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Sample records for adults design cross-sectional

  1. Cross-sectional imaging of adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Pezeshk, Parham; Ezzati, Fatemeh; Karp, David R; Taurog, Joel D; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-09-01

    This article highlights the key aspects and current perspectives of the role of cross-sectional imaging in adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies in adults, briefly discussing CT, and particularly focusing on MRI and US imaging as it supplements the conventional radiography. The role of conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques and imaging findings in this domain is discussed and illustrated with case examples. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article contains images and data, which were collected from patients as a part of a retrospective IRB from the institutional teaching files and informed consent was waived. PMID:27209200

  2. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  3. A cross-sectional survey of the effect on emerging adults living with a depressed parent.

    PubMed

    Mechling, B M

    2015-10-01

    A parent who is depressed is physically present, but may be psychologically absent, or different to their children. Changes in the parent-child relationship, feelings of loss, and increased stress can occur for the child. These factors can impair psychosocial well-being throughout the child's upbringing, and the effects might impact that child the most in their transition to adulthood. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine factors experienced while growing up with a depressed parent that might contribute to the current psychosocial well-being of emerging adults (individuals between the ages of 18 and 25) using ambiguous loss theory as a theoretical lens. A cross-sectional, correlational design with multiple regression analysis was used to examine relationships between emerging adults' (n = 120) perceptions of retrospective duration and understanding of parent's depression, caregiving, stress, social support, hope, and boundary ambiguity and current psychosocial well-being. Experiencing hope, stress, and then the length of parent's depression during their upbringing were the most predictive variables for emerging adult psychosocial well-being. Findings from this study will help mental health professionals better understand factors contributing to outcomes for this population. The knowledge to be gained is important for developing or refining age and developmentally appropriate interventions aimed at improving outcomes of adult children of depressed parents. PMID:26148684

  4. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  5. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  6. Adult Lifespan Cognitive Variability in the Cross-Sectional Cam-CAN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Green, Emma; Shafto, Meredith A; Matthews, Fiona E; White, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    This study examines variability across the age span in cognitive performance in a cross-sectional, population-based, adult lifespan cohort from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study (n = 2680). A key question we highlight is whether using measures that are designed to detect age-related cognitive pathology may not be sensitive to, or reflective of, individual variability among younger adults. We present three issues that contribute to the debate for and against age-related increases in variability. Firstly, the need to formally define measures of central tendency and measures of variability. Secondly, in addition to the commonly addressed location-confounding (adjusting for covariates) there may exist changes in measures of variability due to confounder sub-groups. Finally, that increases in spread may be a result of floor or ceiling effects; where the measure is not sensitive enough at all ages. From the Cam-CAN study, a large population-based dataset, we demonstrate the existence of variability-confounding for the immediate episodic memory task; and show that increasing variance with age in our general cognitive measures is driven by a ceiling effect in younger age groups. PMID:26690191

  7. Adult Lifespan Cognitive Variability in the Cross-Sectional Cam-CAN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Green, Emma; Shafto, Meredith A.; Matthews, Fiona E.; White, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines variability across the age span in cognitive performance in a cross-sectional, population-based, adult lifespan cohort from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study (n = 2680). A key question we highlight is whether using measures that are designed to detect age-related cognitive pathology may not be sensitive to, or reflective of, individual variability among younger adults. We present three issues that contribute to the debate for and against age-related increases in variability. Firstly, the need to formally define measures of central tendency and measures of variability. Secondly, in addition to the commonly addressed location-confounding (adjusting for covariates) there may exist changes in measures of variability due to confounder sub-groups. Finally, that increases in spread may be a result of floor or ceiling effects; where the measure is not sensitive enough at all ages. From the Cam-CAN study, a large population-based dataset, we demonstrate the existence of variability-confounding for the immediate episodic memory task; and show that increasing variance with age in our general cognitive measures is driven by a ceiling effect in younger age groups. PMID:26690191

  8. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  9. A Comparison of the Cross-Sectional and Sequential Designs when Assessing Longitudinal Mediation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-05-01

    Mediational studies are often of interest in psychology because they explore the underlying relationship between 2 constructs. Previous research has shown that cross-sectional designs are prone to biased estimates of longitudinal mediation parameters. The sequential design has become a popular alternative to the cross-sectional design for assessing mediation. This design is a compromise between the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs because it incorporates time in the model but has only 1 measurement each of X, M, and Y. As such, this design follows the recommendation of the MacArthur group approach, which stresses the importance of multiple waves of data for studying mediation. These 2 designs were compared to see whether the sequential design assesses longitudinal mediation more accurately than the cross-sectional design. Specifically, analytic expressions are derived for the bias of estimated direct and indirect effects as calculated from the sequential design when the actual mediational process follows a longitudinal autoregressive model. It was found that, in general, the sequential design does not assess longitudinal mediation more accurately than the cross-sectional design. As a result, neither design can be depended on to assess longitudinal mediation accurately. PMID:26741846

  10. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

  11. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  12. A probabilistic methodology for radar cross section prediction in conceptual aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Nathan Robert

    System effectiveness has increasingly become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the decision maker's/designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry and government research documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness and reduce the cost of attrition. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably take out valuable, time critical targets. Thus it is desirable to be able to design vehicles that are balanced for increased effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section, a measure of radar signature, and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. Radar cross section estimation should be incorporated into conceptual design to develop more capable systems. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a conceptual design tool that predicts radar cross section for parametric geometries. This tool predicts the absolute radar cross section of the vehicle as well as the impact of geometry changes, allowing for the simultaneous tradeoff of the aerodynamic, performance, and cost characteristics of the vehicle with the radar cross section. Furthermore, this tool can be linked to a campaign theater analysis code to demonstrate the changes in system and system of system effectiveness due to changes in aircraft geometry. A general methodology was developed and implemented and sample computer codes applied to prototype the proposed process. Studies utilizing this radar cross section tool were subsequently performed to demonstrate the capabilities of this method and show the impact that various inputs have on the outputs of these models. The F/A-18 aircraft configuration was chosen as a case study vehicle to perform a design space exercise and to investigate the relative impact of

  13. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  14. A design method for entrance sections of transonic wind tunnels with rectangular cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lionel, L.; Mcdevitt, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical technique developed to design entrance sections for transonic or high-speed subsonic wind tunnels with rectangular cross sections is discribed. The transition from a circular cross-section setting chamber to a rectangular test section is accomplished smoothly so as not to introduce secondary flows (vortices or boundary-layer separation) into a uniform test stream. The results of static-pressure measurements in the transition region and of static and total-pressure surveys in the test section of a pilot model for a new facility at the Ames Research Center are presented.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10 % of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  16. The cross-sectional association of sitting time with carotid artery stiffness in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Quan L; Blizzard, Christopher L; Sharman, James E; Magnussen, Costan G; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity is negatively associated with arterial stiffness. However, the relationship between sedentary behaviour and arterial stiffness is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of sedentary behaviour with arterial stiffness among young adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting 34 study clinics across Australia during 2004–2006. Participants 2328 participants (49.4% male) aged 26–36 years who were followed up from a nationally representative sample of Australian schoolchildren in 1985. Measurements Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid ultrasound. Sitting time per weekday and weekend day, and physical activity were self-reported by questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated as physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 bpm. Anthropometry, blood pressure, resting heart rate and blood biochemistry were measured. Potential confounders, including strength training, education, smoking, diet, alcohol consumption and parity, were self-reported. Rank correlation was used for analysis. Results Sitting time per weekend day, but not per weekday, was correlated with arterial stiffness (males r=0.11 p<0.01, females r=0.08, p<0.05) and cardiorespiratory fitness (males r = −0.14, females r = −0.08, p<0.05), and also with fatness and resting heart rate. One additional hour of sitting per weekend day was associated with 5.6% (males p=0.046) and 8.6% (females p=0.05) higher risk of having metabolic syndrome. These associations were independent of physical activity and other potential confounders. The association of sitting time per weekend day with arterial stiffness was not mediated by resting heart rate, fatness or metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a positive association of sitting time with arterial stiffness. The greater role of sitting time per weekend day in prediction of arterial stiffness and cardiometabolic risk than that of sitting time per weekday may be due

  17. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiandong; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe's characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude's sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement. PMID:26724066

  18. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-12-15

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe’s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude’s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  19. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  20. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Setting Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004–2011. Participants 43 064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123 807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Primary outcome Premature adult mortality. Results The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. Conclusions To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. PMID:26940113

  1. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  2. Cross-sectional study of the prehospital management of adult patients with a suspected seizure (EPIC1)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Louise H; Shewan, Jane; Baldwin, Trevor; Grünewald, Richard A; Reuber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Suspected seizures are a common reason for emergency calls to ambulance services. Prehospital management of these patients is an important element of good quality care. The aim of this study, conducted in a regional ambulance service in the UK, was to quantify the number of emergency telephone calls for suspected seizures in adults, the associated costs, and to describe the patients’ characteristics, their prehospital management and their immediate outcomes. Design Quantitative cross-sectional study using routinely collected data and a detailed review of the clinical records of a consecutive series of adult patients (≥16 years). Setting A regional ambulance service within the National Health Service in England. Participants Cross-sectional data from all 605 481 adult emergency incidents managed by the ambulance service from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013. We selected a consecutive series of 178 individual incidents from May 2012 for more detailed analysis (132 after exclusions and removal of non-seizure cases). Results Suspected seizures made up 3.3% of all emergency incidents. True medical emergencies were uncommon but 3.3% had partially occluded airways, 6.8% had ongoing seizure activity and 59.1% had clinical problems in addition to the seizure (29.1% involving injury). Emergency vehicles were dispatched for 97.2% of suspected seizures, the seizure had terminated on arrival in 93.2% of incidents, 75% of these patients were transported to hospital. The estimated emergency management cost per annum of suspected seizures in the English ambulance services is £45.2 million (€64.0 million, $68.6 million). Conclusions Many patients with suspected seizures could potentially be treated more effectively and at lower cost by modifying ambulance call handling protocols. The development of innovative care pathways could give call handlers and paramedics alternatives to hospital transportation. Increased adoption of care plans could reduce 999 calls and

  3. Homocysteine and Carotid Plaque Stability: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Yuming; Li, Wen; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Wannian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to explore the possible association of plasma total homocysteine with carotid plaque stability. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2011. A stratified random sample of 2,919 Chinese participants aged 40 years or older was enrolled. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured and carotid plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of homocysteine levels to the progression of carotid plaque development, while adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results The mean level of plasma homocysteine in the subjects was 14.9 µmol/l. Along with increase in homocysteine level, the risk of advanced carotid plaque elevated (odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.51) after adjusting for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Stratified by sex, higher homocysteine level was strongly associated with advanced carotid plaque in men (OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.17–1.70), but not in women. Conclusion The findings suggest that plasma level of homocysteine may be associated with advanced carotid plaque, which constitutes high risks of stroke, in male Chinese adults. PMID:24736609

  4. Social determinants of health and periodontal disease in Brazilian adults: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, increasing importance has been placed on the social determinants of health and disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in Brazilian adults and identify possible relationships with social determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 743 adults (aged 35–49 years) living in an urban area of a large city in southeastern Brazil. The condition of the periodontium was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to the diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The variables related to social determinants were collected using a structured questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of all study variables was performed. Multiple correspondence analysis was subsequently performed to identify relationships between periodontal disease and the social determinants of health. Results The periodontal exams showed that 36.5% of adults had a healthy periodontium, 2.0% had gingival bleeding, 47.1% had calculus and 9.5% had periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. Periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more were the worst periodontal condition found (affecting only 2.1% of the participants). The correspondence analysis enabled us to form three groups with different profiles. The first group was distinguished by the presence of bleeding (gingivitis) or a healthy periodontium. The members of this group were typically aged 35 to 39 years and had 9–12 years or more than 12 years of education. The second group consisted of subjects with calculus and periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. The members of this group were typically white men aged 40–44 years with incomes greater than $ 300.00. The third group was distinguished by the presence of periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more. The members of this group were typically adult females, black and mixed individuals who had 8 years or less of schooling, individuals with incomes ≤ $ 300.00 and widowers

  5. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by older adults – a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by older adults in Germany. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of CAM and other health promoting substances (e.g., herbal teas) by older adults of at least 70 years of age. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among persons of ≥70 years from metropolitan Berlin and rural parts of Brandenburg, Germany. Recorded were: demographics, current use of CAM, medical diagnoses, users’ opinions and preferences. Results A total of 400 older adults, living as ‘self-reliant’ (n = 154), ‘home care service user’ (n = 97), or ‘in nursing home’ (n = 149), and with the legal status ‘without guardian’ (n = 355) or ‘with guardian’ (n = 45) were included (mean age 81.8 ± 7.4 years, 78.5% female). Any type of CAM used 61.3% of respondents (dietary supplements 35.5%, herbal medicines 33.3%, and external preparations 26.8%); 3.0% used drug-interaction causing preparations. Usage was based on recommendations (total 30.3%; in 20.0% by friends or family and 10.4% by pharmacists), own initiative (27.3%), and doctors’ prescription (25.8%). Participants with legal guardian took almost solely prescribed dietary supplements. Of the others, only half (58.7%) informed their general practitioner (GP) of their CAM use. Participants expected significant (44.9%) or moderate (37.1%) improvement; half of them perceived a good effect (58.7%) and two-thirds (64.9%) generally preferred a combination of CAM and conventional medicine. More than half (57.9%) stated that they could neither assess whether their CAM preparations have side effects, nor assess what the side effects might be. Strongest predictors for CAM use were two treatment preferences (vs. ‘conventional only’: ‘CAM only’, OR = 3.98, p = 0.0042 and ‘CAM + conventional’, 3.02, 0.0028) and the type of health insurance (‘statutory’ vs. ‘private’, 3.57, 0.0356); against CAM use two

  7. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Health Inequalities and Service Access by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S. A.; McConnachie, A.; Allan, L. M.; Melville, C.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities and are more likely to live in deprived areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of deprivation of the area a person lives in affects their access to services, hence contributing to health inequalities. Method: A cross-sectional study…

  8. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  9. Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day was 1.33 (95% CI; 1.04-1.70) and 1.35 (95% CI; 1.04-1.75) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to women who consume less than half a SB/day, independent of other covariables. Men and women with high SB consumption and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 had greater risk for hyperuricemia than men and women with low SB consumption and normal BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the consumption of SB is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm the association between SB intake and

  10. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months. There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior. Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge. Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  11. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  12. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  13. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  14. Association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Peipei; Tian, Yunfan; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Decreased natriuretic peptides are risk factors for diabetes. As a physiological activator of natriuretic peptides, corin may play a role in glucose metabolism. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis in a general population of China. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A population study in Suzhou, China. Participants A total of 2498 participants aged above 30 years were included in the study. Outcome measures The association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia was examined in men and women, using non-conditional logistic regression models, respectively. Results Serum soluble corin, in men and women, was significantly higher in participants with hyperglycaemia than in those without (all p<0.001). OR of hyperglycaemia positively and significantly increased with serum soluble corin quartiles, in men (p for trend <0.001) and in women (p for trend=0.050), even after multivariate adjustment. Participants with a serum soluble corin, in men (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.23) and women (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.61), over the median level, were more likely to have hyperglycaemia compared with the remaining participants, after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusions Hyperglycaemia was significantly and positively associated with increased serum soluble corin in men and women. Our findings suggest that serum soluble corin may be a risk factor or a biomarker of hyperglycaemia. PMID:26700277

  15. Secular trend in the occurrence of asthma among children and young adults: critical appraisal of repeated cross sectional surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P.; Jaakkola, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review repeated surveys of the rising prevalence of obstructive lung disease among children and young adults and determine whether systematic biases may explain the observed trends. DESIGN: Review of published reports of repeated cross sectional surveys of asthma and wheezing among children and young adults. The repeated surveys used the same sampling frame, the same definition of outcome variables, and equivalent data collection methods. SETTING: Repeated surveys conducted anywhere in the world. SUBJECTS: All repeated surveys whose last set of results were published in 1983 or later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime and current prevalences of asthma and current prevalence of wheezing. The absolute increase (yearly percentage) in the prevalences of asthma and wheezing was calculated and compared between studies. RESULTS: 16 repeated surveys fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 12 reported increases in the current prevalence of asthma (from 0.09% to 0.97% a year) and eight reported increases in the current prevalence of wheezing (from 0.14% to 1.24% a year). Changes in labelling are likely to have occurred for the reporting of asthma, and information biases may have occurred for the reporting of wheezing. Only one study reported an increase in an objective measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for increased prevalences of asthma and wheezing is weak because the measures used are susceptible to systematic errors. Until repeated surveys incorporating more objective data are available no firm conclusions about increases in obstructive lung disease among children and young adults can be drawn. PMID:9224081

  16. The relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Biye; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Zhihao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 111 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were classified by the exercise-related questionnaire to be in an open-skill group, closed-skill group or sedentary group. In experiment 1, the participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that both closed-skill (p < 0.05) and open-skill (p < 0.01) groups reached a higher accuracy than the sedentary group. Experiment 2 examined whether the exercise-induced benefit of working memory was manifested in passive maintenance or active manipulation of working memory which was assessed by visuospatial short-term memory task and visuospatial mental rotation task, respectively. The results showed that the open-skill (p < 0.01) group was more accurate than the sedentary group in the visuospatial short-term memory task, whereas the group difference in the visuospatial mental rotation task was not significant. These findings combined to suggest that physical exercise was associated with better visuospatial working memory in older adults. Furthermore, open-skill exercises that demand higher cognitive processing showed selective benefit for passive maintenance of working memory. PMID:27547560

  17. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  18. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees) and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years). Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion). Mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p < 0.001). Lower pressure-pain threshold was measured at the medial first metatarsophalangeal joint in participants with HV (MD = −133.3 kPa, CI: -251.5 to −15.1). Participants with HV also showed reduced hallux plantarflexion strength (MD = −37.1 N, CI: -55.4 to −18.8) and abduction strength (MD = −9.8 N, CI: -15.6 to −4.0), and increased mediolateral sway when standing with both feet with eyes closed (MD = 0.34 cm, CI: 0.04 to 0.63). Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There

  19. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

  20. Patterns of Heterotypic Continuity Associated With the Cross-Sectional Correlational Structure of Prevalent Mental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zald, David H.; Hakes, Jahn K.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mental disorders predict future occurrences of both the same disorder (homotypic continuity) and other disorders (heterotypic continuity). Heterotypic continuity is inconsistent with a view of mental disorders as fixed entities. In contrast, hierarchical-dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, in which each form of psychopathology is hypothesized to have both unique and broadly shared etiologies and mechanisms, predict both homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Objective To test predictions derived from a hierarchical-dimensional model of psychopathology that (a) heterotypic continuity is widespread, even controlling for homotypic continuity, and (b) the relative magnitudes of heterotypic continuities recapitulate the relative magnitudes of cross-sectional correlations among diagnoses at baseline. Design Assess 10 prevalent diagnoses in the same persons 3 years apart. Setting Representative sample of adults in the United States. Participants The 28,958 participants in the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Condition aged 18–64 years who were assessed in both waves. Main Outcome Measure Diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews. Results Bivariate associations of all pairs of diagnoses from wave 1 to wave 2 exceeded chance levels for all homotypic (tetrachoric ρ = 0.41 – 0.79, median = 0.54) and for nearly all heterotypic continuities (tetrachoric ρ = 0.07 – 0.50, median = 0.28), adjusted for sex and age. Significant heterotypic continuity was widespread even when all other wave 1 diagnoses (including the same diagnosis) were simultaneous predictors of each wave 2 diagnosis. The rank correlation between age and sex adjusted tetrachoric ρs for cross-sectional associations among wave 1 diagnoses and heterotypic associations from wave 1 to wave 2 diagnoses was ρ = .86. Conclusions and Relevance For these prevalent mental disorders, heterotypic continuity was nearly universal and not an artifact of failure to

  1. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference = 1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  3. Cystic renal neoplasms and renal neoplasms associated with cystic renal diseases in adults: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Garg, Deepak; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Vikram, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Cystic renal neoplasms in adults are a heterogeneous group of tumors with characteristic histogenesis, pathological findings, and variable biological profiles. They include disparate entities that are either biologically benign (lymphangioma, cystic nephroma, and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor) or malignant (cystic renal cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, and primary renal synovial sarcoma). Renal cystic diseases are characterized by cystic changes of the kidneys due to hereditary, developmental, or acquired etiology. Cystic renal diseases such as acquired cystic kidney disease, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and tuberous sclerosis are associated with the development of a wide spectrum of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. Most cystic renal tumors and cystic disease-associated renal neoplasms show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings that permit accurate diagnosis. In addition, cross-sectional imaging is pivotal in the follow-up and surveillance of adult cystic tumors of the kidney. PMID:23192202

  4. Characterization and design of tuned liquid dampers with floating roof considering arbitrary tank cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, R. O.; Taflanidis, A. A.; Lopez-Garcia, D.

    2016-04-01

    A recently proposed new type of liquid mass damper, called Tuned Liquid Damper with Floating Roof (TLD-FR), is the focus of this paper. The TLD-FR consists of a traditional TLD (tank filled with liquid) with the addition of a floating roof. The sloshing of the liquid within the tank counteracts the motion of the primary structure it is placed on, offering the desired energy dissipation in the vibration of the latter, while the roof prevents wave breaking phenomena and introduces an essentially linear response. This creates a dynamic behavior that resembles other types of linear Tuned Mass dampers (TMDs). This investigation extends previous work of the authors to consider TLDs-FR with arbitrary tank cross-sections, whereas it additionally offers new insights on a variety of topics. In particular, the relationship between the tank geometry and the resultant vibratory characteristics is examined in detail, including the impact of the roof on these characteristics. An efficient mapping between these two is also developed, utilizing Kriging metamodeling concepts, to support the TLD-FR design. It is demonstrated that the overall behavior can be modeled through introduction of only four variables: the liquid mass, the frequency and damping ratio of the fundamental sloshing mode of the TLD-FR, and the efficiency index, which is related to the portion of the total mass that participates in this mode. Comparisons between TLDs-FR and other types of mass dampers are established through the use of the latter index. A design example is presented considering the dynamic response of a structure under stationary excitation. It is illustrated in this example that for complex tank cross-sectional geometries there exists a manifold of tank configurations leading to the same primary vibratory characteristics and therefore same efficiency of the TLD-FR. Considerations about excessive displacements of the roof can be then incorporated to indicate preference towards some of these

  5. Neighbourhood environment, sitting time and motorised transport in older adults: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Ching, Claudia S-K; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sitting time is a public health concern. This study examined associations of objectively measured neighbourhood environmental attributes with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport in 484 Hong Kong older adults. Neighbourhood attributes encouraging walking may help older adults replace some sitting time at home and on motorised transport with light-to-moderate-intensity activities such as strolling around the neighbourhood or walking to/from neighbourhood destinations. Thus, we hypothesised environmental attributes found to be related to walking would show associations with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport opposite to those seen for walking. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Hong Kong, an ultradense urban environment. Participants 484 ethnic Chinese Hong Kong residents aged 65+ recruited from membership lists of four Hong Kong Elderly Health Centres representing catchment areas of low and high transport-related walkability stratified by socioeconomic status (response rate: 78%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Attributes of participants’ neighbourhood environments were assessed by environmental audits, while non-transport sitting time and motorised transport were ascertained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Long Form (Chinese version). Results Daily non-transport sitting minutes were 283 (SD=128) and motorised transport 23 (SD=28). Prevalence of signs of crime/disorder, streetlights, public facilities (toilets and benches) and pedestrian safety were independently negatively related, and sloping streets positively related, to sitting outcomes. Places of worship in the neighbourhood were predictive of more, and prevalence of public transit points of less, non-transport sitting. Associations of either or both sitting outcomes with prevalence of food/grocery stores and presence of parks were moderated by path obstructions and signs of crime/disorder. Conclusions The findings suggest that access to

  6. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  7. A Cross Sectional, Observational Survey to Assess Levels and Predictors of Psychological Wellbeing in Adults with Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Dures, Emma; Rumsey, Nichola; Morris, Marianne; Gleeson, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC), and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24), were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex) or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity) and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively). In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group. PMID:26973893

  8. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their

  9. Analysis and Design of Rectangular-Cross-Section Nozzles for Scramjet Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Korte, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The flow in the square-cross-section Mach-6 nozzle used in the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility has been analyzed using three-dimensional viscous CFD methods. The primary cause of the non-uniform flow exiting the nozzle is identified as cross-flow pressure gradients imposed on wall boundary layers. The cross-flow pressure gradients cause the boundary layer to roll up into counter-rotating vortex pairs on each of the four sides of the nozzle. These four vortex pairs produce significant non-uniformity in the nozzle-exit flow. In order to improve the quality of the test flow in the facility, two alternative nozzle designs (one axisymmetric and one rectangular with a 2-D contour) have been investigated. While the axisymmetric design produced the most uniform flow, the 2-D design also produced very good flow. The 2-D design was selected for further refinement, resulting in a new nozzle design which has been constructed and awaits calibration.

  10. Stages of Change Profiles among Adults Experiencing Hearing Difficulties Who Have Not Taken Any Action: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that adults experiencing hearing difficulties who are aware of their difficulties but have not taken any action would fall under contemplation and preparation stages based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model. The study employed a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 participants completed University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance, and provided additional demographic details online. As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups of stage with highest URICA scores and factors such as: years since hearing disability, self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, and self-reported hearing disability acceptance. Cluster analysis identified three stages-of-change clusters, which were named as: decision making (53% of sample), participation (28% of sample), and disinterest (19% of sample). Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:26042790

  11. Stages of Change Profiles among Adults Experiencing Hearing Difficulties Who Have Not Taken Any Action: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that adults experiencing hearing difficulties who are aware of their difficulties but have not taken any action would fall under contemplation and preparation stages based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model. The study employed a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 participants completed University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance, and provided additional demographic details online. As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups of stage with highest URICA scores and factors such as: years since hearing disability, self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, and self-reported hearing disability acceptance. Cluster analysis identified three stages-of-change clusters, which were named as: decision making (53% of sample), participation (28% of sample), and disinterest (19% of sample). Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:26042790

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and some associated factors among adult residents of northeast China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Gao, Chunshi; Li, Zhijun; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine potential influencing factors among adults in northeast China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jilin Province, northeast China, in 2012. A total of 9873 men and 10 966 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included using a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Data were obtained from face-to-face interview and physical examination. After being weighted according to a complex sampling scheme, the sample was used to estimate the prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI >28 kg/m2) in Jilin Province, and analyse influencing factors through corresponding statistical methods based on complex sampling design behaviours. Results The overall prevalence of overweight was 32.3% (male 34.3%; female 30.2%), and the prevalence of obesity was 14.6% (male 16.3%; female 12.8%) in Jilin Province. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher in men than women (p<0.001). Influencing factors included sex, age, marriage status, occupation, smoking, drinking, diet and hours of sleep (p<0.05). Conclusions This study estimated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult residents of Jilin Province, northeast China, were high. The results of this study will be submitted to the Health Department of Jilin Province and other relevant departments as a reference, which should inform policy makers in developing education and publicity to prevent and control the occurrence of overweight and obesity. PMID:27456326

  13. Design status of KOBRA for rare isotope production and direct measurements of radiative capture cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshoo, K.; Chae, H.; Park, J.; Moon, J. Y.; Kwon, Y. K.; Souliotis, G. A.; Hashimoto, T.; Akers, C.; Berg, G. P. A.; Choi, S.; Jeong, S. C.; Kato, S.; Kim, Y. K.; Kubono, S.; Lee, K. B.; Moon, C.-B.

    2016-06-01

    KOBRA (KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus) facility being designed at Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea will be utilized to produce rare isotope beams by employing multi-nucleon transfer reactions at about 20 MeV/nucleon for studies of nuclear structure. KOBRA will also provide high suppression of beam induced background for direct measurements of radiative-capture cross sections in the astrophysical energy range. The present design status of the KOBRA facility is reported along with a brief introduction to the facility. We have studied the feasibility of production of 44Ti based on the present design of KOBRA as an example, and calculated the intensity of 44Ti secondary beam, to be about 105 particles per second, for 1 pnA 46Ti primary beam with a carbon target for a beam energy of 25 MeV/nucleon. A Monte Carlo simulation with a ray-tracing code has been performed to show that recoil products 66Se are well separated from a 65As beam by KOBRA for the 65As (p, γ)66Se reaction at a beam energy of 1 MeV/nucleon.

  14. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  15. Track Reconstruction in a Time Projection Chamber Designed to Make High Precision Fission Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarvagya

    2010-10-01

    The TPC (Time Projection Chamber), being constructed by the NIFFTE (Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment) collaboration will be used for high-precision fission cross-section measurements. These measurements will aid in the design of future generations of nuclear power plants. The NIFFTE track reconstruction effort has developed two approaches consisting of a variety of statistical estimators. The first, consists of traditional cluster and hit finding algorithms that are performed on 2D planes. A least squares is performed on the hits to produce a track in the TPC. The alternate approach uses the Hough Transform, a brute force attempt at finding tracks that isolates features in the TPC volume through data binning. To determine fit parameters, a Kalman Filter has been implemented that accounts for multiple scattering and kinks in the track. Comparing simulated and reconstructed tracks have shown the validity of these methods. The software uses open source packages to ensure re-usability for future TPC projects. In my talk, I will describe these methods in detail.

  16. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  17. Well-Being and Institutional Care in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Time Effects of Provided and Received Support

    PubMed Central

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Gruszczynska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of provided and received support on older adults’ subjective well-being (positive affect and depression) and to examine whether being a recipient of institutional care moderates these effects. Methods Social support (provided and received), positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice (at baseline and 1 month later) for 277 older adults (age 77.39 ± 9.20 years, 67.50% women, 65% residents of an institutional care facility). Findings Two structural equation models were analyzed: cross-sectional (at baseline) and longitudinal (after 1 month). The first model revealed a significant positive relationship between providing and receiving support and positive affect, and a negative relationship between receiving support and depression. However, being a recipient of institutional care appeared to be a significant moderator in the longitudinal model. Specifically, the findings indicated effects of both providing and receiving support on positive affect but only for noninstitutionalized older adults. Discussion Although both types of support may be beneficial for older adults, their effects depend on the nature of social exchange and the dimensions of well-being. This suggests that such factors should be systematically investigated in future research. PMID:27548721

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  19. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  20. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  1. Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR = 83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

  2. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  3. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  4. Bone Health and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease - A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turanlahti, Maila; Kajosaari, Merja; Mäkitie, Outi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M.; Viljakainen, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Objective Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low phy-sical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover markers (BTMs) in apparently healthy cohort. Design A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males) was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. Methods We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP), collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX), as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were asses-sed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted mo-dels. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria) with multivariate analysis. Results Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = −0.243, P = 0.003 and R = −0.187, P = 0.021) and glucose (R = −0.213, P = 0.009 and R = −0.190, P = 0.019), but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = −0.162, P = 0.053 and R = −0.093, P = 0.266) and with glucose (R = −0.099, P = 0.240 and R = −0.133, P = 0.110), respectively. Whole body BMD associated in-versely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. Conclusions In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat

  5. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  6. Frequency and cost of potentially inappropriate prescribing for older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Hunt, Jordan; Rioux, Jocelyn; Proulx, Jeffery; Weymann, Deirdre; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many medications pose greater health risks when prescribed for older adults, compared with available pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic alternatives. We sought to quantify the frequency and cost of potentially inappropriate prescribing for older women and men in Canada. Methods: Using data for 2013 from the National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System database, which contains prescription claims from publicly financed drug plans in all provinces except for Quebec, we identified the frequency of prescribing and cost of potentially inappropriate medications dispensed to provincial drug plan enrollees aged 65 years or more. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions were defined with the use of the American Geriatrics Society's 2012 version of the Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Results: For the 6 provinces with relatively complete data coverage (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Prince Edward Island), 37% of older people filled 1 or more prescription meeting the Beers Criteria. A higher proportion of women (42%) than men (31%) filled potentially inappropriate prescriptions. The highest rates of prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications were among women aged 85 or more (47%). Benzodiazepines and other hypnotics were the leading contributors to the overall frequency of and sex differences in prescribing of potentially inappropriate drugs among older adults. We estimated that $75 per older Canadian, or $419 million in total, was spent on potentially inappropriate medications outside of hospital settings in 2013. Interpretation: Prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications for older adults is common and costly in Canada, especially for women. Multipronged and well-coordinated strategies to reduce the use and cost of potentially inappropriate drugs would likely generate significant health system savings while simultaneously generating major benefits to

  7. The contribution of walking to work to adult physical activity levels: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To objectively examine the contribution to adult physical activity levels of walking to work. Methods Employees (n = 103; 36.3 ± 11.7 years) at 17 workplaces in south-west England, who lived within 2 miles (3.2 km) of their workplace, wore Actigraph accelerometers for seven days during waking hours and carried GPS receivers during the commute to and from work. Physical activity volume (accelerometer counts per minute (cpm)) and intensity (minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were computed overall and during the walk to work. Results Total weekday physical activity was 45% higher in participants who walked to work compared to those travelling by car (524.6. ± 170.4 vs 364.6 ± 138.4 cpm) and MVPA almost 60% higher (78.1 ± 24.9 vs 49.8 ± 25.2 minutes per day). No differences were seen in weekend physical activity, and sedentary time did not differ between the groups. Combined accelerometer and GPS data showed that walking to work contributed 47.3% of total weekday MVPA. Conclusions Walking to work was associated with overall higher levels of physical activity in young and middle-aged adults. These data provide preliminary evidence to underpin the need for interventions to increase active commuting, specifically walking, in adults. PMID:24618001

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion. PMID:22985407

  9. Particular difficulties faced by GPs with young adults who will attempt suicide: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major public health problem in young people. General Practitioners (GPs) play a central role in suicide prevention. However data about how physicians deal with suicidal youths are lacking. This study aims to compare young adult suicide attempters (from 18 to 39 years old) with older adults in a primary care setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried. All suicide attempts (N=270) reported to the French Sentinel surveillance System from 2009 to 2011 were considered. We conducted comparison of data on the last GP’s consultation and GPs’ management in the last three months between young adults and older adults. Results In comparison with older adults, young adults consulted their GP less frequently in the month preceding the suicidal attempt (40.9 vs. 64.6%, p=.01). During the last consultation prior to the suicidal attempt, they expressed suicidal ideas less frequently (11.3 vs. 21.9%, p=.03). In the year preceding the suicidal attempt, GPs identified depression significantly less often (42.0 vs. 63.4%, p=.001). In the preceding three months, GPs realized significantly less interventions: less psychological support (37.5 vs. 53.0%, p=.02), prescribed less antidepressants (28.6 vs. 54.8%, p<.0001) or psychotropic drugs (39.1 vs. 52.9%, p=.03) and made fewer attempts to refer to a mental health specialist (33.3 vs. 45.5%, p=.05). Conclusion With young adults who subsequently attempt suicide, GPs face particular difficulties compared to older adults, as a significant proportion of young adults were not seen in the previous six months, as GPs identified less depressions in the preceding year and were less active in managing in the preceding three months. Medical training and continuing medical education should include better instruction on challenges relative to addressing suicide risk in this particular population. PMID:23706018

  10. Under-recognized pertussis in adults from Asian countries: a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Koh, M T; Liu, C-S; Chiu, C-H; Boonsawat, W; Watanaveeradej, V; Abdullah, N; Zhang, Xh; Devadiga, R; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P < 0·04). Of the seroconfirmed patients, the median total direct medical cost per pertussis episode in public hospitals (including physician consultations and/or emergency room visits) was US$13 in Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered. PMID:26468043

  11. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

  12. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  13. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  14. Sleep problems and computer use during work and leisure: Cross-sectional study among 7800 adults.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Garde, Anne Helene

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies linked heavy computer use to disturbed sleep. This study investigates the association between computer use during work and leisure and sleep problems in working adults. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners on daytime schedule (N = 7883) replied to the Bergen insomnia scale and questions on weekly duration of computer use. Results showed that sleep problems for three or more days per week (average of six questions) were experienced by 14.9% of the respondents. Logistic regression analyses, controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle, chronic disease and mental health showed that computer use during leisure for 30 or more hours per week (reference 0-10 hours per week) was associated with increased odds of sleep problems (OR 1.83 [95% CI 1.06-3.17]). Computer use during work and shorter duration of computer use during leisure were not associated with sleep problems. In conclusion, excessive computer use during leisure - but not work - is associated with sleep problems in adults working on daytime schedule. PMID:26539689

  15. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of everyday memory lapses in older adults.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-09-01

    Everyday memory lapses experienced by older adults (OAs) were examined using a daily-diary checklist and retrospective questionnaire. In Experiment 1, 138 younger and 138 OAs indicated the frequency of forgetting of 16 memory lapses, and whether each occurred daily during the course of a week. OAs reported more memory lapses on the questionnaire, but not the daily diary. OAs reported more frequently forgetting names and words, while younger adults had more difficulty with appointments and personal dates. Fewer memory lapses on the daily diary were related to better performance on a laboratory-memory measure for OAs. In Experiment 2, 62 OAs returned for a five-year follow-up and endorsed experiencing more memory lapses on the daily diary compared to baseline, specifically forgetting more names and words, but not the retrospective questionnaire. Daily checklist memory lapses again correlated with the laboratory-memory measure. A daily checklist may be a viable way to assess everyday memory lapses. PMID:26810777

  16. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  17. A cross-sectional study of elite adult Irish dancers: biopsychosocial traits, pain, and injury.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Roisin; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    Despite its growing popularity, scant research exists concerning musculoskeletal pain and injury in Irish dancing (ID). This study aimed to record the biopsychosocial characteristics of elite adult Irish dancers and to investigate potential relationships between these characteristics and musculoskeletal pain and injury. One hundred and four professional Irish dancers, elite competitive Irish dancers, and dancers in full time education studying ID completed a questionnaire providing data on dance and activity levels, physical and psychological health, and pain and injury history. Of these subjects, 84 underwent 1. a physical screening of lower limb flexibility, which involved balance and endurance; 2. a number of functional tests; and 3. anthropometric, biomechanical, and anatomical assessments. Subjects were divided into "significantly injured (SI)" and "not significantly injured (NSI)" categories based on the severity and impact of self-reported pain and injury. Thirty-three (31.7%) subjects were classified as SI and 71 (68.3%) as NSI. The factors significantly associated with being SI were female sex (p = 0.036), higher number of subjective general health (p = 0.001) and psychological (p = 0.036) complaints, low mood (p = 0.01), heightened catastrophizing (p = 0.047), and failure always to complete a warm-up (p = 0.006). A self-reported injury rate of 76.9% over the previous 5 years was reported. The mean number of injuries sustained to all body parts over the previous 5 years was 1.49, with a mean of 126.1 days lost annually to injury. Foot and ankle injuries were most prevalent. It was concluded that there is a significant level of musculoskeletal pain and injury in elite adult ID. A complex combination of biopsychosocial factors appears to be associated with pain and injury. PMID:25741782

  18. Exploring the factors that influence medication rating Web sites value to older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    AlRuthia, Yazed Sulaiman H; Hong, Song Hee; Graff, Carolyn; Kocak, Mehmet; Solomon, David; Nolly, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated factors that affected the perceived value of medication rating Web sites to 284 people aged ≥ 60 years who were taking prescription medications. The Patient Reviews of Medication Experience (PROMEX) questionnaire score, which assessed participant opinions about the value of online reviews of medications, was positively associated with preference to share health care decision making with the health care provider and negatively associated with the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summary scores of the Short Form 12 health survey. The Primary Care Assessment Survey Communication score, which measured participant satisfaction with the communication from the health care provider, was positively associated with PCS-12 and health literacy. In summary, older adults who had poor physical and mental health-related quality of life were more likely to believe that medication rating Web sites were useful and helpful in facilitating communication with health care providers. PMID:26563919

  19. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  20. Urinary Metals and Heart Rate Variability: A Cross-Sectional Study of Urban Adults in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Chen, Mu; Deng, Siyun; Qiu, Gaokun; Li, Xiaoliang; Liu, Chuanyao; Li, Jun; Deng, Qifei; Huang, Suli; Wang, Tian; Dai, Xiayun; Yang, Binyao; Yuan, Jing; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Chen, Weihong; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between external estimates of exposure to metals in air particles and altered heart rate variability (HRV). However, studies on the association between internal assessments of metals exposure and HRV are limited. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the potential association between urinary metals and HRV among residents of an urban community in Wuhan, China. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 23 urinary metals and 5-min HRV indices (SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals; r-MSSD, root mean square of successive differences in adjacent normal-to-normal intervals; LF, low frequency; HF, high frequency; TP, total power) using baseline data on 2,004 adult residents of Wuhan. Results After adjusting for other metals, creatinine, and other covariates, natural log-transformed urine titanium concentration was positively associated with all HRV indices (all p < 0.05). Moreover, we estimated negative associations between cadmium and r-MSSD, LF, HF, and TP; between lead and r-MSSD, HF, and TP; and between iron, copper, and arsenic and HF, SDNN, and LF, respectively, based on models adjusted for other metals, creatinine, and covariates (all p < 0.10). Several associations differed according to cardiovascular disease risk factors. For example, negative associations between cadmium and r-MSSD were stronger among participants ≤ 52 years of age (vs. > 52), current smokers (vs. nonsmokers), body mass index < 25 kg/m2 (vs. ≥ 25), and among those who were not hypertensive. Conclusions Urine concentrations of several metals were associated with HRV parameters in our cross-sectional study population. These findings need replication in other studies with adequate sample sizes. Citation Feng W, He X, Chen M, Deng S, Qiu G, Li X, Liu C, Li J, Deng Q, Huang S, Wang T, Dai X, Yang B, Yuan J, He M, Zhang X, Chen W, Kan H, Wu T. 2015. Urinary metals and heart rate variability: a

  1. Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Asady, Hadi; Baikpour, Masoud; Barat, Atena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and physical inactivity are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Not only these factors have a causal effect on NCDs, but they can also affect each other. This study aimed to assess the relationship between these factors as well as their effect on NCDs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,602 healthy adults aged 30–60 years participated in this survey in 2010. Data on demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking status, physical activity and anthropometric measures including weight and height were collected and analyzed. The effect of smoking on physical activity was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among demographic characteristics, only age (P<0.001) and educational level (P<0.001) had a significant association with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had an odds ratio of 4.88 (95% CI, 3.34–7.13) for having unsatisfactory physical activity. Conclusion: The present study showed that cigarette smoking negatively affects the quality of physical activity. PMID:27114725

  2. Correlates of foot pain severity in adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) is highly prevalent and associated with progressive first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation and osteoarthritis. The link between structural HV deformity and foot pain is unclear. This study investigated possible explanatory factors surrounding foot pain in HV, including radiographic HV angle and signs of joint degeneration. Methods Participants were 60 adults (53 female) with HV aged 20 to 75 years. Participant demographics and a range of radiographic, clinical and functional measures were considered potential correlates of foot pain. Self-reported foot pain (visual analogue scales and a dichotomous definition) was considered the dependent variable. Multivariate modelling was used to determine which characteristics and measures explained pain, with univariate analyses first used to screen potential variables. Results Approximately 20 to 30% of the variance in foot pain associated with HV could be explained by patient characteristics such as poorer general health status, lower educational attainment and increased occupational physical activity levels, in combination with some dynamic physical characteristics such as hallux plantarflexion weakness and reduced force-time integral under the second metatarsal during gait. Neither increasing lateral deviation of the hallux (HV angle) nor presence of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis was associated with foot pain. Conclusions This study shows that passive structural factors, including HV angle, do not appear to be significant correlates of foot pain intensity in HV. Our data demonstrate the importance of considering patient characteristics such as general health and physical activity levels when assessing foot pain associated with HV. PMID:25028598

  3. Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

    2010-01-01

    An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INL’s Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A < 100, there has been recent progress in extending AMS to heavier isotopes – even to A > 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

  4. Design and simulation of MEMS vector hydrophone with reduced cross section based meander beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Dutta, S.; Pal, Ramjay; Jain, K. K.; Gupta, Sudha; Bhan, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    MEMS based vector hydrophone is being one of the key device in the underwater communications. In this paper, we presented a bio-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone. The hydrophone structure consists of a proof mass suspended by four meander type beams with reduced cross-section. Modal patterns of the structure were studied. First three modal frequencies of the hydrophone structure were found to be 420 Hz, 420 Hz and 1646 Hz respectively. The deflection and stress of the hydrophone is found have linear behavior in the 1 µPa - 1Pa pressure range.

  5. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13) was used for the statistical analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%), vitamin A (92.4%) and vitamin C (85.1%) in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:21513578

  6. Prevalence and Patterns of Multi-Morbidity in Serbian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jovic, Dragana; Vukovic, Dejana; Marinkovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Like many developing countries, Serbia is facing a growing burden of chronic diseases. Within such public health issue, multi-morbidity requires a special attention. Aims This study investigated the prevalence of multi-morbidity in the Serbia population and assessed the co-occurrence of chronic diseases by age and gender. Methods We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, which included 13,103 individuals ≥ 20 years old. Multi-morbidity patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis of data on self-reported chronic diseases, as well as data on measured body weight and height. The analysis was stratified by age and gender. Results Multi-morbidity was present in nearly one-third of respondents (26.9%) and existed in all age groups, with the highest prevalence among individuals aged 65 years and older (47.2% of men and 65.0% of women). Six patterns of multi-morbidity were identified: non-communicable, cardio-metabolic, respiratory, cardiovascular, aggregate, and mechanical/mental/metabolic. The non-communicable pattern was observed in both genders but only in the 20–44 years age group, while the aggregate pattern occurred only in middle-aged men. Cardio-metabolic and respiratory patterns were present in all age groups. Cardiovascular and mechanical/mental/metabolic patterns showed similar presentation in both men and women. Conclusions Multi-morbidity is a common occurrence among adults in Serbia, especially in the elderly. While several patterns may be explained by underlying pathophysiologies, some require further investigation and follow-up. Recognizing the complexity of multi-morbidity in Serbia is of great importance from both clinical and preventive perspectives given that it affects one-third of the population and may require adjustment of the healthcare system to address the needs of affected individuals. PMID:26871936

  7. Anthropometric measurements for the prediction of the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study on adolescents and young adults from southern india

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, S K; Thomas, N; Christopher, S; Geethanjali, F S; Paul, T V; Sanjeevi, C B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine which anthropometric measurement correlates best with the metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Schools, high schools and universities. Participants 1359 adolescents and young adults aged 14–25 years. Main outcome measures Anthropometric predictors of metabolic abnormalities as classified by International Diabetes Federation definition. Results The waist circumference (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.43: p≤0.01) and the abdominal skin fold thickness (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.04, p≤0.01) above the third quintile cut-offs were found to be significantly associated with metabolic abnormalities. The sensitivity of either one of these measurements in predicting metabolic abnormalities was 66.1% with a negative predictive value of 82.8%. Hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with an abdominal skin fold thickness over the fourth quintile alone (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.1). All the anthropometric measurements correlated well with elevated triglycerides and hypertension. Conclusions In a large community-based cross-sectional survey of subjects aged 14–25 years, the waist circumference and the abdominal skin fold thickness are important predictors of the metabolic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome. This simple clinical tool may help in a primary care setting to identify subjects who require a further biochemical evaluation and would considerably reduce the cost of unwarranted testing. PMID:27325971

  8. Association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in the Croatian adult population - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes has been proved to have strong association with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, but it is not clear whether hyperuricemia is related to the early stages of hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in Croatian adults, as well as that between purine-rich diet and hyperuricemia, prediabetes, or prehypertension. Methods A stratified random representative sample of 64 general practitioners (GP) was selected. Each GP systematically chose participants aged ≥ 40 year (up to 55 subjects) . Recruitment occurred between May and September 2008. The medical history, anthropometric, and laboratory measures were obtained for each participant. Results 59 physicians agreed to participate and recruited 2485 subjects (response rate 77%; average age (± standard deviation) 59.2 ±10.6; 61.9% women. In bivariate analysis we found a positive association between hyperuricemia and prediabetes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09–2.53), but not for prehypertension (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.76–3.72). After controlling for known confounders for cardiovascular disease (age, gender, body mass index, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, waist to hip ratio, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), in multivariate analysis HU ceased to be an independent predictor(OR 1.33, CI 0.98–1.82, p = 0.069) for PreDM. An association between purine-rich food and hyperuricemia was found (p<0.001) and also for prediabetes (p=0.002), but not for prehypertension (p=0.41). The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 10.7% (15.4% male, 7.8% female), 32.5% for prediabetes (35.4% male, 30.8% female), and 26.6% for prehypertension (27.2% male, 26.2% female). Conclusion Hyperuricemia seems to be associated with prediabetes but not with prehypertension. Both, hyperuricemia and prediabetes were associated with

  9. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

    2008-01-01

    Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

  10. The design of equipment for optical power measurement in FSO link beam cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latal, Jan; David, Tomas; Wilfert, Otakar; Kolka, Zdenek; Koudelka, Petr; Hanacek, Frantisek; Vitasek, Jan; Siska, Petr; Skapa, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    The free space optical links have found their major application in today's technological society. The demand for quality broadband is a must for all types of end users in these times. Because of the large jamming from wireless radio networks in non-licensed ISM bands, the free space optical links provide bridging of some densely populated urban areas. Their advantage is the high transmission rate for relatively long distances. However, the disadvantage is the dependence of free space optical links on atmospheric influences. Aired collimated optical beam passes through the atmospheric transmission environment and by its influence cause the deformation of the optical beam. Author's team decided to construct a special measuring device for measurement of optical power in FSO link beam cross-section. The equipment is mobile and can be rearranged and adjust according to the given location and placement of the FSO link at any time. The article describes the individual structural elements of the measuring equipment, its controlling and application for evaluation and adjustment of measuring steps. The graphs from optical power measurements in the beam cross-section of professional FSO links are presented at the end.

  11. Effect of antiepileptic drug therapy on thyroid hormones among adult epileptic patients: An analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Arulmozhi, Ranjitha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on thyroid hormone levels in adult epileptic patients. Methods: A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult epileptic patients receiving conventional AEDs (Group 2) or newer AEDs (Group 3) for more than 6 months. Serum thyroid hormone levels including free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were analyzed and the hormonal status was compared with healthy control subjects (Group 1). Findings: Sodium valproate and phenytoin were commonly used conventional AEDs; levetiracetam and topiramate were common among the newer drugs. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum fT4 and increase in serum TSH levels (P < 0.0001) in patients on long-term therapy with conventional antiepileptic agents than in the control group. No significant change in thyroid hormone levels (fT3, fT4, and TSH; P = 0.68, 0.37, and 0.90, respectively) was observed with newer antiepileptics-treated patients when compared to control group. One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software package. Conclusion: The present study showed that conventional AEDs have significant alteration in the thyroid hormone levels than the newer antiepileptics in adult epileptic patients. PMID:27512707

  12. ORIGEN-ARP Cross-Section Libraries for Magnox, Advanced Gas-Cooled, and VVER Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, BD

    2004-03-10

    Cross-section libraries for the ORIGEN-ARP system were extended to include four non-U.S. reactor types: the Magnox reactor, the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, the VVER-440, and the VVER-1000. Typical design and operational parameters for these four reactor types were determined by an examination of a variety of published information sources. Burnup simulation models of the reactors were then developed using the SAS2H sequence from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system. In turn, these models were used to prepare the burnup-dependent cross-section libraries suitable for use with ORIGEN-ARP. The reactor designs together with the development of the SAS2H models are described, and a small number of validation results using spent-fuel assay data are reported.

  13. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  14. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed. PMID:26254884

  15. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (< 100 μg/L urine). Results: Of 1,525 participants, 400 (26%) had low iodine only (T0I1), 87 (6%) had high TPOAb only (T1I0), and 26 (2%) had both high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). In general, associations were similar among participants in the groups with neither (T0I0) or only one thyroid stressor (T0I1 or T1I0), suggesting that PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p < 0.05) with fT4, and all four PFASs were positively associated (p < 0.05) with fT3, fT3/fT4, TSH, and TT3 in the group with joint exposure to high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). Conclusions: We found evidence of PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of

  16. Sense of Coherence among Older Adult Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jueng, Ruo-Nan; Tsai, Der-Chong; Chen, I-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that sense of coherence (SOC) is related to health promotion. Knowledge of SOC among older adults in Taiwan is limited. The present study aimed to investigate SOC status and its relationship to personal and environmental factors among older adult residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in northeastern Taiwan. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in Yilan, Taiwan. With face-to-face interviews, we obtained data from 104 LTCF residents (aged 65 years and older) using the Chinese version of Antonovsky's short 13-item SOC scale. We also collected the information on personal characteristics, physical and social environmental resources. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze factors potentially influencing SOC. Results Of the participants, the mean score (±standard deviation) of SOC was 58.3 (±8.8), while scores on SOC subscales (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were 23.4 ±4.5, 17.9 ±3.8, and 17.0 ±3.2, respectively. Education level, activities of daily living and number of LTCF staff were found to be independently associated with SOC status after adjusting for demographic characteristics, health status, and environmental resources. In addition, interactions between personal and environmental factors had a crucial influence on SOC status. Conclusions Participants in this study had relatively low SOC scores compared to their counterparts in Western countries. In addition to personal factors, environmental factors can play a significant role in SOC status among older adult LTCF residents. Comprehensive evaluation of SOC status should consider person-environment interaction effects. PMID:26751949

  17. Multilevel analysis of self-perception in oral health and associated factors in Southern Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Olandoski, Marcia; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between individual and contextual variables related to self-perception in oral health among residents in the municipality of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional design involved 1,100 adults in 38 census tracts. The self-perception was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) tool. A logistic multilevel analysis was performed. The multivariate analysis revealed that those who are of the female gender, older, with lower scores of quality of life and less social support, with poor healthy eating habits, smokers and those living in low-income census tracts presented higher odds of reporting worse oral health self-perception (OHIP-1). We concluded that individual and contextual variables are associated with oral health self-perception. This is essential information for planning health services wishing to meet the health needs of the population. PMID:25715291

  18. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Austrian Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study among Civilians and Military Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lagler, Heimo; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Winkler, Heidi; Herkner, Harald; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. Methods and Findings A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological information on possible risk factors for exposure to HEV was obtained. The overall seropositivity for HEV antibodies was 14.3% and significantly increased with age. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals with previous military employments abroad (21.4% vs. 9.9%) and among professional soldiers aged 30–39 years (20.2% vs. 7.3%). No association was found for private travel, occupational or private animal contact or regular outdoor activities. Individuals who tested positive for antibodies against HEV had significantly higher laboratory values regarding liver enzymes, lipid levels and blood fasting glucose. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in Austria. Military employment abroad could be a potential risk factor for HEV infection. Further studies are required to investigate the significance of pathological laboratory results found among asymptomatic individuals previously exposed to HEV. PMID:24498349

  19. Prevalence and Racial Differences in Pterygium: A Cross-Sectional Study in Han and Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Ding, Lin; Shan, Guangliang; Ke, Limujiang; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the prevalence and associated risk factors of pterygium in Han and Uygur population in Xinjiang, China and to assess the racial differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural and three urban regions of Xinjiang. A multistage and stratified sampling method was used to select representative samples. Risk factors associated with pterygium were screened in logistic regression models. Results. Among 4617 participants aged 30 years and older, 2452 were Han and 2165 were Uygur Nationality adults. The overall prevalence of pterygium was 11.95% (n = 546), with 4.27% (n = 197) were bilateral and 7.56% (n = 349) were unilateral. Multivariate analysis indicated that race, age, and rural residence were significantly associated with any pterygium (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of pterygium (P < 0.01) in Han subjects was higher than that of Uygur subjects. Both age and rural residence were associated with any pterygium in Han and Uygur. Low education level had significant positive association with pterygium in Han population (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Pterygium affects approximately one-ninth of Han and Uygur population. Compared with Uygur, Han ethnicity is a significant risk factor of pterygium. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of pterygium in rural areas of Xinjiang, China compared with urban cities. Age increase was also associated with presence of pterygium. Strategies are warranted to prevent the serious effects caused by pterygium. PMID:25626966

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension and Hypertension among Adults in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. Methods: A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend < 0.001), in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (p-trend < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, location, drinking, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia correlated with prehypertension and hypertension (p-trend < 0.05). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension. PMID:26712776

  1. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD. PMID:26239345

  2. Pain Complaints in Latino Adults of Mexican Origin With and Without Major Depressive Episode: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dilsaver, Steven C.; Benazzi, Franco; Manning, J. Sloan; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of 5 pain complaints among Latino adults of Mexican origin meeting the criteria for major depressive episode (MDE). Method: In a mental health clinic for the indigent, consecutively evaluated Latino adults of Mexican origin received structured diagnostic psychiatric interviews based on modules extracted from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version. All were specifically asked whether they had experienced headache, backache, abdominal pain, myalgia, or arthralgia “in the last week.” Patients meeting the criteria for MDE were compared to patients without MDE from the same clinic. Associations and statistical significance of the differences between groups were determined using logistic regression models. The data were collected between August 2003 and November 2004. Results: Two hundred ten patients had an MDE, and 35 individuals without an MDE comprised the comparison group. Eighty-eight percent of the patients with MDE versus 53% of the controls had at least 1 pain complaint (p < .0001). Patients with MDE were 8.3 times more likely to have 1 or more pain complaints than the comparison patients (p < .0001). The significant relationship between depression and pain applied when we examined those with ≥ 2, ≥ 3, and ≥ 4 pain complaints. Twenty-eight percent of the MDE subjects had all 5 pain complaints compared to 3% of subjects without MDE (p = .013). Conclusions: The method of assessment of the presence of pain led to the detection of a remarkably high prevalence of pain complaints. The findings presented have important implications not only for the practice of those who are widely recognized as being primary care physicians but also for practitioners of all clinical disciplines. PMID:18615171

  3. Cross-sectional associations of oral health measures with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, Supawadee; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Beck, James; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Alonso, Alvaro; Heiss, Gerardo; Slade, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has not been established to what extent oral health is associated with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults. In this study, which is part of the national Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the authors investigated whether tooth loss and periodontitis are associated with lower cognitive function. Methods The authors analyzed ARIC data measuring cognitive function in 11,097 participants from 1996 through 1998 according to tests of delayed word recall, digit-symbol substitution (DSS) and word fluency; 9,874 participants answered dental screening questions. Of the 8,554 dentate participants, 5,942 received oral examinations. The authors used measures of dental status, number of teeth and periodontitis (classified according to the Biofilm-Gingival Interface Index) in multiple linear regression models to estimate these factors’ cross-sectional association with cognitive scores, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and diabetes. Results Approximately 13 percent of participants were edentulous. Of the dentate participants, 27.3 percent had fewer than 20 teeth and 12.4 percent had pocket depth of 4 millimeters or more with severe bleeding. Compared with dentate participants, edentulous participants had lower scores for all cognitive tests. Among the dentate participants, having fewer teeth and gingival bleeding were associated with lower DSS and word fluency test scores, although periodontal pocket depth was not. Conclusions In this cohort, edentulism was correlated with lower cognitive status. Tooth loss and gingival bleeding were markers of poorer executive function among dentate people. Practical Implications The association of lower cognitive scores with edentulism suggests that past oral diseases may be a risk indicator for cognitive decline, whereas the association with gingival inflammation indicates a possible effect of cognitive decline on oral health. Practitioners should be aware that

  4. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  5. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A.; Marquez-Corona, Maria L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity. Key words:Oral health, periodontal health

  6. The Association of Four-Limb Blood Pressure with History of Stroke in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lihang; Chang, Huiying; Gu, Xingbo; Zhang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lijiang; Tian, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association of ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), interarm blood pressure (BP) difference and interankle BP difference, obtained by simultaneous four-limb BP measurement, with history of stroke in a Chinese adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1485 participants aged ≥35 years in the framework of the China Hypertension Survey. We performed simultaneous four-limb BP measurement using oscillometric devices with the participants in the supine position and calculated ABI and interarm/interankle BP differences between the 4 limbs. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of these BP parameters and other factors with a history of stroke. Results In univariate analyses, participants with ABI <0.9, interarm BP difference ≥15 mmHg, and interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg had a higher prevalence of stroke than those without (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0152, p = 0.002, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analyses suggested, ABI <0.9 was independently associated with a history of stroke after adjustment for interarm BP difference ≥15 mmHg, interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg, and traditional risk factors for stroke (p = 0.001). An interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg was associated with prior stroke after the two variables of hypertension and ABI were removed from the logistic regression model (p = 0.0142). Net reclassification improvement analysis showed that inclusion of interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg to the independent risk factors (age, family history of stroke, hypertension, and ABI) improved net reclassification by 11.92%. Conclusion ABI <0.9 is an independent risk factor for stroke prevalence in Chinese adults and it just detected a small propotion of paticipants. The addition of interankle BP difference ≥10 mmHg to the independent risk factors for stroke may improve the prediction of stroke. PMID:26452268

  7. Dyslipidemia awareness, treatment, control and influence factors among adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In China, even though the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults increased yearly and dyslipidemia being an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among the Chinese population, however, the awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia are at low levels, and only limited studies on the influence factors associated with the awareness, treatment and control dyslipidemia in China have been carried out. Methods The analysis was based on a representative sample of 7138 adult subjects aged 18 ~ 79 years recruited from a cross-sectional study of chronic disease and risk factors among adults in the Jilin province in 2012. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates of dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control between different characteristics of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed separately for each group to explore the associations between participants’ characteristics and dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control. Results Among participants with dyslipidemia, 11.6% were aware of the diagnosis, 8.4% were receiving treatment, and 34.8% had dyslipidemia controlled. Increase in age and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were by far the strongest risk factors associated with better awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Retirees were more likely to be aware of their dyslipidemia condition (OR = 1.255; 95% CI: 1.046, 1.506) and to be receiving treatment (OR = 1.367; 95% CI: 1.114, 1.676) than manual workers. A family history of dyslipidemia increased the likelihood of awareness (OR = 3.620; 95% CI: 2.816, 4.653) and treatment (OR = 3.298; 95% CI: 2.488, 4.371) of dyslipidemia. Alcohol drinking and physical activity were associated with a lower level of awareness and treatment. Cigarette smokers (OR = 0.501; 95% CI: 0.349, 0.719) and those with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (OR = 0.480; 95% CI: 0.326, 0.706) who received treatment were also associated with poor dyslipidemia control. Conclusion Our

  8. Mechanical design and analysis of the 2D cross-section of the SSC collider dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Kerby, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the two dimensional cross-section of the base-line collider dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider. The components described here are the collar laminations, the tapered keys that lock the upper and lower collars, the yoke laminations, the cold mass shell. We describe in detail the shape of the outer surface of the collars which defines the yoke-collar interface, and the shape of the collar interior, which defines the conductor placement. Other features of the collar and yoke will be described in somewhat less detail. 20 refs., 12 figs. , 6 tabs.

  9. Student Outcomes Using a Cross-Sectional Design for Nursing External Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melburg, Valerie; Hanner, Mary Beth

    Regents College of the University of the State of New York (USNY) offers nursing degree programs that are self-paced and accessible for adult learners. Students receive guided independent study in the form of advisement and degree planning, but learning course content is the responsibility of the student. An evaluation of the program was conducted…

  10. One-Dimensional, Multigroup Cross Section and Design Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System - Generalized Perturbation Theory.

    1981-02-02

    Version: 00 SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections (of standard multigroup cross-section sets) and for secondary energy distributions (SED's) of multigroup scattering matrices.

  11. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  12. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2-4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor

  13. Design and construction of the RPI enhanced thermal neutron target and thermal cross-section measurements of rare earth isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, Y.

    1993-12-31

    In order to perform thermal cross section measurements the neutron flux in the RPI linac facility had to be increased. A new Enhanced Thermal Target (ETT) was designed, constructed and used. The thermal flux of the new target was up to six times higher than the previous RPI Bounce Target (BT). The ETT was also designed to be coupled to a cold moderator that will give an additional flux increase in the MeV energy region. Design calculations for the cold moderator including neutronics and cryogenics are also presented. The ETT was used for transmission measurements of rare earth metal samples of Ho, Er and Tm and enriched oxide samples of {sup 166}Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 167}Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 20 eV. The measurements were done with a 15 meter time-of-flight spectrometer and provide high quality data in the thermal and subthermal region as well as in the low energy resonance region. These measurements allowed a systematic study of paramagnetic scattering for the materials with Z = 67, 68 and 69 for which the paramagnetic scattering has the strongest effect. The paramagnetic scattering was inferred from the total cross section and compared to theoretical results and other experiments.

  14. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  15. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  16. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively) (p<0.05). The average 24-hour nutrient intakes between wasted and non-wasted tuberculosis patients were comparable. Nutrient intake among men was higher when compared to women regardless of wasting and severity of tuberculosis. Among those with wasting, men had higher average energy intake than women (8.87 vs. 5.81 MJ, respectively) (p<0.05). Among patients with mild disease, men had higher average energy intake than women with mild disease (12.83 vs. 7.49 kcal, respectively) (p<0.001). Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients. PMID:23217171

  17. Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability. PMID:21970548

  18. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Ghada; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4%) reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71), with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84), higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories), and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62) were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88) and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65) were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017). Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. PMID:26690189

  19. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  20. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  1. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Childhood Trauma and Compliance With General Health Care Among Adult Primary Care Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Jordan Bohinc, R.; Wiederman, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Beyond the examination of medication compliance among individuals with substance abuse or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), few studies have examined relationships between childhood trauma and health care compliance in adulthood—the focus of the present study. Method: Using a cross-sectional approach and a self-report survey methodology, we examined 5 types of childhood trauma (ie, witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to 4 measures of general health care compliance (ie, self-rated general conscientiousness with medical treatment; 5 items pertaining to general health care compliance such as scheduling regular dental checkups, timely arrival for doctor’s appointments, and timely completion of laboratory work; 2 medication compliance items; and the Medical Outcomes Study general adherence score) among a sample of adult primary care outpatients (N = 272). Data were collected in March 2014. Results: According to findings, some health care adherence variables demonstrated relationships with the summed childhood trauma score, whereas others did not. It could be interpreted that the more subjective health care compliance variables (eg, self-rated conscientiousness with regard to medical treatment) demonstrated no relationship with a summed childhood trauma score, whereas the more objective health care compliance variables (eg, frequency of regular dental checkups, ability to remember to take all medications, Medical Outcomes Study general adherence score) did demonstrate statistically significant relationships with a summed childhood trauma score (most at P < .01). Conclusions: Patients with histories of childhood trauma demonstrate some deficits with health care compliance in comparison to those without childhood trauma. One interpretation is that the mistreated appear to believe that they are fairly compliant with health care treatment, but

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  4. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP), timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219) rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354), >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371), African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894), not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402), uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1.3-6-1.310), without a HCP

  5. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  6. Design of transmission-type phase holograms for a compact radar-cross-section measurement range at 650 GHz.

    PubMed

    Noponen, Eero; Tamminen, Aleksi; Vaaja, Matti

    2007-07-10

    A design formalism is presented for transmission-type phase holograms for use in a submillimeter-wave compact radar-cross-section (RCS) measurement range. The design method is based on rigorous electromagnetic grating theory combined with conventional hologram synthesis. Hologram structures consisting of a curved groove pattern on a 320 mmx280 mm Teflon plate are designed to transform an incoming spherical wave at 650 GHz into an output wave generating a 100 mm diameter planar field region (quiet zone) at a distance of 1 m. The reconstructed quiet-zone field is evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The uniformity of the quiet-zone field is further improved by reoptimizing the goal field. Measurement results are given for a test hologram fabricated on Teflon. PMID:17579673

  7. Computer-based designing of waveguide radiators of arbitrary cross section for antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskresenskii, D. I.; Grinev, A. Iu.; Ilinskii, A. S.; Kotov, Iu. V.

    1980-02-01

    A multistep method is proposed for designing waveguide radiators for use in antenna arrays. A rigorous electrodynamic method for structure analysis is developed, along with a computer program and a numerical algorithm. The aperture performance of a quadruple-ridge rectangular waveguide in a phased array is examined, along with the directivity patterns of H-shaped, square, and circular radiators in antenna arrays.

  8. Symptomatic knee disorders in floor layers and graphic designers. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described an increased risk of developing tibio-femoral osteoarthritis (TF OA), meniscal tears and bursitis among those with a trade as floor layers. The purpose of this study was to analyse symptomatic knee disorders among floor layers that were highly exposed to kneeling work tasks compared to graphic designers without knee-demanding work tasks. Methods Data on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were collected by questionnaires. In total 134 floor layers and 120 graphic designers had a bilateral radiographic knee examination to detect TF OA and patella-femoral (PF) OA. A random sample of 92 floor layers and 49 graphic designers had Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of both knees to examine meniscal tears. Means of the subscales of KOOS were compared by analysis of variance. The risk ratio of symptomatic knee disorders defined as a combination of radiological detected knee OA or MRI-detected meniscal tears combined with a low KOOS score was estimated by logistic regression in floor layers with 95% confidence interval (CI) and adjusted for age, body mass index, traumas, and knee-straining sports activities. Symptomatic knee OA or meniscal tears were defined as a combination of low KOOS-scores and radiographic or MRI pathology. Results Symptomatic TF and medial meniscal tears were found in floor layers compared to graphic designers with odds ratios 2.6 (95%CI 0.99-6.9) and 2.04 (95% CI 0.77-5.5), respectively. There were no differences in PF OA. Floor layers scored significantly lower on all KOOS subscales compared to graphic designers. Significantly lower scores on the KOOS subscales were also found for radiographic TF and PF OA regardless of trade but not for meniscal tears. Conclusions The study showed an overall increased risk of developing symptomatic TF OA in a group of floor layers with a substantial amount of kneeling work positions. Prevention would be appropriate to reduce the proportion of kneeling

  9. Exploring motivations to seek and undergo prosthodontic care: a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Antonio Hélio; e Silva, Donizete Castro; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influence of individual and social factors regarding intentions and behaviors related to prosthodontic treatment, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 225 individuals with some degree of tooth loss. A questionnaire was used containing factors that would have potential influence on the intentions and behaviors of individuals, as well as clinical and sociodemographic data. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency analysis, chi-square test for trend, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The TPB components – attitude toward the behavior (ATB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) – showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.60–0.78). Intention and behavior were associated with TPB components and the overall scale. Similarly, positive intentions and behaviors were associated with age, upper tooth loss, anterior tooth loss, and higher social status. Multiple logistic regression showed that intention was associated with PBC (OR =1.57; P<0.016), while behavior was associated with tooth loss in both arches (OR =9.3; P<0.001), anterior tooth loss (OR =5.13; P<0.001), higher social status (OR =3.06; P<0.03), and PBC (OR =1.38; P=0.03). The presence of anterior tooth loss was the most relevant factor for prosthodontic treatment demand and utilization, while socioeconomic status and an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty in undergoing treatment played a significant, but secondary, role in behavior toward prosthodontic care. PMID:26124647

  10. Self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in adults living in Ibadan, Nigeria: A cross-sectional, community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Akpan Richard; Olayinka, Kotila Adejoke; Onoja, Akpa Matthew; Olufunmilayo, Fawole; Adeyinka, Falusi Gladys; Chinedum, Babalola Peace

    2015-01-01

    Background: Documentation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is critical to a safe health delivery system. The aim of our study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in a community-based sample of the general population in Ibadan, Nigeria. We also examined sociodemographic factors associated with ADRs in the sample. Patients and Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design with study sites in urban, semiurban, and rural settlement areas. Pretested questionnaires were administered on a one-on-one basis by trained interviewers. Frequency tables and percentages were computed for various levels of the variables. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between sulphonamide hypersensitivity and variables such as sociodemographic characteristics of respondents, respondents' knowledge of drugs, as well as drug sources. Variables found to be significantly associated with sulphonamide hypersensitivity were further investigated using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Results: Out of the 1062 respondents, 15.5% reported hypersensitivity to sulphonamides with skin reactions being the most prevalent. The proportion reporting ADRs was significantly higher among respondents with tertiary education (23.1%) than any other level of education (P = 0.008). In addition, individuals who were very knowledgeable about drug use (odds ratio[OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–3.73) and persons who got drugs from hospitals (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.10–3.65) were more likely to report ADRs than those who were ignorant about drugs and those who purchased drugs from open markets, respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of sulphonamide hypersensitivity is high among respondents, and ADRs is likely to be reported by people who are knowledgeable about drug use. PMID:26903698

  11. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  12. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study to Examine Factors Associated with Primary Health Care Service Utilization among Older Adults in the Irbid Governorate of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhawaldeh, Abdullah; Holm, Margo B; Qaddumi, Jamal; Petro, Wasileh; Jaghbir, Madi; Al Omari, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recently, the percentage of older adults in developing countries has increased significantly. Objective. This study examined patterns and factors associated with primary health care services utilization in the past 1, 6, and 12 months. Method. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 190 older adults in the Irbid governorate of Jordan. Results. Primary health care services were used by less than half of the participants in the past 1 month, by 68.4% in the past 6 months, and by 73.8% in the past 12 months. Primary health care (PHC) services use was associated with age, education level, tobacco use, chronic illnesses, perceived general health status today, a physical component summary score, employment, and perceived general health status in the past 6 and 12 months. The primary predictor of PHC services use at 1, 6, and 12 months was chronic illnesses (OR = 13.32), (OR = 19.63), and (OR = 17.91), respectively. Conclusion. Although many factors were associated with PHC service utilization, the strongest predictor of PHC service utilization was chronic illnesses. PMID:25431589

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study to Examine Factors Associated with Primary Health Care Service Utilization among Older Adults in the Irbid Governorate of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkhawaldeh, Abdullah; Holm, Margo B.; Qaddumi, Jamal; Petro, Wasileh; Jaghbir, Madi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recently, the percentage of older adults in developing countries has increased significantly. Objective. This study examined patterns and factors associated with primary health care services utilization in the past 1, 6, and 12 months. Method. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 190 older adults in the Irbid governorate of Jordan. Results. Primary health care services were used by less than half of the participants in the past 1 month, by 68.4% in the past 6 months, and by 73.8% in the past 12 months. Primary health care (PHC) services use was associated with age, education level, tobacco use, chronic illnesses, perceived general health status today, a physical component summary score, employment, and perceived general health status in the past 6 and 12 months. The primary predictor of PHC services use at 1, 6, and 12 months was chronic illnesses (OR = 13.32), (OR = 19.63), and (OR = 17.91), respectively. Conclusion. Although many factors were associated with PHC service utilization, the strongest predictor of PHC service utilization was chronic illnesses. PMID:25431589

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Neutron Cross-Sections Considered for Design and Safety Studies of Lfr and SFR Generation IV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of several design and safety parameters with regard to five different nuclear data libraries, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3. More specifically, the effective multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity swing and decay heat generation in available LFR and SFR designs were estimated. Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCB were used in the analyses of the neutronic and burn-up performance of the systems. Thermo-hydraulic safety calculations were performed by the STAR-CD CFD code. For the LFR, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 showed to give a harder neutron spectrum than JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 data due to the lower inelastic scattering cross-section of lead in these libraries. Hence, the neutron economy of the system becomes more favourable and keff is higher when calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 data. As for actinide cross-section data, the uncertainties in the keff values appeared to be mainly due to 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. Differences in the estimated burn-up reactivity swings proved to be significant, for an SFR as large as a factor of three (when comparing ENDF/B-VI.8 results to those of JENDL3.2). Uncertainties in the evaluation of short-term decay heat generation showed to be of the order of several per cent. Significant differences were, understandably, observed between decay heat generation data quoted in literature for LWR-UOX and those calculated for an LFR (U,TRU)O2 spent fuel. A corresponding difference in calculated core parameters (outlet coolant temperature) during protected total Loss-of-Power was evaluated.

  16. Bereavement by suicide as a risk factor for suicide attempt: a cross-sectional national UK-wide study of 3432 young bereaved adults

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, David P J; Rantell, Khadija; King, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives US and UK suicide prevention strategies suggest that bereavement by the suicide of a relative or friend is a risk factor for suicide. However, evidence is lacking that the risk exceeds that of any sudden bereavement, is specific to suicide, or applies to peer suicide. We conducted the first controlled UK-wide study to test the hypothesis that young adults bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt compared with young adults bereaved by other sudden deaths. Design National cross-sectional study. Setting Staff and students at 37 UK higher educational institutions in 2010. Participants 3432 eligible respondents aged 18–40 exposed to sudden bereavement of a friend or relative after the age of 10. Exposures Bereavement by suicide (n=614), by sudden unnatural causes (n=712) and by sudden natural causes (n=2106). Primary outcome measures Incident suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Findings Adults bereaved by suicide had a higher probability of attempting suicide (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.65; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.42; p=0.012) than those bereaved by sudden natural causes. There was no such increased risk in adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes. There were no group differences in probability of suicidal ideation. The effect of suicide bereavement was similar whether bereaved participants were blood-related to the deceased or not. The significant association between bereavement by suicide and suicide attempt became non-significant when adding perceived stigma (AOR=1.11; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.67; p=0.610). When compared with adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes, those bereaved by suicide did not show significant differences in suicide attempt (AOR=1.48; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.33; p=0.089). Conclusions Bereavement by suicide is a specific risk factor for suicide attempt among young bereaved adults, whether related to the deceased or not. Suicide risk assessment of young adults should involve screening for a history of suicide in

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  18. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.; Nunes, Maria A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants is freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here, we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35–74 years from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (n = 710) included stable angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, TCA use (n = 156) was associated with a twofold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n = 14,076). Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a threefold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41–6.21) and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.28–6.66). There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusion: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil. PMID:25657993

  19. Design of the Cross Section Shape of AN Aluminum Crash Box for Crashworthiness Enhancement of a CAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Huh, H.; Lee, G. H.; Yoo, J. S.; Lee, M. Y.

    This paper deals with the crashworthiness of an aluminum crash box for an auto-body with the various shapes of cross section such as a rectangle, a hexagon and an octagon. First, crash boxes with various cross sections were tested with numerical simulation to obtain the energy absorption capacity and the mean load. In case of the simple axial crush, the octagon shape shows higher mean load and energy absorption than the other two shapes. Secondly, the crash boxes were assembled to a simplified auto-body model for the overall crashworthiness. The model consists of a bumper, crash boxes, front side members and a sub-frame representing the behavior of a full car at the low speed impact. The analysis result shows that the rectangular cross section shows the best performance as a crash box which deforms prior to the front side member. The hexagonal and octagonal cross sections undergo torsion and local buckling as the width of cross section decreases while the rectangular cross section does not. The simulation result of the rectangular crash box was verified with the experimental result. The simulation result shows close tendency in the deformed shape and the load-displacement curve to the experimental result.

  20. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  1. Determinants of utilization of a no-cost HIV transition clinic: a cross-sectional study of young adults living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nyabigambo, Agnes; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Atuyambe, Lynn; Babikako, Harriet M; Kambugu, Andrew; Ndoleriire, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is minimal research that has been conducted among young adults to understand the determinants of the utilization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) health services in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels and determinants of HIV transition clinic (HTC) services utilization by young adults living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (YALHA). The study used a cross-sectional design and quantitative methods to collect data from a sample of 379 YALHA between the ages of 15–24 years who were registered clients of an HTC in Uganda. During data analysis, utilization was categorized into two levels: regular (kept all appointment visits) and irregular (missed one or more appointment visits) utilization. Univariable, bivariable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the determinants associated with HTC utilization. The HTC services that were most utilized by the YALHA were those based at the clinic and provided by professional health care providers and these were: clinical examination (96%); laboratory services (87.1%); and counseling (69.7%). The services that were least utilized were home visiting (5.8%) and peer support services (19.8%). Of the 379 YALHA, only 32.4% regularly utilized the HTC. Multivariable analysis showed that the main determinants of HTC utilization were CD4 count category of ≥251/μL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.36–0.95); not being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR =0.27, 95% CI =0.15–0.47); and not receiving counseling services (AOR =0.47, 95% CI =0.27–0.83). Regular utilization of the HTC by YALHA was low and utilization seems to be influenced by HIV infection stage and HIV counseling services, but not sociodemographic factors or community factors. PMID:24966709

  2. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  3. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  4. The impact of the built environment on health across the life course: design of a cross-sectional data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Karen; Pereira, Gavin; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Boruff, Bryan J; Beesley, Bridget; Hickey, Sharyn; Joyce, Sarah; Nathan, Andrea; Saarloos, Dick; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The built environment is increasingly recognised as being associated with health outcomes. Relationships between the built environment and health differ among age groups, especially between children and adults, but also between younger, mid-age and older adults. Yet few address differences across life stage groups within a single population study. Moreover, existing research mostly focuses on physical activity behaviours, with few studying objective clinical and mental health outcomes. The Life Course Built Environment and Health (LCBEH) project explores the impact of the built environment on self-reported and objectively measured health outcomes in a random sample of people across the life course. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional data linkage study involves 15 954 children (0–15 years), young adults (16–24 years), adults (25–64 years) and older adults (65+years) from the Perth metropolitan region who completed the Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey administered by the Department of Health of Western Australia from 2003 to 2009. Survey data were linked to Western Australia's (WA) Hospital Morbidity Database System (hospital admission) and Mental Health Information System (mental health system outpatient) data. Participants’ residential address was geocoded and features of their ‘neighbourhood’ were measured using Geographic Information Systems software. Associations between the built environment and self-reported and clinical health outcomes will be explored across varying geographic scales and life stages. Ethics and dissemination The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee and the Department of Health of Western Australia approved the study protocol (#2010/1). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local, national and international conferences, thus contributing to the evidence base informing the design of healthy neighbourhoods for all residents. PMID

  5. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  6. Objectively-assessed and self-reported sedentary time in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators among adults in England: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Coombs, Ngaire; Rowlands, Alex; Shelton, Nicola; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and multidomain self-reported and objectively-assessed sedentary time (ST). Design Cross-sectional. Setting General population households in England. Participants 2289 adults aged 16–96 years who participated in the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes Accelerometer-measured ST, and self-reported television time, non-television leisure-time sitting and occupational sitting/standing. We examined multivariable associations between household income, social class, education, area deprivation for each SEP indicator (including a 5-point composite SEP score computed by aggregating individual SEP indicators) and each ST indicator using generalised linear models. Results Accelerometry-measured total ST and occupational sitting/standing were positively associated with SEP score and most of its constituent SEP indicators, while television time was negatively associated with SEP score and education level. Area-level deprivation was largely unrelated to ST. Those in the lowest composite SEP group spent 64 (95% CIs 52 to 76) and 72 (48 to 98), fewer minutes/day in total ST and occupational sitting/standing compared to those in the top SEP group, and an additional 48 (35–60) min/day watching television (p<0.001 for linear trend). Stratified analyses showed that these associations between composite SEP score and total ST were evident only among participants who were in employment. Conclusions Occupational sitting seems to drive the positive association between SEP and total ST. Lower SEP is linked to higher TV viewing times. PMID:25377012

  7. Cardiac Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Exposed to Cardiotoxic Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Huang, Sujuan; Ness, Kirsten K.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Green, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Deokumar; Santucci, Aimee; Krasin, Matthew J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of cardiac disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer have generally relied upon self-reported or registry-based data. Objective Systematically assess cardiac outcomes among childhood cancer survivors Design Cross-sectional Setting St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Patients 1,853 adult survivors of childhood cancer, ≥18 years old, and ≥10 years from treatment with cardiotoxic therapy for childhood cancer. Measurements History/physical examination, fasting metabolic and lipid panels, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) all collected at baseline evaluation. Results Half (52.3%) of the survivors were male, median age 8.0 years (range: 0-24) at cancer diagnosis, 31.0 years (18-60) at evaluation. Cardiomyopathy was present in 7.4% (newly identified at the time of evaluation in 4.7%), coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3.8% (newly identified in 2.2%), valvular regurgitation/stenosis in 28.0% (newly identified in 24.8%), and conduction/rhythm abnormalities in 4.6% (newly identified in 1.4%). Nearly all (99.7%) were asymptomatic. The prevalences of cardiac conditions increased with age at evaluation, ranging from 3-24% among those 30-39 years to 10-37% among those ≥40 years. On multivariable analysis, anthracycline exposure ≥250 mg/m2 increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9) compared to anthracycline unexposed survivors. Radiation to the heart increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.7) compared to radiation unexposed survivors. Radiation >1500 cGy with any anthracycline exposure conferred the greatest odds for valve findings. Limitations 61% participation rate of survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies, which were limited to anthracyclines and cardiac-directed radiation. A comparison group and longitudinal assessments are not available. Conclusions Cardiovascular screening identified considerable subclinical disease among adult survivors of childhood

  8. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Static and Dynamic Vertical Scaling from Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Design Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Jiang, Yanming

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic vertical scaling (DVS) from longitudinal point of view has been proposed as comparing to traditional vertical scaling or static vertical scaling (SVS) from cross-sectional perspective. The effects of differences between DVS and SVS on large-scale student achievements have been investigated. The potential application of DVS…

  10. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43−0.76;p≤0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51−0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54−0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59−1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00−2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08−2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and

  11. Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Design, setting and participants We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. Conclusions E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low. PMID:25157186

  12. GP utilisation by education level among adults with COPD or asthma: a cross-sectional register-based study.

    PubMed

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Melbye, Hasse; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2016-01-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009-2011. Based on claims from GPs, the number of patients aged ⩾40 years with a diagnosis of COPD or asthma and their GP services utilisation were estimated and linked to the national education database. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to explore the variations in GP utilisation. In the population aged ⩾40 years, 2.8% had COPD and 3.8% had asthma according to GPs' diagnoses. COPD was four times more prevalent in patients with basic education than higher education; this increase was ⩽80% for asthma. Consultation rates were 12% higher (P<0.001) for COPD and 25% higher (P<0.001) for asthma in patients with low versus high education in the age group of 40-59 years after adjusting for comorbidity, and patient and GP characteristics. Approximately 25% of COPD patients and 20% of asthma patients had ⩾1 spirometry test in general practice in 2011, with no significant education differences in adjusted models. The higher consultation rate in lower-education groups indicates that GPs contribute to fair distribution of healthcare. PMID:27279354

  13. A community-based cross-sectional and longitudinal study uncovered asymptomatic proteinuria in Japanese adults with low body weight.

    PubMed

    Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Suwa, Kaname; Oshida, Haruki; Saito, Masafumi; Hori, Yumiko; Seta, Setsuko; Ishida, Takeshi; Kakei, Masafumi; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Kei

    2013-12-01

    Although proteinuria is highly prevalent in obese individuals, the association between proteinuria and low body weight is equivocal. In this study we determine whether low body weight is more strongly associated with proteinuria compared with normal weight. The association between body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria was examined in a cross-sectional study of 62,582 asymptomatic individuals aged 20-70 years without known kidney diseases recruited, based on the results of medical checkups in 1999. We also examined the incidence of recurrent or nonrecurrent proteinuria in an 8-year longitudinal analysis of 12,493 individuals without proteinuria at baseline. The prevalence of proteinuria showed a J-shaped relationship with BMI. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI of 27.0 kg/m(2) and above or 18.9 kg/m(2) and less was significantly associated with proteinuria relative to BMI 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2), even after adjusting for relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. In the longitudinal study, similar J-shaped relationships between the incident rates of proteinuria and baseline BMI groups were observed at post-baseline checkups. Baseline BMI 27.0 kg/m(2) and above was associated with significantly greater risk for recurrent and nonrecurrent proteinuria, whereas BMI 18.9 kg/m(2) and less was only associated with nonrecurrent proteinuria. Thus, obesity and low body weight may be associated with different types of proteinuria independent of cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:23783242

  14. Factors Associated with Hallux Valgus in a Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Adults with and without Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Renner, Jordan B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hallux valgus (HV) was associated with potential risk factors including foot pain in a large, bi-racial cohort of older men and women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of cohort members of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project of whom 1,502 had complete clinical and demographic data available (mean age 68 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 31.3 kg/m2, 68% women, 30% African American). The presence of HV was assessed visually using a validated examination. Multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations for the total sample and for each sex and race subgroup were used to examine the effect of age, BMI, foot pain, pes planus, and knee or hip radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) on HV. Results HV was present in 64% of the total sample (African American men=69%, African American women=70%, Caucasian men=54%, Caucasian women=65%). The association between HV and foot pain was elevated but not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.47). Women, African American, older individuals, and those with pes planus or knee/hip OA had significantly higher odds of HV (aORs 1.17–1.48). Participants with higher BMI had lower odds of HV compared to those with normal BMI (aORs 0.54–0.72). Overall, patterns of associations were similar across subgroups. Conclusion HV was associated with female sex, African American race, older age, pes planus, and knee/hip OA and inversely associated with higher BMI. Early prevention and intervention approaches may be needed in high-risk groups; longitudinal studies would inform these approaches. PMID:25418024

  15. A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Nizar A. M.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia. Objectives: We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS) and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out. Results: Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84). Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57) and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29). Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were −0.118 (P = 0.03), −0.014 (P = 0.81) and 0.242 (P < 0.001) respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = −0.111, P = 0.033) and marital status (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001) and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001) were positively associated with the CIUS score. Conclusions: Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients. PMID:24696631

  16. GP utilisation by education level among adults with COPD or asthma: a cross-sectional register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Melbye, Hasse; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2016-01-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009–2011. Based on claims from GPs, the number of patients aged ⩾40 years with a diagnosis of COPD or asthma and their GP services utilisation were estimated and linked to the national education database. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to explore the variations in GP utilisation. In the population aged ⩾40 years, 2.8% had COPD and 3.8% had asthma according to GPs’ diagnoses. COPD was four times more prevalent in patients with basic education than higher education; this increase was ⩽80% for asthma. Consultation rates were 12% higher (P<0.001) for COPD and 25% higher (P<0.001) for asthma in patients with low versus high education in the age group of 40–59 years after adjusting for comorbidity, and patient and GP characteristics. Approximately 25% of COPD patients and 20% of asthma patients had ⩾1 spirometry test in general practice in 2011, with no significant education differences in adjusted models. The higher consultation rate in lower-education groups indicates that GPs contribute to fair distribution of healthcare. PMID:27279354

  17. Constancy of Adult Personality Structure in Males: Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional and Times-of-Measurement Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The invariance of factor structures in the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey is clearly evident. Basic personality structure appears little affected by social and historical change. Results favor the stability model for objectively measured personality traits in adult males. (JAC)

  18. Effects of bone-specific physical activity, gender and maturity on tibial cross-sectional bone material distribution: a cross-sectional pQCT comparison of children and young adults aged 5-29 years.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Weeks, Benjamin K; Nogueira, Rossana C; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-03-01

    Growth is the opportune time to modify bone accrual. While bone adaptation is known to be dependent on local loading and consequent deformations (strain) of bone, little is known about the effects of sex, and bone-specific physical activity on location-specific cross-sectional bone geometry during growth. To provide more insight we examined bone traits at different locations around tibial cross sections, and along the tibia between individuals who vary in terms of physical activity exposure, sex, and pubertal status. Data from 304 individuals aged 5-29 years (172 males, 132 females) were examined. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied at 4%, 14%, 38%, and 66% of tibial length. Maturity was established by estimating age at peak height velocity (APHV). Loading history was quantified with the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ). Comparisons, adjusted for height, weight and age were made between sex, maturity, and BPAQ tertile groups. Few to no differences were observed between sexes or BPAQ tertiles prior to APHV, whereas marked sexual dimorphism and differences between BPAQ tertiles were observed after APHV. Cross-sectional location-specific differences between BPAQ tertiles were not evident prior to APHV, whereas clear location-specificity was observed after APHV. In conclusion, the skeletal benefits of physical activity are location-specific in the tibia. The present results indicate that the peri- or post-pubertal period is likely a more favourable window of opportunity for enhancing cross-sectional bone geometry than pre-puberty. Increased loading during the peri-pubertal period may enhance the bone of both sexes. PMID:25465388

  19. Data from a cross-sectional study on Apolipoprotein E (APOE-ε4) and snoring/sleep apnea in non-demented older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsapanou, Angeliki; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Gu, Yian; Manly, Jennifer; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Barral, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    In the present data, we provide the details of the cross-sectional study, from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) that examined the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE-ε4) and snoring/sleep apnea. A total of 1944 non-demented older adults constituted our sample. Sleep dysfunction was measured using sleep categories derived from the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Stratified analyses were conducted in order to examine the association between APOE-ε4 and sleep variables by ethnic group. For further analyses and enhanced discussion, see "Examining the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and self-reported sleep disturbances in non-demented older adults" by Tsapanou et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26568979

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study on Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Lampe, Fiona C; Miltz, Ada; Gilson, Richard; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka; Scott, Christopher; Day, Sara; Clarke, Amanda; Anderson, Jane; O'Connell, Rebecca; Apea, Vanessa; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Gompels, Mark; Farazmand, Paymaneh; Allan, Sris; Mann, Susan; Dhar, Jyoti; Tang, Alan; Sadiq, S Tariq; Taylor, Stephen; Collins, Simon; Sherr, Lorraine; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Miners, Alec; Elford, Jonathan; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. Objective The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. Results Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. Conclusions The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population. PMID:27091769

  1. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. Design A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). Setting 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. Participants A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Results Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. Conclusions The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. PMID

  2. Impact of Internet Use on Loneliness and Contact with Others Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are at increased risk of experiencing loneliness and depression, particularly as they move into different types of care communities. Information and communication technology (ICT) usage may help older adults to maintain contact with social ties. However, prior research is not consistent about whether ICT use increases or decreases isolation and loneliness among older adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how Internet use affects perceived social isolation and loneliness of older adults in assisted and independent living communities. We also examined the perceptions of how Internet use affects communication and social interaction. Methods One wave of data from an ongoing study of ICT usage among older adults in assisted and independent living communities in Alabama was used. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between frequency of going online and isolation and loneliness (n=205) and perceptions of the effects of Internet use on communication and social interaction (n=60). Results After controlling for the number of friends and family, physical/emotional social limitations, age, and study arm, a 1-point increase in the frequency of going online was associated with a 0.147-point decrease in loneliness scores (P=.005). Going online was not associated with perceived social isolation (P=.14). Among the measures of perception of the social effects of the Internet, each 1-point increase in the frequency of going online was associated with an increase in agreement that using the Internet had: (1) made it easier to reach people (b=0.508, P<.001), (2) contributed to the ability to stay in touch (b=0.516, P<.001), (3) made it easier to meet new people (b=0.297, P=.01, (4) increased the quantity of communication with others (b=0.306, P=.01), (5) made the respondent feel less isolated (b=0.491, P<.001), (6) helped the respondent feel more connected to friends and family (b=0.392, P=.001), and (7) increased the

  3. Short-term acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability among young adults: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Itagi, Afreen Begum H; Arora, Dimple; Patil, Navin A; Bailwad, Sandeep Anant; Yunus, GY; Goel, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: An increase in the consumption of smokeless tobacco has been noticed among high school, college students, and adults. Despite the antiquity and popularity of chewing tobacco in India, its effects have not been investigated systematically in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability (HRV) among healthy young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 young adult males were included in the study. Each individual was asked to chew tobacco and subjected to HRV analysis. HRV analysis using short-term electrocardiogram recording was used to measure HRV parameters before gutkha chewing and at 5, 15, and 30 min after chewing tobacco. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was used to assess changes over time. Results: There was a significant increase in heart rate (HR) during tobacco chewing. Mean HR at baseline measured 73.0 ± 6.2 bpm. There was a rise in mean HR to 83.7 ± 9.1 bpm at 5 min during tobacco chewing and gradual reduction to baseline observed after 15 min followed by no significant change till 30 min. The normalized low-frequency power and LF/high-frequency (HF) power ratio were elevated after 5 min; however, normalized HF power was reduced after 5 min tobacco chewing. Conclusion: Gutkha is closely associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors as detected by a transient enhancing sympathetic activity during tobacco chewing in the form of increased HRV parameters or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity among healthy young adults. PMID:26958522

  4. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults' Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA. PMID:26959041

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Physical Activity with Depression and Cognitive Deficit in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulo T, R S; Tribess, Sheilla; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Meneguci, Joilson; Martins, Cristiane A; Freitas, Ismael F; Romo-Perez, Vicente; Virtuoso, Jair S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/ week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults. PMID:26439455

  6. Social Network and Mental Health Among Older Adults in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lucky; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of the older population in India draws attention to the factors that contribute to their changing health realities. However, there has hardly been any study in India that has looked at the effects of specific social networks with children, relatives, friends and confidant on depression among older adults. The objective of the study is to investigate the association between social network and depression among the rural elderly. The study population comprised over 630 older adults (aged 60 and above) from the rural areas of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. We adopted Berkman's theoretical model of the impact of social relations on depression among the elderly in the Indian context. Results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the four specific social network types: children, relatives, friends and confidant were tenable. The results showed that a better social network with 'friends/neighbours' was protective against depression among the rural elderly. This clearly points to the need for more social network centres for older adults, so that they can interact with friends within the community or between communities and participate in group activities. PMID:26879450

  7. Do adult obesity rates in England vary by insecurity as well as by inequality? An ecological cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Geographical variations in adult obesity rates have been attributed in part to variations in social and economic inequalities. Insecurity is associated with obesity at the cross-national level, but there is little empirical evidence to show that insecurity contributes to the structuring of adult obesity rates at the subnational level. This is examined in this study across local authorities in England, using a recently developed social classification for the British population. Setting Modelled obesity rates from the Health Survey for England 2006–2008 were related to social class (as estimated from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey of 2011 and a nationally representative sample survey), across 320 local authorities in England. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparisons of mean obesity rates across Z score categories for seven latent social classes were carried out using one-way analysis of variance. Pooled ordinary least square regression analyses of obesity rates by local authorities according to the proportion of different social classes within each of them were performed to determine the extent of geographical variations in obesity rates among the classes that were more greatly based on insecurity (emergent service workers, precariat), and those more closely based on inequality (elite, established middle class, technical middle class, new affluent workers, traditional working class). Results Adult obesity rates vary negatively across local authorities according to the proportion of people in the elite (F=39.06, p<0.001) and technical middle class (F=8.10, p<0.001) and positively with respect to the proportion of people of the established middle class (F=26.36, p<0.001), new affluent workers (F=73.03, p<0.001), traditional working class (F=23.00, p<0.001) and precariat (F=13.13, p<0.001). Social classes more closely based on inequality show greater association with adult obesity rates across local authorities than social classes more

  8. An integrated model of environmental factors in adult asthma lung function and disease severity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diverse environmental exposures, studied separately, have been linked to health outcomes in adult asthma, but integrated multi-factorial effects have not been modeled. We sought to evaluate the contribution of combined social and physical environmental exposures to adult asthma lung function and disease severity. Methods Data on 176 subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were collected via telephone interviews for sociodemographic factors and asthma severity (scored on a 0-28 point range). Dust, indoor air quality, antigen-specific IgE antibodies, and lung function (percent predicted FEV1) were assessed through home visits. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, proximity to traffic, land use, and ambient air quality data were linked to the individual-level data via residential geocoding. Multiple linear regression separately tested the explanatory power of five groups of environmental factors for the outcomes, percent predicted FEV1 and asthma severity. Final models retained all variables statistically associated (p < 0.20) with each of the two outcomes. Results Mean FEV1 was 85.0 ± 18.6%; mean asthma severity score was 6.9 ± 5.6. Of 29 variables screened, 13 were retained in the final model of FEV1 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.001) and 15 for severity (R2 = 0.16; p < 0.001), including factors from each of the five groups. Adding FEV1 as an independent variable to the severity model further increased its explanatory power (R2 = 0.25). Conclusions Multivariate models covering a range of individual and environmental factors explained nearly a third of FEV1 variability and, taking into account lung function, one quarter of variability in asthma severity. These data support an integrated approach to modeling adult asthma outcomes, including both the physical and the social environment. PMID:20487557

  9. Traffic exposure associated with allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis in adults. A cross-sectional study in southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Nihlén, Ulf; Montnémery, Peter; Axmon, Anna; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence that traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for allergic conditions. Few studies have investigated this in adults. In adults, a high proportion of asthma, rhinitis and eczema is triggered by non-allergic factors. We investigated traffic as a risk factor for allergic versus non-allergic asthma and rhinitis, and eczema, in adults. A questionnaire from 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years) provided individual data about disease outcome and self-reported traffic exposure. Additional exposure assessments were obtained using Geographical Informations Systems (GIS). Residential addresses were linked to the national Swedish Road Database and to a pollutant database with modelled annual means of NOx (Nitrogen Oxids). Results Living within 100 m from a road with a traffic intensity of >10 cars/min (24 hour mean) was associated with prevalence of current asthma reported to be triggered by allergic factors (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.23–2.72) and with allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = (1.05–1.61). No relation was seen with asthma or rhinitis triggered by other factors. Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/min was also associated with hand-eczema during the last 12 months (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), but not with allergic eczema or diagnosed hand-eczema. Consistent results were seen using self-reported traffic, but the associations with NOx were less consistent. Conclusion Exposure to traffic was associated with a higher prevalence of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, but not with asthma or rhinitis triggered by non-allergic factors. This difference was suggested by the overall pattern, but only clear using GIS-measured traffic intensity as a proxy for traffic exposure. An association was also found with hand-eczema during the last 12 months. We suggest that asthma and rhinitis should not be treated as homogenous groups when estimating effects from traffic in adults. PMID:19419561

  10. Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Relationships between chronic exposures to air pollution and respiratory health outcomes have yet to be clearly articulated for adults. Recent data from nationally representative surveys suggest increasing disparity by race/ethnicity regarding asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relationship between annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and respiratory outcomes for adults using modeled air pollution and health outcome data and to examine PM2.5 sensitivity across race/ethnicity. Methods Respondents from the 2002-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were linked to annual kriged PM2.5 data from the USEPA AirData system. Logistic regression was employed to investigate increases in ambient PM2.5 concentrations and self-reported prevalence of respiratory outcomes including asthma, sinusitis and chronic bronchitis. Models included health, behavioral, demographic and resource-related covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity. Results Of nearly 110,000 adult respondents, approximately 8,000 and 4,000 reported current asthma and recent attacks, respectively. Overall, odds ratios (OR) for current asthma (0.97 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.87-1.07)) and recent attacks (0.90 (0.78-1.03)) did not suggest an association with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Stratified analyses revealed significant associations for non-Hispanic blacks [OR = 1.73 (1.17-2.56) for current asthma and OR = 1.76 (1.07-2.91) for recent attacks] but not for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Significant associations were observed overall (1.18 (1.08-1.30)) and in non-Hispanic whites (1.31 (1.18-1.46)) for sinusitis, but not for chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Non-Hispanic blacks may be at increased sensitivity of asthma outcomes from PM2.5 exposure. Increased chronic PM2.5 exposures in adults may contribute to population sinusitis burdens. PMID:22490087

  11. Evaluation of Community-Level Effects of Communities That Care on Adolescent Drug Use and Delinquency Using a Repeated Cross-Sectional Design.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Isaac C; Hawkins, J David; Murray, David M; Fagan, Abigail A; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-02-01

    The Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system has shown effects on reducing incidence and prevalence of problem behaviors among a panel of youth followed from 5th through 12th grade. The present report examines whether similar intervention effects could be observed using a repeated cross-sectional design in the same study. Data were from a community-randomized trial of 24 US towns. Cross-sectional samples of sixth, eighth, and tenth graders were surveyed at four waves. Two-stage ANCOVA analyses estimated differences between CTC and control communities in community-level prevalence of problem behaviors for each grade, adjusting for baseline prevalence. No statistically significant reductions in prevalence of problem behaviors were observed at any grade in CTC compared to control communities. Secondary analyses examined intervention effects within a “pseudo cohort” where cross-sectional data were used from sixth graders at baseline and tenth graders 4 years later. When examining effects within the pseudo cohort, CTC compared to control communities showed a significantly slower increase from sixth to tenth grade in lifetime smokeless tobacco use but not for other outcomes. Exploratory analyses showed significantly slower increases in lifetime problem behaviors within the pseudo cohort for CTC communities with high, but not low, prevention program saturation compared to control communities. Although CTC demonstrated effects in a longitudinal panel from the same community-randomized trial, we did not find similar effects on problem behaviors using a repeated cross-sectional design. These differences may be due to a reduced ability to detect effects because of potential cohort effects, accretion of those who were not exposed, and attrition of those who were exposed to CTC programming in the repeated cross-sectional sample. PMID:26462492

  12. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24138541

  13. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney test) and MIP (p<0.01, t-test). The groups did not differ during rest and inspiration at LTC, regarding sEMG amplitude and POC%. DA was significantly lower in the MB group at TV (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney) and TLC (p=0.03, t-test). Mouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing. PMID:25900327

  14. Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort VI: A cross-sectional comparison of outcomes between adults with pediatric-onset and adult-onset morphea

    PubMed Central

    Condie, Daniel; Grabell, Daniel; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies have looked at outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset morphea. The objective of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life in adults with pediatric-onset morphea to those of patients with adult-onset morphea. Methods Participants in the study were drawn from the Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort and included 68 adults with pediatric-onset morphea and 234 patients with adult-onset morphea. Outcome measures included the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), physical exam findings, and quality of life questionnaires. Results Adults with pediatric-onset morphea were younger, had longer disease duration, and were more likely to have the linear subtype of morphea. Patients with pediatric-onset disease were less likely to have active disease. Among patients with active disease, those with pediatric-onset morphea had less disease activity as measured by the LoSCAT. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had higher disease damage as measured by the Physician Global Assessment of Damage, but similar disease damage as measured by the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had more favorable quality of life scores for all measures that reached statistical significance. Conclusion Adults with pediatric-onset morphea differ from patients with adult-onset disease with respect to subtype, disease activity, disease damage, and health-related quality of life. PMID:25156342

  15. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  16. Effect of sex and age on the association between suicidal behaviour and obesity in Korean adults: a cross-sectional nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kwon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that the relationship between obesity and the risk of suicidal behaviour would differ according to sex and age. Setting Data from the 2007–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used. Participants 36 211 adults with body mass index (BMI) data were included and the mean age was 49.6 years. Independent variable BMI. Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide ideation and attempts. Design and analysis A cross-sectional study was performed. Multiple logistic regressions after controlling for socioeconomic variables and concomitant diseases were applied to see the relationship between obesity level and suicidal ideation or attempt. Results Women with severe obesity had the highest prevalence of suicide attempts and ideation, whereas among males, underweight men had the highest prevalence. After adjustment, obese men had a lower OR for suicide ideation (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00). Among women, the ORs of severely obese and underweight women were 1.27 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.52) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.45), respectively. When grouped by age category, the ORs for suicide ideation in severely obese women aged 18 to <30 years or attempts in severely obese women aged 30 to <50 years were 2.30 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.89) and 3.07 (95% CI 1.50 to 6.31), respectively. However, overweight and obese women aged more than 50 years exhibited significantly less ORs of suicide ideation, when compared with counterparts of normal weight. Conclusions The association between obesity and suicidal behaviour exhibited a different pattern by sex and age in South Korea. In particular, severely obese young women had a substantial risk of suicidal behaviour. Our study results highlighted the importance of obesity management in the prevention of suicide among young women, and may be helpful for the drafting of the health agenda in Asian countries with an obesity prevalence and culture similar to those in Korea

  17. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  18. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  19. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips) although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red) was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes. PMID:22966752

  20. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors. PMID:26316500

  1. Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-01

    Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

  2. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  3. Dental Status and Associated Factors in a Dentate Adult Population in Bulgaria: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Damyanov, Nikola D.; Witter, Dick J.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Creugers, Nico H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an oral examination. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to observe associations between “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth and the factors of interest. The mean numbers of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth were 2.2, 6.7, and 4.9, respectively. Molar teeth were significantly more often “missing” than premolar and anterior teeth. Age, gender, education, and tooth brushing revealed most noticeable associations. Increasing age was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “filled” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “missing” teeth. Females were more likely to have “missing” and “filled” teeth. Higher education was associated with a lower chance of having “missing” teeth. More frequent tooth brushing was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “missing” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “filled” teeth. These risk indicators should be considered in prevention program planning if reduction of tooth loss is to be achieved. PMID:22654908

  4. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  5. Serum prolactin in patients with liver disease in comparison with healthy adults: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Sumit Kant; Kannan, Sridharan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies from the west have shown raised prolactin levels in patients with liver disease. Considering the lacunae on Indian context, we conducted the present study with an objective to assess the prolactin levels in patients with cirrhosis and viral hepatitis with or without features of encephalopathy. The data presented here are the results of the preliminary analysis. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective, cohort study among patients diagnosed as either viral hepatitis or cirrhosis liver. A cohort of normal healthy adults was selected based on history and laboratory investigations (complete blood count, liver and renal function tests). Serum prolactin was measured for all the study participants, and Kruskal–Wallis H-test with post-hoc Dunn's test was used to analyze the significance of the differences in the levels between various groups. Tests of diagnostic accuracy were used to assess the prediction capability of serum prolactin with a cut-off level of 50 ng/ml. Results: A total of 70 patients (10 - normal healthy; 25 - acute viral hepatitis; 35 - cirrhosis liver) were recruited in the present study with the median (range) age in years of 56 (34–68) and male: female ratio of 2:1. A statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the serum prolactin was observed in patients with cirrhosis with or without encephalopathy. But, among the patients with viral hepatitis, a significant elevation was observed only in patients with encephalopathy. Additionally, a statistically significant association was observed between serum prolactin levels with serum bilirubin (ρ =0.67, P = 0.04) and aspartate aminotransferase (ρ =0.72, P = 0.05). A cut-off value of 50 ng/ml of serum prolactin was found to predict the mortality. A total of 4/12 (33.3%) with prolactin value of <50 ng/ml died while 11/23 (47.8%) died with values >50 ng/ml (P < 0.05). Similarly, in patients with viral hepatitis with encephalopathy features, 1/4 (25%) with

  6. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  7. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  8. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik

    2015-01-01

    Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile), lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were female (52.8%), Malay (52.9%), and married (79.1%). About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6). Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90) and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99) were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are younger, have a higher income, and symptoms of depression. PMID:25999699

  9. Do bullied children become anxious and depressed adults?: A cross-sectional investigation of the correlates of bullying and anxious depression.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Malhi, Gin S

    2006-03-01

    There is little empirical research examining the historical and clinical correlates of exposure to childhood bullying in adult clinical subjects. Using structured clinical assessments, the authors studied a group of adult males and females presenting to an outpatient depression clinic, to examine the childhood risk factors and the distinguishing comorbid features associated with those reporting exposure to bullying. Just over a quarter of both men and women reported having experienced bullying that was severe and traumatic. More of these subjects also reported several other well studied childhood risk factors. Childhood correlates that were particularly relevant for exposure to bullying were parental overcontrol, illness or disability, and the tendency to have an inhibited temperament early in life. The experience of childhood bullying was strongly related to high levels of comorbid anxiety, both in terms of greater levels of state anxiety and a higher prevalence of both social phobia and agoraphobia. Independent of other childhood risk factors, exposure to bullying was especially predictive of subjects' higher levels of general state anxiety and the tendency to express anxious arousal externally when under stress. These results are compatible with both cross-sectional and prospective studies of child and adolescent samples, and highlight the potential etiological significance of early peer victimization experiences for a percentage of adults suffering from depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:16534438

  10. An examination of the association between seeing smoking in films and tobacco use in young adults in the west of Scotland: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002–04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994–95) were conducted. The main outcome measure is smoking at age 19. No association was found between the number of occurrences of smoking estimated to have been seen in films (film smoking exposure) and current (or ever) smoking in young adults. This lack of association was unaffected by adjustment for predictors of smoking, including education, risk-taking orientation and smoking among peers. There was no association between film smoking exposure and smoking behaviour for any covariate-defined subgroup. Associations have been found between film smoking exposure and smoking initiation in younger adolescents in the United States. In this study, conducted in Scotland, no similar association was seen, suggesting that there may be age or cultural limitations on the effects of film smoking exposure on smoking. The lack of association could be due to methodological issues or greater sophistication of older adolescents and young adults in interpreting media images or the greater ubiquity of real-life smoking instances in Scotland. If the latter, film smoking exposure could become a more important risk factor for smoking uptake and maintenants in older adolescents following the recent ban on smoking in public places in Scotland. PMID:18203682

  11. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions). The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use) differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions. PMID:20420678

  12. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P <0.01). In multivariable analyses, popliteal cysts were significantly associated with increased osteophytes in both medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments while subgastrocnemius bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities. PMID:24581327

  13. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  14. A Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Pneumococcal Carriage in Children, Their Parents, and Older Adults Following the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A.V.; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A.; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N.; Gould, Katherine A.; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period. Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13. The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  15. MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design.

    PubMed

    Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual's sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099

  16. MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design

    PubMed Central

    Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual’s sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099

  17. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  18. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  19. Trends in the use and cost of antipsychotics among older adults from 2007 to 2013: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Paul D.; Camacho, Ximena; Vigod, Simone; Yao, Zhan; Juurlink, David N.; Paterson, J. Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, several new atypical antipsychotic agents have been introduced in Ontario, and regulatory warnings have been issued regarding use of atypical antipsychotics in older adults. We sought to establish the impact of newer atypical antipsychotics on prescribing rates and costs. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of Ontario adults aged 65 years or more using atypical antipsychotics from Jan. 1, 2007, to Mar. 31, 2013. These people have universal access to publicly funded drugs through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and the Ontario Drug Benefit. We conducted time-series analysis to assess the impact of the introduction of new atypical antipsychotics on rates of use of atypical antipsychotics and associated expenditures. Results: Rates of atypical antipsychotic use increased following the introduction of new agents in 2009, from 27.6 users per 1000 older adults in the third quarter of 2009 to 29.1 users per 1000 older adults at the end of the study period (p = 0.04). Although prescribing rates for the newer atypical agents (paliperidone, ziprasidone and aripiprazole) remained low relative to their older counterparts (risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine), rates of aripiprazole use rose to 1.0 user per 1000 older adults by the end of the study period. The proportion of prescriptions that were for brand-name agents fell from 57.5% in the second quarter of 2007 to 6.1% in the second quarter of 2009, and then rose to 11.7% by the end of the study period. By the first quarter of 2013, newer atypical antipsychotic agents were used by 4.4% of atypical antipsychotic users but accounted for 14.1% ($1.2 million of $8.5 million) of atypical antipsychotic expenditures. Interpretation: Although the overall prevalence of use of new atypical antipsychotic agents remains low, their introduction has led to increased prescribing of this class of drugs in older adults. Given the potential cost implications, further study of these trends

  20. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health.

  1. Younger adult type 2 diabetic patients have poorer glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study in a primary care setting in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic patients, and to identify factors associated with unacceptable glycaemic control (defined as HbA1c >8.0%). Methods Analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional survey of type 2 diabetic patients in eight SingHealth Polyclinics in January 2009. HbA1c value was measured on the day of the survey, while information on patient and diabetic characteristics was obtained through a questionnaire. Odds ratio of having unacceptable glycaemic control was estimated for selected variables using multiple logistic regression models. Results A total of 688 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (± standard deviation) and median (range) HbA1c levels were 7.6% (± 1.35) and 7.3% (5.0% to 14.0%), respectively. 25.4% of the patients had an unacceptable HbA1c level of >8.0% and the odds of this were higher (p < 0.05) in patients with the following characteristics: younger age, longer diabetes duration, presence of insulin treatment, and poorer compliance to medication. Conclusion Younger adult patients were found to have poorer glycaemic control, and hence targeted educational and behaviour modification programmes would be required to effectively manage this group of patients. PMID:23725198

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  3. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    , Moebus S, Hoffmann B, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study Investigative Group. 2016. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1361–1368; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509824 PMID:26863687

  4. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993–1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated. Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors showed that 5-year mean road traffic noise exposure preceding enrollment was associated with a 0.35-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21, 0.50) and a 0.18-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.12, 0.23) per 10 dB. Small, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure–response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1.19) and a 0.19-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.0072, 0.37) compared with unexposed participants (0–20 dB). Conclusions The present study finds positive associations between residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Citation Christensen JS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Nordsborg RB, Ketzel M, Sørensen TI, Sørensen M. 2016. Road traffic and railway noise exposures and adiposity in adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Danish Diet

  5. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  6. Sleep deprivation is related to obesity and low intake of energy and carbohydrates among working Iranian adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Poh, Bee Koon; Hajifaraji, Majid; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deficiency is becoming widespread in both adults and adolescents and is accompanied by certain behaviors that can lead to obesity. This study aims to investigate differences in sleep duration of overweight/obese and normal weight groups, and the association between sleep deprivation and obesity, dietary intake and physical activity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 226 Iranian working adults (109 men and 117 women) aged 20 to 55 years old who live in Tehran. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI was calculated. Questionnaires, including the Sleep Habit Heart Questionnaire (SHHQ), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and 24-hour dietary recall, were interview-administered. Subjects were categorized as normal weight (36.3%) or overweight/obese (63.7%) based on WHO standards (2000). Overweight/ obese subjects slept significantly (p<0.001) later (00:32±00:62 AM) and had shorter sleep duration (5.37±1.1 hours) than normal weight subjects (23:30±00:47 PM and 6.54±1.06 hours, respectively). Sleep duration showed significant (p<0.05) direct correlations to energy (r = 0.174), carbohydrate (r = 0.154) and fat intake (r = 0.141). This study revealed that each hour later in bedtime (going to bed later) increased the odds of being overweight or obese by 2.59-fold (95% CI: 1.61-4.16). The findings in this study confirm that people with shorter sleep duration are more likely to be overweight or obese; hence, strategies for the management of obesity should incorporate a consideration of sleep patterns. PMID:24561976

  7. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  8. Cross-sectional Survey and Retrospective Analysis of a Large Cohort of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes With Long-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Julia; Vicente, Angel; Rod, Anne; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Reznik, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an established modality for intensive insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but long-term data concerning satisfaction, CSII function use, safety, and efficacy in real-life conditions are scarce. Methods. We analyzed a cohort of adult patients with T1D treated with CSII for more than 1 year in a single diabetes center. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2010 (tolerance/satisfaction and behavior forms) and a retrospective analysis of medical records (including HbA1c level, hospitalization, and catheter infections). The primary objective was to assess long-term tolerance/satisfaction, and secondary objectives were safety and efficacy. Results. There were 295 patients analyzed. After a median duration of CSII use of 5 years, overall satisfaction was high for about 90% of patients. Mean CSII-related discomfort scores were low for work, recreation, and sleep and moderate for sport and sexual activity (2.5 ± 1.9, 2.6 ± 1.8, 2.6 ± 2.1, 3.4 ± 2.3, and 4.0 ± 2.9 of 10, respectively). Despite a high level of diabetes education, only one third of patients were using advanced CSII functions. During long-term follow-up, the safety of CSII treatment was good; the hospitalization rate was 0.18 patients/year, and catheter infections were scarce. The HbA1c level dropped about −0.5% independently from CSII duration (P < .05). Conclusions. In this adult cohort, satisfaction and tolerance, together with safety, of CSII were maintained at long-term follow up. The sole basic functions of CSII were currently used by patients. A 0.5% decrease in the HbA1c level was maintained during the study period. PMID:24876454

  9. Physical and Social Environment Are Associated to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adults of a Brazilian City: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios-OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval-95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies. PMID:26915091

  10. The Geography of Diabetes among the General Adults Aged 35 Years and Older in Bangladesh: Recent Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Gruebner, Oliver; Kraemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas) and region of residence (divided into seven divisions) among general adults (35+ years of age) in Bangladesh. Methods The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L) ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%), followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2%) and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%). Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables). Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity), overweight/obesity and hypertension. Conclusions Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing

  11. Physical and Social Environment Are Associated to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adults of a Brazilian City: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios—OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval—95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies. PMID:26915091

  12. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  13. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet. PMID:27189191

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  15. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  16. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults

  17. Relationship between Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF

  18. Impact of the Spanish Smoke-Free Legislation on Adult, Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Cross-Sectional Surveys before (2004) and after (2012) Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J.; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A.; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011–12). Methods Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004–2005 and 2011–2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Results Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011–12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (−15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (−12.6%, p = 0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (−36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (−69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home. PMID:24586774

  19. Chronic disease knowledge and its determinants among chronically ill adults in rural areas of Shanxi Province in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic disease knowledge is an important prerequisite for an individual to implement behavioural changes towards the prevention and control of chronic diseases (CDs). Limited information is available about the relationship between different levels of health services and CD knowledge among rural residents with CDs. This research explores the distribution characteristics of CD knowledge and its determinants among chronically ill adults in rural China according to the aspects of patients and health service providers. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate distribution characteristics of CD knowledge and collect data of socio-demographic characteristics, healthcare institutions attendances, duration of illness, and family history of CDs. Participants were 1060 rural adults with hypertension or type II diabetes. Correct responses to 12 questions were summed into a total knowledge score, and participants were divided into an adequate health knowledge group (score ≥ 6) or an inadequate health knowledge group (score < 5). Logistic regression was used determine the predictors of adequate CD health knowledge. Results The mean age of participants was 61.34 years (SD = 10 years). Out of a possible 12, the median score on the CD knowledge questionnaire was 3.0. About 25% of participants were classified as having adequate CD knowledge. Those who had a family history and/or long duration of CDs were more likely to have adequate health knowledge. Participants who received CD health information and self-care instructions from their physicians had 2.67 and 13.34 times greater odds of possessing adequate health knowledge than those who received no information, respectively. Adequate CD knowledge was strongly associated with regular check-ups, especially for those who attended township hospitals (OR = 40.17). Conclusions Having regular check-ups at a fixed healthcare institution and receiving health information from physicians are important measures

  20. Prevalence and correlation of hypertension among adult population in Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Yalew, Worku Awoke; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature death and morbidity and has a major impact on health care costs. It is an important public health challenge to both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and correlates of hypertension. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014 among 681 adult residents of Bahir Dar city using multistage sampling techniques. An interview-administrated questionnaire and physical measurements such as blood pressure (BP), weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were employed to collect the data. The data were coded, entered, and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software package. Results A total of 678 responses were included in the analysis resulting in a response rate of 99.6%. The findings declared that 17.6%, 19.8%, and 2.2% of respondents were prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II, respectively, on screening test. The overall prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or known hypertensive patient taking medications) was 25.1%. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age; having ever smoked cigarette; number of hours spent walking/cycling per day; number of hours spent watching TV per day; history of diabetes; adding salt to food in addition to the normal amount that is added to the food during cooking; and body mass index were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion One out of every four respondents of the study had hypertension, and more than one out of three cases of hypertension (38.8%) did not know that they had the hypertension; 17.6% of the respondents were in prehypertension stage, which adds to overall future risk of hypertension. Therefore, mass screening for hypertension, health education to prevent substance use, regular exercise, reducing salt consumption, and life style modifications are recommended

  1. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  2. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign. PMID:23286885

  3. Management of Adult Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia in Japan: Patient and Hematologist Perspectives from a Multi-center Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Tsukune, Yutaka; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the perspective of hematologists and their patients regarding the management of adult chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods This was a multi-center, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted between 2012 and 2013 throughout Japan. Patients Hematologists, members of the Japanese Society of Hematology in 171 institutions, and their patients were invited to participate in this study. The hematologists were mainly asked about their treatment strategies, while patients were asked about their opinion of the applied treatments, treatment effect, impact on their quality of life (QOL), and treatment satisfaction. Results Questionnaires from 204 hematologists and 213 patients were collected. One hundred sixty hematologists (78.4%) started treatment based on the patient's platelet count. Corticosteroids were considered to be the most effective treatment (44.1%). Forty-six percent of hematologists responded that treatment would be started after the platelet count fell below 20×10(9)/L with bleeding symptoms, compared to 62.9% for patients with no bleeding symptoms. A platelet count of 50×10(9)/L or lower was acceptable for 94.0% of hematologists and 66.8% of patients. Fatigue was most frequently experienced by patients (44.6%). Patients also experienced psychological symptoms (feeling of anxiety or depressive mood: 29.1%, labyrinthitis: 23.5%). While 70.6% of hematologists assumed that the patient QOL was impaired to a moderate to substantial degree, the QOL was impaired in 34.3% of patients. Conclusion A substantial gap which exists between hematologists and their patients highlights a need for better understanding of potential conflicts for establishing effective strategies for ITP management. PMID:27580537

  4. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  5. Race/Ethnicity and gender differences in health intentions and behaviors regarding exercise and diet for adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-management is the cornerstone of diabetes control and prevention of complications; however, it is undetermined whether differences in intention to adopt healthy lifestyles and actual healthy behavior exist across race/ethnic groups. This study evaluated the differences across racial-ethnic groups in self-reported medical advice received and health intentions and behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 SHIELD US survey ascertained self-reported health intentions and behaviors for regular exercise, diet, and weight management among Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 2526), Non-Hispanic African-American (n = 706), and Hispanic (n = 179) respondents with type 2 diabetes. Results A similar proportion of respondents from each race-gender group (43%-56%) reported receiving healthcare advice to increase their exercise (P = 0.32). Significantly more minorities reported an intention to follow the exercise recommendation compared with Non-Hispanic Caucasians (P = 0.03). More Non-Hispanic African-American (29%) and Hispanic (27%) men reported exercising regularly compared with other race-gender groups (P = 0.02). Significantly more Non-Hispanic Caucasian women (74%) and Hispanic women (79%) reported trying to lose weight compared with other groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Differences in health intentions and healthy behaviors were noted across race-gender groups. More Non-Hispanic African-American men reported an intention to follow advice on exercising and self-report of exercising regularly was also higher compared with other race-gender groups. More Hispanic men reported high physical activity levels than other groups. Despite an increased willingness to follow healthcare recommendations for diet, >50% of respondents were obese among all race-gender groups. PMID:21729303

  6. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  7. Metabolic syndrome and health-related behaviours associated with pre-oral cancerous lesions among adults aged 20–80 years in Yunlin County, Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chang-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Tu, Liang-Tse; Jane, Su-Whi; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the associations of health-related behaviours, metabolic syndrome and risk factors in adults with pre-oral cancerous (POC) lesions in rural, disadvantaged communities with a high prevalence of oral cancer. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting Community-based health survey in the western coastal area of Yunlin County, Taiwan. Participants 5161 adult residents participated in this study. Outcome measures Assessed parameters included oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and waist circumference. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, χ2 tests and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results A high percentage of participants were found to have metabolic syndrome (40%) and POC lesions (7.3%). Participants with POC lesions tended to be male (p<0.001), betel nut chewers (p<0.001) and cigarette smokers (p<0.001); have a low level of education (p<0.001); seldom undergo dental check-ups (p<0.01); irregularly participate in physical activity (p<0.01) and have metabolic syndrome (p<0.01). Conclusions Although male sex and disadvantaged socioeconomic status are non-modifiable factors associated with POC and metabolic syndrome in adults, several factors, notably health behaviours, are modifiable. Clinicians can reduce the incidence and consequences of POC by developing programmes for early detection, encouraging regular dental check-ups, and initiating individualised, health-promoting behaviour modification programmes for reducing risky behaviours associated with oral cancer. PMID:26685025

  8. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    PubMed

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value <0.001). Participants with a higher educational level (university) had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value <0.001). This study has documented important knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of

  9. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  10. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p = 0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and former (M: 21.4%, F: 0.7%, p < 0.0001) drinking was much higher in males. The highest prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and

  11. Cross-sectional Associations between Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Leukocyte Telomere Length among U.S. Adults in NHANES, 2001–2002

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Needham, Belinda L.; Zota, Ami R.

    2015-01-01

    - and dioxin-related carcinogenesis. Citation: Mitro SD, Birnbaum LS, Needham BL, Zota AR. 2016. Cross-sectional associations between exposure to persistent organic pollutants and leukocyte telomere length among U.S. adults in NHANES, 2001–2002. Environ Health Perspect 124:651–658; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510187 PMID:26452299

  12. Drug Susceptibility Patterns in MDR-TB Patients: Challenges for Future Regimen Design. A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, Helen R.; Brown, James; Cīrule, Andra; Danilovitš, Manfred; Dravniece, Gunta; Jackson, Charlotte; White, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is substantial concern regarding the challenges of treating complex drug resistance patterns in multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases. Utilising data from three different settings (Estonia, Latvia, Romania) we sought to contrast drug susceptibility profiles for multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases, highlight the difficulties in designing universal regimen, and inform future regimen selection. Demographic and microbiological surveillance data for multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases from 2004–13 were analysed. High levels of additional resistance to currently recommended second line drugs were seen in all settings, with extensive variability between countries. Accurate drug susceptibility testing and drug susceptibility testing data are vital to inform the development of comprehensive, flexible, multidrug resistant tuberculosis guidance. PMID:26558611

  13. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, J Mark; Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to conduct culturally-based participatory research to assess cultural and belief contexts for smoking behaviours within Mandarin and Cantonese communities. Outcome variables were smoking-related knowledge, smoking patterns, attitudes and beliefs, and perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. Design A community-based approach was applied involving smokers, community key-informants and professionals in study design and implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted and findings were used to develop study instrument. Participants responded once to study questionnaire after informed consent. Setting Community based in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada. Participants 16 Chinese smokers participated in focus groups and subsequently, 167 current Chinese immigrant (137 males and 30 females) smokers from Mandarin and Cantonese communities, recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that a majority believed smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (<35 years of age) did not mind smoking in front of young children compared to older smokers (≥35 years of age) (p<0.001). People with high school or lower levels of education believed that they would benefit more from smoking than suffering from withdrawal symptoms compared to better educated smokers (p<0.05). Mandarin smokers were significantly more likely to encourage others to quit than Cantonese smokers (p<0.05). Many indicated not receiving adequate support from care providers and lack of access to culturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programmes impacted on their ability to quit smoking. Conclusions Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco beliefs and perceptions among Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as

  14. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  15. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A

  16. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  17. Early life-course socioeconomic position, adult work-related factors and oral health disparities: cross-sectional analysis of the J-SHINE study

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Katase, Kazuo; Osaka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health, and the associations of economic difficulties in childhood and workplace-related factors on these parameters. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 3201 workers aged 25–50 years, living in and around Tokyo, Japan, from the J-SHINE (Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood) study. The response rate was 31.6%. Outcome measures Self-rated oral health (SROH)—A logistic regression model was used to estimate ORs for the association between poor SROH and each indicator of SEP (annual household income, wealth, educational attainment, occupation and economic situation in childhood). Multiple imputation was used to address missing values. Results Each indicator of SEP, including childhood SEP, was significantly inversely associated with SROH, and all of the workplace-related factors (social support in the workplace, job stress, working hours and type of employment) were also significantly associated with SROH. Compared with professionals, blue-collar workers had a significantly higher OR of poor SROH and the association was substantially explained by the workplace-related factors; ORs ranged from 1.44 in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model to 1.18 in the multivariate model. Poverty during childhood at age 5 and at age 15 was associated with poorer SROH, and these two factors seemed to be independently associated with SROH. Conclusions We found oral health disparity across SEP among workers in Japan. Approximately 60% of the association between occupation and SROH was explained by job-related factors. Economic difficulties during childhood appear to affect SROH in adulthood separately from sex, age and the current workplace-related factors. PMID:25280807

  18. Prevalence and determinants of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adults with type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nianquan; Lou, Peian; Shang, Yan; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Jian; Chang, Guiqiu; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression and to assess their impact on glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. Participants 893 Chinese men and women aged 18–84 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Methods People with type 2 diabetes completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales. Demographic and physiological characteristics were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the combined effect of factors associated with anxiety and depression and to assess the effects of anxiety and depression on glycaemic control. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was 56.1% and 43.6%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that anxiety symptoms were associated with being woman, low income, chronic disease, depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. Depressive symptoms were associated with being woman, older age, low education level, being single, diabetes complications, anxiety symptoms and poor sleep quality. Glycaemic control was not related to anxiety symptoms (OR=1.31, 95% CIs 0.94 to 1.67) or depressive symptoms (OR=1.23, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.63). A combination of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was associated with poor glycaemic control (relative excess risk due to interaction: 4.93, 95% CI 2.09 to 7.87; attributable proportion due to interaction: 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in this Chinese sample of participants, although depression and anxiety were not singly associated with glycaemic control. However, a combination of depressive and anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27531739

  19. Renal Function Impairment and Associated Factors among HAART Naïve and Experienced Adult HIV Positive Individuals in Southwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mekuria, Yewulsew; Yilma, Daniel; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment cause renal diseases. Renal disease is associated with an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive individuals than in the general population. It has been also associated with adverse outcomes, such as complications of decreased renal functions and progression to renal failure. Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with renal function impairment among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) naive and HAART experienced adult HIV positive individuals. Methods A facility based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) from June to September 2014. HIV positive individuals who visited JUSH during the study period were included in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was analyzed for renal function tests. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Results A total of 446 HIV positive individuals, 223 HAART naïve and 223 HAART experienced, were recruited. The overall prevalence of renal function impairment was 18.2% [95%CI: 14.6–21.7]. The prevalence of renal impairment in HAART naive and HAART experienced persons was 28.7% [95%CI: 23.1–34.4] and 7.6% [95%CI: 4.6–11.6], respectively. Age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.4, 9.6), advanced WHO stage (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.1, 4.7), and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 6.9; 95% CI 3.3, 14.2) were independent risk factors among HAART naive participants. Female gender (AOR = 6.6; 95 CI % 1.2, 34), age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 12.1; 95% CI 1.7, 84) and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 17; 95% CI 5.2, 58) were independent risk factors among HAART experienced participants. Conclusion The prevalence of renal function impairment was higher among HAART naïve than HAART experienced HIV positive individuals. Renal function impairment was

  20. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in Morocco and its correlates: cross-sectional analysis of a sample of the adult Moroccan population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary habits in Morocco are changing and the causes are not well understood. This study aimed to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) in a national random sample of the adult Moroccan population. Methods The data collected in this cross-sectional survey included socio-demographic factors and a food frequency questionnaire. MeDi adherence was assessed in 2214 individuals with complete dietary data. MeDi adherence was measured according to a simplified MeDi score based on the weekly frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and olive oil) with the use of the sex specific medians of the sample as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MeDi adherence (low score 1-4 vs. high 5-8) and other factors. Results Mean age of the sample was 41.4 (standard deviation 15.3) years, 45.4% were men and 29.9% had a low MeDi adherence. Married subjects (adjusted odds ratio ORa=0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84) were less likely to have a low MeDi adherence compared to single, divorced or widowed persons. Persons from rural areas (ORa=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02-2.08), were more often low MeDi adherents compared to those from urban areas. Obese persons (ORa=1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11) were more prone to low MeDi adherence than normal weight individuals. Conclusion MeDi is far from being a universal pattern in the Moroccan population. Intervention strategies should be implemented in target groups to maintain the traditional MeDi pattern considered as the original diet in Morocco. PMID:22578133

  1. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Method Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81–110.15 mg/day, 110.16–146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. Result The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54–0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72–1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53–0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. Conclusion There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population. PMID:26824361

  2. A quantitative, cross-sectional study of depression and self-esteem in teenage and young adult burn victims in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Nicolosi, Júlia; Fernandes de Carvalho, Viviane; Llonch Sabatés, Ana

    2013-09-01

    Burns can have a negative physiological and emotional impact, particularly among teenage victims. To assess the presence of depression and level of self-esteem, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 teenage and young adult burn victims ages 12 to 20 years undergoing physical and psychological rehabilitation at the Outpatient Unit for Plastic Surgery and Burns at the Central Institute of the Clínicas Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Assessment instruments included Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Internal consistency within and between the two scales was established via Cronbach's-α coefficient. All variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the statistical difference between means was compared using Student's t-test. The majority of participants were female (38, 60.3%) and unmarried (59, 93.7%) with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 23.84%. Most burns (58, 92.10%) were the result of accidents and were located on the trunk (47, 74.6%), head (43, 68%), arms (41, 65%), hands (38, 60%), neck (34, 54%), and forearm (29, 46%). Participants had received physical and psychological rehabilitation for an average of 124.74 months (SD 63.67) from a multidisciplinary team. The majority of participants (33, 52.4%) reported functional and aesthetic after-effects and appraised their scar as visible (51, 81.0%). BDI results showed low levels or absence of depression (mean = 7.63, SD 8.72; scale 0 = no depression to 63 = serious depression); the RSE showed adequate levels of self-esteem (mean = 8.41, SD 4.74; scale 0-30, where higher scores indicate worst levels of self-esteem). Burn location did not affect depression (BDI: P = 0.26) or self-esteem (RSE: P = 0.21). However, depression and self-esteem were more significant in participants who were not able to work and/or go to school than in those who were (BDI: P = 0.04 and self-esteem RSE: P = 0

  3. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patterns of physical activity (PA), domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25), and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"); housework and gardening; and sitting-time) adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4%) than women (9.9%). Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction) < 0.0001). Increasing obesity with increasing screen-time was seen in all population groups examined; there was an overall 18% (15-21%) increase in obesity with every two hours of additional daily screen-time. There were 33% (26-39%) and 33% (21-43%) reductions in the adjusted risk of being obese in men and women, respectively, reporting housework/gardening daily versus seldom or never. Exercise-related PA, screen-time and housework/gardening each had independent associations with obesity. Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical

  4. Prevalence of Metformin Use and the Associated Risk of Metabolic Acidosis in US Diabetic Adults With CKD: A National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Bradley; Tsai, Ching-Wei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2015-12-01

    The use of metformin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population has been intensely debated with conflicting evidence. Large population studies are needed to inform risk assessment and therapeutic decision-making. We evaluated the associations among metformin, metabolic acidosis, and CKD in a 10-year nationally representative noninstitutionalized civilian population in the United States.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2279 diabetic adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were included and had measurements of serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The exposure was metformin use. The outcome was subclinical and severe metabolic acidosis defined by serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L and anion gap > 16mEq/L and by serum bicarbonate < 20 mEq/L, respectively.The prevalence of metformin use decreased from 67.2% among CKD-1 and -2, 40.6% among CKD-3, to 1.3% among advanced CKD-4 and -5. Across CKD stages up to CKD-3b, we observed a tendency of lower levels of serum bicarbonate that was significant in metformin users with CKD-2 and CKD-3a and marginally significant with CKD-3b compared to nonmetformin users. The corresponding tendency of higher anion gap in metformin users with the estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m was also observed. In multiple linear regression analysis, metformin was significantly associated with decreased serum bicarbonate levels (β = -0.45, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.17) and increased serum anion gap levels (β = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61). The adjusted odds ratio of subclinical high anion gap and severe metabolic acidosis for metformin users was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.55) and 1.31 (0.49, 3.47), respectively. The association between metformin and serum bicarbonate was significantly modified by CKD status. No interaction was found between metformin and CKD stages for serum anion gap and acidosis.Metformin is associated with subclinical

  5. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  6. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study

  7. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  8. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  9. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  10. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was

  11. Vitamin D status in recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia: a cross-sectional study from Norway of children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Dalen, Ingvild; Jenum, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L among recently arrived immigrants from Africa and Asia in Oslo, and to explore 25(OH)D levels according to origin, gender and age. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Primary healthcare unit in Oslo, Norway, offering family immigrants, asylum seekers, United Nations (UN) refugees or individuals granted asylum a free medical examination on arrival. Participants All individuals from African and Asian countries (n=591) referred to the Centre of Migrant Health, Health Agency, Oslo, Norway in 2010, estimated to cover 60% of the targeted population. Results 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was very prevalent in immigrants from the Middle East (81% (95% CI 75.4% to 86.6%)), South Sahara Africa (73% (CI 67.5% to 78.5%)) and South Asia (75% (CI 64.0% to 86.0%)), in contrast to East Asians (24% (CI 12.6% to 35.4%)), p<0.001 for differences. The prevalence of 25(OH)D<25 nmol/L was lower but followed the same pattern (Middle East: 38% (CI 31.1% to 45.0%), South Sahara Africa: 24% (CI 18.7% to 29.3%) and South Asia: 35% (CI 22.9% to 47.1%), although it was not observed in East Asians (p<0.001 for differences)). The ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for the duration of residence, seasonality and residence status in multiple linear regression analyses. Female adolescents from South Asia, the Middle East and South Sahara Africa had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. Further, country-specific median levels of 25(OH)D were low (24–38 nmol/L) among groups from Somalia, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq, the countries with the largest number of immigrants in our study. Conclusions The majority of recently settled immigrant groups from the Middle East, South Asia and Africa had 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, in contrast to East Asians. Female adolescents from these regions had the lowest levels of 25(OH)D. PMID:24157818

  12. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  14. The influence of the root cross-section on the stress distribution in teeth restored with a positive-locking post and core design: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Kai-Uwe; Rottner, Kurt; Boldt, Julian; Proff, Peter; Gredes, Tomasz; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen; Reicheneder, Claudia

    2008-10-01

    Human teeth with substantial coronal defects are subject to reconstruction by means of post and core restorations. Typically, such a restoration comprises a slightly cylindrical post onto which an abutment of varying shape, depending on the designated restoration, is attached. As clinical results are not satisfactory to date, we proposed a new proprietary post and core design which makes use of positive locking. As this prefabricated system is not customised to an individual root's cross-sectional geometry (usually oval), a varying amount of radicular dentin is left in periphery of the core's outer edge. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of this fact, i.e., whether the root has to endure higher overall stress levels which ultimately may lead to failure of one of the components involved. A series of finite element simulations were performed to evaluate stress and strain on the system, in which the proposed post and core was embedded into a virtual dentin cylinder of different diameters, ranging from flush mounting of the restoration to a dentin excess of 4 mm, and subsequently loaded with forces with two angles of attack (90 degrees and 130 degrees ). The results show that flush mounting yields an agreeable stress and strain distribution within the radicular dentin, but overall stress levels drop significantly with an excess of 0.5 mm of surrounding dentin. More than 1 mm excess was not found to have profound positive effects. PMID:18803526

  15. Propensity score matching in estimating the effect of managerial education on academic planning behavior. Study design: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many academic settings teaching a particular topic is applied to every student enrolled in the same academic year, it is a difficult task for researchers to design a randomized control group study. This research aimed to estimate the effect of teaching management and planning on increasing academic planning behavior (APB), using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 students in Hanoi Medical University, one of the eight medical schools in Vietnam, this evaluation study adopted regression procedures to assess model fit, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of management education. Results The study showed both direct and indirect effects of the education on behavior. After PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without management education, there is statistically a significant difference in APB between these two groups, making a net difference of 18.60% (p < .05). The estimated 18.6 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APB by 670 students in the population. This number of academic planners can be attributed to a high recall of important management and planning education. Conclusions The study provided theoretical as well as practical implications to guide the design of the education and evaluation of teaching. PMID:22151539

  16. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  17. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  18. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  19. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  20. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  1. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  2. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  3. Do weight perceptions among obese adults in Great Britain match clinical definitions? Analysis of cross-sectional surveys from 2007 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Fiona; Beeken, Rebecca J; Croker, Helen; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the proportion of the adult obese population in Great Britain who would describe their weight using the terms ‘obese’ and ‘very overweight’ in 2007 and 2012, and identify factors associated with more accurate weight perceptions. Design Analysis of weight perception data from two population-based surveys. Setting Population surveys conducted in Great Britain. Participants Survey respondents (N=657) whose self-reported weight and height placed them in the obese category: body mass index (BMI) ≥30. Primary outcome measure Self-identification using the terms ‘obese’ and ‘very overweight’. Results The proportion of obese adults selecting the term ‘obese’ to describe their body size was very low in both women (13% in 2007 and 11% in 2012) and men (4% in 2007 and 7% in 2012) and did not change significantly. Recognition of a substantial degree of overweight (as indexed by endorsement of either of the terms ‘obese’ or ‘very overweight’) declined substantially in women, from 50% in 2007 to 34% in 2012. It was not significantly changed in men (27% in 2007 and 23% in 2012). Having a higher BMI, and being able to identify the BMI threshold for obesity were associated with self-identifying as obese or very overweight. Conclusions The majority of the adult obese population of Great Britain do not identify themselves as either ‘obese’ or even ‘very overweight’. Public health initiatives to tackle obesity are likely to be hampered by this lack of recognition of weight status. It is important to understand whether moves to increase personal awareness of weight status in the obese population can facilitate beneficial behaviour change, and what role health professionals can play in increasing awareness of weight status in obese patients. PMID:25394816

  4. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  5. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. Methods The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects (“multilevel”) logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. Results The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p = 0.002), in good health (p < 0.001), greater commitment to being more active (p = 0.002), favourable activity social norms (p = 0.004), greater physical activity habit (p < 0.001), and recent use of recreational facilities (p = 0.01). In addition, there was evidence (p < 0.05) that younger age, lower body mass index, having a physical occupation, dog ownership, inconvenience of public

  6. Impact of socioeconomic and risk factors on cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in Australia: comparison of results from longitudinal and cross-sectional designs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjing; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Objective Existing large-scale studies do not take into account comorbidity or control for selection and endogeneity biases. This study addresses these shortcomings. Participants We use information on individuals aged between 35 and 70 years from a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in Australia between 2001 and 2013. Participants were approached annually, and updates on their characteristics, including health status, were ascertained through self-reporting. Method We develop three different analytical designs. The first model is a cross-sectional analysis against which our improved models are compared. In the second model, we follow the same approach but control for prior health conditions. The last preferred model additionally adjusts for characteristics and risk profile of respondents prior to onset of conditions. It also allows for comorbidity and controls for selection bias. Results Once comorbidity and changes over time in the participant's characteristics are controlled for, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and physical activity exhibit a stronger impact than in the models without these controls. A unit increase in BMI increases the risk of developing a cardiovascular disease (CVD) condition within 2 years by 1.3 percentage points (β=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.16) and regular alcohol intake increases the risk of CVD by 3.0 percentage points (β=0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.39). Both factors lose significance without proper control for endogenous behavioural change. We also note that frequent physical activity reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 0.9 percentage point (β=−0.40, 95% CI −0.72 to −0.07). Conclusions Our result shows a greater importance of certain lifestyle and risk factors than was previously suggested. PMID:27053269

  7. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  8. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts. PMID:25505045

  9. Cross-Sectional Comparison of Executive Attention Function in Normally Aging Long-Term T'ai Chi, Meditation, and Aerobic Fitness Practitioners Versus Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function. PMID:24286339

  10. Relationships of ultrasound measures of intrinsic foot muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume with maximum toe flexor muscle strength and physical performance in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Tayashiki, Kota; Nakatani, Miyuki; Watanabe, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationships between toe flexor muscle strength with (TFS-5-toes) and without (TFS-4-toes) the contribution of the great toe, anatomical and physiological muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of intrinsic toe flexor muscle and physical performance were measured. [Subjects] Seventeen men (82% sports-active) and 17 women (47% sports-active), aged 20 to 35 years, volunteered. [Methods] Anatomical CSA was measured in two intrinsic toe flexor muscles (flexor digitorum brevis [FDB] and abductor hallucis) by ultrasound. Muscle volume and muscle length of the FDB were also estimated, and physiological CSA was calculated. [Results] Both TFS-5-toes and TFS-4-toes correlated positively with walking speed in men (r=0.584 and r=0.553, respectively) and women (r=0.748 and r=0.533, respectively). Physiological CSA of the FDB was significantly correlated with TFS-5-toes (r=0.748) and TFS-4-toes (r=0.573) in women. In men, physiological CSA of the FDB correlated positively with TFS-4-toes (r=0.536), but not with TFS-5-toes (r=0.333). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that physiological CSA of the FDB is moderately associated with TFS-4-toes while toe flexor strength correlates with walking performance. PMID:26957721

  11. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  12. Cross-sectional study of diet, physical activity, television viewing and sleep duration in 233 110 adults from the UK Biobank; the behavioural phenotype of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered

  13. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin-resistant phenotypes among adults without diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; McKeown, Nicola M; Newby, P K; Meigs, James B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Quatromoni, Paula A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-08-01

    Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the health consequences of consuming different dietary patterns. We used this approach to examine the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and insulin-resistant phenotypes, including waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, 2 h post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and blood pressure, using data from the fifth examination cycle of the Framingham Offspring Study. Among 2875 participants without diabetes, we identified four dietary patterns based on the predominant sources of energy: 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains', 'Refined Grains and Sweets', 'Beer' and 'Soda'. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and potential confounders, compared with the 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains' pattern, the 'Refined Grains and Sweets' pattern had significantly higher mean waist circumference (92.4 v. 90.5 cm; P = 0.008) and BMI (27.3 v. 26.6 kg/m2; P = 0.02); the 'Soda' pattern had significantly higher mean fasting insulin concentration (31.3 v. 28.0 microU/ml; P < or = 0.001); the 'Beer' pattern had significantly higher mean HDL-cholesterol concentration (1.46 v. 1.31 mmol/l; P < 0.001). No associations were observed between dietary patterns and ISI0,120, TAG, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Our findings suggest that consumption of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and reduced-fat dairy protects against insulin-resistant phenotypes and displacing these healthy choices with refined grains, high-fat dairy, sweet baked foods, candy and sugar-sweetened soda may promote insulin-resistant phenotypes. PMID:19216828

  14. Estimating minimum adult HIV prevalence: a cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics of people living with HIV in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  15. Estimating Minimum Adult HIV Prevalence: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Characteristics of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  16. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  17. A national cross-sectional study among drug-users in France: epidemiology of HCV and highlight on practical and statistical aspects of the design

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiology of HCV infection among drug users (DUs) has been widely studied. Prevalence and sociobehavioural data among DUs are therefore available in most countries but no study has taken into account in the sampling weights one important aspect of the way of life of DUs, namely that they can use one or more specialized services during the study period. In 2004–2005, we conducted a national seroepidemiologic survey of DUs, based on a random sampling design using the Generalised Weight Share Method (GWSM) and on blood testing. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter survey was done among DUs having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. We conducted a two stage random survey of DUs selected to represent the diversity of drug use. The fact that DUs can use more than one structure during the study period has an impact on their inclusion probabilities. To calculate a correct sampling weight, we used the GWSM. A sociobehavioral questionnaire was administered by interviewers. Selected DUs were asked to self-collect a fingerprick blood sample on blotting paper. Results Of all DUs selected, 1462 (75%) accepted to participate. HCV seroprevalence was 59.8% [95% CI: 50.7–68.3]. Of DUs under 30 years, 28% were HCV seropositive. Of HCV-infected DUs, 27% were unaware of their status. In the month prior to interview, 13% of DUs shared a syringe, 38% other injection parapharnelia and 81% shared a crack pipe. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HCV seropositivity were age over 30, HIV seropositivity, having ever injected drugs, opiate substitution treatment (OST), crack use, and precarious housing. Conclusion This is the first time that blood testing combined to GWSM is applied to a DUs population, which improve the estimate of HCV prevalence. HCV seroprevalence is high, indeed by the youngest DUs. And a large proportion of DUs are not aware of their status. Our multivariate analysis identifies risk factors such as crack

  18. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  19. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  20. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    aged ≥65 y, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Schwartz equation (IQR: 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.38; 0.41]; P30: 77.6 [95% CI 75.7; 79.5] versus 67.5 [95% CI 65.4; 69.7], respectively). In children and adolescents (2–17 y), the Schwartz equation was superior to the CKD-EPI equation (IQR: 0.23 [95% CI 0.21; 0.24] versus 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34]; P30: 88.6 [95% CI 86.7; 90.4] versus 29.4 [95% CI 26.8; 32.0]). This study is limited by its retrospective design, single-center setting with few non-white patients, and small number of patients with severe chronic kidney disease. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the Schwartz equation may be more reliable than the CKD-EPI equation for estimating GFR in children and adolescents and in adults with mild to moderate kidney impairment up to age 40 y. PMID:27023756

  1. Design and construction of a large area detector system and neutron total cross section measurements in the energy range 0.4 to 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Michael James

    In an effort to extend the measurement capabilities of the Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) into the MeV region, a new detector system and analysis methods were developed. A large volume modular proton recoil detector was constructed and placed in a collimated neutron beam at an effective distance of 99.95 meters from the neutron source. Transmission measurements were done on natural carbon (graphite), beryllium, molybdenum, zirconium, titanium and tantalum using the time-of-flight method. Combining the long flight path, fast detector response and electronics, and a narrow neutron pulse width, provided good energy resolution, enabling some of the measurements to resolve structure in neutron total cross section never before seen. In order to obtain accurate transmission calculations, a method was developed to determine the time-dependent background component associated with the measurement, using a combination of experimental data and Monte Carlo methods. This background, combined with the high neutron flux provided by the RPI LINAC, generated high signal-to-background ratios. This signal-to-background and low counting statistics error resulted in low uncertainties and highly accurate data, with uncertainties of less than one percent seen through much of the measured energy range. The carbon measurement, which has a well measured and agreed upon neutron total cross section in the energy range 0.4 to 20 MeV, provided verification of the accuracy in the measurement and analytical methods used, with an average difference of less than one percent seen between the experimental and evaluated data. The measurements of beryllium, molybdenum, zirconium, titanium and tantalum, also resulted in accurate measurements of neutron total cross section. These high-resolution, high-accuracy results showed that improvements can be made in the current neutron total cross section evaluations, some of which show differences up to 10 %. The experimental

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia among severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal infection is a common opportunistic infection among severely immunosuppressed HIV patients and is associated with high mortality. Positive cryptococcal antigenemia is an independent predictor of cryptococcal meningitis and death in patients with severe immunosuppression. We evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia among patients with CD4 counts of 100 cells/mm3 or less in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Screening of a targeted group of HIV patients may enable early detection of cryptococcal infection and intervention before initiating antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia may be used subsequently in resource-limited settings in screening for cryptococcal infection, and this data may also inform policy for HIV care. Methods In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients aged 18 years and older with CD4 counts of up to 100 cells/mm3 were enrolled between December 2009 and March 2010. Data on socio-demographics, physical examinations and laboratory tests were collected. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results We enrolled 367 participants and the median CD4 count was 23 (IQR 9-51) cells/mm3. Sixty-nine (19%) of the 367 participants had cryptococcal antigenemia. Twenty-four patients (6.5%) had cryptococcal meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and three had isolated cryptococcal antigenemia. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia included: low body mass index of 15.4 kg/m2 or less (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-1.0), a CD4+ T cell count of less than 50 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI1.2-6.1), neck pain (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.6), recent diagnosis of HIV infection (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.6), and meningeal signs (AOR = 7.9; 95% CI 2.9-22.1). However, at sub-analysis of asymptomatic patients, absence of neck pain (AOR = 0.5), photophobia (AOR = 0.5) and meningeal signs (AOR = 0

  3. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  4. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  5. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. PMID:27447668

  6. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008-2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09-3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. PMID:27447668

  7. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  8. DBCC Software as Database for Collisional Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Daniel; Moroz, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Interactions of species, such as atoms, radicals, molecules, electrons, and photons, in plasmas used for materials processing could be very complex, and many of them could be described in terms of collisional cross-sections. Researchers involved in plasma simulations must select reasonable cross-sections for collisional processes for implementing them into their simulation codes to be able to correctly simulate plasmas. However, collisional cross-section data are difficult to obtain, and, for some collisional processes, the cross-sections are still not known. Data on collisional cross-sections can be obtained from numerous sources including numerical calculations, experiments, journal articles, conference proceedings, scientific reports, various universities' websites, national labs and centers specifically devoted to collecting data on cross-sections. The cross-sections data received from different sources could be partial, corresponding to limited energy ranges, or could even not be in agreement. The DBCC software package was designed to help researchers in collecting, comparing, and selecting cross-sections, some of which could be constructed from others or chosen as defaults. This is important as different researchers may place trust in different cross-sections or in different sources. We will discuss the details of DBCC and demonstrate how it works and why it is beneficial to researchers working on plasma simulations.

  9. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including 'cooking, washing up'. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  11. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  12. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

    PubMed

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011-2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18-35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m² using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  13. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3–1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  14. Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Among Adults in Urban and Rural Areas of China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xiangdong; Bo, Mingyu; Wang, Kuiji; Zhao, Yan; He, Fei; Cao, Feifei; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported and confirmable allergic rhinitis (AR) with positive skin prick test (SPT) results among adults living in urban and rural areas of China. Methods Adults from a community in Beijing and a village in Baoding were selected as representative urban and rural dwellers, respectively. All eligible residents were enrolled from the population register and received a face-to-face interview using modified validated questionnaires. Equal sets of randomly selected self-reporting AR-positive and AR-negative participants who responded to the questionnaires were also investigated using skin prick tests. Results A total of 803 participants in the rural area and a total of 1,499 participants in the urban area completed the questionnaires, with response rates being 75.9% and 81.5% respectively. The prevalence of self-reported AR of the rural area (19.1%) was significantly higher than that of the urban area (13.5%). The elementary school of educational level increased the risk of having AR (adjusted OR=2.198, 95% CI=1.072-2.236) .The positive SPT rates among subjects with self-reported AR in the rural and urban areas were 32.5% and 53.3%, respectively; the confirmable AR prevalence of 6.2% and 7.2% among the rural and urban adults, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of confirmable AR is similar between rural and urban areas in China, although there is a higher prevalence of self-reported AR in the former. PMID:25729622

  15. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  18. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  19. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  20. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  1. Are Irish adult general practice consultation rates as low as official records suggest? A cross sectional study at six general practices.

    PubMed

    Behan, W; Molony, D; Beamer, C; Cullen, W

    2013-01-01

    Accurate data on primary care activity is key to health services planning and reconfiguration. Official data estimate general practice adult consultation rates to be 3.2 visits annually, based on patient self reports. We aim to estimate the consultation rate using practice based data and compare this to official estimates. We interrogated six general practices' information systems and estimated consultation rates based on practice, telephone, domiciliary and out of hours consultations by patients aged 18 years or older. The study population (20,706 patients) was representative of the national population in terms of age and GMS status. The mean consultation rate was 5.17, though this was higher among GMS-eligible patients and among older age groups. Estimates of consultation rates derived from practice based data are likely to be higher than that derived from other approaches. Using multiple sources of data will enhance accuracy of workload estimates and this will benefit service planning. PMID:24579407

  2. Association between circulating ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and plasma cytokine concentrations in young adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with the development of numerous chronic diseases. Circulating ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may help reduce concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These micronutrients may act synergistically, and they may have different anti-inflammatory effects, but previous studies have assessed the link between each of these micronutrients and inflammation in isolation without controlling for the other micronutrients. Our objective was to examine the association between circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and 25(OH) D and a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines in an ethnically diverse population of young adults. Methods Participants (n = 1,007) from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study provided fasting blood samples for biomarker measurements and were subsequently categorized into tertiles for each micronutrient based on their circulating concentrations. We conducted Pearson’s correlation analyses across all micronutrients and cytokines. The associations between individual micronutrients and cytokines were examined using analysis of covariance with age, sex, waist circumference, ethnicity, physical activity, season of blood collection, total cholesterol, hormonal contraceptive use among women, and the other two micronutrients as covariates. Results We observed weak micronutrient-cytokine correlations, moderate correlations between certain cytokines, and strong correlations between specific cytokines, particularly interleukin 1- receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-bb). After full covariate adjustment, circulating α-tocopherol was inversely associated with IFN-γ and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We observed an unexpected positive association between ascorbic acid and IFN-γ. 25(OH

  3. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  4. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meiqin; Wan, Yi; Yu, Lifen; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Yonghong; Hou, Bin; Jiang, Xun; Shang, Lei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China.From October to December 2013, participants in Xi'an, China were recruited for the study by using a multiple-stage sampling method. A self-developed questionnaire with an additional health examination was used to collect data on the history of hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive medication. The status on prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were analyzed and related risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis.A total of 8193 participants were included with an overall prevalence of hypertension of 20.4%. Among the hypertensive participants, 63.7% were aware of their conditions, 47.3% took antihypertensive medication, and 17.8% had their blood pressure (BP) controlled within 140/90 mm Hg. More complications and less frequent BP measurements were associated with hypertension. Older participants, non-drinkers, and those with more complications and more frequent BP measurements were more aware of their hypertension. Being older, living in an urban area, and having more frequent BP measurements were all factors for better treatment. Participants who were women, living in an urban area, with a higher educational level and who were not obese were more likely to have their hypertension controlled.The prevalence of hypertension among adults in Xi'an is high with suboptimal low awareness, treatment, and control rates. Further comprehensive integrated strategies based on these risk factors should be taken into account in order to improve the prevention, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:27559980

  5. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men. PMID:26507315

  6. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk (<10% CAD) were lower age (<60 years old), and plasma values of uric acid. The presence of MS within low, intermediary, and high CAD risk categories was 30.8%, 55.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. The independent risk factors associated with CAD risk score was MS and uric acid, and the protective factors were recommended intake of saturated fat and fiber and muscle mass index. Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score. PMID:21554698

  7. A cross-sectional study of differences in 6-min walk distance in healthy adults residing at high altitude versus sea level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine if adult residents living at high altitude have developed sufficient adaptation to a hypoxic environment to match the functional capacity of a similar population at sea level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the 6-min walk test distance (6MWD) in 334 residents living at sea level vs. at high altitude. Methods We enrolled 168 healthy adults aged ≥35 years residing at sea level in Lima and 166 individuals residing at 3,825 m above sea level in Puno, Peru. Participants completed a 6-min walk test, answered a sociodemographics and clinical questionnaire, underwent spirometry, and a blood test. Results Average age was 54.0 vs. 53.8 years, 48% vs. 43% were male, average height was 155 vs. 158 cm, average blood oxygen saturation was 98% vs. 90%, and average resting heart rate was 67 vs. 72 beats/min in Lima vs. Puno. In multivariable regression, participants in Puno walked 47.6 m less (95% CI -81.7 to -13.6 m; p < 0.01) than those in Lima. Other variables besides age and height that were associated with 6MWD include change in heart rate (4.0 m per beats/min increase above resting heart rate; p < 0.001) and percent body fat (-1.4 m per % increase; p = 0.02). Conclusions The 6-min walk test predicted a lowered functional capacity among Andean high altitude vs. sea level natives at their altitude of residence, which could be explained by an incomplete adaptation or a protective mechanism favoring neuro- and cardioprotection over psychomotor activity. PMID:24484777

  8. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951

  9. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  10. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  12. Is Plate Clearing a Risk Factor for Obesity? A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Reported Data in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Eric; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identifying eating behaviors which contribute to excess weight gain will inform obesity prevention strategies. A tendency to clear one’s plate when eating may be a risk factor for obesity in an environment where food is plentiful. Whether plate clearing is associated with increased body weight in a cohort of US participants was examined. Methods Nine hundred and ninety-three US adults (60% male, 80% American European, mean age = 31 years) completed self-report measures of habitual plate clearing together with behavioral and demographic characteristics known to be associated with obesity. Results Plate clearing tendencies were positively associated with BMI and remained so after accounting for a large number of other demographic and behavioral predictors of BMI in analyses (β = 0.18, 95% CIs = 0.07, 0.29, P < 0.001); an increased tendency to plate clear was associated with a significantly higher body weight. Conclusions The tendency to clear one’s plate when eating is associated with increased body weight and may constitute a risk factor for weight gain. PMID:25521278

  13. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  14. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  15. Misuse and Dependence on Non-Prescription Codeine Analgesics or Sedative H1 Antihistamines by Adults: A Cross-Sectional Investigation in France

    PubMed Central

    Roussin, Anne; Bouyssi, Annabelle; Pouché, Lucie; Pourcel, Laure; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. Method During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group), codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet) abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences), and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria) on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. Results 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women) having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118), which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36) were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. Conclusions Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until an acceptable

  16. Use of new guidance to profile 'equivalent minutes' of aerobic physical activity for adults in England reveals gender, geographical, and socio-economic inequalities in meeting public health guidance: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David; Townsend, Nick; Foster, Charlie

    2016-12-01

    English physical activity guidance now recognises a double weighting of vigorous over moderate activity; 1 min of vigorous activity is the same as two 'equivalent' minutes of moderate activity. In addition, concerns of over-estimation of occupational PA led to newly applied measurement methods for this domain. Vigorous activity is associated with higher socio-economic position and occupational PA has the opposite association, so these changes may increase inequalities. We profiled adults' total and domain-specific 'equivalent minutes' of weekly PA in England 2012, and investigated inequalities in PA participation, accounting for the new weighting of vigorous PA, and new measurements of occupational PA. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data on the self-reported PA of 8158 adults was used to produce a profile of the domain and duration of weekly 'equivalent minutes' of PA. Vigorous PA was double-weighted compared to moderate PA, and the percentage contribution from each PA domain quantified, stratified by gender and activity status and split by socio-demographic variables. Women, older adults, and adults without qualifications, from deprived areas, with worse employment conditions, or living in the North of England were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidance. Type of activity was also socially patterned, particularly sport participation, which contributed a higher percentage of PA in adults of higher socioeconomic status. For active men, sporting activity was the most prevalent domain, and sports and walking for active women. In England, there are important socio-demographic differences in how adults participate in PA, and in percentage meeting public health guidance. PMID:27413661

  17. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  18. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  20. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design. PMID:27293245

  1. Liquid-metal MHD flow in a duct whose cross section changes from a rectangle to a trapezoid, with applications in fusion blanket designs

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal MHD flow in a semi-infinite rectangular duct and a semi-infinite trapezoidal duct, which are connected by a finite-length transition duct. There is a strong, transverse, uniform magnetic field. The walls parallel to the magnetic field (sides) remain parallel, while the walls intersecting the magnetic field are twisted in the transition duct to provide the change in cross sectional shape. The left side has a constant height, while the height of the right side increases or decreases in the transition duct. This geometry gives a skewed velocity profile with a high velocity near the left side, provided the right side is relatively thick. All walls are thin and electrically conducting, but the sides are considerably thicker than the other walls. The application is to fusion-reactor blankets in which a high velocity near the first wall (separating the plasma chamber from the coolant) improves the thermal performance. Junctions of different ducts with walls parallel to the magnetic field are treated for the first time. In expansions, contractions and other geometric transition ducts, as well as in straight ducts with axially varying magnetic fields, the fluid flow and electric currents are concentrated in boundary layers adjacent to the sides and in the side. At a junction with a straight duct with a uniform magnetic field, the flow and current must transfer from the boundary layers adn sides to the core regions. These transfers at junctions play a key role in any three-dimensional flow.

  2. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  3. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  4. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  5. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  6. Rationale and cross-sectional study design of the Research on Obesity and type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants: the RODAM study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen K; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M; van Straalen, Jan P; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A H; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene–environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment. Methods and analysis RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and

  7. Design and Validation of a Novel Method to Measure Cross-Sectional Area of Neck Muscles Included during Routine MR Brain Volume Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, Alixe H. M.; Subedi, Deepak; Gray, Calum D.; Deary, Ian J.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Starr, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low muscle mass secondary to disease and ageing is an important cause of excess mortality and morbidity. Many studies include a MR brain scan but no peripheral measure of muscle mass. We developed a technique to measure posterior neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on volumetric MR brain scans enabling brain and muscle size to be measured simultaneously. Methods We performed four studies to develop and test: feasibility, inter-rater reliability, repeatability and external validity. We used T1-weighted MR brain imaging from young and older subjects, obtained on different scanners, and collected mid-thigh MR data. Results After developing the technique and demonstrating feasibility, we tested it for inter-rater reliability in 40 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between raters were 0.99 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.98–1.00) for the combined group (trapezius, splenius and semispinalis), 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for obliquus and 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for sternocleidomastoid. The first unrotated principal component explained 72.2% of total neck muscle CSA variance and correlated positively with both right (r = 0.52, p = .001) and left (r = 0.50, p = .002) grip strength. The 14 subjects in the repeatability study had had two MR brain scans on three different scanners. The ICC for between scanner variation for total neck muscle CSA was high at 0.94 (CI 0.86–0.98). The ICCs for within scanner variations were also high, with values of 0.95 (CI 0.86–0.98), 0.97 (CI 0.92–0.99) and 0.96 (CI 0.86–0.99) for the three scanners. The external validity study found a correlation coefficient for total thigh CSA and total neck CSA of 0.88. Discussion We present a feasible, valid and reliable method for measuring neck muscle CSA on T1-weighted MR brain scans. Larger studies are needed to validate and apply our technique with subjects differing in age, ethnicity and geographical location. PMID:22509305

  8. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  9. Sequential Cross-Sectional Surveys in Orange Farm, a Township of South Africa, Revealed a Constant Low Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Adults despite Demand Creation Campaigns and High Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Hlatswayo, Florence; Tshabalala, Simphiwe; Khela, Simphiwe; Xulu, Lindo; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Malinga, Thobile; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2016-01-01

    Background WHO recommends a male circumcision (MC) prevalence rate higher than 80% to have a substantial impact on the HIV-AIDS epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. Orange Farm, a township in South Africa, has a free-for-service voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clinic in operation since 2008. Following an intense campaign from 2008 to 2010, MC prevalence rate increased to 55.4% (ANRS-12126). Ongoing and past VMMC campaigns focused on youths, through school talks, and adults at a community level. The main objective of the study was to assess the change in MC prevalence rate among adults aged 18–19 and 18–49 years in the past 5 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey (ANRS-12285) was conducted among a random sample of 522 adult men in 2015. MC status and characteristics of participants were collected through a genital examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Results MC prevalence rate among young adult men aged 18–19 years increased markedly from 61.2% (95%CI: 57.4% to 65.0%) in 2010 to 87.5% (76.0% to 94.6%) in 2015 (p<0.001). In the same period, among men aged 18–49 years, MC prevalence rate varied slightly from 55.4% (53.6% to 57.1%) to 56.7% (52.4% to 60.9%). In 2015, 84.9% (79.2% to 89.5%) of uncircumcised adult men reported that they were willing to be circumcised. However, we estimated that only 4.6% (11/237; 2.5% to 7.9%) of the uncircumcised men underwent circumcision in 2015, despite 117/185 (63.2%; 95%CI: 56.1% to 69.9%) who reported that they were definitely willing to become circumcised. Conclusions In Orange Farm, VMMC campaigns were successful among the youth and led to a sufficiently high MC prevalence rate to have a substantial impact in the future on the HIV-AIDS epidemic. However, despite high acceptability and a free VMMC service, VMMC campaigns since 2010 have failed to increase MC prevalence rate among adults to above 80%. These campaigns should be revisited. PMID:27427957

  10. Topological Optimization of Beam Cross Section by Employing Extrusion Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuberi, Rehan H.; Zhengxing, Zuo; Kai, Long

    2010-05-01

    Optimal cross-section design of beams plays a characteristic role which signifies the rigidity of the member in bending, shear and torsion load conditions. Practically modern overhead crane girders, railway bridge girders or rail tracks etc. require constant cross-section along the axial direction. Conventional topological optimization modeling procedures in such cases prove inadequate for the reason that these procedures generate non-uniform topologies along the axis of the bending member. To examine optimal topology of those structural bending members which commonly possess constant cross-section along the axis the topology optimization with extrusion constraint is more appropriate. The extrusion constraint method suggests a fresh approach to investigate optimal topologies of beam cross-section under the influence of realistic loading condition across the section at the beginning of design cycle. Presented study is focused upon the influence of various configuration and location of the load and boundary conditions on the topology of the of the beam cross-section which was not possible prior to the materialization of the extrusion or stamping constraint method. Several realistic loads and boundary conditions have been applied on the 3D beam model and optimal cross-section topologies obtained have uniform compliance history and convergent solutions. The lowest compliance criteria have been suggested to choose topologies as furthers shape and size optimization candidates during beam design process.

  11. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  12. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  13. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  14. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  15. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34–8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26–0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31–0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22–0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22–0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  16. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34-8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22-0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  17. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = −0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = −0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  18. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  19. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M.; Wei, Stanley C.; Mattson, Christine L.; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Bell, Tanvir K.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5–0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1–1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL. Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  1. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  2. Thermoelastic damping in microrings with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Jianrun

    2016-01-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q micro-resonators. Microrings are often critical components in many micro-resonators. Some analytical models for TED in microrings have already been developed in the past. However, the previous works are limited to the microrings with rectangular cross-section. The temperature field in the rectangular cross-section is one-dimensional. This paper deals with TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. The temperature field in the circular cross-section is two-dimensional. This paper first presents a 2-D analytical model for TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. Only the two-dimensional heat conduction in the circular cross-section is considered. The heat conduction along the circumferential direction of the microring is neglected in the 2-D model. Then the 2-D model has been extended to cover the circumferential heat conduction, and a 3-D analytical model for TED has been developed. The analytical results from the present 2-D and 3-D models show good agreement with the numerical results of FEM model. The limitations of the present 2-D analytical model are assessed.

  3. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= −0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= −0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= −0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.13), and total cholesterol (r= −0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= −0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= −0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  4. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  5. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a planar, silicon-based, monolithically integrated micro laminar flow fuel cell with a bridge-shaped microchannel cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Montesinos, P. O.; Yossakda, N.; Schmidt, A.; Brushett, F. R.; Pelton, W. E.; Kenis, P. J. A.

    2011-05-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar, silicon-based, monolithically integrated micro laminar flow fuel cell (μLFFC) using standard MEMS and IC-compatible fabrication technologies. The μLFFC operates with acid supported solutions of formic acid and potassium permanganate, as a fuel and oxidant respectively. The micro-fuel cell design features two in-plane anodic and cathodic microchannels connected via a bridge to confine the diffusive liquid-liquid interface away from the electrode areas and to minimize crossover. Palladium high-active-surface-area catalyst was selectively integrated into the anodic microchannel by electrodeposition, whereas no catalyst was required in the cathodic microchannel. A three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-convection model was developed to study the behavior of the diffusion zone and to extract appropriate cell-design parameters and operating conditions. Experimentally, we observed peak power densities as high as 26 mW cm-2 when operating single cells at a flow rate of 60 μL min-1 at room temperature. The miniature membraneless fuel cell design presented herein offers potential for on-chip power generation, which has long been prohibited by integration complexities associated with the membrane.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors. PMID:27616893

  7. The detection, treatment and control of high blood pressure in older British adults: cross-sectional findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study and the British Regional Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, R; Lawlor, D A; Whincup, P; Montaner, D; Papacosta, O; Brindle, P; Ebrahim, S

    2006-10-01

    Among older people, the detection and control of hypertension is particularly important to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe the detection, treatment and control of hypertension in older British adults. A total of 3059 women and 3007 men aged 60-79 years were randomly selected from general practice age/sex registers in 24 British towns and examined from 1998 to 2001. Of these, 52.6% women and 47.9% men had at least one indicator of hypertension (high blood pressure on examination, or taking antihypertensive medication or recalled a doctor diagnosis of high blood pressure). Among women, 50% of those with any indication of hypertension were on treatment and 29% were well controlled, and among men 45% were on treatment and 16% were well controlled. With the exception of alcohol use in men (adjusted odds ratio 0.67 (0.46, 0.98)), socioeconomic factors, area of residence and behavioural risk factors were not associated with good control among those with hypertension in either sex. Of those on treatment, 20.7% of women and 28% of men were on two classes of antihypertensive medication and 3.5 and 4.9%, respectively, were on three or more classes of antihypertensive medication. Among those with a doctor diagnosis of hypertension and taking antihypertensive medication, the proportion with well controlled blood pressure did not differ between those on more than one antihypertensive and those on just one in either sex. We conclude that targets of good control are rarely met in older individuals, who would benefit from the associated reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:16855626

  8. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  9. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  10. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  11. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  13. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  14. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  15. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  16. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  17. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  18. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  20. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  1. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  3. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  4. Cross-sectional survey comparing HIV risk behaviours of adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men only and men who have sex with men and women in the US and Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ellen, Jonathan M; Greenberg, Lauren; Willard, Nancy; Stines, Stephanie; Korelitz, James; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the HIV risk behaviours of men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), aged 12–24 years, in five US cities and in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Methods Data were collected through four annual cross-sectional anonymous surveys at community venues and included questions about sexual partnerships, sexual practices including condom use and substance use. Demographic and risk profiles were summarised for both groups. Results A total of 1198 men were included in this analysis, including 565 MSMO and 633 MSMW. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups for many risk factors examined in multivariable models. MSMW were more likely to identify as bisexual, be in a long-term relationship, have a history of homelessness, have ever used marijuana, have ever been tested for HIV and to have been tested for HIV within the past 6 months. MSMW may be more likely to ever exchange sex for money and ever have a sexually transmitted infection than MSMO. Conclusions MSMW were more likely to report several markers of socioeconomic vulnerability or behaviours associated with increased risk for HIV than MSMO. MSMW contribute to HIV prevalence in the USA, and better understanding of the risk profile of this group is essential to understand heterosexual HIV transmission. MSMW, particularly those who identify as bisexual or questioning, may feel uncomfortable participating in programmes that are designed for gay-identified men. Therefore, prevention strategies need to target distinct subgroups that compose the population of MSM. PMID:25587181

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  6. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  7. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; et al

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  8. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  9. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  10. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  11. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  12. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  13. Simultaneous evaluation of interrelated cross sections by generalized least-squares and related data file requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1984-10-25

    Though several cross sections have been designated as standards, they are not basic units and are interrelated by ratio measurements. Moreover, as such interactions as /sup 6/Li + n and /sup 10/B + n involve only two and three cross sections respectively, total cross section data become useful for the evaluation process. The problem can be resolved by a simultaneous evaluation of the available absolute and shape data for cross sections, ratios, sums, and average cross sections by generalized least-squares. A data file is required for such evaluation which contains the originally measured quantities and their uncertainty components. Establishing such a file is a substantial task because data were frequently reported as absolute cross sections where ratios were measured without sufficient information on which reference cross section and which normalization were utilized. Reporting of uncertainties is often missing or incomplete. The requirements for data reporting will be discussed.

  14. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  15. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  16. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  17. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  18. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  19. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  20. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  1. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  2. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  3. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  4. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  5. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  6. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  7. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  8. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  9. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  10. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  11. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  12. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  13. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  14. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  15. Report on 238Pu(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Henderson, R A; Scielzo, N D; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Weideking, M; Bernstein, L A

    2010-03-31

    The goal of this year's effort is to measure the {sup 238}Pu(n,f) and {sup 238}Pu(n,2n) cross section from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We designed a surrogate experiment that used the reaction {sup 239}Pu(a,a{prime}x) as a surrogate for {sup 238}Pu(n,x). The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2010. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis is given. In order to obtain a reliable {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section we designed the experiment using the surrogate ratio technique. This technique allows one to measure a desired, unknown, cross section relative to a known cross section. In the present example, the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section of interest is determined relative to the known {sup 235}U(n,x) cross section. To increase confidence in the results, and to reduce overall uncertainties, we are also determining the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section relative to the known {sup 234}U(n,x) cross section. The compound nuclei of interest for this experiment were produced using inelastic alpha scattering. For example, {sup 236}U(a,a{prime}x) served as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,x); analogous reactions were considered for the other cross sections. Surrogate experiments determine the probabilities for the decay of the compound nuclei into the various channels of interest (fission, gamma decay) by measuring particle-fission (p-f) or particle?gamma (p?g) reaction spectra. By comparing the decay probabilities associated with the unknown cross section to that of a known cross section it is possible to obtain the ratio of these cross sections and thus determine the unknown, desired cross section.

  16. Impact of smokeless tobacco packaging on perceptions and beliefs among youth, young adults, and adults in the U.S: findings from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal with cigarettes. Yet, little research has assessed this with smokeless tobacco (SLT) packaging. This study evaluates the association between three SLT packaging elements with knowledge of health risks and perceptions of novelty and appeal. Additionally, we assess how effects of these messages may differ across age groups, including youth (14-17 years), young adults (18-25 years), and older adults (26-65 years). Methods 1000 participants were administered a web-based survey in 2010 and shown three sets of SLT packs in random order, varied by descriptor (flavor descriptor vs. none), warning label format (graphic vs. text), and corporate branding (branded vs. plain packaging). Participants rated the packs compared with “no difference” on appeal, novelty, and risk perceptions associated with product use. Chi-square tests were used to test for significant differences in pack selections. Multinomial regression was employed to evaluate the association between effects of packaging elements and participant age. Results More respondents selected the pack with the graphic warning label as the pack to make them consider the health risks associated with SLT use, attract their attention, and be least attractive to a smoker. The product with the text warning label was the product someone their age would want to be seen using and would appeal to peers. The SLT pack with the flavor descriptor was not associated with health risks associated with product use. The pack with corporate branding was selected as more appealing, to attract attention, and one they would want to be seen using; the plain pack was less attractive to smokers. Youth and young adults were more likely to indicate that pack elements affected their perceptions of appeal and risk associated with SLT

  17. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  18. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  19. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  20. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  1. Calculation of improved spallation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several research groups have recently carried out highly precise measurements (to about 10 percent) of high-energy nuclear spallation cross sections. These measurements, above 5 GeV, cover a broad range of elements: V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au. Even the small cross sections far off the peak of the isotopic distribution curves have been measured. The semiempirical calculations are compared with the measured values. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the parameters of our spallation relations (Silberberg and Tsao, 1973) for atomic numbers 20 to 83 need modifications, e.g. a reduced slope of the mass yield distribution, broader isotopic distributions, and a shift of the isotopic distribution toward the neutron-deficient side. The required modifications are negligible near Fe and Cu, but increase with increasing target mass.

  2. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  6. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  7. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  8. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  9. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  10. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  11. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  12. Correlation analysis of optical absorption cross section and rate coefficient measurements in reacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.; Ogren, P.J.

    1992-08-31

    A technique was developed for determining relative importance and correlation between reactions making up a complex kinetic system. This technique was used to investigate measurements of optical absorption cross sections and the correlation between cross sections and measured rate coefficients. It is concluded that (1) species, initial conditions, and temporal regions may be identified where cross sections may be measured without interference from the kinetic behavior of the observed species and (2) experiments designed to measure rate coefficients will always be correlated with the absorption cross section of the observed species. This correlation may reduce the accuracy of rate coefficient measurements.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  14. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  15. Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sections are often constructed from data to create a visual impression of the geologist's interpretation of the sub-surface geology. However as with all interpretations, this vision of the sub-surface geology is uncertain. We have designed and carried out an experiment with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty in geological cross-sections created by experts interpreting borehole data. By analysing different attributes of the data and interpretations we reflect on the main controls on uncertainty. A group of ten expert modellers at the British Geological Survey were asked to interpret an 11.4 km long cross-section from south-east Glasgow, UK. The data provided consisted of map and borehole data of the superficial deposits and shallow bedrock. Each modeller had a unique set of 11 boreholes removed from their dataset, to which their interpretations of the top of the bedrock were compared. This methodology allowed quantification of how far from the 'correct answer' each interpretation is at 11 points along each interpreted cross-section line; through comparison of the interpreted and actual bedrock elevations in the boreholes. This resulted in the collection of 110 measurements of the error to use in further analysis. To determine the potential control on uncertainty various attributes relating to the modeller, the interpretation and the data were recorded. Modellers were asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information; such as how much 3D modelling experience they had, and how long it took them to complete the interpretation. They were also asked to record their confidence in their interpretations graphically, in the form of a confidence level drawn onto the cross-section. Initial analysis showed the majority of the experts' interpreted bedrock elevations within 5 metres of those recorded in the withheld boreholes. Their distribution is peaked and symmetrical about a mean of zero, indicating that there was no tendency for the experts to either under

  16. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  17. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  18. Serum perfluoroalkyl acids concentrations and memory impairment in a large cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Brayne, Carol; Armstrong, Ben; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the cross-sectional association between serum perfluorooctanate (PFOA), perfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) concentrations with self-reported memory impairment in adults and the interaction of these associations with diabetes status. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based in Mid-Ohio Valley, West Virginia following contamination by a chemical plant. Participants The C8 Health Project collected data and measured the serum level of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of 21 024 adults aged 50+ years. Primary outcome measure Self-reported memory impairment as defined by the question ‘have experienced short-term memory loss?’ Results A total of 4057 participants self-reported short-term memory impairment. Inverse associations between PFOS and PFOA and memory impairment were highly statistically significant with fully adjusted OR=0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) for doubling PFOS and OR=0.96 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.98) for doubling PFOA concentrations. Comparable inverse associations with PFNA and PFHxS were of borderline statistical significance. Inverse associations of PFAAs with memory impairment were weaker or non-existent in patients with diabetes than overall in patients without diabetes. Conclusions An inverse association between PFAA serum levels and self-reported memory impairment has been observed in this large population-based, cross-sectional study that is stronger and more statistically significant for PFOA and PFOS. The associations can be potentially explained by a preventive anti-inflammatory effect exerted by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist effect of these PFAAs, but confounding or even reverse causation cannot be excluded as an alternative explanation. PMID:23794579

  19. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  20. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FLİBE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  1. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-11-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  2. Summary of the Workshop on Neutron Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald L.

    2008-12-15

    A Workshop on Neutron Cross Section Covariances was held from June 24-27, 2008, in Port Jefferson, New York. This Workshop was organized by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, to provide a forum for reporting on the status of the growing field of neutron cross section covariances for applications and for discussing future directions of the work in this field. The Workshop focused on the following four major topical areas: covariance methodology, recent covariance evaluations, covariance applications, and user perspectives. Attention was given to the entire spectrum of neutron cross section covariance concerns ranging from light nuclei to the actinides, and from the thermal energy region to 20 MeV. The papers presented at this conference explored topics ranging from fundamental nuclear physics concerns to very specific applications in advanced reactor design and nuclear criticality safety. This paper provides a summary of this workshop. Brief comments on the highlights of each Workshop contribution are provided. In addition, a perspective on the achievements and shortcomings of the Workshop as well as on the future direction of research in this field is offered.

  3. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  4. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Broadened Ethane and Propane Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Appadoo, Dominique; Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections are presented for the ν9 band of ethane (C2H6) at 823 cm-1. These cross sections make use of spectra recorded at the Australian Synchrotron using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with maximum resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. The spectra have been recorded at 150, 120 and 90 K for hydrogen and nitrogen broadened C2H6. They cover appropriate temperatures, pressures and broadening gases associated with the atmospheres of the Outer Planets and Titan, and will improve atmospheric retrievals. The THz/Far-IR beamline at the Australian Synchrotron is unique in combining a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer with an 'enclosive flow cooling' (EFC) cell designed to study molecules at low temperatures. The EFC cell is advantageous at temperatures for which the vapor pressure is very low, such as C2H6 at 90 K. Hydrogen broadened absorption cross sections of propane between 700 and 1200 cm-1 will also be presented based on spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source.

  5. A novel, open access, elliptical cross-section magnet for paediatric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, Stuart; Forbes, Lawrence K.; Doddrell, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Almost all clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems are based on circular cross-section magnets. Recent advances in elliptical cross-section RF probe and gradient coil hardware raise the question of the possibility of using elliptical cross-section magnet systems. This paper presents a methodology for calculating rapidly the magnetic fields generated by a multi-turn coil of elliptical cross-section and incorporates this in a stochastic optimization method for magnet design. An open magnet system of elliptical cross-section is designed that both reduces the claustrophobia for the patients and allows ready access by attending physicians. The magnet system is optimized for paediatric use. The coil geometry produced by the optimization method has several novel features.

  6. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  7. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  8. Photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.X.; Yeh, T.R.; Lancman, H.

    1986-10-01

    The photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th was measured in the 5.8-12 MeV energy range with an average photon energy resolution of 600 eV. Intermediate structure was observed at 5.91, 5.97, and 6.31 MeV. The experimental fission probability and various properties of the intermediate structure were compared with calculated values based on a double-humped fission barrier as well as a triple-humped one. The results favor, though not decisively, the presence of a shallow third well in the barrier. Certain features of both barriers, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretical barrier calculations.

  9. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  10. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  11. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  12. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  13. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  14. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  15. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R.; Catharine Craven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (≥2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A–B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6–0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE® Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  16. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  17. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  18. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  19. Thermal neutron cross section of liquid and solid mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantargi, F.; Blostein, J. J.; Torres, L.; Granada, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    Total cross sections of mesitylene at 293 K and at 89 K were measured at the electron LINAC based pulsed neutron source of Centro Atómico Bariloche. Preliminary frequency spectra were proposed for liquid and solid mesitylene at those temperatures combining experimental and synthetic contributions. Scattering law data files were generated with the NJOY nuclear data processing system. Good agreement between experiments and calculations is found, which represents a primary validation of the scattering kernels which are now being used for the design and optimization of a cold moderator employing that material.

  20. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  1. Electron cross section set for CHF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W. Lowell; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2001-08-15

    We describe the development of a consistent set of low-energy electron collision cross sections for trifluoromethane, CHF{sub 3}. First-principles calculations are used to obtain key elastic and inelastic cross sections. These are combined with literature values of the ionization cross section and with vibrational excitation cross sections obtained from the Born approximation to form a preliminary set, which is then adjusted to achieve consistency with measured swarm parameters. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Influence of strut cross-section of stents on local hemodynamics in stented arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

    2016-05-01

    Stenting is a very effective treatment for stenotic vascular diseases, but vascular geometries altered by stent implantation may lead to flow disturbances which play an important role in the initiation and progression of restenosis, especially in the near wall in stented arterial regions. So stent designs have become one of the indispensable factors needed to be considered for reducing the flow disturbances. In this paper, the structural designs of strut cross-section are considered as an aspect of stent designs to be studied in details. Six virtual stents with different strut cross-section are designed for deployments in the same ideal arterial model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are performed to study how the shape and the aspect ratio (AR) of strut cross-section modified the local hemodynamics in the stented segments. The results indicate that stents with different strut cross-sections have different influence on the hemodynamics. Stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts for circular arc or elliptical arc can significantly enhance wall shear stress (WSS) in the stented segments, and reduce the flow disturbances around stent struts. The performances of stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts are better than that of stents with non-streamlined cross-sectional struts for rectangle. The results also show that stents with a larger AR cross-section are more conductive to improve the blood flow. The present study provides an understanding of the flow physics in the vicinity of stent struts and indicates that the shape and AR of strut cross-section ought to be considered as important factors to minimize flow disturbance in stent designs.

  3. Influence of strut cross-section of stents on local hemodynamics in stented arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

    2016-04-01

    Stenting is a very effective treatment for stenotic vascular diseases, but vascular geometries altered by stent implantation may lead to flow disturbances which play an important role in the initiation and progression of restenosis, especially in the near wall in stented arterial regions. So stent designs have become one of the indispensable factors needed to be considered for reducing the flow disturbances. In this paper, the structural designs of strut cross-section are considered as an aspect of stent designs to be studied in details. Six virtual stents with different strut cross-section are designed for deployments in the same ideal arterial model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are performed to study how the shape and the aspect ratio (AR) of strut cross-section modified the local hemodynamics in the stented segments. The results indicate that stents with different strut cross-sections have different influence on the hemodynamics. Stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts for circular arc or elliptical arc can significantly enhance wall shear stress (WSS) in the stented segments, and reduce the flow disturbances around stent struts. The performances of stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts are better than that of stents with non-streamlined cross-sectional struts for rectangle. The results also show that stents with a larger AR cross-section are more conductive to improve the blood flow. The present study provides an understanding of the flow physics in the vicinity of stent struts and indicates that the shape and AR of strut cross-section ought to be considered as important factors to minimize flow disturbance in stent designs.

  4. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  5. A simple approach to SEU cross section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshkin, V.V.; Tverskoy, M.G.

    1998-12-01

    The simplified method for determination of proton induced SEU cross section is presented. The method is based on results of the analysis of experimental SEU cross sections initiated by fast nucleons. The possibility of SEU cross section measurement at single proton energy for SEU rate prediction is shown.

  6. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  7. MEMENTA—‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’. A cross-sectional epidemiological multisite study assessing prevalence of psychiatric symptomatology, needs for care and quality of healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability in Germany: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Andrea; Vogel, Anke; Holzmann, Marco; Pfennig, Andrea; Salize, Hans Joachim; Puschner, Bernd; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study ‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’ (MEMENTA) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in three different regions of Germany. Its main aim is to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID) as well as quality of mental healthcare for this population. Methods and analysis The target population are persons aged between 18 and 65 years with a mild or moderate ID. The study population will be recruited through service providers. A representative sample is realised by two-stage sampling. First, institutions providing services for people with ID (sheltered workshops) are selected in a stratified cluster sampling, with strata being (1) types of service-providing non-governmental organisations and (2) sizes of their sheltered workshops. Then persons working in selected sheltered workshops are selected by simple random sampling. An estimated number of 600 adults with ID will be included. Information will be obtained from the group leaders in the sheltered workshops, informal carers or staff members in sheltered housing institutions and the person with ID. Besides the main outcome parameter of psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour, other outcome parameters such as needs for care, quality of life, caregiver burden, health services utilisation and costs for care are assessed using well-established standardised instruments. If a comorbid mental disorder is diagnosed, quality of mental healthcare will be assessed with open questions to all interview partners and, in addition, problem-focused interviews with a small subgroup. Analyses will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ethics and dissemination Approval of all three local ethics committees was obtained. Research findings will add much needed empirical information in order to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Trial

  8. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  9. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  10. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  11. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  12. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying

  13. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Carolyn; Ilas, Germina

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of a monoplanar missile concept with bodies of circular and elliptical cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a low-drag missile concept with a body of circular cross section were compared to one with a body of 3:1 elliptical cross section, the bodies having identical cross section area distributions. The concepts were of monowing design with constant wing span. Tail surfaces were located flush at the body base with plus or minus 30 deg dihedral. Wind tunnel tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.5 to 4.63 and at angles of attack from about -5 deg to 28 deg.

  15. Elastic and inelastic vibrational cross sections for positron scattering by carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenfen, W.; Arretche, F.; Michelin, S. E.; Mazon, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    The vibrational cross sections of the CO molecule induced by positron impact is the focus of this work. The positron-molecule interaction is represented by the static potential plus a model potential designed to take into account the positron-target correlations. To calculate the vibrational cross sections, we applied the multichannel version of the continued fractions method in the close-coupling scheme. We present vibrational excitation cross sections and elastic ones, for the ground and excited vibrational states. The results are interpreted in terms of the vibrational coupling-scheme used in the scattering model.

  16. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.; Bond, E. M.; Glover, S. E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Esch, E. I.; Reifarth, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The

  17. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (∼ 50 MeV to ∼ 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are available now. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results. Our current results indicate this is, in fact, the case.

  18. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used inmore » the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.« less

  19. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements (C)

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Baker; C. A. McGrath

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from “minor” actinides that currently have poorly known (n,g) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  20. Realizing the Opportunities of Neutron Cross Section Measurements at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L; Hausmann, M; Reifarth, R; Roberts, K; Roeben, M; Rusnak, B; Vieira, D

    2004-10-13

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator will produce many isotopes at never before seen rates. This will allow for the first time measurements on isotopes very far from stability and new measurement opportunities for unstable nuclei near stability. In fact, the production rates are such that it should be possible to collect 10 micrograms of many isotopes with a half-life of 1 day or more. This ability to make targets of short-lived nuclei enables the possibility of making neutron cross-section measurements important to the astrophysics and the stockpile stewardship communities. But to fully realize this opportunity, the appropriate infrastructure must be included at the RIA facility. This includes isotope harvesting capabilities, radiochemical areas for processing collected material, and an intense, ''mono-energetic'', tunable neutron source. As such, we have been developing a design for neutron source facility to be included at the RIA site. This facility would produce neutrons via intense beams of deuterons and protons on a variety of targets. The facility would also include the necessary radiochemical facilities for target processing. These infrastructure needs will be discussed in addition to the methods that would be employed at RIA for measuring these neutron cross-sections.

  1. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = -0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945

  2. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972) and 0.389 (0.193–0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845) and 0.376 (0.161–0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945

  3. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    . Space structures typically have closed cross-sections, absent of free edges. As a result, composite material characterization data generated using finite width flat specimens does not accurately reflect the performance of the composite materials used in a closed cross-section structural configuration. Several investigators have recognized the need to develop characterization techniques for composite materials in closed cross-sectioned structures. In these investigations test methods were developed and cylindrical specimens were evaluated. The behavior of the cylindrical specimens were observed to depart from behavior typical of flat coupons. However, no attempts were made to identify and monitor the progression of damage in these cylindrical specimens during loading. The identification and monitoring of damage is fundamental to the characterization of composite materials in closed cross-section configurations. In the study reported here, a closed cross-sectioned test method was developed to monitor damage progression in 2 in. diameter cylindrical specime