and systolic blood pressure. Results Four dietary patterns were derived: mixed, fast food, refined grain–meat–alcohol and solid fats–dairy. The refined grain–rice–alcohol pattern was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.39; p=0.02) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In adults of 40 years or older, the fast food pattern was associated with obesity controlling for demographic and traditional risk factors (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.39; p value=0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that refined grains–meat–alcohol intake is associated with higher prevalence of overweight, and fast food intake is associated with higher prevalence of obesity in older adults (40 years or above) in suburban Nepalese adults. PMID:27326232

  11. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  12. Treatment of congenital heart disease: risk-reducing measures in young adults.

    PubMed

    van der Bom, Teun; Luijendijk, Paul; Bouma, Berto J; Koolbergen, Dave R; de Groot, Joris R; Mulder, Barbara J M; Mulder, Barbara B J

    2011-03-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease form a new and relatively young population, since surgical treatment of heart defects became available three to four decades ago. Owing to improved survival this population is steadily growing in number and age. Little is known regarding long-term survival; however, late complications occur frequently. During adulthood, almost half of the patients have one or more complication, such as endocarditis, stroke, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, aortic aneurysm or dissection and arrhythmias. Heart failure and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death. Treatment of adults with congenital heart disease is aimed at the reduction of symptoms, but also at minimizing the risk and severity of late complications. In this article the most recent advances in the treatment of congenital heart disease will be discussed. The main focus of the article will be on pharmacological, interventional and surgical interventions that reduce the risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, vascular complications, pulmonary hypertension and endocarditis.

  13. Concurrent validity of the tower tasks as measures of executive function in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jeremy R; Riccio, Cynthia A; Castillo, Christine L

    2009-01-01

    Executive function refers to a variety of behaviors and abilities related to planning and strategy use, as well as to the maintenance of attention and behavior in the pursuit of some goal. Many instruments have been designed for the purpose of assessing executive function, and the tower tasks represent a specific group of measures commonly used in the assessment of this construct. This review and meta-analysis examines the theoretical and psychometric basis for the use of the various tower tasks in neuropsychological assessment of adults. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence are consistent with theoretical hypotheses of frontal involvement (e.g., planning and strategy use) in tower task performance. Further, adults with various disorders of presumed neurological basis demonstrate impaired performance on tower tasks. Implications for the use of tower tasks in practice and research are discussed.

  14. Improved reading measures in adults with dyslexia following transcranial direct current stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia.

  15. Measuring physical activity in older adults: calibrating cut-points for the MotionWatch 8©

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Falck, Ryan S.; Beets, Michael W.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Given the world’s aging population, the staggering economic impact of dementia, the lack of effective treatments, and the fact a cure for dementia is likely many years away – there is an urgent need to develop interventions to prevent or at least delay dementia’s progression. Thus, lifestyle approaches to promote healthy aging are an important line of scientific inquiry. Good sleep quality and physical activity (PA) are pillars of healthy aging, and as such, are an increasing focus for intervention studies aimed at promoting health and cognitive function in older adults. However, PA and sleep quality are difficult constructs to evaluate empirically. Wrist-worn actigraphy (WWA) is currently accepted as a valid objective measure of sleep quality. The MotionWatch 8© (MW8) is the latest WWA, replacing the discontinued Actiwatch 4 and Actiwatch 7. In the current study, concurrent measurement of WWA and indirect calorimetry was performed during 10 different activities of daily living for 23 healthy older adults (aged 57–80 years) to determine cut-points for sedentary and moderate-vigorous PA – using receiver operating characteristic curves – with the cut-point for light activity being the boundaries between sedentary and moderate to vigorous PA. In addition, simultaneous multi-unit reliability was determined for the MW8 using inter-class correlations. The current study is the first to validate MW8 activity count cut-points – for sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA – specifically for use with healthy older adults. These cut-points provide important context for better interpretation of MW8 activity counts, and a greater understanding of what these counts mean in terms of PA. Hence, our results validate another level of analysis for researchers using the MW8 in studies aiming to examine PA and sleep quality concurrently in older adults. PMID:26379546

  16. Relationship Between Longitudinal Measures of Renal Function and Onset of Dementia Among a Community Cohort of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Ann M.; Walker, Rod; Haneuse, Sebastian; Crane, Paul K.; McCormick, Wayne C.; Bowen, James D.; Larson, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies have described a higher incidence of dementia or worsening cognitive function in patients with lower levels of kidney function at a single point in time. Objectives To evaluate the association between dynamic measures of renal function ascertained over time with onset of dementia. Design prospective community cohort study. Setting and Participants 2,968 adults aged 65 and older followed for the development of dementia over a median of 6.0 years (interquartile range 3.1–10.1 years). Measurements Time varying measures of renal function were constructed based on a total of 49,340 serum creatinine measurements and included: the average level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), eGFR trajectory and variability in eGFR around this trajectory over 5-year exposure windows. The association between these three eGFR exposure measures and risk of dementia was estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for other patient characteristics. In sensitivity analyses, we also adjusted for time-varying measures of urine protein by dipstick. Results Patients with lower levels of eGFR had a higher incidence of dementia but this did not reach statistical significance in adjusted analyses (omnibus p value=0.14). There were trends toward a higher adjusted incidence of dementia in patients with positive eGFR trajectories (omnibus p value=0.07) and greater variability in eGFR (omnibus p value=0.04) over time. The results of sensitivity analyses, including those in which we included time-varying measures of proteinuria, were consistent with those of the primary analysis. Conclusion Among a community cohort of older adults followed for a median of 6 years, we did not find strong associations between measures of kidney disease severity and progression and incident dementia. PMID:23231548

  17. Built environment attributes related to GPS measured active trips in mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Carlson, Jordan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Belza, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding factors which may promote walking in mid-life and older adults with mobility impairments is key given the association between physical activity and positive health outcomes. Objective To examine the relationship between active trips and objective measures of the home neighborhood built environment. Methods Global positioning systems (GPS) data collected on 28 adults age 50+ with mobility disabilities were analyzed for active trips from home. Objective and geographic information systems (GIS) derived measures included Walk Score, population density, street connectivity, crime rates, and slope within the home neighborhood. For this cross-sectional observational study, we conducted mean comparisons between participants who took active trips from home and those who did not for the objective measures. Effect sizes were calculated to assess the magnitude of group differences. Results Nine participants (32%) took active trips from home. Walking in the home neighborhood was significantly associated with GIS derived measures (Walk Score, population density, and street density; effect sizes .9-1.2). Participants who used the home neighborhood for active trips had less slope within 1 km of home but the difference was not significant (73.5 meters±22 vs. 100.8 meters ±38.1, p=.06, d=0.8). There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for crime rates between those with active trips from home and those without. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary evidence that more walkable environments promote active mobility among mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities. The data suggest that this population can and does use active transportation modes when the built environment is supportive. PMID:25637503

  18. Measuring Goodness of Story Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to evaluate a new measure of story narrative performance: story completeness. It was hypothesized that by combining organizational (story grammar) and completeness measures, story "goodness" could be quantified. Method: Discourse samples from 46 typically developing adults were compared with those from 24…

  19. Measurement of agitation and aggression in adult and aged neuropsychiatric patients: review of definitions and frequently used measurement scales.

    PubMed

    Volicer, Ladislav; Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan

    2017-02-09

    Agitation and aggression in adult psychiatric patients with psychoses and in persons with dementia increase the burden of disease and frequently cause hospitalization. The implementation of currently available management strategies and the development of new ones is hindered by inconsistent terminology that confuses agitation with aggression. This confusion is maintained by many rating scales that fail to distinguish between these two syndromes. We review the frequently used rating scales with a particular focus on their ability to separate agitation from aggression. Agitation and aggression are two different syndromes. For example, reactive aggression is often precipitated by rejection of care and may not be associated with agitation per se. We propose, in treatment studies of behavioral symptoms of dementia and challenging behaviors in psychoses, that outcomes should be evaluated separately for agitation and aggression. This is important for investigation of drug effectiveness since the medication may be effective against one syndrome but not the other. Separate assessments of agitation and aggression should be a general principle of trial design with particular salience for registration studies of medications proposed for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory bodies.

  20. Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults With Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Torppa, Minna

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to an in-lab or online survey. Results indicated that intrapersonal resilience correlated positively with interpersonal resilience and persistence, and both resilience factors were negatively associated with number of difficulties. Using structural equation modeling, intrapersonal resilience explained general satisfaction, intrapersonal resilience and number of difficulties explained self satisfaction, and interpersonal resilience explained social satisfaction. Academic achievement did not correlate with any of the included variables.

  1. Pre- and post-training evaluation of dental efficacy and activation measures in carers of adults with disabilities in South Australia - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Archana; Keuskamp, Dominic; Brennan, David

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to train carers to provide oral care for adults with disabilities and to evaluate the training programme. Forty-one carers of 103 care recipients from three disability organisations in South Australia were trained in providing oral care for adults with disabilities (April 2013-April 2014). The training included an oral presentation and practical session by a special needs dentist on completing oral health assessments (OHA), developing oral healthcare plans, providing oral hygiene care and assessing the need for dental referral. Continued support was provided via home visits by dental hygienists for the first 2 months and a dentist visit at 3 months. At 6 months, agreement on OHAs between the dentist and trained carers was assessed. Pre- and post-training questionnaires (at 6 months) collected information on dental behaviours of carers and psychosocial factors: carer activation measure-knowledge (CAM-Knowledge), carer activation measure-skills (CAM-Skills), carer activation measure-confidence (CAM-Confidence) and carer dental efficacy (CDE) items (carer diligence, self-efficacy and priority). Post-training (among 16 retained carers), there were significant increases in the mean scores of CAM-Knowledge and CAM-Confidence, but not for CAM-Skills (paired-samples t-tests, α = 0.05). Per cent agreement of CDE items varied little between questionnaires. Carer-dentist agreement on OHAs was generally high with kappa values ranging from 0.63 for the assessment of gums to 1.0 for the assessment of tongue, roof of mouth, denture and dental pain. Further, carers were able to assess the need for referral of their care recipients' oral health similar to the dentist. These findings suggest that with combined theoretical and practical training and continued support, non-dental professionals like carers can improve their knowledge and confidence in providing oral care for adults with disabilities. However, the findings of this pilot study need

  2. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in adult patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aiyegbusi, Olalekan Lee; Kyte, Derek; Cockwell, Paul; Marshall, Tom; Keeley, Thomas; Gheorghe, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with symptoms that can significantly reduce the quality of life (QoL) of patients. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) may facilitate the assessment of the impact of disease and treatment on the QoL, from a patient perspective. PROMs can be used in research and routine clinical practice. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies evaluating the measurement properties of PROMs in adults with CKD will be conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus will be systematically searched from inception. Hand searching of reference lists and citations of included studies will be carried out. 2 reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of all the studies retrieved during the systematic search to determine their eligibility. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to appraise the methodological quality of the selected studies following the full-text review. Data on the study population, questionnaire characteristics and measurement properties will be extracted from the selected papers. Finally, a narrative synthesis of extracted data will be undertaken. Ethics and dissemination Ethical permissions are not required for this study as data from published research articles will be used. Findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. This systematic review will provide a comprehensive assessment of the measurement properties of PROMs currently available for use in adult patients with CKD and present evidence which may inform the selection of measures for use in research and clinical practice. Trial registration number CRD42016035554. PMID:27733411

  3. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Zimprich, Daniel; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jellemer

    2009-01-01

    The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is designed to assess a person's proneness to committing cognitive slips and errors in the completion of everyday tasks. Although the CFQ is a widely used instrument, its factor structure remains an issue of scientific debate. The present study used data of a representative sample (N = 1,303, 24-83 years…

  4. Validity of the Fitbit activity tracker for measuring steps in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Serene S; Tiedemann, Anne; Hassett, Leanne M; Ramsay, Elisabeth; Kirkham, Catherine; Chagpar, Sakina; Sherrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercially available activity monitors, such as the Fitbit, may encourage physical activity. However, the accuracy of the Fitbit in older adults remains unknown. This study aimed to determine (1) the criterion validity of Fitbit step counts compared to visual count and ActiGraph accelerometer step counts and (2) the accuracy of ActiGraph step counts compared to visual count in community-dwelling older people. Methods Thirty-two community-dwelling adults aged over 60 wore Fitbit and ActiGraph devices simultaneously during a 2 min walk test (2MWT) and then during waking hours over a 7-day period. A physiotherapist counted the steps taken during the 2MWT. Results There was excellent agreement between Fitbit and visually counted steps (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1)=0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) from the 2MWT, and good agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC2,1=0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.82), and between ActiGraph and visually counted steps (ICC2,1=0.60, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). There was excellent agreement between the Fitbit and ActiGraph in average steps/day over 7 days (ICC2,1=0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Percentage agreement was closest for Fitbit steps compared to visual count (mean 0%, SD 4%) and least for Fitbit average steps/day compared to the ActiGraph (mean 13%, SD 25%). Conclusions The Fitbit accurately tracked steps during the 2MWT, but the ActiGraph appeared to underestimate steps. There was strong agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph counted steps. The Fitbit tracker is sufficiently accurate to be used among community-dwelling older adults to monitor and give feedback on step counts. PMID:27900119

  5. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schambra, Heidi M.; Ogden, R. Todd; Martínez-Hernández, Isis E.; Lin, Xuejing; Chang, Y. Brenda; Rahman, Asif; Edwards, Dylan J.; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed. PMID:26388729

  6. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  7. Examining the positive effects of exercise in intubated adults in ICU: A prospective repeated measures clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Winkelman, Chris; Johnson, Kimberly D.; Hejal, Rana; Gordon, Nahida H.; Rowbottom, James; Daly, Janis; Peereboom, Karen; Levine, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Determining the optimal timing and progression of mobility exercise has the potential to affect functional recovery of critically ill adults. This study compared standard care with care delivered using a mobility protocol. We examined the effects of exercise on vital signs and inflammatory biomarkers and the effects of the nurse-initiated mobility protocol on outcomes. Methods Prospective, repeated measures study with a control (standard care) and intervention (protocol) period. Results 75 heterogeneous subjects admitted to a Medical or Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled. In <5% of exercise periods, there was a concerning alteration in respiratory rate or peripheral oxygen saturation; no other adverse events occurred. Findings suggested the use of a protocol with one 20 minute episode of exercise daily for 2 or more days reduced ICU length of stay. Duration of exercise was linked to increased IL-10, suggesting brief episodes of low intensity exercise positively altered inflammatory dysregulation in this sample. Conclusion A growing body of evidence demonstrates that early, progressive exercise has significant benefits to intubated adults. These results should encourage clinicians to add mobility protocols to the care of ICU adults and lead to future studies to determine optimal “dosing” of exercise in ICU patients. PMID:22458998

  8. Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

    2013-12-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age.

  9. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.

  10. Age-Related Invariance of Abilities Measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Holdnack, James A.; Lloyd, Delyth

    2006-01-01

    Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of test scores is directly comparable across groups. The observation of measurement invariance provides fundamental evidence for the inference that scores on a test afford equivalent measurement of the same psychological traits among diverse groups. Groups…

  11. Direct and Indirect Measures of Level-2 Perspective-Taking in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surtees, Andrew D. R.; Butterfill, Stephen A.; Apperly, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies with infants show divergence between performance on theory of mind tasks depending on whether "direct" or "indirect" measures are used. It has been suggested that direct measures assess a flexible but cognitively demanding ability to reason about the minds of others, whereas indirect measures assess distinct processes…

  12. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults.METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults' quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory - good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health - G5; and poor/very poor quality of life - poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health - G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref.RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6).CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health.

  13. Saccadic Eye Movement Characteristics in Adult Niemann-Pick Type C Disease: Relationships with Disease Severity and Brain Structural Measures

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Larry A.; Bowman, Elizabeth A.; Velakoulis, Dennis; Fahey, Michael C.; Desmond, Patricia; Macfarlane, Matthew D.; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Adamson, Christopher L.; Walterfang, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy. PMID:23226429

  14. Incubation of Cue-Induced Craving in Adults Addicted to Cocaine Measured by Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine. OBJECTIVE To assess cue-induced craving for cocaine in humans using both subjective and objective indices of cue-elicited responses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Seventy-six individuals addicted to cocaine with varying durations of abstinence (ie, 2 days, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year) participated in this laboratory-based cross-sectional study from June 19, 2007, to November 26, 2012. The late positive potential component of electroencephalography, a recognized marker of incentive salience, was used to track motivated attention to drug cues across these self-selected groups. Participants also completed subjective ratings of craving for cocaine before presentation of a cue, and ratings of cocaine “liking” (hedonic feelings toward cocaine) and “wanting” (craving for cocaine) after presentation of cocaine-related pictures. Data analysis was conducted from June 5, 2015, to March 30, 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The late positive potential amplitudes and ratings of liking and wanting cocaine in response to cocaine-related pictures were quantified and compared across groups. RESULTS Among the 76 individuals addicted to cocaine, 19 (25%) were abstinent for 2 days, 20 (26%) were abstinent for 1week, 15 (20%) were abstinent for 1 month, 12 (16%) were abstinent for 6 months, and 10 (13%) were abstinent for 1 year. In response to drug cues, the mean (SD) late positive potential amplitudes

  15. The concurrent validity and reliability of the Leg Motion system for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background New reliable devices for range of motion (ROM) measures in older adults are necessary to improve knowledge about the functional capability in this population. Dorsiflexion ROM limitation is associated with ankle injuries, foot pain, lower limb disorders, loss of balance, gait control disorders and fall risk in older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Leg Motion device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion ROM in older adults. Methods Adescriptive repeated-measures study was designed to test the reliability of Leg Motion in thirty-three healthy elderly patients older than 65 years. The subjects had to meet the following inclusion and exclusion criteria in their medical records: older than 65 years; no lower extremity injury for at least one year prior to evaluation (meniscopathy, or fractures) and any chronic injuries (e.g., osteoarthritis); no previous hip, knee or ankle surgery; no neuropathic alterations and no cognitive conditions (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or dementia). Participants were recruited through the person responsible for the physiotherapist area from a nursing center. The subjects were evaluated in two different sessions at the same time of day, and there was a break of two weeks between sessions. To test the validity of the Leg Motion system, the participants were measured in a weight-bearing lunge position using a classic goniometer with 1° increments, a smartphone with an inclinometer standard app (iPhone 5S®) with 1° increments and a measuring tape that could measure 0.1 cm. All testing was performed while the patients were barefoot. The researcher had ten years of experience as a physiotherapist using goniometer, tape measure and inclinometer devices. Results Mean values and standard deviations were as follows: Leg Motion (right 5.15 ± 3.08; left 5.19 ± 2.98), tape measure (right 5.12 ± 3.08; left 5.12 ± 2.80), goniometer (right 45.87° ± 4.98; left 44.50° ± 5

  16. Development of a disease specific health related quality of life measure for adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gee, L; Abbott, J; Conway, S; Etherington, C; Webb, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Health related quality of life (HRQoL) measurement is important in determining the impact of disease on daily functioning and subsequently informing interventions. In cystic fibrosis (CF) generic HRQoL measures have been employed but these may not be sufficiently specific. The aim of the current work was to develop and validate a disease specific HRQoL measure for adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.
METHODS—Areas of concern to adults and adolescents with CF were identified by unstructured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, consultation with multidisciplinary specialist staff, a review of the relevant literature, and examination of other HRQoL measures. Items for the questionnaire were generated on the basis of this process. Continued evaluation and development of the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life (CFQoL) questionnaire was undertaken by a process of statistical analysis and continued feedback from patients. The full testing and validation of the CFQoL questionnaire took place over four phases: (1) initial item generation and testing of a preliminary questionnaire, (2) testing and validation of the second version of the questionnaire, (3) test-retest reliability of a third and final version of the questionnaire, and (4) sensitivity testing of the final version of the questionnaire.
RESULTS—Nine domains of functioning were identified using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Internal reliability of the identified domains was demonstrated using Cronbach alpha coefficients (range 0.72-0.92) and item to total domain score correlations. Concurrent validity (range r = 0.64-0.74), discriminatory ability between different levels of disease severity, sensitivity across transient changes in health (effect size range, moderate d = 0.56 to large d = 1.95), and test-retest reliability (r =0.74-0.96) were also found to be robust.
CONCLUSIONS—The CFQoL questionnaire is a fully validated disease specific measure

  17. The effect of a limit-fed diet and slow-feed hay nets on morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Glunk, E C; Hathaway, M R; Grev, A M; Lamprecht, E D; Maher, M C; Martinson, K L

    2015-08-01

    Modern horse management systems tend to limit a horse's opportunity to forage, rely on meal feeding, and may contribute to the increase in equine obesity. The use of slow-feed hay nets represents an opportunity to extend foraging time while feeding a restricted diet. The objectives of this study were to determine if limit feeding combined with a slow-feed hay net would affect morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in overweight adult horses. Eight adult Quarter horses (BW 563 kg ± 4.6 kg; BCS 7.2 ± 0.3) were used in a randomized complete block design, with 4 horses assigned to feeding hay off the stall floor (FLOOR) and 4 horses assigned to feeding from a slow-feed hay net (NET). Horses were fed in individual stalls at 1% BW each day, split evenly between 2 meals at 0700 and 1600 h. Body weight, BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, and ultrasound measurements of average rump fat, longissimus dorsi (LD) depth, and LD thickness were taken on d 0, 14, and 28. Three 24-h blood samplings were conducted on d 0, 14, and 28 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, cortisol, and leptin concentrations. Samplings occurred every 30 min for 3 h postfeeding, with hourly samples occurring between feedings. Horses feeding from the FLOOR took less time to consume their hay meal compared with horses feeding from the NET ( < 0.001). All horses lost weight over the 28-d period ( < 0.0001); however, no difference was observed between treatments. There was no difference in BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, rump fat, or LD depth between days or treatments ( ≥ 0.25). There was an effect of day on LD thickness in horses feeding from the NET. Longissimus dorsi thickness was lower on d 28 compared with that on d 0 ( = 0.0257). Only time to peak insulin and peak cortisol were affected by treatment ( ≤ 0.037), with horses feeding from the NET having lower values than horses feeding from the FLOOR. Average glucose

  18. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia: comparable survival rates but different risk factors between related and unrelated transplantation in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kasai, Masanobu; Mori, Takehiko; Iwato, Koji; Yoshida, Takashi; Onizuka, Makoto; Kawa, Keisei; Morishima, Yasuo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Miyamura, Koichi

    2010-11-18

    To identify factors to improve the outcomes of related and unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantations (allo-SCT) for Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph(-) ALL) in the first complete remission (CR1), we retrospectively analyzed 1139 Ph(-) ALL patients using the registry data, particularly the details of 641 patients transplanted in CR1. Overall survival was significantly superior among patients transplanted in CR1, but no significant difference was observed between related and unrelated allo-SCTs (related vs unrelated: 65% vs 62% at 4 years, respectively; P = .19). Among patients transplanted in CR1, relapse rates were significantly higher in related allo-SCT compared with unrelated allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that less than 6 months from diagnosis to allo-SCT alone was associated with relapse. On the other hand, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher in unrelated allo-SCT compared with related allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that 10 months or longer from diagnosis to allo-SCT, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, and abnormal karyotype were associated with NRM. In conclusion, our study showed comparable survival rates but different relapse rates, NRM rates, and risk factors between related and unrelated allo-SCTs. After a close consideration of these factors, the outcome of allo-SCT for adult Ph(-) ALL in CR1 could be improved.

  19. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  20. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  1. Using Self-Reported Health Measures to Predict High-Need Cases among Medicaid-Eligible Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Laura R; Burns, Marguerite E; Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of different self-reported health (SRH) measures to prospectively identify individuals with high future health care needs among adults eligible for Medicaid. Data Sources The 1997–2008 rounds of the National Health Interview Survey linked to the 1998–2009 rounds of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 6,725). Study Design Multivariate logistic regression models are fitted for the following outcomes: having an inpatient visit; membership in the top decile of emergency room utilization; and membership in the top cost decile. We examine the incremental predictive ability of six different SRH domains (health conditions, mental health, access to care, health behaviors, health-related quality of life [HRQOL], and prior utilization) over a baseline model with sociodemographic characteristics. Models are evaluated using the c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Principal Findings Self-reports of prior utilization provide the greatest predictive improvement, followed by information on health conditions and HRQOL. Models including these three domains meet the standard threshold of acceptability (c-statistics range from 0.703 to 0.751). Conclusions SRH measures provide a promising way to prospectively profile Medicaid-eligible adults by likely health care needs. PMID:25130916

  2. Empathic Skills and Cyberbullying: Relationship of Different Measures of Empathy to Cyberbullying in Comparison to Offline Bullying Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pfetsch, Jan S

    2017-01-01

    Empathy, as the ability to understand and feel the emotions of others, is related to less bullying behavior. However, the link of bullying behavior with self-reports of empathy seems to be stronger than with behavioral measures of empathy (e.g., empathic accuracy). Few studies have analyzed the relationship of affective and cognitive empathy to cyberbullying behavior, especially among young adults. In a quasiexperimental dyadic interaction paradigm with 72 young adults, empathic accuracy was operationalized as the match of other- and self-reported emotions for the target, and emotional congruence as the match of the target's and the perceiver's self-reported emotions. Affective and cognitive empathy, offline bullying behavior, and cyberbullying behavior were measured using self-reports. Empathic accuracy and cognitive empathy were found to be negatively linked. Emotional congruence, self-reported affective and cognitive empathy did not correlate with offline bullying behavior or cyberbullying behavior. Only empathic accuracy was significantly negatively linked to offline bullying behavior. In group tests, higher empathic accuracy (but not emotional congruence) was connected to less offline bullying behavior. In a multiple regression analysis only emotional congruence was a predictor of cyberbullying behavior. Thus, while empathic accuracy might diminish offline bullying behavior, emotional congruence might diminish cyberbullying behavior.

  3. The Positive Event Scale: Measuring Uplift Frequency and Intensity in an Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybery, D. J.; Jones-Ellis, Jenny; Neale, Jason; Arentz, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Of the limited number of studies employing positive event (uplift) measures none have published detailed psychometric information about the scale that was used (Maybery and Graham, 2001, Stress and Health 17, pp. 91-104). Building on previous work with university students and employing conceptually distinct measurement strategies (i.e. measuring…

  4. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  5. Efficacy Outcome Measures for Procedural Sedation Clinical Trials in Adults: An ACTTION Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark R; McKeown, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Miner, James R; Sessler, Daniel I; Vargo, John; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Successful procedural sedation represents a spectrum of patient- and clinician-related goals. The absence of a gold-standard measure of the efficacy of procedural sedation has led to a variety of outcomes being used in clinical trials, with the consequent lack of consistency among measures, making comparisons among trials and meta-analyses challenging. We evaluated which existing measures have undergone psychometric analysis in a procedural sedation setting and whether the validity of any of these measures support their use across the range of procedures for which sedation is indicated. Numerous measures were found to have been used in clinical research on procedural sedation across a wide range of procedures. However, reliability and validity have been evaluated for only a limited number of sedation scales, observer-rated pain/discomfort scales, and satisfaction measures in only a few categories of procedures. Typically, studies only examined 1 or 2 aspects of scale validity. The results are likely unique to the specific clinical settings they were tested in. Certain scales, for example, those requiring motor stimulation, are unsuitable to evaluate sedation for procedures where movement is prohibited (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging scans). Further work is required to evaluate existing measures for procedures for which they were not developed. Depending on the outcomes of these efforts, it might ultimately be necessary to consider measures of sedation efficacy to be procedure specific.

  6. Measurement of Stuttering in Adults: Comparison of Stuttering-Rate and Severity-Scaling Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative reliability of 2 stuttering measurement tools when used by experienced judges: percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and a 9-point severity scale (SEV). The study also investigated the degree to which scores on 1 tool predict scores on the other and the distributions of stuttering when measured by these…

  7. Confidence-More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burns, Karina M; Burns, Nicholas R; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as "online." Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor-derived from online measures-was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability.

  8. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  9. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  10. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Compher, Charlene; Frankenfield, David; Keim, Nancy; Roth-Yousey, Lori

    2006-06-01

    Several factors may alter apparent resting metabolic rate (RMR) during measurement with indirect calorimetry. Likewise, numerous indirect calorimetry measurement protocols have been developed over the years, and the methodology employed could influence test results. As part of a larger project to determine the role of indirect calorimetry in clinical practice, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken to determine the ideal subject condition and test methodology for obtaining reliable measurement of RMR with indirect calorimetry. Food, ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine affect RMR for a variable number of hours after consumption; therefore, intake of these items must be controlled before measurement. Activities of daily living increase metabolic rate, but a short rest (< or =20 minutes) before testing is sufficient for the effect to dissipate. Moderate or vigorous physical activity has a longer carryover effect and therefore must be controlled in the hours before a measurement of RMR is attempted. Limited data were found regarding ideal ambient conditions for RMR testing. Measurement duration of 10 minutes with the first 5 minutes deleted and the remaining 5 minutes having a coefficient of variation <10% gave accurate readings of RMR. Individuals preparing for RMR measurement via indirect calorimetry should refrain from eating, consuming ethanol and nicotine, smoking, and engaging in physical activity for varying times before measurement. The test site should be physically comfortable and the individual should have 10 to 20 minutes to rest before measurement commences. A 10-minute test duration with the first 5 minutes discarded and the remaining 5 minutes having a coefficient of variation of <10% will give an accurate measure of RMR.

  11. Adiponectin, Leptin and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nurnazahiah, Ali; Lua, Pei Lin; Shahril, Mohd Razif

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to ‘objectively measured’ physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed. PMID:28090175

  12. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Measured blood pressure and hypertension among young adults: a comparison between two nationally representative samples.

    PubMed

    Chyu, Laura; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and related health risk factors in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were compared with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Sociodemographic patterns of blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension, and measurement characteristics in Add Health were also examined. Prevalence of hypertension (20.88%) in Add Health was significantly higher than that in NHANES (4.60%). This difference was only partially explained by body mass index and waist circumference and could reflect different measurement techniques, sample composition differences, or masked hypertension.

  14. Confidence—More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Karina M.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as “online.” Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor—derived from online measures—was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  15. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  16. Age changes of facial measurements in European young adult males: implications for the identification of the living.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; Mapelli, A; Obertovà, Z; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ratnayake, M; Tutkuviene, J; Sforza, C; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2012-12-01

    Metric and morphological analyses of facial features are currently applied in cases of personal identification of the living on images acquired from video surveillance systems. However, facial assessment in the forensic context needs to be based on reliable comparative data for facial measurements. Facial changes in the age range of early adulthood (20-30 years) have been rarely described so far, although such knowledge would be beneficial for comparative personal identification on images. This study investigates changes in facial measurements in European males aged between 20 and 30 years in order to identify metric characters that can be used for personal identification in young adults. A sample of 404 males of European ancestry, aged between 20 and 30 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania were recruited for this project. Fourteen facial measurements were taken and correlation coefficients were calculated for each cranial measurement with age. Only two measurements - labial width and physiognomic ear length - seem to change between 20 and 30 years with a positive statistically significant correlation (p<0.05). These results suggest caution for what may concern personal identification by assessment of ear and mouth morphology.

  17. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  18. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  19. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  20. Heritability of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measures in healthy adults from the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Choh, Audrey C; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Sun, Shumei S; Siervogel, Roger M

    2004-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone have been reported to predict osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women and older men. Although many studies have examined the heritability of bone mineral density (BMD), few studies have estimated the heritability of calcaneal QUS phenotypes. In the present study, we examined the genetic regulation of calcaneal QUS parameters in individuals from nuclear and extended families. The study population includes 260 men and 295 women aged 18-91 years (mean+/-SD: 46+/-16 years) who belong to 111 pedigrees in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Three measures of calcaneal structure were collected from both the right and left heel using the Sahara bone sonometer. These measures included broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI). We used a variance components based maximum likelihood method to estimate the heritability of QUS parameters while simultaneously adjusting for covariate effects. Additionally, we used bivariate extensions of these methods to calculate additive genetic and random environmental correlations among QUS measures. All phenotypes demonstrated statistically significant heritabilities (P<0.0000001). Heritabilities in the right heel (h2+/-SE) were h2=0.59+/-0.10 for BUA, h2=0.73+/-0.09 for SOS, and h2=0.72+/-0.09 for QUI. Similarly, heritabilities for the left heel were h2=0.52+/-0.10, h2=0.75+/-0.10, and h2=0.70+/0.10, respectively. There was evidence for significant genetic and environmental correlations among these six QUS measures. Combinations of QUS measures in the right and left heel demonstrated genetic correlations of 0.94-0.99 and all were significantly different from one indicating at least a partially unique genetic architecture for each of these measures. This study demonstrates that QUS measures of the calcaneus among healthy men and women are heritable, and there are large shared additive genetic effects among all of the traits

  1. Speech-evoked activation in adult temporal cortex measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): Are the measurements reliable?

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Ian M; Anderson, Carly A; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2016-09-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a silent, non-invasive neuroimaging technique that is potentially well suited to auditory research. However, the reliability of auditory-evoked activation measured using fNIRS is largely unknown. The present study investigated the test-retest reliability of speech-evoked fNIRS responses in normally-hearing adults. Seventeen participants underwent fNIRS imaging in two sessions separated by three months. In a block design, participants were presented with auditory speech, visual speech (silent speechreading), and audiovisual speech conditions. Optode arrays were placed bilaterally over the temporal lobes, targeting auditory brain regions. A range of established metrics was used to quantify the reproducibility of cortical activation patterns, as well as the amplitude and time course of the haemodynamic response within predefined regions of interest. The use of a signal processing algorithm designed to reduce the influence of systemic physiological signals was found to be crucial to achieving reliable detection of significant activation at the group level. For auditory speech (with or without visual cues), reliability was good to excellent at the group level, but highly variable among individuals. Temporal-lobe activation in response to visual speech was less reliable, especially in the right hemisphere. Consistent with previous reports, fNIRS reliability was improved by averaging across a small number of channels overlying a cortical region of interest. Overall, the present results confirm that fNIRS can measure speech-evoked auditory responses in adults that are highly reliable at the group level, and indicate that signal processing to reduce physiological noise may substantially improve the reliability of fNIRS measurements.

  2. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight

  3. Measurement of cardiac output in adult and newborn animals by ascorbic acid dilution.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, J K; Haselby, K A; Paradise, R R

    1984-05-01

    We have developed an ascorbic acid-dilution method for measuring cardiac output which requires minimal blood withdrawal. Ascorbate is injected into a central venous catheter. The indicator-dilution curve is obtained by drawing blood from an arterial catheter through an amperometric cell at 0.96 ml/min for 35 s. The current is measured by a picoammeter . A calibration curve is obtained in 15 s prior to each indicator-dilution curve. An on-line digital computer measures the curve areas and calculates the cardiac output. Cardiac outputs of heparinized dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and halothane measured by this method (AA) compared closely to cardiac outputs measured by the dye-dilution method (CG) (AA = 0.96 CG + 20 ml/min, r = 0.98). Both the cardiac output and the arterial blood pressure remained stable during replicate measurements of the cardiac output of 1-day-old piglets. This system allows cardiac output determinations of neonatal subjects without excessive blood removal and, with further development, should be practical in human neonates.

  4. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    PubMed

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  5. Ozone uptake by adult urban trees based on sap flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Weiqi; Wang, Xiaoke; Gao, Fuyuan; Zheng, Hua; Tong, Lei; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2012-03-01

    The O(3) uptake in 17 adult trees of six urban species was evaluated by the sap flow-based approach under free atmospheric conditions. The results showed very large species differences in ground area scaled whole-tree ozone uptake (F(o)₃), with estimates ranging from 0.61 ± 0.07 nmol m(-2) s(-1) in Robinia pseudoacacia to 4.80 ± 1.04 nmol m(-2) s(-1) in Magnolia liliiflora. However, average F(o)₃by deciduous foliages was not significantly higher than that by evergreen ones (3.13 vs 2.21 nmol m(-2) s(-1), p = 0.160). Species of high canopy conductance for O(3) (G(o)₃) took up more O(3) than those of low G(o)₃, but that their sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (D) were also higher, and their F(o)₃decreased faster with increasing D, regardless of species. The responses of F(o)₃to D and total radiation led to the relative high flux of O(3) uptake, indicating high ozone risk for urban tree species.

  6. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults’ quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory – good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health – G5; and poor/very poor quality of life – poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health – G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref. RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6). CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health. PMID:25119934

  7. Social Peptides: Measuring Urinary Oxytocin and Vasopressin in a Home Field Study of Older Adults at Risk for Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Hoffmann, Joscelyn N.; You, Hannah M.; Ziegler, Toni E.; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We present the novel urine collection method used during in-home interviews of a large population representative of older adults in the United States (aged 62–91, the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project). We also present a novel assay method for accurately measuring urinary peptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), hormones that regulate social behaviors, stress, and kidney function. Method. Respondents in a randomized substudy (N = 1,882) used airtight containers to provide urine specimens that were aliquoted, stored under frozen refrigerant packs and mailed overnight for frozen storage (−80 °C). Assays for OT, AVP, and creatinine, including freeze-thaw cycles, were refined and validated. Weighted values estimated levels in the older U.S. population. Results. Older adults had lower OT, but higher AVP, without the marked gender differences seen in young adults. Mild dehydration, indicated by creatinine, specific gravity, acidity, and AVP, produced concentrated urine that interfered with the OT assay, yielding falsely high values (18% of OT). Creatinine levels (≥1.4mg/ml) identified such specimens that were diluted to solve the problem. In contrast, the standard AVP assay was unaffected (97% interpretable) and urine acidity predicted specimens with low OT concentrations. OT and AVP assays tolerated 2 freeze-thaw cycles, making this protocol useful in a variety of field conditions. Discussion. These novel protocols yielded interpretable urinary OT and AVP values, with sufficient variation for analyzing their social and physiological associations. The problem of mild dehydration is also likely common in animal field studies, which may also benefit from these collection and assay protocols. PMID:25360024

  8. New insights into neck-pain-related postural control using measures of signal frequency and complexity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Quek, June; Brauer, S G; Clark, Ross; Treleaven, Julia

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence to implicate the role of the cervical spine in influencing postural control, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore standing postural control mechanisms in older adults with neck pain (NP) using measures of signal frequency (wavelet analysis) and complexity (entropy). This cross-sectional study compared balance performance of twenty older adults with (age=70.3±4.0 years) and without (age=71.4±5.1 years) NP when standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. Anterior-posterior centre-of-pressure data were processed using wavelet analysis and sample entropy. Performance-based balance was assessed using the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). The NP group demonstrated poorer functional performance (TUG and DGI, p<0.01) than the healthy controls. Wavelet analysis revealed that standing postural sway in the NP group was positively skewed towards the lower frequency movement (very-low [0.10-0.39Hz] frequency content, p<0.01) and negatively skewed towards moderate frequency movement (moderate [1.56-6.25Hz] frequency content, p=0.012). Sample entropy showed no significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Our results demonstrate that older adults with NP have poorer balance than controls. Furthermore, wavelet analysis may reveal unique insights into postural control mechanisms. Given that centre-of-pressure signal movements in the very-low and moderate frequencies are postulated to be associated with vestibular and muscular proprioceptive input respectively, we speculated that, because NP demonstrate a diminished ability to recruit the muscular proprioceptive system compared to controls, they rely more on the vestibular system for postural stability.

  9. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  10. Validation of triaxial accelerometers to measure the lying behaviour of adult domestic horses.

    PubMed

    DuBois, C; Zakrajsek, E; Haley, D B; Merkies, K

    2015-01-01

    Examining the characteristics of an animal's lying behaviour, such as frequency and duration of lying bouts, has become increasingly relevant for animal welfare research. Triaxial accelerometers have the advantage of being able to continuously monitor an animal's standing and lying behaviour without relying on live observations or video recordings. Multiple models of accelerometers have been validated for use in monitoring dairy cattle; however, no units have been validated for use in equines. This study tested Onset Pendant G data loggers attached to the hind limb of each of two mature Standardbred horses for a period of 5 days. Data loggers were set to record their position every 20 s. Horses were monitored via live observations during the day and by video recordings during the night to compare activity against accelerometer data. All lying events occurred overnight (three to five lying bouts per horse per night). Data collected from the loggers was converted and edited using a macro program to calculate the number of bouts and the length of time each animal spent lying down by hour and by day. A paired t-test showed no significant difference between the video observations and the output from the data loggers (P=0.301). The data loggers did not distinguish standing hipshot from standing square. Predictability, sensitivity, and specificity were all >99%. This study has validated the use of Onset Pendant G data loggers to determine the frequency and duration of standing and lying bouts in adult horses when set to sample and register readings at 20 s intervals.

  11. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  12. The Designing of the Computer Anxiety and Learning Measure (CALM): Validation of Scores on a Multidimensional Measure of Anxiety and Cognitions Relating to Adult Learning of Computing Skills Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Valentina; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a multidimensional measure of affect and cognition in relation to adult learning of computing skills, the Computer Anxiety and Learning Measure (CALM). Results from 794 Australian undergraduates support the validity and reliability of the CALM with this population, although whether the measure is invariant across different adult…

  13. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  14. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  15. Correlation of fractional anisotropy and metabolite concentrations measured using 1H-MRS of cerebral white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sainan; Liu, Qiang; Lv, Yubo; Han, Wenwen; Yu, Ke; Li, Yuchao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is currently an ideal index capable of reflecting the white matter structure. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is often used as a noninvasive concentration measurement of important neurochemicals in vivo. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between FA and metabolite concentrations by comparing 1H-MRS of bilateral medium corona radiata in healthy adults. The data of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 1H-MRS were acquired from 31 healthy adults using a 3.0 T MR system. All subjects were divided into three groups: the total group (mean age=42 years), the junior group (mean age=29 years) and the senior group (mean age=56 years). There was a negative correlation between FA and age in three groups (r=-0.146, r=-0.204, r=-0.162, p<0.05). The positive correlation of FA with corresponding concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was significant in three groups (r=0.339, r=0.213, r=0.430, respectively, p<0.05). The positive correlation of FA with the corresponding NAA/Cr was only significant difference between the total 353 samples and the junior group (r=0.166, r=0.305, respectively, p<0.05). Combining 1H-MRS with DTI reveals the relationship between structure and metabolic characteristics of white matter.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction method for measuring the knee valgus angle of the femur in northern Chinese adults*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Chen-yu; Xiao, Jian-lin; Zhu, Lan-yu; Li, Xue-zhou; Qin, Yan-guo; Gao, Zhong-li

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for measuring the knee valgus angle from the anatomical and mechanical axes on three-dimensional reconstruction imaging models, and to use this method for estimating an average knee valgus angle value for northern Chinese adults. Computed tomographic angiography data in DICOM format for 128 normal femurs from 64 adult subjects were chosen for analysis. After the femur images were subjected to three-dimensional reconstruction, the deepest point in the intercondylar notch (point A), the midpoint of the medullary cavity 20 cm above the knee-joint line (point B), and the landmark of the femoral head rotation center (point C) were identified on each three-dimensional model. The knee valgus angle was defined as the angle enclosed by the distal femoral anatomical axis (line AB) and the femoral mechanical axis (line AC). The average (mean±SD) of knee valgus angle for the 128 femurs was 6.20°±1.20° (range, 3.05° to 10.64°). Significant positive correlations were found between the knee valgus angles of the right and left sides and between the knee valgus angle and age. During total knee arthroplasty, choosing a valgus cut angle of approximately 6° may achieve a good result in reestablishing the natural mechanical alignment of the lower extremity for patients of northern Chinese ethnicity. Larger valgus cut angles should be chosen for older patients. PMID:25091990

  17. Differential item functioning due to cognitive status does not impact depressive symptom measures in four heterogeneous samples of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fieo, Robert; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Fyffe, Denise C.; Gross, Alden L.; Sanders, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Heather R.; Potter, Guy G.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mungas, Dan M.; Gibbons, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether differential item functioning (DIF) due to cognitive status impacted three depressive symptoms measures commonly used with older adults. Methods Differential item functioning in depressive symptoms was assessed among participants (N = 3558) taking part in four longitudinal studies of cognitive aging, using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Participants were grouped by cognitive status using a general cognitive performance score derived from each study’s neuropsychological battery and linked to a national average using a population-based survey representative of the US population. The Clinical Dementia Rating score was used as an alternate grouping variable in three of the studies. Results Although statistically significant DIF based on cognitive status was found for some depressive symptom items (e.g., items related to memory complaints, appetite loss, lack of energy, and mood), the effect of item bias on the total score for each scale was negligible. Conclusions The depressive symptoms scales in these four studies measured depression in the same way, regardless of cognitive status. This may reduce concerns about using these depression measures in cognitive aging research, as relationships between depression and cognitive decline are unlikely to have been due to item bias, at least in the ways that were measured in the datasets we considered. PMID:25475426

  18. Comprehensive Comparison of Self-Administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masako; Adachi, Katsunori; Sumi, Satoshi; Okada, Kensuke; Kishino, Hirohisa; Sakai, Saeko; Kamio, Yoko; Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Sadao; Kanne, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype…

  19. Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Predicting Weekly Step Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2009-01-01

    Pedometers are objective, inexpensive, valid, and reliable measures of physical activity. The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate average weekly step counts was investigated. Seven days of pedometer data were collected from 154 ambulatory men and women ("ns" = 88 and 66, respectively) with intellectual disability.…

  20. Measuring Gratitude in Youth: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Adult Gratitude Scales in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Fan, Jinyan; Emmons, Robert A.; Bono, Giacomo; Huebner, E. Scott; Watkins, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure…

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of Two Patient-Report Measures for Use in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matza, Louis S.; Van Brunt, David L.; Cates, Charlotte; Murray, Lindsey T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood and continues to impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Thus, it is important to have validated symptom and HRQL measures for assessing treatment outcomes in this population. The purpose of the current analysis was to assess test-retest…

  2. Validation and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative FFQ as a measure of dietary intake in adults from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Trak, Maria Angelica; Betancourt, Jesmari; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative FFQ in Puerto Rican adults. Design Participants completed an FFQ, followed by a 6 d food record and a second administration of the FFQ, 30 d later. All nutrients were log transformed and adjusted for energy intake. Statistical analyses included correlations, paired t tests, cross-classification and Bland–Altman plots. Setting Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico. Subjects Convenience sample of students, employees and faculty members (n 100, ≥21 years). Data were collected in 2010. Results A total of ninety-two participants completed the study. Most were young overweight females. All nutrients were significantly correlated between the two FFQ, with an average correlation of 0·61 (range 0·43–0·73) and an average difference of 4·8 % between them. Most energy-adjusted nutrients showed significant correlations between the FFQ and food record, which improved with de-attenuation and averaged 0·38 (range 0·11–0·63). The lowest non-significant correlations (≤0·20) were for trans-fat, n 3 fatty acids, thiamin and vitamin E. Intakes assessed by the FFQ were higher than those from the food record by a mean of 19 % (range 4–44 %). Bland–Altman plots showed that there was a systematic trend towards higher estimates with the FFQ, particularly for energy, carbohydrate and Ca. Most participants were correctly classified into the same or adjacent quintile (average 66 %) by both methods with only 3 % gross misclassification. Conclusions This semi-quantitative FFQ is a tool that offers relatively valid and reproducible estimates of energy and certain nutrients in this group of mostly female Puerto Ricans. PMID:25621587

  3. Using two web-based addiction Stroops to measure the attentional bias in adults with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeromin, Franziska; Rief, Winfrief; Barke, Antonia

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims People with substance abuse and pathological gamblers show an attentional bias. In a laboratory setting, we found an attentional bias using an addiction Stroop in adults with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed at investigating this effect using two web-based experiments. Methods Study 1: Gamers with IGD, casual gamers, and non-gamers (N = 81, 28.1 ± 7.8 years) completed a web-based addiction Stroop with a fully randomized word order. They saw computer-related and neutral words in four colors and indicated the word color via keypress. Study 2: Gamers with IGD, casual gamers, and non-gamers (N = 87, 23.4 ± 5.1 years) completed a web-based addiction Stroop and a classical Stroop (incongruent color and neutral words), which both had a block design. We expected that in both studies, only the gamers with IGD would react more slowly to computer-related words in the addiction Stroop. All groups were expected to react more slowly to incongruent color words in the classical Stroop. Results In neither study did the gamers with IGD differ in their reaction times to computer-related words compared to neutral words. In Study 2, all groups reacted more slowly to incongruent color words than to neutral words confirming the validity of the online reaction time assessment. Discussion Gamers with IGD did not show a significant attentional bias. IGD may differ from substance abuse and pathological gambling in this respect; alternatively experimenting on the Internet may have introduced error variance that made it harder to detect a bias.

  4. Using two web-based addiction Stroops to measure the attentional bias in adults with Internet Gaming Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jeromin, Franziska; Rief, Winfrief; Barke, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims People with substance abuse and pathological gamblers show an attentional bias. In a laboratory setting, we found an attentional bias using an addiction Stroop in adults with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed at investigating this effect using two web-based experiments. Methods Study 1: Gamers with IGD, casual gamers, and non-gamers (N = 81, 28.1 ± 7.8 years) completed a web-based addiction Stroop with a fully randomized word order. They saw computer-related and neutral words in four colors and indicated the word color via keypress. Study 2: Gamers with IGD, casual gamers, and non-gamers (N = 87, 23.4 ± 5.1 years) completed a web-based addiction Stroop and a classical Stroop (incongruent color and neutral words), which both had a block design. We expected that in both studies, only the gamers with IGD would react more slowly to computer-related words in the addiction Stroop. All groups were expected to react more slowly to incongruent color words in the classical Stroop. Results In neither study did the gamers with IGD differ in their reaction times to computer-related words compared to neutral words. In Study 2, all groups reacted more slowly to incongruent color words than to neutral words confirming the validity of the online reaction time assessment. Discussion Gamers with IGD did not show a significant attentional bias. IGD may differ from substance abuse and pathological gambling in this respect; alternatively experimenting on the Internet may have introduced error variance that made it harder to detect a bias. PMID:27776420

  5. Validity of the Neurology Quality-of-Life (Neuro-QoL) measurement system in adult epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Victorson, David; Cavazos, Jose E; Holmes, Gregory L; Reder, Anthony T; Wojna, Valerie; Nowinski, Cindy; Miller, Deborah; Buono, Sarah; Mueller, Allison; Moy, Claudia; Cella, David

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that results in recurring seizures and can have a significant adverse effect on health-related quality of life (HRQL). The Neuro-QoL measurement initiative is an NINDS-funded system of patient-reported outcome measures for neurology clinical research, which was designed to provide a precise and standardized way to measure HRQL in epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Using mixed-method and item response theory-based approaches, we developed generic item banks and targeted scales for adults and children with major neurological disorders. This paper provides empirical results from a clinical validation study with a sample of adults diagnosed with epilepsy. One hundred twenty-one people diagnosed with epilepsy participated, the majority of which were male (62%) and Caucasian (95%), with a mean age of 47.3 (SD=16.9). Baseline assessments included Neuro-QoL short forms and general and external validity measures. The Neuro-QoL short forms that are not typically found in other epilepsy-specific HRQL instruments include Stigma, Sleep Disturbance, Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol, and Positive Affect and Well-Being. Neurology Quality-of-Life short forms demonstrated adequate reliability (internal consistency range=.86-.96; test-retest range=.57-.89). Pearson correlations (p<.01) between Neuro-QoL forms of emotional distress (anxiety, depression, stigma) and the QOLIE-31 Emotional Well-Being subscale were in the moderate-to-strong range (r's=.66, .71 and .53, respectively), as were relations with the PROMIS Global Mental Health subscale (r's=.59, .74 and .52, respectively). Moderate correlations were observed between Neuro-QoL Social Role Performance and Satisfaction and the QOLIE-31 Social Function (r's=.58 and .52, respectively). In measuring aspects of physical function, the Neuro-QoL Mobility and Upper Extremity forms demonstrated moderate associations with the PROMIS Global Physical Function subscale (r's=.60 and .61

  6. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period.

  7. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users.

  8. The multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a new measure of social anxiety: the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults.

    PubMed

    Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-06-01

    Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia.

  9. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  10. Sources of inaccuracy in the measurement of adult patients’ resting blood pressure in clinical settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kallioinen, Noa; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S.; Ward, Helen E.; Watson, Marcus O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To interpret blood pressure (BP) data appropriately, healthcare providers need to be knowledgeable of the factors that can potentially impact the accuracy of BP measurement and contribute to variability between measurements. Methods: A systematic review of studies quantifying BP measurement inaccuracy. Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for empirical articles and systematic reviews published up to June 2015. Empirical articles were included if they reported a study that was relevant to the measurement of adult patients’ resting BP at the upper arm in a clinical setting (e.g. ward or office); identified a specific source of inaccuracy; and quantified its effect. Reference lists and reviews were searched for additional articles. Results: A total of 328 empirical studies were included. They investigated 29 potential sources of inaccuracy, categorized as relating to the patient, device, procedure or observer. Significant directional effects were found for 27; however, for some, the effects were inconsistent in direction. Compared with true resting BP, significant effects of individual sources ranged from −23.6 to +33 mmHg SBP and −14 to +23 mmHg DBP. Conclusion: A single BP value outside the expected range should be interpreted with caution and not taken as a definitive indicator of clinical deterioration. Where a measurement is abnormally high or low, further measurements should be taken and averaged. Wherever possible, BP values should be recorded graphically within ranges. This may reduce the impact of sources of inaccuracy and reduce the scope for misinterpretations based on small, likely erroneous or misleading, changes. PMID:27977471

  11. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  12. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  13. Assessment of postural stability using inertial measurement unit on inclined surfaces in healthy adults - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Frames, Chris; Soangra, Rahul; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2013-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal falls in the construction domain remain a significant issue in today’s workforce. The roofing industry in particular, annually ranks amongst the highest in all industries. Exposure to an inclined surface, such as an inclined roof surface, has been reported to have adverse effects on postural stability. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the intra-individual differences in stability parameters on both inclined and level surfaces. Postural Stability (PS) and Limit of Stability (LOS) were assessed in seven healthy subjects (aged 25-35 years) on inclined and level surfaces using embedded force plates and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Four 90-second trials were collected on the inclined surface in distinctive positions: (1) Toes raised 20o above heel; (2) Heels raised 20o above toes (3); Transverse direction with dominant foot inverted at a lower height; (4) Transverse direction with non-dominant foot inverted at a lower height. Limit of Stability was evaluated by the two measurement devices in all four directions and margin of safety was quantified for each individual on both surfaces. The results reveal significant differences in postural stability between the flat surface condition and the inclined surface condition when subject was positioned perpendicular to the surface slope with one foot descended below the other; specifically, a significant increase was identified when visual support was interrupted. The findings lend support to the literature and will assist in future research regarding early detection of postural imbalance and preventative measures to reduce fall risks in professions where workers are consistently exposed to inclined surfaces.

  14. Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans. PMID:20028950

  15. A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

  16. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count

  17. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Costs and Efficiency Effects of College Reforms. CCRC Working Paper No. 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates and efficiency despite limited evidence of the economic consequences of different reform strategies. We introduce an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate baseline efficiency…

  18. Completion of Level 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L.

    2015-09-14

    This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 level 4 milestone for the project entitled “Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements” and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.

  19. Comparison of body fat estimation using waist:height ratio using different 'waist' measurements in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine differences in predicting total and regional adiposity using the waist:height ratio (WHtR) calculated using different 'waist' measurements. Body composition of ninety-five males and 121 female Australian adults (aged 20 years and above) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WHtR was calculated using: (1) the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the top of the iliac crest (WHtR-W), and (2) at the level of the umbilicus (WHtR-A). Relationships between calculated WHtR and measured body composition, such as percentage body fat (%BF) and percentage trunk fat (%TF) were determined. Values obtained from WHtR-A were significantly greater than WHtR-W in both groups (P < 0.05). While no correlation differences between WHtR-W and WHtR-A in relation to body composition variables were observed, females showed significantly lower correlation with lean mass compared with BMI. Regression analyses showed that neither WHtR had an age influence on %TF estimation. Estimated %BF and %TF were comparable for both WHtR and also with estimated values using a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Sensitivity of excess %BF and %TF increased by using WHtR-A, particularly in females. In conclusion, the umbilicus measurement may be better than using the narrowest site in the WHtR calculation, particularly in females. To improve the screening ability of the WHtR and make comparisons between studies easier there may be a need to standardise the measurement location. Further studies are recommended to confirm the findings across different ethnic groups.

  20. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  1. Hearing Loss, Control, and Demographic Factors Influencing Hearing Aid Use among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstecki, Dean C.; Erler, Susan F.

    1998-01-01

    Older adults (N=131) with hearing loss completed measures of hearing, hearing handicap, psychological control, depression, and ego strength. Older adults who accepted advice from hearing professionals to acquire and use hearing aids differed from those not accepting such advice on measures of hearing sensitivity, psychological control, and…

  2. Relation between anthropometric and cephalometric measurements and proportions of the face of healthy young white adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Budai, Maria; Farkas, Leslie G; Tompson, Bryan; Katic, Marko; Forrest, Christopher R

    2003-03-01

    The specific aim of this study was to determine the differences between 6 anthropometric (taken from the surface) and cephalometric (taken from x-rays) measurements and 12 proportion indices formed by the measurements obtained from the face of 51 healthy Caucasoid young adult males and females. The z-score analysis revealed negligible differences in frequency of normal values, in surface measurements 97.4% (298 of 306) versus 96.7% (296 of 306) in cephalometric ones. The optimal normal measurements dominated, in males in 76.8% and in females in 80.8%. The mean values of the 6 linear measurements, taken from the surface and the cephalogram of the face were in equal number similar and significantly dissimilar in both sexes (Table 1). Comparison of the mean anthropometric and cephalometric proportion indices did not show significant differences in the two sexes (Table 2). For males 50% of the 12 proportions the indices were similar and 50% were significantly different. For females the frequency of similar proportions was seen in 33.3% and in 66.7% moderately-severely differing, statistically not significant. The z-score analysis identified subnormal measurements on the facial surface in 2.6% (8 of 306) and in cephalometric ones in 3.3% (10 of 306). The subnormal measurements of mild and moderate degree disclosed on the skeleton were not detected on the surface and some of the severely subnormal ones became mild-moderate on the skin surface. The study showed that the vertical anthropometric and cephalometric measurements in the facial profile were in highly significant percentage normal when compared with their normative data established for healthy populations. Generally, the cephalometric normal measurements were smaller than those of the anthropometric ones, some of them significantly. The significant differences between the proportions on the surface and skeleton in healthy subjects advice to be cautious in clinical practice, to judge the morphological changes of

  3. Changes in Serological Immunology Measures in UK and Kenyan Adults Post-controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H.; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A.; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Longley, Rhea J.; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A.; Osier, Faith H.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan

  4. Changes in Serological Immunology Measures in UK and Kenyan Adults Post-controlled Human Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E; Milne, Kathryn H; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J; Longley, Rhea J; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A; Osier, Faith H; Hoffman, Stephen L; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V S; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan

  5. Bone lead levels are associated with measures of memory impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Campbell, James R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a link between lead exposure and memory impairment but assessments based on predictive and validated measures are lacking. We conducted a pilot study of 47 healthy subjects 55-67 years of age to examine associations between bone lead levels and 4 tests sensitive to the natural history of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include three subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (delayed match-to-sample, paired associates learning and spatial recognition memory) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test. Bone lead concentrations were measured at the mid-shaft of the tibia and the calcaneus with K X-ray fluorescence. Higher tibial and calcaneal bone lead values were significantly (p<0.05) associated with lower performance levels on delayed match-to-sample and paired associates learning in unadjusted analyses with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of about 0.4. Multiple linear regression analyses (i.e., least-squares means of cognitive test scores across tertiles of lead exposure) adjusted for age, education and smoking status continued to show an association of higher calcaneal lead levels with increasing memory impairments on delayed match-to-sample (p=0.07). As might be expected, additional adjustment for history of hypertension reduced the strength of this association (p=0.19). Given the demonstrated impact of lead exposure on hypertension and the vascular etiology of certain dementias, we speculate that hypertension could play a mediating role in the association between lead exposure and memory impairment.

  6. The Relationship Between Curriculum-Based Measures in Written Expression and Quality and Completeness of Expository Writing for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin,Christine A; de La Paz, Susan; Scierka, Barbara J; Roelofs, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This study extended the work on curriculum-based measurement to examine the criterion-related validity of curriculum-based measures in written expression for middle school students, the differences in validity coefficients for various lengths of text, and the sensitivity of curriculum-based measures to change in student performance.…

  7. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  8. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.

  9. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-03-07

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM_S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAM_S phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom.

  10. Serum procalcitonin measurement as diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile adult patients presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Juillien, Gaëlle; Madonna-Py, Beatrice; Haroche, Julien; Bernard, Maguy; Riou, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. Methods This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5°C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Results Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 μg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 μg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Conclusion Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department. PMID:17521430

  11. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-03-01

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM_S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAMS phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom.

  12. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  13. Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).

    PubMed

    Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

    2008-02-01

    Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p < .001). Mean improvement across assessments was negligible (t = -0.086, p = .47; Cohen's d = -.005), and minimal individual participant change was observed (modal scaled score change = 0). WTAR scores were also highly similar to scores on a demographic estimate of premorbid IQ. Thus, converging evidence--high stability during recovery from TBI and similar IQ estimates to those of a demographic equation suggests that the WTAR is a valid measure of premorbid IQ for TBI. Where word pronunciation tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently

  14. Pain measurement as part of primary healthcare of adult patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Andreza Aparecida Felix; Ribeiro, Sonia Beatriz Felix; Moraes-Souza, Helio; de Oliveira, Lucas Felix; Ribeiro, João Batista; da Silva, Sheron Hellen; de Oliveira, Daniel Fachinelli Felix; Ribeiro, Matheus Fernando Felix

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to evaluate pain in sickle cell disease patients and aspects related to primary healthcare. Methods Data were obtained through home interviews. The assessment instruments (body diagram, Numerical Pain Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire) collected information on the underlying disease and on pain. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program for Windows. Associations between the subgroups of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS, hemoglobin SC, sickle β-thalassemia and others) and pain were analyzed using contingency tables and non-parametric tests of association (classic chi-square, Fisher's and Kruskal-Wallis) with a level of 5% (p-value < 0.05) being set for the rejection of the null hypothesis. Results Forty-seven over 18-year-old patients with sickle cell disease were evaluated. Most were black (78.7%) and female (59.6%) and the mean age was 30.1 years. The average number of bouts of pain annually was 7.02; pain was predominantly reported by individuals with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS). The intensity of pain (Numeric Pain Scale) was 5.5 and the quantitative index (McGill) was 35.9. This study also shows that patients presented a high frequency of moderately painful crises in their own homes. Conclusion According to these facts, it is essential that pain related to sickle cell disease is properly identified, quantified, characterized and treated at the three levels of healthcare. In primary healthcare, accurate measurement of pain combined with better care may decrease acute painful episodes and consequently minimize tissue damage, thus improving the patient's overall health. PMID:24106446

  15. Splenius capitis is a reliable target for measuring cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in adults.

    PubMed

    Camp, Aaron J; Gu, Chao; Cushing, Sharon L; Gordon, Karen A; Corneil, Brian D

    2017-02-08

    The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a common and simple test of vestibulospinal reflex patency. In the clinic, cVEMPs are measured in response to loud sounds from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) on the ventral neck, as subjects maintain an uncomfortable head posture needed to recruit SCM. Here we characterize the cVEMP in a dorsal neck turner (splenius capitis; SPL), and compare it with the SCM cVEMP. cVEMPs were recorded simultaneously via surface electromyography from SCM and SPL from 17 healthy subjects in a variety of postures, including head-turned postures adopted while either seated or standing, and the clinical posture. Like the SCM cVEMP recorded ipsilateral to the side of sound stimulation, the cVEMP on the contralateral SPL (synergistic with ipsilateral SCM) was characterized by a biphasic wave of muscle activity that began at ~ 13 ms. cVEMP reliability was higher on SPL vs. SCM in standing postures (chi-squared; P < 0.05), and equivalent results were obtained from SPL in a standing or seated posture. In 9 of the 17 subjects, we also obtained bilateral intramuscular (IM) recordings from SPL at the same time as the surface recordings. In these subjects, the initial surface response in SPL was associated with a consistent decrease in multi-unit IM SPL activity. Overall, these results demonstrate that SPL recordings offer a complimentary target for cVEMP assessments. The expression of SPL cVEMPs in simple head-turned postures may also improve the utility of cVEMP testing for vestibular assessment in children, the elderly, or non-compliant.

  16. Collecting saliva and measuring salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in frail community residing older adults via family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-18

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations.

  17. Exploration of the Raven APM-National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) score from the National Adult Reading Test (NART) score and demographic variables in a large sample of healthy older persons (n = 270). The discrepancy between the predicted and observed Raven APM scores was transformed into a percentile distribution as an indicator of intellectual decline, which can be used in clinical practice. The validity of the procedure was further examined by comparing the proportion of persons with a significant decline (at the -1 and -1.65 SD level) between two older patient samples (87 patients with cerebral stroke and 387 patients with diabetes mellitus) by means of χ(2) tests. There was a significantly higher rate of intellectual decline at the -1 SD ("below average") and -1.65 SD ("impaired") cutoff levels for patients with stroke compared with patients with diabetes (stroke, 34% and 14%; diabetes, 16% and 5%, p < .05). These findings suggest that the Raven APM-NART discrepancy may be a useful measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

  18. Measuring Health Literacy Among Adults with HIV Infection in Mozambique: Development and Validation of the HIV Literacy Test.

    PubMed

    Tique, José A; Howard, Leigh M; Gaveta, Sandra; Sidat, Mohsin; Rothman, Russell L; Vermund, Sten H; Ciampa, Philip J

    2017-03-01

    The role of health literacy on HIV outcomes has not been evaluated widely in Africa, in part because few appropriate literacy measures exist. We developed a 16-item scale, the HIV Literacy Test (HIV-LT) to assess literacy-related tasks needed to participate in HIV care. Items were scored as correct or incorrect; higher scores indicated higher literacy skill (range 0-100 %). We tested internal reliability (Kuder-Richardson coefficient) of the HIV-LT in a convenience sample of 319 Portuguese-speaking, HIV infected adults on antiretroviral treatment in Maputo, Mozambique. Construct validity was assessed by a hypothetical model developed a priori. The HIV-LT was reliable and valid to measure participants' literacy skills. The mean HIV-LT score was 42 %; literacy skills applicable to HIV care were challenging for many participants. The HIV-LT could be used to assess the relationship of literacy and HIV-related outcomes in diverse settings, and evaluate interventions to improve health communication for those in HIV care.

  19. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults.

  20. Non-invasive measurement of carbon monoxide burden in Guatemalan children and adults following wood-fired temazcal (sauna-bath) use.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nick; Nicas, Mark; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Thompson, Lisa M; Romero, Carolina; Smith, Kirk R

    2011-08-01

    The use of wood-fired steam baths, or temazcales, is a potentially dangerous source of CO exposure in Guatemalan Highland communities where adults and children use them regularly for bathing, relaxation, and healing purposes. Physical characteristics of children predispose them to absorb CO faster than adults, placing them at greater exposure and health risks. Efforts to quantify temazcal exposures across all age groups, however, have been hampered by the limitations in exposure measurement methods. In this pilot study we measured COHb levels in children and adults following use of the temazcal using three field-based, non-invasive CO measurement methods: CO-oximetry, exhaled breath, and by estimation of COHb using micro-environmental concentrations and time diaries. We then performed a brief comparison of methods. Average CO concentrations measured during temazcal use were 661 ± 503 ppm, approximately 10 times the 15 min WHO guideline. Average COHb levels for all participants ranged from 12-14% (max of 30%, min 2%), depending on the method. COHb levels measured in children were not significantly different from adults despite the fact that they spent 66% less time exposed. COHb measured by CO-oximetry and exhaled breath had good agreement, but precision of the former was affected substantially by random instrument error. The version of the field CO-oximeter device used in this pilot could be useful in screening for acute CO exposure events in children but may lack the precision for monitoring the burden from less extreme, but more day-to-day CO exposures (e.g. indoor solid fuel use). In urban settings, health effects in children and adults have been associated with chronic exposure to ambient CO concentrations much lower than measured in this study. Future research should focus on reducing exposure from temazcales through culturally appropriate modifications to their design and practices, and targeted efforts to educate communities on the health risks they pose

  1. Use of the mental function index in older adults. Reliability, validity, and measurement of change over time.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Chance, J M; Filos, S; Bates, D

    1984-12-01

    The Mental Function Index is a weighted combination of scores on three brief tests. The Index was developed to aid in the discrimination of elderly persons with early cases of senile dementia from nondemented elderly individuals. In a previous report (Am J Epidemiol 1981;114:515-27), the authors described preliminary results with the Index in 195 elderly persons in a southern California retirement community. The present study seeks to assess whether similar results can be achieved in samples other than that from which the discriminant function defining the Index was derived. Seven separate studies were done on a total of 210 persons, comprising subjects recruited from a teaching hospital which serves a predominantly lower to lower-middle class population, referrals from the same physicians as in the earlier study, and (for the reliability sample) persons from the upper-middle class community which was the major referral source. It was found that scores on the brief measures correlate 0.86 with those on the three Halstead-Reitan subtests most sensitive to brain damage and to aging. The Index provides a graded measure of disease severity comparable to global neurologic assessment (r = -0.84) and level of social function (r = 0.76). Entry Index is a crude predictor of cognitive status in older adults after several years. Changes in the Index over time parallel those in independent measures of change. The results suggest that the Index will be useful for assessment of disease severity and of longitudinal change, as well as for diagnostic screening, in population studies of senile dementia.

  2. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  3. Reference Values of Grip Strength Measured with a Jamar Dynamometer in 1526 Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Compared to Adults without Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Hilgenkamp, Thessa

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate grip strength in a large sample of people with intellectual disabilities, to establish reference values for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and compare it to adults without intellectual disability. Methods This study analysed pooled baseline data from two independent studies for all 1526 adults with ID: Special Olympics Funfitness Spain (n = 801) and the Dutch cross-sectional study ‘Healthy aging and intellectual disabilities’ (n = 725). Results The grip strength result of people with ID across gender and age subgroups is presented with CI95% values from higher 25.5–31.0 kg in male younger to lower 4.3–21.6 kg in female older. Conclusion This study is the first to present grip strength results of a large sample of people with ID from 20–90 years of age. This study provides reference values for people with ID for use in clinical practice. PMID:26053852

  4. Family of origin environment and adolescent bullying predict young adult loneliness.

    PubMed

    Segrin, Chris; Nevarez, Natalie; Arroyo, Analisa; Harwood, Jake

    2012-01-01

    This study tested parental loneliness, family of origin environment, and a history of being bullied as predictors of loneliness in young adults. The role of social skills in young adults' loneliness was also examined. Participants were 111 young-adult-parent dyads who completed measures of loneliness and the family communication environment. In addition, young adults completed measures of social skills and history of being bullied. Predictions were tested with structural equation modeling, path analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that parental loneliness and a history of being bullied were each significant predictors of young adult loneliness. A family environment that supported open communication was negatively associated with young adults' loneliness. Parental loneliness and a history of being bullied each had direct effects on young adults' loneliness as well as indirect effects through reduced social skills.

  5. The Development of the Alpha-Omega Completed Sentence Form (AOCSF): An Instrument to Aid in the Measurement, Identification, and Assessment of an Individual's "Adaptational Approach(es)" to the Stressful Event of Death and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Ronald; And Others

    The Alpha Omega Completed Sentence Form (AOCSF) was developed to identify and measure a person's adaptational approaches to information concerning their own death or the possible death of a significant other. In contrast to the Kubler-Ross stage theory, the adaptational approach recognizes a person's capacity to assimilate new information which…

  6. Assessing the Job-Related Social Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behavioral Disorders: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Characteristics of Two Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    This report describes the development and testing of two measures of job-related social behavior of adolescents and young adults, ages 14-21, with behavior disorders (BD). Following an introduction of the concept of job-related social behavior, detailed descriptive information and data are provided on development and field testing of the…

  7. An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Reported and Measured Reading and Spelling Skills among Incarcerated Adults in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lise Oen; Asbjornsen, Arve; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates the relationship between the revised Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL), and the performance on a standardized battery of reading and spelling tests in adults, when used in an incarcerated population in Norway. The paper reports two sub studies. Study 1 examined the psychometric attributes of the ADCL by analysing the…

  8. Time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement carried out on the head of an adult at large source-detector separation.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Adam; Sawosz, Piotr; Kacprzak, Michal; Weigl, Wojciech; Botwicz, Marcin; Maniewski, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Multichannel time-resolved optical monitoring system was constructed for measurements of diffuse reflectance in optically turbid medium at very large source-detector separation up to 9 cm. The system is based on femtosecond TiSa laser and sensitive photomultiplier tube detector. The laser light of 300mW of power was delivered to the surface of the head with the use of an optical fiber. A beam expander was applied in order to distribute the laser light on a large spot which allowed to avoid energetic stimulation of the tissue. The photomultiplier tube detector was positioned directly on the surface of the medium at the distance of 9cm from the center of the source position. In this paper we report results of an in-vivo experiment carried out on the head of an adult healthy volunteer. The time-resolved system was applied during intravenous injection of an optical contrast agent (indocyanine green - ICG) and the distributions of times of flight of photons were successfully acquired showing inflow and washout of the dye to the tissue. Time-courses of the moments of distributions of times of flight of photons are presented and compared with the results obtained simultaneously at shorter source-detector separations (3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm).

  9. Measuring Transit Signal Recovery in the Kepler Pipeline. III. Completeness of the Q1-Q17 DR24 Planet Candidate Catalogue with Important Caveats for Occurrence Rate Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Burke, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Haas, Michael R.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Kamal Uddin, AKM; Zamudio, Khadeejah; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Henze, Christopher E.

    2016-09-01

    With each new version of the Kepler pipeline and resulting planet candidate catalog, an updated measurement of the underlying planet population can only be recovered with a corresponding measurement of the Kepler pipeline detection efficiency. Here we present measurements of the sensitivity of the pipeline (version 9.2) used to generate the Q1-Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog. We measure this by injecting simulated transiting planets into the pixel-level data of 159,013 targets across the entire Kepler focal plane, and examining the recovery rate. Unlike previous versions of the Kepler pipeline, we find a strong period dependence in the measured detection efficiency, with longer (>40 day) periods having a significantly lower detectability than shorter periods, introduced in part by an incorrectly implemented veto. Consequently, the sensitivity of the 9.2 pipeline cannot be cast as a simple one-dimensional function of the signal strength of the candidate planet signal, as was possible for previous versions of the pipeline. We report on the implications for occurrence rate calculations based on the Q1-Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog, and offer important caveats and recommendations for performing such calculations. As before, we make available the entire table of injected planet parameters and whether they were recovered by the pipeline, enabling readers to derive the pipeline detection sensitivity in the planet and/or stellar parameter space of their choice.

  10. Evaluation of VOC measurments in the EXPOLIS study. Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Urban Populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jurvelin, J; Edwards, R; Saarela, K; Laine-Ylijoki, J; De Bortoli, M; Oglesby, L; Schläpfer, K; Georgoulis, L; Tischerova, E; Hänninen, O; Jantunen, M

    2001-02-01

    Personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations of 30 target VOCs were measured for 401 participants living in five European cities as a part of the EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study. Measurements in Basel used an active charcoal (Carbotech) adsorbent as opposed to the Tenax TA used in the other study centres. In addition, within each centre, personal and microenvironment VOC sampling required different sampling pumps and, because of different sampling durations, different sampling flow rates. Thus, careful testing of the sampling and analysis procedures was required to ensure accuracy and comparability of collected data. Monitor comparison tests using Tenax TA showed a mean VOC concentration ratio of 0.95 between the personal and microenvironment monitors. The LODs for the target VOCs using Tenax TA ranged from 0.7 to 5.2 microg m(-3). The LODs for the 14 target compounds quantifiable using Carbotech ranged from 0.9 to 3.2 microg m(-3). Tenax TA field blanks showed no remarkable contamination with the target VOCs, except benzaldehyde, a known artefact with this adsorbent. Thus, the diffusion barrier system used prevented contamination of Tenax TA samples by passive diffusion during non-sampling periods. Duplicate and parallel evaluations of the Tenax TA and Carbotech showed an average difference of < 17% in VOC concentrations within the sampling methods, but a systematic difference between the methods (Tenax TA: Carbotech concentration ratio = 1.18-2.36). These field evaluations and quality assurance tests showed that interpretation and comparison of the results in any VOC monitoring exercise should be done on a compound by compound basis. It is also apparent that carefully planned and realised QA and QC (QA/QC) procedures are needed in multi-centre studies, where a common sampling method and laboratory analysis technique are not used, to strengthen and simplify the interpretation of observed VOC

  11. Complete measurement of three-body photodisintegration of 3He for photon energies between 0.35 and 1.55 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolai, Silvia; Audit, Gerard; Berman, Barry; Laget, Jean; Strauch, Steffen; et. Al.

    2004-12-01

    The three-body photodisintegration of 3He has been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab, using tagged photons of energies between 0.35 GeV and 1.55 GeV. The large acceptance of the spectrometer allowed us for the first time to cover a wide momentum and angular range for the two outgoing protons. Three kinematic regions dominated by either two- or three-body contributions have been distinguished and analyzed. The measured cross sections have been compared with results of a theoretical model, which, in certain kinematic ranges, have been found to be in reasonable agreement with the data.

  12. Measuring Steady-State Oxygen Uptake during the 6-Min Walk Test in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Feasibility and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltais, Desiree B.; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Dumas, Francine; Boucher, Normand; Richards, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring steady-state oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2]) during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) who walk without support and whether there is construct validity for net 6MWT V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2] as a measure of their walking ability.…

  13. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18–35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition–M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant’s body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS’ growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control. PMID:28099522

  14. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  15. Correlation Between Caregiver Reports of Physical Function and Performance-based Measures in a Cohort of Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.

  16. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary.

  17. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Merchant, Gina; Buelna, Christina; Castañeda, Sheila F; Arredondo, Elva M; Marshall, Simon J; Strizich, Garrett; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Chambers, Earle C; McMurray, Robert G; Evenson, Kelly R; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hankinson, Arlene L; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18-74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631) of participants had > 10 h/day and > 3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  18. The relationship between cocaine self-administration and actigraphy-based measures of sleep in adult rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Brutcher, Robert E.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Clinical trials show that chronic cocaine users suffer from sleep disturbances and preclinical research has shown that acute sleep deprivation increases the rate of cocaine self-administration in rats. Objective This study examined the effect of cocaine self-administration on behavioral indices of sleep, and alternatively the effect of sleep disruption on cocaine-maintained responding by rhesus monkeys. Methods Seven adult rhesus monkeys, fitted with Actical® activity monitors, were trained to respond under a concurrent choice paradigm with food (three 1.0-g pellets) and cocaine (0.003–0.3 mg/kg) or saline presentation. For each monkey the lowest preferred dose of cocaine (> 80% cocaine choice) was determined. Activity data were analyzed during lights out (2000-0600) to determine sleep efficiency, sleep latency and total activity counts. Subsequently, the monkeys were sleep disrupted (awaken every hour during lights-out period) the night prior to food-cocaine choice sessions. Results Self-administration of the preferred dose of cocaine resulted in a significant decrease in sleep efficiency, with a significant increase in total lights-out activity. Sleep disruption significantly altered behavioral indices of sleep, similar to those seen following cocaine self-administration. However, sleep disruption did not affect cocaine self-administration under concurrent choice conditions. Conclusions Based on these findings, cocaine self-administration does appear to disrupt behavioral indices of sleep, although it remains to be determined if treatments that improve sleep measures can affect future cocaine taking. PMID:23604390

  19. Gender role and relationship norms among young adults in South Africa: measuring the context of masculinity and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Abigail; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Hoffman, Susie; Dolezal, Curtis; Morrell, Robert

    2006-07-01

    In the global literature on HIV/AIDS, much attention has been paid to the role of gender inequalities in facilitating the transmission of HIV. For women, gender inequality may be manifested in sexual coercion, reduced negotiating power and partnering with older men, all practices that heighten risk for HIV. Less attention, however, has been paid to how men's relationship behaviors may place them at risk for HIV. Using six culturally specific psychometric scales developed in South Africa, this study examined men's and women's gender role and relationship norms, attitudes and beliefs in the context of ongoing partnerships. These measures were then examined in relation to four sexual risk behaviors: frequency of condom use (with primary or secondary partners) and number of partners (last 3 months and lifetime). Participants were 101 male and 199 female young adults aged, 18-24, recruited from a secondary school in northern KwaZulu/Natal province. Associations between gender and relationship scale scores and sexual risk outcomes yielded both expected and contradictory findings. For men, more frequent condom use was associated with higher levels of partner attachment (hyper-romanticism) but also with stronger approval of relationship violence and dominant behavior. In contrast, for women, more frequent condom use was correlated with a lower endorsement of relationship violence. Men with lower relationship power scores had fewer sexual partners in the preceding 3 months, while women with more egalitarian sexual scripts reported more sexual partners, as did those with higher hyper-romanticism scores. In logistic regression analysis, more egalitarian relationship norms among men were predictive of less consistent condom use, as were higher relationship power scores for women. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research on gender, heterosexual interactions and masculinity in this area, as well as the implications for HIV prevention programs.

  20. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Ong, Loke Meng; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Naidu, Balkish M; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon W; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M

    2013-11-01

    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.

  1. Engaging Chinese American Adults in Advance Care Planning: A Community-Based, Culturally Sensitive Seminar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Ching; Hinderer, Katherine A; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority groups are less engaged than Caucasian American adults in advance care planning (ACP). Knowledge deficits, language, and culture are barriers to ACP. Limited research exists on ACP and advance directives in the Chinese American adult population. Using a pre-posttest, repeated measures design, the current study explored the effectiveness of a nurseled, culturally sensitive ACP seminar for Chinese American adults on (a) knowledge, completion, and discussion of advance directives; and (b) the relationship between demographic variables, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions. A convenience sample of 72 urban, community-dwelling Chinese American adults (mean age=61 years) was included. Knowledge, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions increased significantly after attending the nurse-led seminar (p<0.01). Increased age correlated with advance directive completion and ACP discussions; female gender correlated with ACP discussions. Nursing education in a community setting increased advance directive knowledge and ACP engagement in Chinese American adults.

  2. Omnidirectional Measurements of Angle-Resolved Heat Capacity for Complete Detection of Superconducting Gap Structure in the Heavy-Fermion Antiferromagnet UPd_{2}Al_{3}.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yusei; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Nomoto, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Machida, Kazushige; Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai

    2016-07-15

    Quasiparticle excitations in UPd_{2}Al_{3} were studied by means of heat-capacity (C) measurements under rotating magnetic fields using a high-quality single crystal. The field dependence shows C(H)∝H^{1/2}-like behavior at low temperatures for both two hexagonal crystal axes, i.e., H∥[0001] (c axis) and H∥[112[over ¯]0] (a axis), suggesting the presence of nodal quasiparticle excitations from heavy bands. At low temperatures, the polar-angle (θ) dependence of C exhibits a maximum along H∥[0001] with a twofold symmetric oscillation below 0.5 T, and an unusual shoulder or hump anomaly has been found around 30°-60° from the c axis in C(θ) at intermediate fields (1≲μ_{0}H≲2  T). These behaviors in UPd_{2}Al_{3} purely come from the superconducting nodal quasiparticle excitations, and can be successfully reproduced by theoretical calculations assuming the gap symmetry with a horizontal linear line node. We demonstrate the whole angle-resolved heat-capacity measurements done here as a novel spectroscopic method for nodal gap determination, which can be applied to other exotic superconductors.

  3. Bringing together measurements of sea surface temperature made in situ with retrievals from satellite instruments to create a globally complete analysis for 1850 onwards, HadISST2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, John; Rayner, Nick; Saunby, Michael; Millington, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The new version of the Met Office Hadley Centre sea-Ice concentration and Sea-Surface Temperature data set, HadISST2, builds on the successful elements of HadISST1. It brings together satellite and in situ data to create a globally complete, homogeneous record of SST from 1850 to the present and features the following key improvements. 1. Improvements to source data sets: HadISST2 is based on version 2.5 of the International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), which contains several million more observations than the in situ data set on which HadISST1 was based. Improved AVHRR data from version 5 of the Pathfinder data set are being used, as are SSTs from the ATSR Reanalysis for Climate (ARC) data set. Sea ice data sources have also been updated and extended. 2. Bias corrections: more comprehensive homogeneity adjustments are applied to the in situ SST, AVHRR SST and sea ice retrievals to correct for known biases in the data. The ATSR data come from ARC (ATSR Reprocessing for Climate) which has proven low uncertainty. A large ensemble of in situ SST data sets allows for smooth matching between the in situ and ARC records. 3. Marginal Sea-Ice Zone SST's are now better specified, accounting for climatological differences in salinity. 4. Improved reconstruction techniques allow us to make use of every single observation to inform the estimation of the data covariances and reconstruction. These techniques also mean that we can make a reconstruction of the data at a resolution of 1 degree all the way back to 1850. By separately analysing large and small scale structures, fine scale features that are supported in the data are preserved. 5. Increased resolution: the base SST climatology is now 0.25x0.25 degrees and daily resolution allowing improved representation of features such as the Gulf Stream. 6. Uncertainties: HadISST2 is presented as a set of realisations drawn from the posterior distributions of the analyses. These explore the uncertainty range

  4. Association between Lung Function in Adults and Plasma DDT and DDE Levels: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] has been banned in many countries since the 1970s, it may still pose a risk to human respiratory health. In agriculture, DDT exposures have been associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the effect of DDT on lung function. Methods We used data on 1,696 participants 20–79 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and conducted multiple regression analysis to estimate associations between plasma p,p´-DDT/DDE and lung function. Results Almost all participants (> 99.0%) had detectable concentrations of plasma p,p´-DDE, but only 10.0% had detectable p,p´-DDT. Participants with detectable p,p´-DDT had significantly lower mean FVC (difference = 311 mL; 95% CI: –492, –130; p = 0.003) and FEV1 (difference = 232 mL; 95% CI: –408, –55; p = 0.015) than those without. A 100-ng/g lipid increase in plasma p,p´-DDE was associated with an 18.8-mL decrease in mean FVC (95% CI: –29, –9) and an 11.8-mL decrease in mean FEV1 (95% CI: –21, –3). Neither exposure was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%–75%. Conclusions DDT exposures, which may have occurred decades ago, were still detectable among Canadians. Plasma DDT and DDE were negatively associated with lung function parameters. Additional research on the potential effects of DDT use on lung function is warranted. Citation Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. 2015. Association between lung function in adults and plasma DDT and DDE levels: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Environ Health Perspect 123:422–427; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408217 PMID:25536373

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Single-probe measurements from DR12 galaxy clustering – towards an accurate model

    SciTech Connect

    Chia -Hsun Chuang; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Zhao, Gong Bo; Wang, Yuting; Antonio J. Cuesta; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Prada, Francisco; Alam, Shadab; Beutler, Florian; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Martin, Hector; Grieb, Jan Kiklas; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco -Shu; Percival, Will J.; Rossi, Graziano; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Satpathy, Siddharth; Slosar, Anze; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.

    2016-08-08

    We analyze the broad-range shape of the monopole and quadrupole correlation functions of the BOSS Data Release 12 (DR12) CMASS and LOWZ galaxy sample to obtain constraints on the Hubble expansion rate H(z), the angular-diameter distance DA(z), the normalised growth rate f(z)σ8(z), and the physical matter density Ωmh2. In addition, we adopt wide and flat priors on all model parameters in order to ensure the results are those of a `single-probe' galaxy clustering analysis. We also marginalize over three nuisance terms that account for potential observational systematics affecting the measured monopole. However, such Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis is computationally expensive for advanced theoretical models, thus we develop a new methodology to speed up our analysis.

  6. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Single-probe measurements from DR12 galaxy clustering – towards an accurate model

    DOE PAGES

    Chia -Hsun Chuang; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; ...

    2016-08-08

    We analyze the broad-range shape of the monopole and quadrupole correlation functions of the BOSS Data Release 12 (DR12) CMASS and LOWZ galaxy sample to obtain constraints on the Hubble expansion rate H(z), the angular-diameter distance DA(z), the normalised growth rate f(z)σ8(z), and the physical matter density Ωmh2. In addition, we adopt wide and flat priors on all model parameters in order to ensure the results are those of a `single-probe' galaxy clustering analysis. We also marginalize over three nuisance terms that account for potential observational systematics affecting the measured monopole. However, such Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis is computationallymore » expensive for advanced theoretical models, thus we develop a new methodology to speed up our analysis.« less

  7. THE BLADE Program Basic Literacy for Adult Development. Instructor's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Research and Development Station, Prince Albert (Saskatchewan).

    The nature and rationale of the BLADE (Basic Literacy for Adult Development) Program are explained in this instructor's manual, which also provides an analysis and index of the content. The BLADE Program raises adults to a measured Grade 5.0 level in reading, other communication skills, and mathematics. The program is completely individualized: it…

  8. Family and Friend Relationships among Older and Younger Adults: Interaction Motivation, Mood, and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Brian P.

    1995-01-01

    In a study of relationships and life satisfaction, 82 independently-living older adults and 91 younger adults completed measures of their relationships with family and friends. For elderly people, the quality of relationships with their friends was more important than the quality of relationships with their children. The discussion focuses on how…

  9. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  10. Confirming the cognition of rising scores: Fox and Mitchum (2013) predicts violations of measurement invariance in series completion between age-matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2014-01-01

    The trend of rising scores on intelligence tests raises important questions about the comparability of variation within and between time periods. Descriptions of the processes that mediate selection of item responses provide meaningful psychological criteria upon which to base such comparisons. In a recent paper, Fox and Mitchum presented and tested a cognitive theory of rising scores on analogical and inductive reasoning tests that is specific enough to make novel predictions about cohort differences in patterns of item responses for tests such as the Raven's Matrices. In this paper we extend the same proposal in two important ways by (1) testing it against a dataset that enables the effects of cohort to be isolated from those of age, and (2) applying it to two other inductive reasoning tests that exhibit large Flynn effects: Letter Series and Word Series. Following specification and testing of a confirmatory item response model, predicted violations of measurement invariance are observed between two age-matched cohorts that are separated by only 20 years, as members of the later cohort are found to map objects at higher levels of abstraction than members of the earlier cohort who possess the same overall level of ability. Results have implications for the Flynn effect and cognitive aging while underscoring the value of establishing psychological criteria for equating members of distinct groups who achieve the same scores.

  11. Amodal Completion in Bonobos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasaka, Yasuo; Brooks, Daniel I.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    We trained two bonobos to discriminate among occluded, complete, and incomplete stimuli. The occluded stimulus comprised a pair of colored shapes, one of which appeared to occlude the other. The complete and incomplete stimuli involved the single shape that appeared to have been partially covered in the occluded stimulus; the complete stimulus…

  12. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2015-04-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or -3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children.

  13. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or −3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children. PMID:25920851

  14. A kinematically complete, interdisciplinary, and co-institutional measurement of the 19F(α,n) cross section for nuclear safeguards science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W. A.; Smith, M. S.; Pittman, S.; Thompson, S. J.; Clement, R. R. C.; Cizewski, J. A.; Pain, S. D.; Febbraro, M.; Chipps, K. A.; Burcher, S.; Manning, B.; Reingold, C.; Avetisyan, R.; Battaglia, A.; Chen, Y.; Long, A.; Lyons, S.; Marley, S. T.; Seymour, C.; Siegl, K. T.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S.; Talwar, R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Gyurjinyan, A.; Smith, K.; Thornsberry, C.; Thompson, P.; Madurga, M.; Stech, E.; Tan, W. P.; Wiescher, M.; Ilyushkin, S.; Tully, Z.; Grinder, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    Alpha particles emitted from the decay of uranium in a UF6 matrix can interact with fluorine and generate neutrons via the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction. These neutrons can be used to determine the uranium content in a UF6 storage cylinder. The accuracy of this self-interrogating, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique is, however, limited by the uncertainty of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section. We have performed complementary measurements of the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction with both 4He and 19F beams to improve the precision of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section over the alpha energy range that encompasses common actinide alpha decay needed for NDA studies. We have determined an absolute cross section for the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction to an average precision of 7.6% over the alpha energy range of 3.9 – 6.7 MeV. We utilized this cross section in a simulation of a 100 g spherical UF6 assembly and obtained a change in neutron emission rate values of approximately 10-12%, and a significant (factor of 3.6) decrease in the neutron emission rate uncertainty (from 50-51% to 13-14%), compared to simulations using the old cross section. Our new absolute cross section enables improved interpretations of NDAs of containers of arbitrary size and configuration.

  15. A new measure for assessing executive function across a wide age range: children and adults find happy-sad more difficult than day-night.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the day-night task (say 'day' when shown a moon and 'night' when shown a sun) and a new happy-sad task (say 'happy' for a sad face and 'sad' for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment 2, the happy-sad task featured photographs, and pictures for both measures were gray scale. All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to the happy-sad versus the day-night versions. Unlike the day-night task, the happy-sad task did not suffer from ceiling effects, even in adults. The happy-sad task provides a methodological advance for measuring executive function across a wide age range.

  16. Annual Report FY2013-- A Kinematically Complete, Interdisciplinary, and Co-Institutional Measurement of the 19F(α,n) Cross-section for Nuclear Safeguards Science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, William A; Smith, Michael Scott; Clement, Ryan; Tan, Wanpeng; Stech, Ed; Cizewski, J A; Febbraro, Michael; Madurga Flores, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Dame (UND), will focus on three specific items: (1) making a precision (better than 10 %) determination of the absolute cross section of the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction as a function of energy; (2) determining the spectrum of neutrons and γ-rays emitted from 19F(α,n)22Na over an energy range pertinent to NDA; and (3) performing simulations with this new cross section to extract the neutron yield (neutrons/gram/second) and resulting neutron- and gamma ray-spectra when α particles interact with fluorine nuclei in actinide samples, to aid in the design and reduce uncertainty of future NDA measurements and simulations.

  17. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  18. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability.

  19. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  20. A comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure total and segmental body composition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Siobhan; O'Neill, Cian; Sohun, Rhoda; Jakeman, Philip

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of BIA in the measurement of total body composition and regional fat and the fat free mass in the healthy young adults. Four hundred and three healthy young adults (167 women and 236 men) aged 18-29 years were recruited from the Mid-West region of Ireland. Multi frequency, eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used to measure the total body and segmental (arm, leg and trunk) fat mass and the fat free mass. BIA was found to underestimate the percentage total body fat in men and women (p < 0.001). This underestimate increased in men with >24.6% body fat and women with >32% body fat (p < 0.001). Fat tissue mass in the trunk segment was overestimated by 2.1 kg (p < 0.001) in men and underestimated by 0.4 kg (p < 0.001) in women. BIA was also found to underestimate the fat free mass in the appendages by 1.0 kg (p < 0.001) in men and 0.9 kg (p < 0.001) in women. Compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis underestimates the total body fat mass and overestimates fat free mass in healthy young adults. BIA should, therefore, be used with caution in the measurement of total body composition in women and men with >25% total body fat. Though statistically significant, the small difference (~ 4%) between the methods indicates that the BIA may be used interchangeably with DXA in the measurement of appendicular fat free mass in healthy young adults.