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  1. Individuals with patellofemoral pain exhibit greater patellofemoral joint stress: a finite element analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, S.; Keyak, J.H.; Powers, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater patellofemoral joint stress profiles compared to persons who are pain-free. Methods Ten females with PFP and ten gender, age, and activity-matched pain-free controls participated. Patella and femur stress profiles were quantified utilizing subject-specific finite element (FE) models of the patellofemoral joint at 15° and 45° of knee flexion. Input parameters for the FE model included: (1) joint geometry, (2) quadriceps muscle forces, and (3) weight-bearing patellofemoral joint kinematics. Using a nonlinear FE solver, quasi-static loading simulations were performed to quantify each subject’s patellofemoral joint stress profile during a static squatting maneuver. The patella and femur peak and mean hydrostatic pressure as well as the peak and mean octahedral shear stress for the elements representing the chondro-osseous interface were quantified. Results Compared to the pain-free controls, individuals with PFP consistently exhibited greater peak and mean hydrostatic pressure as well as peak and mean octahedral shear stress for the elements representing the patella and femur chondro-osseous interface across the two knee flexion angles tested (15° and 45°). Conclusions The combined finding of elevated hydrostatic pressure and octahedral shear stress across the two kneeflexion angles supports the premise that PFPmay be associated with elevated joint stress. Therefore, treatments aimed at decreasing patellofemoral joint stress may be indicated in this patient population. PMID:21172445

  2. Fetal ACL Fibroblasts Exhibit Enhanced Cellular Properties Compared with Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stalling, Simone S.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal tendons and skin heal regeneratively without scar formation. Cells isolated from these fetal tissues exhibit enhanced cellular migration and collagen production in comparison to cells from adult tissue. We determined whether fetal and adult fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a tissue that does not heal regeneratively, exhibit differences in cell migration rates and collagen elaboration. An in vitro migration assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts migrated twice as fast as adult ACL fibroblasts at a rate of 38.90 ± 7.69 μm per hour compared with 18.88 ± 4.18 μm per hour, respectively. Quantification of Type I collagen elaboration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts produced four times the amount of Type I collagen compared with adult ACL fibroblasts after 7 days in culture. We observed no differences in Type III collagen with time for adult or fetal ACL fibroblasts. Our findings indicate fetal ACL fibroblasts are intrinsically different from adult ACL fibroblasts, suggesting the healing potential of the ACL may be age-dependent. PMID:18648900

  3. Greater night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy among older adults with a sleep complaint compared to noncomplaining older adults.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Rowe, Meredeth; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-04-01

    Research in younger adults suggests sleep discrepancy (objective/subjective measurement difference) is a consistent pattern that primarily occurs within individuals with insomnia. To examine whether older adults exhibit a similar pattern, this study compared night-to-night inconsistency in sleep discrepancy between older adults with and without sleep complaints. Older adults (N = 103; mean age = 72.81, SD = 7.12) wore an Actiwatch-L® (24 hr per day) and concurrently completed sleep diaries for 14 days. Sleep discrepancy = diary (sleep onset latency [SOL] or wake [time] after sleep onset [WASO]) - actigraphy (SOL or WASO). Both groups exhibited sleep discrepancy, but complainers exhibited significantly more night-to-night variability. Sleep discrepancy was a variable behavior that was not limited to insomnia, but instead manifested by degree throughout our older sample. Greater attention to variability in sleep research and clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23137288

  4. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  5. Individual limb work does not explain the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus D; Farley, Claire T

    2007-06-01

    Elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults. Our study tested the hypothesis that elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults because they perform more individual limb work on the center of mass. Thus we compared how much individual limb work young and elderly adults performed on the center of mass during walking. We measured metabolic rate and ground reaction force while 10 elderly and 10 young subjects walked at 5 speeds between 0.7 and 1.8 m/s. Compared with young subjects, elderly subjects consumed an average of 20% more metabolic energy (P=0.010), whereas they performed an average of 10% less individual limb work during walking over the range of speeds (P=0.028). During the single-support phase, elderly and young subjects both conserved approximately 80% of the center of mass mechanical energy by inverted pendulum energy exchange and performed a similar amount of individual limb work (P=0.473). However, during double support, elderly subjects performed an average of 17% less individual limb work than young subjects (P=0.007) because their forward speed fluctuated less (P=0.006). We conclude that the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults cannot be explained by a difference in individual limb work. Future studies should examine whether a greater metabolic cost of stabilization, reduced muscle efficiency, greater antagonist cocontraction, and/or a greater cost of generating muscle force cause the elevated metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults. PMID:17363623

  6. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower...

  7. Adolescent, but not adult, rats exhibit ethanol-mediated appetitive second-order conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent rats are less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than older animals. They also seem to perceive the reinforcing properties of ethanol. However, unlike neonates or infants, ethanol-mediated appetitive behavior has yet to be clearly shown in adolescents. Appetitive ethanol reinforcement was assessed in adolescent (postnatal day 33, P33) and adult rats (P71) through second-order conditioning (SOC). Methods On P32 or P70 animals were intragastrically administered ethanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (CS1, first-order conditioning phase). CS1 delivery took place either 5-20 (Early pairing) or 30-45 (Late pairing) min following ethanol. CS1 exposure and ethanol administration were separated by 240 min in unpaired controls. On P33 or P71, animals were presented the CS1 (second-order conditioning phase) while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). Then, they were tested for CS2 preference. Results Early and late paired adolescents, but not adults, had greater preference for the CS2 than controls, a result indicative of ontogenetic variation in ethanol-mediated reinforcement. During the CS1 - CS2 associative phase, paired adolescents given 2.0 g/kg ethanol wall-climbed more than controls. Blood and brain ethanol levels associated with the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg doses at the onset of each conditioning phase did not differ substantially across age, with mean BECs of 38 and 112 mg %. Conclusions These data indicate age-related differences between adolescent and adult rats in terms of sensitivity to ethanol’s motivational effects. Adolescents exhibit high sensitivity for ethanol’s appetitive effects. These animals also showed EtOH-mediated behavioral activation during the second-order conditioning phase. The SOC preparation provides a valuable conditioning model for assessing ethanol’s motivational effects across ontogeny. PMID:18782343

  8. Combat veterans with comorbid PTSD and mild TBI exhibit a greater inhibitory processing ERP from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C

    2014-10-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among combat personnel with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While patients with either PTSD or mTBI share abnormal activation of multiple frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity during inhibitory processing may be particularly affected by PTSD. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded electroencephalography from 32 combat veterans with mTBI-17 of whom were also comorbid for PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) and 15 without PTSD (mTBI-only). Subjects performed the Stop Task, a validated inhibitory control task requiring inhibition of initiated motor responses. We observed a larger inhibitory processing eventrelated potential (ERP) in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N200 negativity. Furthermore, greater N200 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity. This correlation was most dependent on contributions from the dorsal ACC. Support vector machine analysis demonstrated that N200 and P300 amplitudes objectively classified veterans into mTBI-only or mTBI+PTSD groups with 79.4% accuracy. Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with mTBI, larger ERPs from cingulate areas are associated with greater PTSD severity and likely related to difficulty controlling ongoing brain processes, including trauma-related thoughts and feelings. PMID:25150386

  9. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  10. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O; Kraut, Michael A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n = 25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomic regions compared with control participants who remained cognitively normal (n = 96). Based on 8 years of annual magnetic resonance imaging scans beginning an average of 11 years before onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared with controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the 2 study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  11. Inviting Learning: An Exhibition of Risk and Enrichment in Adult Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    This study explores adult education practice by using an expressive research method based on using the metaphor of an exhibition as a vehicle for presenting and reflecting on seven episodes in the researcher's two decades of teaching at various locations throughout Australia. In accordance with the metaphor, the study report contains the following…

  12. Medial-Lateral Postural Control in Older Adults Exhibits Increased Stiffness and Damping

    PubMed Central

    Cenciarini, Massimo; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Sparto, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults often exhibit increased co-contraction in response to a balance perturbation. This response is generally thought to enhance stability by increasing joint stiffness. We investigated the issue of increased stiffness in postural control by exposing seven older (75 ±5 y) and ten young (24 ± 3 y) adults to pseudo-random medial-lateral (ML) floor tilts, and then fitting the measured ML body sway data to a previously-developed postural control model that includes stiffness and damping parameters. Significant increases were found in both parameters in the older adults compared to the young adults. This concurrent increase in stiffness and damping is more stabilizing than an increase in stiffness alone, which can lead to resonances. PMID:19964728

  13. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit to reach out to a young adult audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith

    2010-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. In 2010, an extended version of this exhibit will appear in a New York City venue that is accessible to a large and diverse cross section of the general public. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  14. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP) and a matched control group (CG). The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice. PMID:23304217

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Infants Born to Obese Mothers Exhibit Greater Potential for Adipogenesis: The Healthy Start BabyBUMP Project.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kristen E; Patinkin, Zachary W; Shapiro, Allison L B; Baker, Peter R; Dabelea, Dana; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-03-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk for pediatric obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms in human infants remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from infants born to obese mothers would demonstrate greater potential for adipogenesis and less potential for myogenesis, driven by differences in β-catenin, a regulator of MSC commitment. MSCs were cultured from the umbilical cords of infants born to normal-weight (prepregnancy [pp] BMI 21.1 ± 0.3 kg/m(2); n = 15; NW-MSCs) and obese mothers (ppBMI 34.6 ± 1.0 kg/m(2); n = 14; Ob-MSCs). Upon differentiation, Ob-MSCs exhibit evidence of greater adipogenesis (+30% Oil Red O stain [ORO], +50% peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ protein; P < 0.05) compared with NW-MSCs. In undifferentiated cells, total β-catenin protein content was 10% lower and phosphorylated Thr41Ser45/total β-catenin was 25% higher (P < 0.05) in Ob-MSCs versus NW-MSCs (P < 0.05). Coupled with 25% lower inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β in Ob-MSCs (P < 0.05), these data suggest greater β-catenin degradation in Ob-MSCs. Lithium chloride inhibition of GSK-3β increased nuclear β-catenin content and normalized nuclear PPAR-γ in Ob-MSCs. Last, ORO in adipogenic differentiating cells was positively correlated with the percent fat mass in infants (r = 0.475; P < 0.05). These results suggest that altered GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in MSCs of infants exposed to maternal obesity may have important consequences for MSC lineage commitment, fetal fat accrual, and offspring obesity risk. PMID:26631736

  16. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  17. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  18. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  19. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  20. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  1. Neocortical slices from adult chronic epileptic rats exhibit discharges of higher voltages and broader spread.

    PubMed

    Serafini, R; Dettloff, S; Loeb, J A

    2016-05-13

    Much of the current understanding of epilepsy mechanisms has been built on data recorded with one or a few electrodes from temporal lobe slices of normal young animals stimulated with convulsants. Mechanisms of adult, extratemporal, neocortical chronic epilepsy have not been characterized as much. A more advanced understanding of epilepsy mechanisms can be obtained by recording epileptiform discharges simultaneously from multiple points of an epileptic focus so as to define their sites of initiation and pathways of spreading. Brain slice recordings can characterize epileptic mechanisms in a simpler, more controlled preparation than in vivo. Yet, the intrinsic hyper-excitability of a chronic epileptic focus may not be entirely preserved in slices following the severing of connections in slice preparation. This study utilizes recordings of multiple electrode arrays to characterize which features of epileptic hyper-excitability present in in vivo chronic adult neocortical epileptic foci are preserved in brain slices. After tetanus toxin somatosensory cortex injections, adult rats manifest chronic spontaneous epileptic discharges both in the injection site (primary focus) and in the contralateral side (secondary focus). We prepared neocortical slices from these epileptic animals. When perfused with 4-Aminopyridine in a magnesium free medium, epileptic rat slices exhibit higher voltage discharges and broader spreading than control rat slices. Rates of discharges are similar in slices of epileptic and normal rats, however. Ictal and interictal discharges are distributed over most cortical layers, though with significant differences between primary and secondary foci. A chronic neocortical epileptic focus in slices does not show increased spontaneous pacemakers initiating epileptic discharges but shows discharges with higher voltages and broader spread, consistent with an enhanced synchrony of cellular and synaptic generators over wider surfaces. PMID:26892299

  2. Development and Characterization of Novel Derivatives of the Antiepileptic Drug Lacosamide That Exhibit Far Greater Enhancement in Slow Inactivation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug (R)-N-benzyl 2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((R)-lacosamide, Vimpat ((R)-1)) was recently approved in the United States and Europe for adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. (R)-1 preferentially enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ currents, a pharmacological process relevant in the hyperexcitable neuron. We have advanced a strategy to identify lacosamide binding partners by attaching affinity bait (AB) and chemical reporter (CR) groups to (R)-1 to aid receptor detection and isolation. We showed that select lacosamide AB and AB&CR derivatives exhibited excellent activities similar to (R)-1 in the maximal electroshock seizure model in rodents. Here, we examined the effect of these lacosamide AB and AB&CR derivatives and compared them with (R)-1 on Na+ channel function in central nervous system (CNS) catecholaminergic (CAD) cells. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the test compounds do not affect the Na+ channel fast inactivation process, that they were far better modulators of slow inactivation than (R)-1, and that modulation of the slow inactivation process was stereospecific. The lacosamide AB agents that contained either an electrophilic isothiocyanate ((R)-5) or a photolabile azide ((R)-8) unit upon AB activation gave modest levels of permanent Na+ channel slow inactivation, providing initial evidence that these compounds may have covalently reacted with their cognate receptor(s). Our findings support the further use of these agents to delineate the (R)-1-mediated Na+ channel slow inactivation process. PMID:21532923

  3. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  4. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  5. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  6. Maternal choline supplementation programs greater activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway in adult Ts65Dn trisomic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Powers, Brian; Alldred, Melissa J; Saltzman, Arthur; Strupp, Barbara J; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-10-01

    Maternal choline supplementation (MCS) induces lifelong cognitive benefits in the Ts65Dn mouse, a trisomic mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that MCS alters choline metabolism in adult Ts65Dn offspring. Deuterium-labeled methyl-d9-choline was administered to adult Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) female littermates born to choline-unsupplemented or choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams. Enrichment of d9-choline metabolites (derived from intact choline) and d3 + d6-choline metabolites [produced when choline-derived methyl groups are used by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] was measured in harvested tissues. Adult offspring (both Ts65Dn and 2N) of choline-supplemented (vs. choline-unsupplemented) dams exhibited 60% greater (P≤0.007) activity of hepatic PEMT, which functions in de novo choline synthesis and produces phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched in docosahexaenoic acid. Higher (P<0.001) enrichment of PEMT-derived d3 and d6 metabolites was detected in liver, plasma, and brain in both genotypes but to a greater extent in the Ts65Dn adult offspring. MCS also yielded higher (P<0.05) d9 metabolite enrichments in liver, plasma, and brain. These data demonstrate that MCS exerts lasting effects on offspring choline metabolism, including up-regulation of the hepatic PEMT pathway and enhanced provision of choline and PEMT-PC to the brain. PMID:24963152

  7. Diet Selection Exhibited by Juvenile and Adult Lifestages of the Omnivores Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus and Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus lineolaris

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, James R.; Jackson, C. Glen; Blackmer, Jacquelyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Lygus hesperus Knight and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) are economically important plant bugs on many crops worldwide. However, these omnivores are also facultative predators on a wide variety of insects. This study was conducted to quantify and compare herbivory and carnivory exhibited among different lifestages of these two insect pests. The feeding activity of a total of 422 individuals was observed for 1 h each in feeding arenas containing a cotton leaf disk and copious amounts of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) eggs, nymphs and adults. The L. hesperus and L. lineolaris lifestages examined included adults and 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nymphs. Plant feeding occupied the majority of both species' time budget, regardless of the species or lifestage examined. There was a tendency for L. lineolaris lifestages to feed more often and for longer duration on plant tissue than L. hesperus. All lifestages of both species rarely fed on B. tabaci, but when they did, they preferred nymphs > adults > eggs. There were only a few cases where there were significant differences in predation rates and prey handling times exhibited among lifestages and between species, but juvenile L. hesperus tended to be more predaceous than juvenile L. lineolaris on whitefly nymphs and adults and 5thinstar and adult L. lineolaris were significantly more herbaceous than their L. hesperus counterparts. In addition, the younger individuals of both species tended to have greater prey handling times than their older counterparts. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:20879921

  8. Pain hypervigilance is associated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced experimental pain sensitivity among adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Matthew S.; Goodin, Burel R.; Pero, Samuel T.; Schmidt, Jessica K.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Bulls, Hailey W.; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain hypervigilance is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may help explain individual differences in pain sensitivity among persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of pain hypervigilance to clinical pain severity and experimental pain sensitivity in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 168 adults with symptomatic knee OA. Quantitative sensory testing was used to measure sensitivity to heat pain, pressure pain, and cold pain, as well as temporal summation of heat pain, a marker of central sensitization. Results Pain hypervigilance was associated with greater clinical pain severity, as well as greater pressure pain. Pain hypervigilance was also a significant predictor of temporal summation of heat pain. Conclusions Pain hypervigilance may be an important contributor to pain reports and experimental pain sensitivity among persons with knee OA. PMID:24352850

  9. Fear of Injury With Physical Activity Is Greater in Adults With Diabetes Than in Adults Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, Amy G.; Crane, Lori A.; Belansky, Elaine S.; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity is a cornerstone of treatment for diabetes, yet people with diabetes perform less moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than people without diabetes. In contrast, whether differences in walking activity exist has been understudied. Diabetes-specific barriers to physical activity are one possible explanation for lower MVPA in diabetes. We hypothesized that people with diabetes would perform less walking and combined MVPA and would be less likely to anticipate increasing physical activity if barriers were theoretically absent, compared with people without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We surveyed 1,848 randomly selected rural Colorado adult residents by telephone from 2002 to 2004. Respondents reported weekly walking and MVPA duration and their likelihood of increasing physical activity if each of seven barriers was theoretically absent. RESULTS People with diabetes (n = 129) had lower odds of walking and MVPA than people without diabetes (walking: adjusted odds ratio 0.62 [95% CI 0.40–0.95]; MVPA: adjusted odds ratio 0.60 [0.36–0.99]; ≥10 vs. <10 min/week, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and ethnicity). Respondents with diabetes reported fear of injury as a barrier to physical activity more often than respondents without diabetes (56 vs. 39%; P = 0.0002), although this relationship was attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI (adjusted odds ratio 1.36 [0.93–1.99]). CONCLUSIONS Although walking is a preferred form of activity in diabetes, people with diabetes walk less than people without diabetes. Reducing fear of injury may potentially increase physical activity for people with diabetes, particularly in older and more overweight individuals. PMID:21700920

  10. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  11. Imatinib Treatment Causes Substantial Transcriptional Changes in Adult Schistosoma mansoni In Vitro Exhibiting Pleiotropic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Katia C.; Dissous, Colette; Cailliau, Katia; Marhöfer, Richard J.; Selzer, Paul M.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs) demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec). Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common targets. Conclusions

  12. Self-Concept, Anxiety, and Knowledge Exhibited by Adult Children of Alcoholics and Adult Children of Non Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Wanda; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared 59 adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and 175 adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) on self-concept, anxiety, and their knowledge of ACOA issues. Found no significant differences on self-concept and knowledge of ACOA issues. Significant differences were found on levels of anxiety, such that ACOAs had higher anxiety levels than did…

  13. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  14. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults. PMID:27440532

  15. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  16. A Study of the Post-Secondary Educational Needs of Adults in the Greater Tuscaloosa (Alabama) Area. Research Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Thomas G.; Diener, Thomas J.

    A 1975 survey of adults (over 18 years old) in the Greater Tuscaloosa, Alabama area was conducted by the University of Alabama Committee on Adult and Part-Time Students, to assess opinions and attitudes on post-secondary educational opportunities and programs within the local area. From a random sample of approximately 400 individuals listed in…

  17. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower 10-y risk of CHD and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Design: In a cross-sectional study of ≈1200 Puerto Rican adults aged 45–75 y, we assessed FV intake with a food-frequency questionnaire. The 10-y risk of CHD was assessed with the Framingham risk score (FRS) in participants free of cardiovascular disease. CRP was measured in fasting serum. Results: Variety, but not quantity, of FV intake was inversely associated with FRS after adjustment for the following: sex; waist circumference; perceived stress; alcohol use; intakes of energy, trans fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids; and use of supplements, cardiovascular medications, and diabetes medications (P = 0.02). However, the association was attenuated after adjustment for income (P = 0.11). Variety, but not quantity, was associated with a lower serum CRP concentration after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, servings of FV, white blood cell count, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication use, intakes of energy and vitamin B-6, waist circumference, perceived stress, and income. The adjusted odds of a high CRP concentration for those in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of FV variety was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.94). Conclusions: FV variety, but not quantity, appears to be important in reducing inflammation. Although the results are suggestive, larger studies are needed to confirm a possible association with CHD risk score. PMID:21068354

  18. Self-assembled smooth muscle cell tissue rings exhibit greater tensile strength than cell-seeded fibrin or collagen gel rings

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Olufunmilayo; Gwyther, Tracy A.; Hu, Jason Z.; Billiar, Kristen L.; Rolle, Marsha W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we created self-assembled smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue rings (comprised entirely of cells and cell-derived matrix; CDM) and compared their structure and material properties with tissue rings created from SMC-seeded fibrin or collagen gels. All tissue rings were cultured statically for 7 days in supplemented growth medium (with ε-amino caproic acid, ascorbic acid, and insulin-transferrin-selenium), prior to uniaxial tensile testing and histology. Self-assembled CDM rings exhibited ultimate tensile strength and stiffness values that were two-fold higher than fibrin gel and collagen gel rings. Tensile testing of CDM, fibrin gel and collagen gel rings treated with deionized water to lyse cells showed little to no change in mechanical properties relative to untreated ring samples, indicating that the ECM dominates the measured ring mechanics. In addition, CDM rings cultured in supplemented growth medium were significantly stronger than CDM rings cultured in standard, unsupplemented growth medium. These results illustrate the potential utility of self-assembled cell rings as model CDM constructs for tissue engineering and biomechanical analysis of ECM material properties. PMID:22865465

  19. Thalamocortical Projections onto Behaviorally Relevant Neurons Exhibit Plasticity during Adult Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Biane, Jeremy S; Takashima, Yoshio; Scanziani, Massimo; Conner, James M; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-03-16

    Layer 5 neurons of the neocortex receive direct and relatively strong input from the thalamus. However, the intralaminar distribution of these inputs and their capacity for plasticity in adult animals are largely unknown. In slices of the primary motor cortex (M1), we simultaneously recorded from pairs of corticospinal neurons associated with control of distinct motor outputs: distal forelimb versus proximal forelimb. Activation of ChR2-expressing thalamocortical afferents in M1 before motor learning produced equivalent responses in monosynaptic excitation of neurons controlling the distal and proximal forelimb, suggesting balanced thalamic input at baseline. Following skilled grasp training, however, thalamocortical input shifted to bias activation of corticospinal neurons associated with control of the distal forelimb. This increase was associated with a cell-specific increase in mEPSC amplitude but not presynaptic release probability. These findings demonstrate distinct and highly segregated plasticity of thalamocortical projections during adult learning. PMID:26948893

  20. The fetal/neonatal mouse liver exhibits transcriptional features of the adult pancreas.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics through the expression of xenobiotic metabolism enxymes (XME). The fetus and neonate have been hypothesized to exhibit increased sensitivity to xenobiotic toxicity. T...

  1. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1× B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF. PMID:26511158

  2. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  3. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-relat...

  4. EEC- and ADULT-associated TP63 mutations exhibit functional heterogeneity toward P63 responsive sequences.

    PubMed

    Monti, Paola; Russo, Debora; Bocciardi, Renata; Foggetti, Giorgia; Menichini, Paola; Divizia, Maria T; Lerone, Margherita; Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Viadiu, Hector; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto

    2013-06-01

    TP63 germ-line mutations are responsible for a group of human ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, underlining the key role of P63 in the development of ectoderm-derived tissues. Here, we report the identification of two TP63 alleles, G134V (p.Gly173Val) and insR155 (p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg), associated to ADULT and EEC syndromes, respectively. These alleles, along with previously identified G134D (p.Gly173Asp) and R204W (p.Arg243Trp), were functionally characterized in yeast, studied in a mammalian cell line and modeled based on the crystal structure of the P63 DNA-binding domain. Although the p.Arg243Trp mutant showed both complete loss of transactivation function and ability to interfere over wild-type P63, the impact of p.Gly173Asp, p.Gly173Val, and p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg varied depending on the response element (RE) tested. Interestingly, p.Gly173Asp and p.Gly173Val mutants were characterized by a severe defect in transactivation along with interfering ability on two DN-P63α-specific REs derived from genes closely related to the clinical manifestations of the TP63-associated syndromes, namely PERP and COL18A1. The modeling of the mutations supported the distinct functional effect of each mutant. The present results highlight the importance of integrating different functional endpoints that take in account the features of P63 proteins' target sequences to examine the impact of TP63 mutations and the associated clinical variability. PMID:23463580

  5. Human Adult Retinal Pigment Epithelial Stem Cell–Derived RPE Monolayers Exhibit Key Physiological Characteristics of Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsop, Timothy A.; Saini, Janmeet S.; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Bharti, Kapil; Wan, Qin; Banzon, Tina; Lotfi, Mostafa; Davis, Janine; Singh, Deepti; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.; Miller, Sheldon; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We tested what native features have been preserved with a new culture protocol for adult human RPE. Methods We cultured RPE from adult human eyes. Standard protocols for immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, electrophysiology, fluid transport, and ELISA were used. Results Confluent monolayers of adult human RPE cultures exhibit characteristics of native RPE. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated polarized expression of RPE markers. Electron microscopy illustrated characteristics of native RPE. The mean transepithelial potential (TEP) was 1.19 ± 0.24 mV (mean ± SEM, n = 31), apical positive, and the mean transepithelial resistance (RT) was 178.7 ± 9.9 Ω·cm2 (mean ± SEM, n = 31). Application of 100 μM adenosine triphosphate (ATP) apically increased net fluid absorption (Jv) by 6.11 ± 0.53 μL·cm2·h−1 (mean ± SEM, n = 6) and TEP by 0.33 ± 0.048 mV (mean ± SEM, n = 25). Gene expression of cultured RPE was comparable to native adult RPE (n = 5); however, native RPE RNA was harvested between 24 and 40 hours after death and, therefore, may not accurately reflect healthy native RPE. Vascular endothelial growth factor secreted preferentially basally 2582 ± 146 pg/mL/d, compared to an apical secretion of 1548 ± 162 pg/mL/d (n = 14, P < 0.01), while PEDF preferentially secreted apically 1487 ± 280 ng/mL/d compared to a basolateral secretion of 864 ± 132 ng/mL/d (n = 14, P < 0.01). Conclusions The new culture model preserves native RPE morphology, electrophysiology, and gene and protein expression patterns, and may be a useful model to study RPE physiology, disease, and transplantation. PMID:26540654

  6. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. PMID:26313023

  7. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses utilizing Network-Based Statistics (Zalesky et al., 2010) revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health, and well-being. PMID:25852521

  8. Murine mesenchymal stem cells transplanted to the central nervous system of neonatal versus adult mice exhibit distinct engraftment kinetics and express receptors that guide neuronal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Donald G; Baddoo, Melody; Dutreil, Maria; Gaupp, Dina; Lai, Wen Tzu; Isakova, Iryna A

    2006-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated efficacy as cellular vectors for treating a variety of nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, few studies have quantified MSC engraftment levels or explored the mechanisms that promote their survival and migration in nervous tissue. In this study, we compared the engraftment kinetics and anatomical distribution of murine, male MSCs injected intracranially into neonatal versus adult female mice using a real-time PCR assay that targets the mouse SRY gene. These analyses revealed that MSCs exhibited low but equivalent engraftment levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of neonatal and adult transplant recipients at 12 days post-injection. However, MSC engraftment levels were significantly greater at 60 and 150 days post-transplantation in neonates as compared to adults. Despite these differences, engrafted MSCs were widely distributed along the neuraxis of the CNS in both transplant groups. Collectively, these data indicate that proliferation, but not engraftment and migration, of MSCs in brain are regulated by the host microenvironment. Using a genomics approach, we also identified MSC subpopulations that express neural adhesion proteins and receptors that regulate neuronal cell migration in brain, including cadherin 2, neurexin 1, ninjurin 1, neogenin 1, neuropilin 2, and roundabout homolog 1 and 4. Functional studies indicate these proteins confer cell adhesion and migration of MSCs in response to the appropriate chemoattractant. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the unique molecular composition of MSC subpopulations imparts to them an inherent capacity to engraft and migrate in brain. These subpopulations may represent more potent cellular vectors for treating CNS disorders. PMID:16846379

  9. Startle response memory and hippocampal changes in adult zebrafish pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Julian T; Lott, Chad S

    2014-01-17

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular animal model for neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. While startle testing is a well-established assay to investigate anxiety-like behaviors in different species, screening of the startle response and its habituation in zebrafish is a new direction of translational biomedical research. This study focuses on a novel behavioral protocol to assess a tapping-induced startle response and its habituation in adult zebrafish that have been pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors. We demonstrated that zebrafish exhibit robust learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a modified plus maze, and showed that ethanol and fluoxetine impair memory performance in this maze when administered after training at a dose that does not impair motor function, however, leads to significant upregulation of hippocampal serotoninergic neurons. These results suggest that the maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become a translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory changes associated with psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety/depression. PMID:24184510

  10. Greater effect of adiposity than physical activity or lean mass on physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christie L; Valentine, Rudy J; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-04-01

    Adiposity, lean mass, and physical activity (PA) are known to influence physical function in older adults, although the independent influences are not completely characterized. Older adults (N = 156, M age = 68.9 ± 6.7 yr, 85 men) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, PA by accelerometer, and physical function via timed up-and-go (UP&GO), 30-s chair stand, 6-min walk (6-min WALK), and Star-Excursion Balance Test. In the absence of percentage-body-fat by PA interactions (p > .05), main effects existed such that a higher percentage body fat was associated with poorer performance in UP&GO, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min WALK (p < .05). No significant main effects were found for PA and functional performance. Adiposity explains 4.6-11.4% in physical functional variance (p < .05). Preventing increases in adiposity with age may help older adults maintain functional independence. PMID:23799829

  11. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Mildenstein, Kurt; Hunter, Kordell; Tkachenko, Olena; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 exhibited higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases. The results suggest the hypothesis that the more aggressive behavior of Ly6a/Sca-1 expressing leukemias is due at least in part to greater capacity to degrade microenvironmental stroma and invade tissues. PMID:24586463

  12. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  13. Greater Discounting of Delayed Rewards in Young Adults with Family Histories of Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Vincent, Andrea S.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Lovallo, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased discounting of delayed rewards may be a premorbid characteristic and possible risk factor for alcohol and other drug use disorders; however, previous studies have found no or minimal differences in delay discounting in individuals at risk for substance use disorders based on family history. It is possible that increased delay discounting may be more closely associated with antisocial traits, evident in a subset of individuals with positive family histories of alcohol and drug use disorders, and that previous studies were underpowered for detecting subtle to modest overall group differences. Methods In this study, we compared 143 young adults with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) and 155 young adults with no such histories (FH−) on delay discounting and subsequently examined how delay discounting was related to antisocial traits and other selected psychological and demographic variables. Results The FH+ group discounted delayed rewards more than the FH− group. Subsequent analyses revealed that increased delay discounting was correlated with having more parents and grandparents with alcohol and drug use disorders, more antisocial traits, more depressive tendencies and lower IQs, and lower income. After controlling for all these relationships, more antisocial traits and lower IQ still predicted greater delay discounting, and subsequent analysis revealed that the greater delay discounting in the FH+ group was mediated by this group’s greater number of individuals with antisocial traits. Conclusion FH+ individuals who discount delayed rewards more may be at increased risk for developing alcohol and other drug use disorders; however, additional descriptive studies and longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:21599715

  14. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  15. Three-dimensional scaffolds of fetal decellularized hearts exhibit enhanced potential to support cardiac cells in comparison to the adult.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, J; Nunes, A M; Sampaio-Pinto, V; Resende, T P; Oliveira, M J; Barbosa, M A; Thorsteinsdóttir, S; Nascimento, D S; Pinto-do-Ó, P

    2016-10-01

    A main challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the limited data on microenvironmental cues that sustain survival, proliferation and functional proficiency of cardiac cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of fetal (E18) and adult myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cardiac cells. Acellular three-dimensional (3D) bioscaffolds were obtained by parallel decellularization of fetal- and adult-heart explants thereby ensuring reliable comparison. Acellular scaffolds retained main constituents of the cardiac ECM including distinctive biochemical and structural meshwork features of the native equivalents. In vitro, fetal and adult ECM-matrices supported 3D culture of heart-derived Sca-1(+) progenitors and of neonatal cardiomyocytes, which migrated toward the center of the scaffold and displayed elongated morphology and excellent viability. At the culture end-point, more Sca-1(+) cells and cardiomyocytes were found adhered and inside fetal bioscaffolds, compared to the adult. Higher repopulation yields of Sca-1(+) cells on fetal ECM relied on β1-integrin independent mitogenic signals. Sca-1(+) cells on fetal bioscaffolds showed a gene expression profile that anticipates the synthesis of a permissive microenvironment for cardiomyogenesis. Our findings demonstrate the superior potential of the 3D fetal microenvironment to support and instruct cardiac cells. This knowledge should be integrated in the design of next-generation biomimetic materials for heart repair. PMID:27424216

  16. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  17. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  18. Expiratory-modulated laryngeal motoneurons exhibit a hyperpolarization preceding depolarization during superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in the in vivo adult rat.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Tara G; Sun, Qi-Jian; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2012-03-22

    Swallowing requires the sequential activation of tongue, pharyngeal and esophageal muscles to propel the food bolus towards the stomach. Aspiration during swallow is prevented by adduction of the vocal cords during the oropharyngeal phase. Expiratory-modulated laryngeal motoneurons (ELM) exhibit a burst of action potentials during swallows elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Here we sought to investigate changes in membrane potential in ELM during superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in the anaesthetised, in vivo adult rat preparation. Intracellular recordings of ELM in the caudal nucleus ambiguus (identified by antidromic activation from the recurrent laryngeal nerve) demonstrated that ELM bursting activity following SLN stimulation is associated with a depolarization that is preceded by a small hyperpolarization. During spontaneous ELM bursts, the preceding hyperpolarization separated the bursting activity from its usual post-inspiratory activity. These findings demonstrate that the in vivo adult rat preparation is suitable for the study of swallow-related activity in laryngeal motoneurons. PMID:22326041

  19. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  20. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  1. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  2. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  3. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  4. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein (Savelyeva et al., 2006). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. (Medrihan et al., 2009; Savelyeva, Sagulenko, Schmitt, & Schwab, 2006). rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian and human neurobeachin. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the EGFR and Notch mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross-talk between these and other pathways (Shamloula et al., 2002). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila neurobeachin (rugose) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26100104

  5. Myopes experience greater contrast adaptation during reading.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Colm; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina; Engel, Stephen A; Mallen, Edward A H; Allen, Peter M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether reading influences contrast adaptation differently in young adult emmetropic and myopic participants at the spatial frequencies created by text rows and character strokes. Pre-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured for test gratings with spatial frequencies of 1cdeg(-1) and 4cdeg(-1), presented horizontally and vertically. Participants then adapted to reading text corresponding to the horizontal "row frequency" of text (1cdeg(-1)), and vertical "stroke frequency" of the characters (4cdeg(-1)) for 180s. Following this, post-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured. Twenty young adults (10 myopes, 10 emmetropes) optimally corrected for the viewing distance participated. There was a significant reduction in logCS post-text adaptation (relative to pre-adaptation logCS) at the row frequency (1cdeg(-1) horizontal) but not at the stroke frequency (4cdeg(-1) vertical). logCS changes due to adaptation at 1cdeg(-1) horizontal were significant in both emmetropes and myopes. Comparing the two refractive groups, myopic participants showed significantly greater adaptation compared to emmetropic participants. Reading text on a screen induces contrast adaptation in young adult observers. Myopic participants were found to exhibit greater contrast adaptation than emmetropes at the spatial frequency corresponding to the text row frequency. No contrast adaptation was observed at the text stroke frequency in either participant group. The greater contrast adaptation experienced by myopes after reading warrants further investigation to better understand the relationship between near work and myopia development. PMID:26804636

  6. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  7. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  8. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  9. Electrical and Pharmacological Stimuli Reveal a Greater Susceptibility for CA3 Network Excitability in Hippocampal Slices from Aged vs. Adult Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Jones, Ryan T.; Tokhi, Ashish; Willingham, Amy L.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Rose, Gregory M.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies in rats have shown that the aged CNS is more susceptible to the proconvulsive effects of the excitotoxic glutamate analogues kainate (KA) and domoate (DA), which bind high-affinity receptors localized at mossy fiber (MF) synapses in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus. Although decreased renal clearance appears to play a role in the hypersensitivity of the aged hippocampus to systemically-administered DA, it is unclear if the excitability of the CA3 network is also altered with age. Therefore, this study monitored CA3 field potential activity in hippocampal slices from aged and adult male Fischer 344 rats in response to electrical and pharmacological network stimulation targeted to the MF-CA3 circuit. Network challenges with repetitive hilar stimulation or bath application of nanomolar concentrations of KA more readily elicited excitable network activity (e.g. population spike facilitation, multiple population spikes, and epileptiform bursts) in slices from aged vs. adult rats, although basal network excitability was comparable between age groups. Additionally, exposure to 200 nM KA often abolished epileptiform activity and revealed theta or gamma oscillations instead. However, slices from aged rats were less sensitive to the rhythmogenic effects of 200 nM KA. Taken together, these findings suggest that aging decreases the capacity of the CA3 network to constrain the spread of excitability during focal excitatory network challenges. PMID:22396884

  10. The Instrumented Sit-to-Stand Test (iSTS) Has Greater Clinical Relevance than the Manually Recorded Sit-to-Stand Test in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Maier, Andrea B.; Ainsworth, Erik; Beek, Peter J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to rise from sitting to standing is critical to an individual’s quality of life, as it is a prerequisite for functional independence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the hypothesis that test durations as assessed with the instrumented repeated Sit-To-Stand (STS) show stronger associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity of older adults than manually recorded test durations. Methods In 63 older participants (mean age 83 ±6.9 years, 51 female), health status was assessed using the European Quality of Life questionnaire and functional status was assessed using the physical function index of the of the RAND-36. Physical performance was measured using a wearable sensor-based STS test. From this test, durations, sub-durations and kinematics of the STS movements were estimated and analysed. In addition, physical activity was measured for one week using an activity monitor and episodes of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion were identified. Associations between STS parameters with health status, functional status and daily physical activity were assessed. Results The manually recorded STS times were not significantly associated with health status (p = 0.457) and functional status (p = 0.055), whereas the instrumented STS times were (both p = 0.009). The manually recorded STS durations showed a significant association to daily physical activity for mean sitting durations (p = 0.042), but not for mean standing durations (p = 0.230) and mean number of locomotion periods (p = 0.218). Furthermore, durations of the dynamic sit-to-stand phase of the instrumented STS showed more significant associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity (all p = 0.001) than the static phases standing and sitting (p = 0.043–0.422). Conclusions As hypothesized, instrumented STS durations were more strongly associated with participant health status, functional status and physical activity

  11. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  12. Greater change in bone turnover markers for efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy-naive adults over 144 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Tebas, Pablo; Kumar, Princy; Hicks, Charles; Granier, Catherine; Wynne, Brian; Min, Sherene; Pappa, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Antiretroviral therapy initiation has been linked to bone mineral density and bone biomarker changes. We assessed long-term bone turnover biomarker effects over 144 weeks in patients initiating dolutegravir (DTG) + abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF). Methods: Patients randomized in SINGLE received DTG (50 mg once daily) + ABC/3TC or fixed-dose combination EFV/FTC/TDF. We evaluated vitamin D serum levels and bone turnover markers (BTMs), including type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), at baseline and weeks 48, 96, and 144. Results: Among the 833 enrolled patients (68% white, 85% men), baseline median age was 35 years (range 18–85), median CD4+ was 338 cells/μl, and median BMI was 24 kg/m2. Fifty-three percent of patients smoked, and 6% reported baseline vitamin D use, with no meaningful differences between groups. Relative to baseline, CTx, osteocalcin, BSAP, and P1NP increased; vitamin D decreased in both groups at weeks 48, 96, and 144. Changes from baseline typically peaked at weeks 48 or 96 and for the four analytes, excluding vitamin D, with the EFV/FTC/TDF group having significantly greater changes from baseline at all time points. Conclusion: DTG + ABC/3TC in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients resulted in significantly lower increases in BTMs (CTx, osteocalcin, BSAP, P1NP) compared with EFV/FTC/TDF over 144 weeks. The observed changes are consistent with results from other smaller, randomized trials. These differences in BTMs likely correlate with changes in bone mineral density over time. PMID:26355674

  13. Circulating kisspeptin levels exhibit sexual dimorphism in adults, are increased in obese prepubertal girls and do not suffer modifications in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Pita, Jimena; Barrios, Vicente; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Pozo, Jesús; Rovira, Adela; Argente, Jesús; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro

    2011-09-01

    The system KISS1-KISS1R is one of the main regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and constitutes a link between metabolism and reproduction through its interaction with leptin. The aim of this study was to clarify the possible utility of kisspeptin as a pubertal marker and/or the possible influence of nutritional status in kisspeptin levels. To this end, we have studied kisspeptin plasma levels throughout sexual development and in prepubertal obese girls and girls affected by idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP). Plasma kisspeptin concentrations were analyzed by RIA. An increase in kisspeptin levels was observed in adult females compared to healthy prepubertal and pubertal girls (p<0.001) and to adult males (p<0.001). Additionally, kisspeptin was increased in prepubertal obese girls compared to healthy prepubertal girls (p<0.01) and girls with idiopathic CPP (p<0.05). As revealed by the regression analysis, in prepubertal healthy and obese girls and girls with idiopathic CCP, the parameters that influenced kisspeptin levels were BMI (R(2)=0.10, p<0.05) and leptin levels (R(2)=0.14, p<0.01). In conclusion, kisspeptin levels do not seem to be a good pubertal marker. The results obtained in prepubertal and idiopathic CCP girls point to a relationship between leptin, BMI and kisspeptin at least in this group, and suggest a possible role for adipose tissue in the modulation kisspeptin synthesis. PMID:21827808

  14. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  15. A brominated-fluorene insect neuropeptide analog exhibits pyrokinin/PBAN-specific toxicity for adult females of the tobacco budworm moth.

    PubMed

    Teal, Peter E A; Nachman, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    An analog of the insect pyrokinin/PBAN class of neuropeptides, which features a 2-amino7-bromofluorene attached to the carboxy-terminal bioactive core of the insect pyrokinin/PBAN class of neuropeptides (Phe-Thr-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH(2)), via a succinnic acid linker, was tested in adult H. virescens moths. This analog was found to induce pheromone production when injected into or applied topically to moths. Topical application of as much as 1 nmol of the analog to moths induced production of significant amounts of pheromone for only 1-2 h, whereas injection of 500 pmol induced pheromone production for up to 20 h. All insects died within 24 h after injection of 500 pmol of the analog. Mortality studies indicated that the LD(50) for the analog was 0.7 pmol when injected. A non-pyrokinin/PBAN peptide analog formed by attachment of 2-amino-7-bromofluorene to Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-NH(2) (via the succinnic acid linker) did not induce mortality when injected at 1 nmol. Similarly no mortality was found when up to 2 nmol of an analog containing a non-brominated fluorene ring, formed by attachment of 9-fluoreneacetic acid to Phe-Thr-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH(2,) was injected into moths. The data indicated that both the bromine and active core of the pyrokinin neuropeptides (Phe-Thr-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH(2)) were critical for a specific toxic action and suggested that the brominated analog poisoned the moths by interacting with pyrokinin receptors. PMID:11897401

  16. Zinc-Oxide Nanoparticles Exhibit Genotoxic, Clastogenic, Cytotoxic and Actin Depolymerization Effects by Inducing Oxidative Stress Responses in Macrophages and Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Das, Ishani; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Sahu, Rojalin; Sonawane, Avinash

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have wide biological applications, which have raised serious concerns about their impact on the health and environment. Although, various studies have shown ZnO-NP toxicity on different cells underin vitroconditions, sufficient information is lacking regarding toxicity and underlying mechanisms underin vivoconditions. In this work, we investigated genotoxic, clastogenic, and cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs on macrophages and in adult mice. ZnO-NP-treated mice showed signs of toxicity such as loss in body weight, passive behavior and reduced survival. Further mechanistic studies revealed that administration of higher dose caused severe DNA damage in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells as evident by the formation of COMET tail, micronuclei, chromosomal fragmentation, and phosphorylation of H2A histone family member X. Moreover, ZnO-NPs inhibited DNA repair mechanism by downregulating the expression offen-1andpolBproteins. Histopathological examinations showed severe inflammation and damage to liver, lungs, and kidneys. Cell viability and wound healing assays revealed that ZnO-NPs killed macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, caused severe wounds and inhibited cellular migration by irreversible actin depolymerization and degradation. Reduction in the viability of macrophages was due to the arrest of the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, inhibition of superoxide dismutase and catalase and eventually reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, treatment with an antioxidant drug N-acetyl cysteine significantly reduced the ZnO-NP induced genotoxicity bothin vitroandin vivo Altogether, this study gives detailed pathological insights of ZnO-NP that impair cellular functions, thus will enable to arbitrate their biological applications. PMID:26794139

  17. Determinants of Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and Outcome Among Adult Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity and Superficial Trunk Treated With Greater Than Conventional Doses of Perioperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    San Miguel, Inigo; San Julian, Mikel; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Vazquez-Garcia, Blanca; Pagola, Maria; Gaztanaga, Miren; Martin-Algarra, Salvador; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to determine factors predictive of toxicity, patterns of failure, and survival in 60 adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and superficial trunk treated with combined perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The patients were treated with surgical resection and perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (16 or 24 Gy) for negative and close/microscopically positive resection margins, respectively. External beam radiotherapy (45 Gy) was added postoperatively to reach a 2-Gy equivalent dose of 62.9 and 72.3 Gy, respectively. Adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin was given to patients with advanced high-grade tumors. Results: Grade 3 toxic events were observed in 18 patients (30%) and Grade 4 events in 6 patients (10%). No Grade 5 events were observed. A location in the lower limb was significant for Grade 3 or greater toxic events on multivariate analysis (p = .013), and the tissue volume encompassed by the 150% isodose line showed a trend toward statistical significance (p = .086). The local control, locoregional control, and distant control rate at 9 years was 77.4%, 69.5%, and 63.8%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, microscopically involved margins correlated with local control (p = .036) and locoregional control (p = .007) and tumor size correlated with distant metastases (p = .004). The 9-year disease-free survival and overall survival rate was 47.0% and 61.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed poorer disease-free survival rates for patients with tumors >6 cm (p = .005) and microscopically involved margins (p = .043), and overall survival rates decreased with increasing tumor size (p = .011). Conclusions: Grade 3 or greater wound complications can probably be decreased using meticulous treatment planning to decrease the tissue volume encompassed by the 150% isodose line, especially in lower limb locations

  18. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  19. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  20. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  1. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  2. Greater sadness reactivity in late life

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Benjamin H.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Whalen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age. PMID:20650943

  3. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  4. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  5. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  6. San Rafael Schools Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Rafael City Schools, CA.

    The San Rafael City Schools' exhibit which was displayed at the 1983 Marin County Fair (California) is described. The exhibit, entitled "Education - A Real Winner," consisted of 12 display panels illustrating the following aspects of the school system: (1) early history from 1861; (2) present board and administration; (3) present schools and…

  7. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  8. Visitors Center Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  9. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  10. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  11. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  12. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  13. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  14. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  15. Exhibitions in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    During this past year a vast number of art shows have been exhibited across the United States. Their most striking features were their range and diversity. Here are some comments on Ben Shahn's paintings and photography focusing on social realism, some works by the Polish Constructivists, interested in redefining form in relation to space, the…

  16. Fullerene Nanoparticles Exhibit Greater Retention in Freshwater Sediment than in Model Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing production and use of fullerene-based nanomaterials underscore the need to determine their mobility in environmental transport pathways and potential ecological exposures. This study investigated the transport of two fullerenes (i.e., aqu/C(60) and water-soluble C(60) ...

  17. Skylab Exhibit Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A metal strap became tangled over one of the folded solar array panels when Skylab lost its micro meteoroid shield during its launch. Cutters like the ones used to free the solar array were used to cut the ribbon opening to the public a new full-scale Skylab cluster exhibit at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Wielding the cutters are (left to right): Alabama Senator James B. Allen; Marshall Space Flight Center director, Dr. William R. Lucas, Huntsville Mayor, Joe Davis; Madison County Commission Chairman, James Record (standing behind Mayor Davis); and chairman of the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission, Jack Giles. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin used the same type of tool in Earth orbit to cut the aluminum strap which jammed the Skylab solar array.

  18. Trading Accountability for Greater Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Describes the plight of two risk-taking principals who drastically improved their schools' academic performance, only to be defeated by bureaucratic regulations and business-as-usual attitudes. Allowing schools greater flexibility in exchange for increased accountability will free talented teachers and principals to restructure schools and solve…

  19. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  20. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  1. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  2. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  3. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  4. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  5. Neural Correlates of Letter Reversal in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5–12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing. PMID:24859328

  6. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  7. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  8. Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

  9. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

  10. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  11. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  12. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  13. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  14. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson NIH Director Dr. Elias ... addresses visitors to the opening of the exhibition. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson Brothers Niko and Theo ...

  15. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  16. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  17. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  18. Bovine meniscal tissue exhibits age- and interleukin-1 dose-dependent degradation patterns and composition-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Ling, Carrie H-Y; Lai, Janice H; Wong, Ivan J; Levenston, Marc E

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing evidence that meniscal degeneration is an early event in the development of knee osteoarthritis, relatively little is known regarding the sequence or functional implications of cytokine-induced meniscal degradation or how degradation varies with age. This study examined dose-dependent patterns of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced matrix degradation in explants from the radially middle regions of juvenile and adult bovine menisci. Tissue explants were cultured for 10 days in the presence of 0, 1.25, 5, or 20 ng/ml recombinant human IL-1α. Juvenile explants exhibited immediate and extensive sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) loss and subsequent collagen release beginning after 4-6 days, with relatively little IL-1 dose-dependence. Adult explants exhibited a more graded response to IL-1, with dose-dependent sGAG release and a lower fraction of sGAG released (but greater absolute release) than juvenile explants. In contrast to juvenile explants, adult explants exhibited minimal collagen release over the 10-day culture. Compressive and shear moduli reflected the changes in explant composition, with substantial decreases for both ages but a greater relative decrease in juvenile tissue. Dynamic moduli exhibited stronger dependence on explant sGAG content for juvenile tissue, likely reflecting concomitant changes to both proteoglycan and collagen tissue components. The patterns of tissue degradation suggest that, like in articular cartilage, meniscal proteoglycans may partially protect collagen from cell-mediated degeneration. A more detailed view of functional changes in meniscal tissue mechanics with degeneration will help to establish the relevance of in vitro culture models and will advance understanding of how meniscal degeneration contributes to overall joint changes in early stage osteoarthritis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:801-811, 2016. PMID:26519862

  19. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  20. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  1. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  2. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved. PMID:26054305

  3. Exercise vasodilation is greater in women: contributions of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Rebecca E.; Harrell, John W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized exercise vasodilation would be greater in women due to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling. Methods 45 healthy adults (23 women, W, 22 men, M, 26 ± 1 years) completed two 10-min trials of dynamic forearm exercise at 15 % intensity. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound), arterial pressure (brachial catheter), and forearm lean mass were measured to calculate relative forearm vascular conductance (FVCrel) = F BF 100 mmHg−1 100 g−1 lean mass. Local intra-arterial infusion of L-NMMA or ketorolac acutely inhibited NOS and COX, respectively. In Trial 1, the first 5 min served as control exercise (CON), followed by 5 min of L-NMMA or ketorolac over the last 5 min of exercise. In Trial 2, the remaining drug was infused during 5–10 min, to achieve combined NOS–COX inhibition (double blockade, DB). Results Are mean ± SE. Women exhibited 29 % greater vasodilation in CON (AFVCrel, 19 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1, p = 0.01). L-NMMA reduced AFVCrel (p < 0.001) (W: Δ −2.3 ± 1.3 vs. M: Δ −3.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.25); whereas, ketorolac modestly increased ΔFVCrel (p = 0.04) similarly between sexes (W: Δ 1.6 ± 1.1 vs. M: Δ 2.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.78). DB was also found to be similar between the sexes (p = 0.85). Conclusion These data clearly indicate women produce a greater exercise vasodilator response. Furthermore, contrary to experiments in animal models, these data are the first to demonstrate vascular control by NOS and COX is similar between sexes. PMID:25820143

  4. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging. PMID:26982878

  5. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  6. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart disease tends to develop earlier than ... About one in nine men will suffer a cardiac arrest before the age of 70, compared to about ...

  7. When the mind wanders: Distinguishing stimulus-dependent from stimulus-independent thoughts during incidental encoding in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, several studies have indicated that healthy older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering compared with young adults. However, relatively little research has examined the extent to which ongoing thoughts in young and older adults are dependent on environmental stimuli. In the current study, we assessed age-related differences in frequency of stimulus-dependent thoughts (SDTs) and stimulus-independent thoughts (SITs) during a slow-paced incidental encoding task. Based on previous research suggesting that older adults rely on external information to a greater extent than young adults, we hypothesized that ongoing thoughts in older adults may be more stimulus-dependent than in young adults. We found that although older adults reported overall fewer thoughts compared to young adults, they exhibited a reduction in proportion of SITs and an increase in proportion of SDTs. In both age groups, SDTs were more frequently about the past compared with SITs, while SITs were more frequently about the future. Finally, the extent to which both young and older adults reported SDTs, but not SITs, at encoding was positively correlated with how often they reported remembering thoughts at retrieval, and SDT frequency was positively correlated with overall performance on the memory task in older adults. Our results provide evidence that ongoing thoughts in older adults may be more dependent on environmental stimuli than young adults, and that these thoughts may impact performance in recognition tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27294717

  8. Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.

    PubMed

    Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

  9. Longwall - USA: International exhibition & conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Longwall-USA International Exhibition and Conference was held June 4-6, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA. Seventeen papers are included in the proceedings that covered such topics as health and safety, development of gate roads, telemetry monitoring systems, fires, longwall miners, roof support technologies, dust control, moving car bunker systems, reducing longwall noise, vibration of longwall equipment, and the USBM`s strategic structures testing laboratory. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  11. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  12. EEG asymmetry responses to lavender and rosemary aromas in adults and infants.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Chris; Diego, Miguel; Fernandez, Mercedes; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Roca, Amparo

    2002-11-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry shifting from baseline was examined in adults and infants exposed to lavender and rosemary by reanalyzing previously published data, using techniques different from those utilized in the original two studies. Results from Study 1 on 39 adults revealed significant EEG shifting in the lavender group, with greater relative left frontal EEG activation (associated with greater approach behavior and less depressed affect). The participants in the two aroma groups were further grouped by those with greater baseline, relative to left frontal EEG activation, versus those with a greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation. Collapsing across aroma groups, those with greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation, shifted left during the aroma. Those with greater baseline relative to left frontal activation did not change. In the rosemary group, those with greater baseline relative to right frontal EEG activation shifted left during the aroma, while those with greater baselines relative to left frontal EEG activation shifted right. In the lavender group, those with greater baselines relative to right frontal baseline EEG activation shifted left, but those with greater baselines relative to left baseline did not shift. Study 2 on 27 full-term newborns revealed no significant shifts in asymmetry in either aroma group. However, when the aroma groups were collapsed, the right frontal EEG group exhibited significant shifting relative to left frontal EEG activation. This finding was similar to the adult findings, suggesting that either lavender or rosemary may induce left frontal EEG shifting in adults and infants who show greater baselines relative to right frontal EEG activation. PMID:12625191

  13. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  14. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  15. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  16. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  17. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  18. Signal phase switches offer greater dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit, placed in the signal path of a closed-loop receiver to modulate telemetered data in the 10-MHz spectrum, improves signal-to-noise ratio by 3 db in a communication receiver. The switch enables bandwidth reduction which reduces noise overload on the following stages, giving the system greater dynamic range.

  19. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  20. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  1. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  2. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, Lesley; Honda, Harue; Logan, Niall A; Halket, Gillian; La Ragione, Roberto M; McCartney, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    In a study looking at culturable aerobic Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus Bacillus and related bacteria. A total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families Bacillaceae (n=81) and Paenibacillaceae (n=3), with Bacillus species isolated from all donors. Isolates tentatively identified as Bacillus clausii (n=32) and Bacillus licheniformis (n=28) were recovered most frequently, with the genera Lysinibacillus, Ureibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Ornithinibacillus and Virgibacillus represented in some donors. Phenotypic data confirmed the identities of isolates belonging to well-characterized species. Representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria were recovered in much lower numbers (n=11). Many of the bacilli exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more strains of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with some (n=12) found to have no detectable cytopathic effect on HEp-2 cells. This study has revealed greater diversity within gut-associated aerobic spore-formers than previous studies, and suggests that bacilli with potential as probiotics could be isolated from the human gut. PMID:22041546

  3. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  4. Genomic landscape of the Greater Middle East.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Tayfun; Onat, Onur Emre

    2016-08-30

    Study of the Greater Middle East (GME), home to approximately 10% of the world's population, has made invaluable contributions to the characterization of rare genetic disease, especially recessive conditions arising from the tradition of consanguinity and large families with multiple children. A new study now reports 1,111 unrelated exomes from the GME and provides a comprehensive view of genetic variation for enhanced discovery of disease-associated genes. PMID:27573686

  5. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  6. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  7. Cystamine Preparations Exhibit Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Maria M.; Holle, Lori A.; Stember, Katherine G.; Devette, Christa I.; Monroe, Dougald M.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  8. Acute Seizures in Old Age Leads to a Greater Loss of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, an Increased Propensity for Developing Chronic TLE and a Severe Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shetty, Ashok K

    2011-02-01

    The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the

  9. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  11. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  12. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  13. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  14. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  15. Greater emotional empathy and prosocial behavior in late life.

    PubMed

    Sze, Jocelyn A; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films, and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion. PMID:21859198

  16. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  17. GPS assessment of the use of exhibit space and resources by African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Leighty, Katherine A; Soltis, Joseph; Savage, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In public discussions of animal rights and welfare, we as members and proponents of zoological institutions often face significant challenges addressing the concerns of our detractors due to an unfortunate deficiency in systematically collected and published data on the animals in our collections. In the case of elephants, there has been a paucity of information describing their use of space within captive environments. Here, using collar-mounted GPS recording devices, we documented the use of exhibit space and resources by a herd of five adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom((R)). We found that dominant animals within the herd used a greater percentage of the available space and subordinate females avoided narrow or enclosed regions of the enclosure that we termed "restricted flow areas." In their use of other resources, dominant females demonstrated increased occupation of the watering hole over subordinate females, but all females demonstrated relatively equivalent use of the mud wallow. Overall, our results provide preliminary evidence that position within the dominancy hierarchy impacts the percentage of space occupied in a captive setting and may contribute to resource accessibility. These findings can be applied to future decisions on exhibit design and resource distribution for this species. PMID:19418496

  18. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

  19. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  20. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, T. L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N. K.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Yu, C.

    The preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (CGD) of low-level radioactive waste is presented. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives.

  1. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  2. Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD. PMID:23645101

  3. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  4. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  5. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  6. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  7. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  8. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  9. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  10. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  11. Relationship of follicle size and concentrations of estradiol among cows exhibiting or not exhibiting estrus during a fixed-time AI protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows exhibiting estrus near the time of fixed-time AI had greater pregnancy success than cows showing no estrus. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between follicle size and peak estradiol concentration between cows that did or did not exhibit estrus during a fixed-time AI...

  12. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  13. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  14. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  15. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  16. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Increases the Acute Effects of Kainic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sloka S.; LaFrancois, John J.; Friedman, Daniel; Drew, Liam J.; Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Wu, Melody V.; Hsieh, Jenny; Hen, René; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of all mammals, but the functions of these new neurons are not entirely clear. Originally, adult-born neurons were considered to have excitatory effects on the DG network, but recent studies suggest a net inhibitory effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that selective removal of newborn neurons would lead to increased susceptibility to the effects of a convulsant. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the response to the chemoconvulsant kainic acid (KA) in mice with reduced adult neurogenesis, produced either by focal X-irradiation of the DG, or by pharmacogenetic deletion of dividing radial glial precursors. In the first 4 hrs after KA administration, when mice have the most robust seizures, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis had more severe convulsive seizures, exhibited either as a decreased latency to the first convulsive seizure, greater number of convulsive seizures, or longer convulsive seizures. Nonconvulsive seizures did not appear to change or they decreased. Four-21 hrs after KA injection, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis showed more interictal spikes (IIS) and delayed seizures than controls. Effects were greater when the anticonvulsant ethosuximide was injected 30 min prior to KA administration; ethosuximide allows forebrain seizure activity to be more easily examined in mice by suppressing seizures dominated by the brainstem. These data support the hypothesis that reduction of adult-born neurons increases the susceptibility of the brain to effects of KA. PMID:25476494

  17. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. PMID:27270228

  18. Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Kable, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-07-01

    Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and striatum. In contrast, older adults with disadvantageous decision patterns showed reduced or absent activation in the VMPFC and striatum, and these older adults also showed greater blood oxygen level dependent signal temporal variability in the striatum. Our results suggest that a reduced representation of value in the brain, possibly driven by increased neural noise, relates to suboptimal decision-making in a subset of older adults, which could translate to poor decision-making in many aspects of life, including finance, health and long-term care. Understanding the connection between suboptimal decision-making and neural value signals is a step toward mitigating age-related decision-making impairments. PMID:26089342

  19. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species. PMID:23324742

  20. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Mortillaro, C.; Ducceschi, C.; Rawlings, P.; Stocco, K.; Tobola, K.; Olendzenski, L.; Angermiller, L.

    2001-03-01

    A JSC-SCH team has produced an astrobiology exhibit and education module to augment the 'Microbes!' traveling exhibit. The astrobiology section focuses on life in extreme environments and considers the possibility of extraterrestrrial life.

  1. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  2. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  3. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  4. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  5. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  6. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  7. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  8. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  9. A reintroduction experiment involving mated pairs of parent-reared greater sandhill cranes in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mummert, D.P.; Ellis, D.H.; Chambers, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    In April 1997, 4 mated pairs of adult greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were abrupt-released at Mormon Lake, Arizona. Five of 8 adult cranes died within 10 days of release. One crane flew from the release area within 10 days after release and was never relocated. One pair of cranes, with 1 pair member sustaining a broken wing 4 days after release, survived for 4 months and demonstrated the importance of maintaining pair bonds after release. The cause of death of at least 5 birds was predation. The high mediate mortality and complete long-term mortality experienced in this pilot project suggests that adult cranes are poor candidates for release. These poor results encourage that, in future release attempts with mated pairs or other adult cranes, it is important to provide the cranes with roosting habitat while still in captivity and to hold the cranes in an acclimation pen at the release site for several clays prior to release.

  10. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. PMID:26866589

  11. Rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses to static handgrip in older hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, J L; Edwards, D G; Fadel, P J; Farquhar, W B

    2015-07-01

    Exaggerated pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses have been reported during static handgrip in hypertensive (HTN) adults. Recent work suggests that such responses may occur much more rapidly in HTN patients; however, this has not been extensively studied. Thus, we examined the blood pressure (BP) and MSNA responses at the immediate onset of muscle contraction and tested the hypothesis that older HTN adults would exhibit rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses compared with normotensive (NTN) adults. Heart rate (HR), BP (Finometer) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were retrospectively analyzed in 15 HTN (62 ± 1 years; resting BP 153 ± 3/91 ± 5 mm Hg) and 23 age-matched NTN (60 ± 1 years; resting BP 112 ± 1/67 ± 2 mm Hg) subjects during the first 30 s of static handgrip at 30 and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). HTN adults demonstrated exaggerated increases in mean BP during the first 10 s of both 30% (NTN: Δ1 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ7 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and 40% (NTN: Δ2 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ8 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) intensity handgrip. Likewise, HTN adults exhibited atypical increases in MSNA within 10 s. Increases in HR were also greater in HTN adults at 10 s of 30% MVC handgrip, although not at 40% MVC. There were no group differences in 10 s pressor or sympathetic responses to a cold pressor test, suggesting no differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. Thus, static handgrip evokes rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses in older HTN adults. These findings suggest that older HTN adults likely have greater cardiovascular risk even during short duration activities of daily living that contain an isometric component. PMID:25471615

  12. Elderly at Greater Risk for Root Caries: A Look at the Multifactorial Risks with Emphasis on Genetics Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Daniel; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2011-01-01

    Root caries is one of the most significant dental problems among older adults today. Many studies have demonstrated that older adults are at greater risk for developing root caries. Here we examine what risk factors older adults are prone to and explain how they contribute to higher rates of oral disease, in particular root caries. The elderly are at risk for root caries due to dentures, lack of dexterity, a shift from complex to simple sugars, and poor oral hygiene. Decreased salivary flow and its manifestations with other social/behavioral and medical factors may provide a more comprehensive explanation to a higher frequency of root caries in older adults. PMID:21754932

  13. Greater Discomfort as a Proximate Cause of Sex Differences in Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Roy, Rosanne; Waite, Angela; Goldbaum, Suzanne; Linders, Lisa; Simpson, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined whether females exhibited greater discomfort than males when competing directly with same-sex peers. In the first study, 40 same-sex groups of 4 children from kindergarten or grade 4 were asked to choose a group leader. The second study involved competitive games in pairs separated by a barrier. Both studies found greater…

  14. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  15. Spatial patterns of coral survivorship: impacts of adult proximity versus other drivers of localized mortality.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, David A; Hay, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Species-specific enemies may promote prey coexistence through negative distance- and density-dependent survival of juveniles near conspecific adults. We tested this mechanism by transplanting juvenile-sized fragments of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis and Seriatopora hystrix 3, 12, 24 and 182 cm up- and down-current of conspecific adults and monitoring their survival and condition over time. We also characterized the spatial distribution of P. damicornis and S. hystrix within replicate plots on three Fijian reef flats and measured the distribution of small colonies within 2 m of larger colonies of each species. Juvenile-sized transplants exhibited no differences in survivorship as a function of distance from adult P. damicornis or S. hystrix. Additionally, both P. damicornis and S. hystrix were aggregated rather than overdispersed on natural reefs. However, a pattern of juveniles being aggregated near adults while larger (and probably older) colonies were not suggests that greater mortality near large adults could occur over longer periods of time or that size-dependent mortality was occurring. While we found minimal evidence of greater mortality of small colonies near adult conspecifics in our transplant experiments, we did document hot-spots of species-specific corallivory. We detected spatially localized and temporally persistent predation on P. damicornis by the territorial triggerfish Balistapus undulatus. This patchy predation did not occur for S. hystrix. This variable selective regime in an otherwise more uniform environment could be one mechanism maintaining diversity of corals on Indo-Pacific reefs. PMID:26623193

  16. Spatial patterns of coral survivorship: impacts of adult proximity versus other drivers of localized mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Species-specific enemies may promote prey coexistence through negative distance- and density-dependent survival of juveniles near conspecific adults. We tested this mechanism by transplanting juvenile-sized fragments of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis and Seriatopora hystrix 3, 12, 24 and 182 cm up- and down-current of conspecific adults and monitoring their survival and condition over time. We also characterized the spatial distribution of P. damicornis and S. hystrix within replicate plots on three Fijian reef flats and measured the distribution of small colonies within 2 m of larger colonies of each species. Juvenile-sized transplants exhibited no differences in survivorship as a function of distance from adult P. damicornis or S. hystrix. Additionally, both P. damicornis and S. hystrix were aggregated rather than overdispersed on natural reefs. However, a pattern of juveniles being aggregated near adults while larger (and probably older) colonies were not suggests that greater mortality near large adults could occur over longer periods of time or that size-dependent mortality was occurring. While we found minimal evidence of greater mortality of small colonies near adult conspecifics in our transplant experiments, we did document hot-spots of species-specific corallivory. We detected spatially localized and temporally persistent predation on P. damicornis by the territorial triggerfish Balistapus undulatus. This patchy predation did not occur for S. hystrix. This variable selective regime in an otherwise more uniform environment could be one mechanism maintaining diversity of corals on Indo-Pacific reefs. PMID:26623193

  17. Asymptomatic HIV-infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy Exhibit Impaired Lung CD4+ T-Cell Responses to Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Dominic H.; Afran, Louise; Kankwatira, Anstead M.; Malamba, Rose D.; Allain, Theresa J.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Russell, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain at higher risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals. This increased susceptibility may be caused by impairment of alveolar macrophage (AM) function and/or mycobacteria-specific alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses observed in HIV-infected ART-naive adults. Objectives: To determine whether ART was associated with improvement in both AM function, assessed by phagosomal proteolysis, and alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses to Mycobacterium in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: Peripheral blood was drawn and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed on healthy, 35 HIV-uninfected, 25 HIV-infected ART-naive, and 50 HIV-infected ART-treated asymptomatic adults. Phagosomal proteolysis of AM was assessed with fluorogenic beads. Mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining. Measurements and Main Results: HIV-infected adults on ART exhibited lower plasma HIV viral load and higher blood CD4+ T-cell count than ART-naive adults. AM proteolysis and total mycobacteria-specific Th1 CD4+ T-cell responses in individuals on ART for greater than or equal to 4 years were similar to HIV-uninfected control subjects but those on ART for less than 4 years had impaired responses. Total influenza-specific alveolar Th1 CD4+ T-cell responses were intact in all individuals receiving ART. In contrast, BAL and blood mycobacteria-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses were impaired in adults on ART irrespective of duration. Conclusions: AM and mycobacteria-specific alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses in HIV-infected adults on ART for less than 4 years are impaired and may partly explain the high risk of TB in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Strategies to augment ART to improve lung immune cell function and reduce the high incidence of TB in HIV-infected adults who initiate ART should be investigated. PMID:25225948

  18. Prefrontal Response and Frontostriatal Functional Connectivity to Monetary Reward in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Rodriguez, Eric E.; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Although altered function in neural reward circuitry is widely proposed in models of addiction, more recent conceptual views have emphasized the role of disrupted response in prefrontal regions. Changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are postulated to contribute to the compulsivity, impulsivity, and altered executive function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults. To address these issues, we examined neural response and functional connectivity during monetary reward in 24 adults with alcohol dependence and 24 psychiatrically healthy adults. Adults with alcohol dependence exhibited less response to the receipt of monetary reward in a set of prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Adults with alcohol dependence also exhibited greater negative correlation between function in each of these regions and that in the nucleus accumbens. Within the alcohol-dependent group, those with family history of alcohol dependence exhibited lower mPFC response, and those with more frequent drinking exhibited greater negative functional connectivity between the mPFC and the nucleus accumbens. These findings indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with less engagement of prefrontal cortical regions, suggesting weak or disrupted regulation of ventral striatal response. This pattern of prefrontal response and frontostriatal connectivity has consequences for the behavior patterns typical of addiction. Furthermore, brain-behavior findings indicate that the potential mechanisms of disruption in frontostriatal circuitry in alcohol dependence include family liability to alcohol use problems and more frequent use of alcohol. In all, these findings build on the extant

  19. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  20. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  1. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  2. An Attention Model for Museum Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, John W.

    A qualitative study determined which factors in the museum exhibit environment or within the museum visitor may influence the visitor to attend an exhibit. Observations and interviews were conducted of 14 groups that visited a Chesapeake & Ohio steam locomotive at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. An inductive or grounded theory…

  3. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  4. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  5. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  11. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  12. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. PMID:27216413

  13. The Busier the Better: Greater Busyness Is Associated with Better Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Festini, Sara B.; McDonough, Ian M.; Park, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. We hypothesized that a busy schedule would be a proxy for an engaged lifestyle and would facilitate cognition. Here, we examined the relationship between busyness and cognition in adults aged 50–89. Participants (N = 330) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (DLBS) completed a cognitive battery and the Martin and Park Environmental Demands Questionnaire (MPED), an assessment of busyness. Results revealed that greater busyness was associated with better processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, reasoning, and crystallized knowledge. Hierarchical regressions also showed that, after controlling for age and education, busyness accounted for significant additional variance in all cognitive constructs—especially episodic memory. Finally, an interaction between age and busyness was not present while predicting cognitive performance, suggesting that busyness was similarly beneficial in adults aged 50–89. Although correlational, these data demonstrate that living a busy lifestyle is associated with better cognition. PMID:27242510

  14. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  15. Phylloquinone intake is associated with greater insulin sensitivity and glycemic status in adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited published evidence suggests that vitamin K may have a beneficial role in glucose homeostasis. No observational data exist on the associations between vitamin K intake and insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between self-reported phyl...

  16. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  17. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  18. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  19. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1996. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1996 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award-winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  20. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1997. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1997 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  1. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  2. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  3. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  4. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  5. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink. PMID:23341340

  6. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  7. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Francis, Carrie A.; Allen, Matthew S.; O'Connor, Shawn M.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n = 12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n = 11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults’ dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  8. Corpus Callosum Size and Diffusion Tensor Anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Balevich, Emily C.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E.; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Hazlett, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant’s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness. PMID:25637358

  9. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  10. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  11. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency. PMID:27046512

  12. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  13. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. PMID:21387395

  14. Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

    2013-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. PMID:23911645

  15. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; Sandercock, Brett K; Obeso, José Ramón; McNew, Lance B; Quevedo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido), a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies. PMID:24244588

  16. Effects of Sexual Dimorphism and Landscape Composition on the Trophic Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; Sandercock, Brett K.; Obeso, José Ramón; McNew, Lance B.; Quevedo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido), a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies. PMID:24244588

  17. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engineering design data in explanation and support of the diagrams and the proposed project, setting forth: (i... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  19. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  20. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... computation of interest coverage Actual for the year ended mm-dd-yy OMB control No. 1902-0043, pro forma for the year ended mm-dd-yy Net income Add: Interest on Long-Term Debt, Interest on Short-Term Debt,...

  1. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... outlet connections at each compressor station. (iv) Pressures and volumes of gas at each intake...

  2. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  3. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  4. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  5. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  6. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  7. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE INTERSTATE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES §...

  8. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... favorably only when not in conflict with recruiting requirements. (i) Requests for exhibits must be... among the Armed Forces, or with other agencies of the Federal Government. (i) All Navy activities will... concerned, via the chain of command. (3) The official OASD(PA) Request Form for Armed Forces...

  9. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  10. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  11. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  12. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export... Seismic Risk Map of the United States, or where there is a risk of surface faulting or ground liquefaction... the Seismic Review of LNG Facilities,” NBSIR 84-2833. This document may be obtained from the...

  13. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such enterprises or operations, a detailed explanation of each such relationship, including the... relationship. (5) Exhibit F—Location of facilities. A geographical map of suitable scale and detail showing all...—Construction, operation, and management. A concise statement setting forth arrangements for...

  14. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explanation of each such relationship, including the percentage of voting strength represented by such... detailed explanation of each such relationship. (5) Exhibit E—Other pending applications and filings. A... abandoned. This map, or an additional map, shall clearly show the relationship of the new facilities to...

  15. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Application for Authorization to Transmit Electric Energy... used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map shall... or fixing of rates for the purchase, sale or transmission of electric energy. (f) Exhibit F....

  16. 24 CFR 180.645 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibits. 180.645 Section 180.645... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Procedures at Hearing § 180.645... evidence could not reasonably be anticipated at that time. (c) Authenticity. The authenticity of...

  17. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  18. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  19. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  20. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  1. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  2. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  3. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. PMID:26482702

  4. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  5. Periadolescent rats (P41-50) exhibit increased susceptibility to D-methamphetamine-induced long-term spatial and sequential learning deficits compared to juvenile (P21-30 or P31-40) or adult rats (P51-60).

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Reed, Tracy M; Morford, LaRonda L; Fukumura, Masao; Wood, Sandra L; Brown, Carrie A; Skelton, Matthew R; McCrea, Anne E; Rock, Stephanie L; Williams, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that P11-20 treatment with d-methamphetamine (MA) induces impaired spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM), whereas P1-10 treatment does not. Little is known about the long-term behavioral consequences of MA during juvenile, adolescent, and early adult brain development. In dose-response experiments, we tested successive 10-day intervals of exposure to MA in rats (P21-30, P31-40, P41-50, and P51-60; four doses per day). MA dosing prior to P21 produces little or no toxicity; however, we observed an increased toxicity with advancing age. Across-age comparisons revealed no MWM acquisition or Cincinnati water maze (CWM) effects after MA treatment on P21-30 (2.5-10 mg/kg/dose), P31-40 (1.25-7.5 mg/kg/dose), or P51-60 (1.25-5.0 mg/kg/dose); however, significantly impaired MWM acquisition was observed after P41-50 MA treatment at the highest dose (6.25 mg/kg/dose). Learning in the CWM was also impaired in this group. No effects were seen at 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/dose following P41-50 MA treatment. MWM reversal learning trials after P41-50 treatment showed a trend towards longer latency in all MA dose groups, but no effect on double-reversal trials. Reversal and double-reversal also showed no effects at the other exposure ages. No differences in straight channel swimming or cued learning in the MWM were seen after MA treatment at any exposure age. P41-50 is the periadolescent stage of brain development in rodents. The effects observed at this age may suggest a previously unrecognized period of susceptibility for MA-induced cognitive deficits. PMID:15681126

  6. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  7. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  8. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  9. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  10. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  11. Improving Education through Greater Partnerships with Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theede, Marcy P.

    Perspectives on a greater partnership between education and business/industry are offered. The goal of this partnership is to achieve educational excellence. To accomplish this, greater participation of business and industry in the universities' educational preparation programs is needed. It is necessary to define role responsibilities for a…

  12. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  13. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  14. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  15. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  16. Cooled radiofrequency ablation for bilateral greater occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tiffany; Chhatre, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

  17. Greater Intermanual Transfer in the Elderly Suggests Age-Related Bilateral Motor Cortex Activation Is Compensatory

    PubMed Central

    Graziadio, Sara; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Gretenkord, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Eyre, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Hemispheric lateralization of movement control diminishes with age; whether this is compensatory or maladaptive is debated. The authors hypothesized that if compensatory, bilateral activation would lead to greater intermanual transfer in older subjects learning tasks that activate the cortex unilaterally in young adults. They studied 10 young and 14 older subjects, learning a unimanual visuomotor task comprising a feedforward phase, where there is unilateral cortical activation in young adults, and a feedback phase, which activates the cortex bilaterally in both age groups. Increased intermanual transfer was demonstrated in older subjects during feedforward learning, with no difference between groups during feedback learning. This finding is consistent with bilateral cortical activation being compensatory to maintain performance despite declining computational efficiency in neural networks. PMID:25575222

  18. Depression and the Onset of Dementia in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana Byrd; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 61 adults with Down's syndrome and 43 adults with mental retardation resulting from other causes found that 8 Down's syndrome adults had both depression and declines in functioning, whereas no adults in the other group showed functional declines. Greater severity of depression was related to poor functioning in adults with Down's…

  19. Human Myocardial Pericytes: Multipotent Mesodermal Precursors Exhibiting Cardiac Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C.W.; Baily, James E.; Corselli, Mirko; Diaz, Mary; Sun, Bin; Xiang, Guosheng; Gray, Gillian A.; Huard, Johnny; Péault, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular mesenchymal precursor cells (i.e. pericytes) reside in skeletal muscle where they contribute to myofiber regeneration; however, the existence of similar microvessel-associated regenerative precursor cells in cardiac muscle has not yet been documented. We tested whether microvascular pericytes within human myocardium exhibit phenotypes and multipotency similar to their anatomically and developmentally distinct counterparts. Fetal and adult human heart pericytes (hHPs) express canonical pericyte markers in situ, including CD146, NG2, PDGFRβ, PDGFRα, αSMA, and SM-MHC, but not CD117, CD133 and desmin, nor endothelial cell (EC) markers. hHPs were prospectively purified to homogeneity from ventricular myocardium by flow cytometry, based on a combination of positive- (CD146) and negative-selection (CD34, CD45, CD56, and CD117) cell lineage markers. Purified hHPs expanded in vitro were phenotypically similar to human skeletal muscle-derived pericytes (hSkMPs). hHPs express MSC markers in situ and exhibited osteo- chondro-, and adipogenic potentials but, importantly, no ability for skeletal myogenesis, diverging from pericytes of all other origins. hHPs supported network formation with/without ECs in Matrigel cultures; hHPs further stimulated angiogenic responses under hypoxia, markedly different from hSkMPs. The cardiomyogenic potential of hHPs was examined following 5-azacytidine treatment and neonatal cardiomyocyte co-culture in vitro, and intramyocardial transplantation in vivo. Results indicated cardiomyocytic differentiation in a small fraction of hHPs. In conclusion, human myocardial pericytes share certain phenotypic and developmental similarities with their skeletal muscle homologs, yet exhibit different antigenic, myogenic, and angiogenic properties. This is the first example of an anatomical restriction in the developmental potential of pericytes as native mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25336400

  20. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  1. Neural mechanisms of sensitivity to peer information in young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Schuster, Randi M; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; van der Kouwe, Andre; Evins, A Eden

    2016-08-01

    Though social influence is a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of marijuana use, the neural correlates of influence in those who use marijuana are unknown. In this study, marijuana-using young adults (MJ; n = 20) and controls (CON; n = 23) performed a decision-making task in which they made a perceptual choice after viewing the choices of unknown peers via photographs, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The MJ and CON groups did not show differences in the overall number of choices that agreed with versus opposed group influence, but only the MJ group showed reaction time slowing when deciding against group choices. Longer reaction times were associated with greater activation of frontal regions. The MJ goup, compared to CON, showed significantly greater activation in the caudate when presented with peer information. Across groups, caudate activation was associated with self-reported susceptibility to influence. These findings indicate that young adults who use MJ may exhibit increased effort when confronted with opposing peer influence, as well as exhibit greater responsivity of the caudate to social information. These results not only better define the neural basis of social decisions, but also suggest that marijuana use is associated with exaggerated neural activity during decision making that involves social information. PMID:27068178

  2. Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

    This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

  3. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    PubMed

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts. PMID:22064951

  4. Quantitative measures of nocturnal insomnia symptoms predict greater deficits across multiple daytime impairment domains.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher L; Vargas, Ivan; Roth, Thomas; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reported quantitative sleep measures and multiple daytime impairment domains. We collected data from a subsample of adults (n = 513) from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study and Community Twin Study. Results revealed that greater insomnia symptom frequency (days per week) significantly predicted greater global sleep-related functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Sleep onset latency was also positively associated with depressive symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated 3-4 nights per week and 36-40 min provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for impairment. Thus, insomnia frequency and sleep latency are critical in understanding the impact of insomnia on multiple impairment domains. Using functional impairment as criterion, these findings also support the use of specific quantitative cutoffs for sleep measures in diagnostic systems. PMID:24617964

  5. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis. PMID:26799312

  6. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices. PMID:23919764

  7. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  8. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

  9. Greater surgical precision of a flexible carbon dioxide laser fiber compared to monopolar electrosurgery in porcine myometrium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amelia P; Lancerotto, Luca; Gridley, Chad; Orgill, Dennis P; Nguyen, Hiep; Pescarini, Elena; Lago, Gianluigi; Gargiulo, Antonio R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experimental animal study was to compare the surgical precision of a flexible CO2 laser fiber with that of monopolar electrosurgery in porcine myometrium. The subjects were 6 live adult non-pregnant female pigs. Linear injury to the uterine horns was created using a flexible CO2 laser fiber at 5W, 10W, and 15W and with monopolar electrosurgery at 10W, 20W, 30W, and 40W in both cut and coagulation modes. Hysterectomy was then performed in the live animals. Cross-sections of the tissue were processed and stained using Masson trichrome to differentiate damaged from undamaged myometrium. Measurement means were compared using analysis of variance with Tukey honest significant difference correction; p <.05 indicated significance. Incision width of the laser at 5W and 10W was significantly less than both monopolar coagulation at all power settings and monopolar cut at 30W and 40W (all p <.01), at 5W was also significantly less than monopolar cut at 10W (p = .03), and at 15W was significantly less than monopolar coagulation at 40W (p = .001). Incision depth of the laser at 5W was significantly less than monopolar coagulation at 40W and laser at 15W (both p = .01), at 15W was significantly greater than monopolar coagulation at 10W and monopolar cut at 10, 20, and 30W (p ≤.01), and increased proportional to power for all 3 energy types. Collateral thermal damage width at all laser power settings was significantly less than at all monopolar coagulation power settings (p ≤.04) with the exception of the laser at 15W compared with monopolar coagulation at 10W (p = .30), and at all laser power settings was significantly less than at all monopolar coagulation power settings (p <.001). Collateral thermal damage depth of the laser at 5W and 10W was significantly less than monopolar cut at 30W (p ≤.002) and increased proportional to power in monopolar coagulation mode but remained constant with the laser. Incising efficiency of the laser at 5W was

  10. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Coruzzi, G.M.; Brears, T.

    1999-09-21

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed.

  12. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  13. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  14. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  15. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  16. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different sources from which they chose to gather data. There are indications in my results that novel interventions like a Multi-user Virtual Environment might act as a catalyst for change in student learning. Further research using these techniques may enable a better understanding of the interaction between self-efficacy and scientific inquiry, and eventually science learning outcomes.

  17. The 2-Year Checkup on 10 SNe IIn Discovered by Spitzer to Exhibit Late-Time (is greater than 100 Day) IR Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori Dosovitz; Chevalier, R. A.; Skrutskie, A. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, a warm Spitzer survey of sixty-eight SNe IIn identified between the years 1998-2008 discovered 10 events with unreported late-time infrared (IR) excesses, in some cases more than 5 years post-explosion. These data nearly double the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn and offer important clues regarding the SN circumstellar.

  18. Viremic HIV controllers exhibit high plasmacytoid dendritic cell\\reactive opsonophagocytic IgG antibody responses against HIV-1 p24 associated with greater antibody isotype diversification

    PubMed Central

    Tjiam, M. Christian; Taylor, James P. A.; Morshidi, Mazmah A.; Sariputra, Lucy; Burrows, Sally; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Tan, Dino B.A.; Lee, Silvia; Fernandez, Sonia; French, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms of natural control of HIV-1 infection could lead to novel approaches to prevent or cure HIV infection. Several studies have associated natural control of HIV-1 infection with IgG antibodies against HIV-1 Gag proteins (e.g. p24) and/or production of IgG2 antibodies against HIV-1 proteins. These antibodies likely exert their effect by activating anti-viral effector cell responses rather than virus neutralization. We hypothesized that an opsonophagocytic IgG antibody response against HIV-1 p24 that activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) through FcγRIIa would be associated with control of HIV and that this would be enhanced by antibody isotype diversification. Using the Gen2.2 pDC cell line, we demonstrated that pDC-reactive opsonophagocytic IgG antibody responses against HIV-1 p24 were higher in HIV controllers (HIV RNA <2000 copies/mL) than non-controllers (HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL) particularly in controllers with low but detectable viremia (HIV RNA 75–2000 copies/mL). Opsonophagocytic antibody responses correlated with plasma levels of IgG1 and IgG2 anti-HIV-1 p24 and notably, correlated inversely with plasma HIV RNA levels in viremic HIV patients. Phagocytosis of these antibodies was mediated via FcγRIIa. Isotype diversification (towards IgG2) was greatest in HIV controllers and depletion of IgG2 from immunoglobulin preparations indicated that IgG2 antibodies to HIV-1 p24 do not enhance phagocytosis, suggesting that they enhance other aspects of antibody function, such as antigen opsonization. Our findings emulate those for pDC-reactive opsonophagocytic antibody responses against coxsackie, picorna and influenza viruses and demonstrate a previously undefined immune correlate of HIV-1 control that may be relevant to HIV vaccine development. PMID:25911748

  19. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  20. New Directions in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRainey, D. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    How are educators moving museums' interpretive goals beyond exhibition galleries? How are programs creating new relationships between a museum and its adult audiences? As plans for physical transformation at the Chicago History Museum took form, the education department launched a parallel process of planning to redefine the "look and feel" for…

  1. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  2. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

  3. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. PMID:26332996

  4. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2014-07-22

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  5. Nanoporous frameworks exhibiting multiple stimuli responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pintu K.; Olsen, Gregory L.; Kiss, Vladimir; Klajn, Rafal

    2014-04-01

    Nanoporous frameworks are polymeric materials built from rigid molecules, which give rise to their nanoporous structures with applications in gas sorption and storage, catalysis and others. Conceptually new applications could emerge, should these beneficial properties be manipulated by external stimuli in a reversible manner. One approach to render nanoporous frameworks responsive to external signals would be to immobilize molecular switches within their nanopores. Although the majority of molecular switches require conformational freedom to isomerize, and switching in the solid state is prohibited, the nanopores may provide enough room for the switches to efficiently isomerize. Here we describe two families of nanoporous materials incorporating the spiropyran molecular switch. These materials exhibit a variety of interesting properties, including reversible photochromism and acidochromism under solvent-free conditions, light-controlled capture and release of metal ions, as well reversible chromism induced by solvation/desolvation.

  6. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  8. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  9. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  10. Extract from Ceratonia siliqua Exhibits Depigmentation Properties.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Momtaz, Saeideh; Hussein, Ahmed; Naidoo, Sanushka; Nqephe, Mabatho; Crampton, Bridget

    2015-11-01

    Skin hyper-pigmentation is a condition initiated by the overproduction of melanin existing in the melanocytes. Melanin pigment is responsible for the colour of skin in humans. It is formed through a series of oxidative reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the key enzyme tyrosinase. In continuation with our efforts to identify tyrosinase inhibitors from plants sources, the methanol extract from leaf, bark and fruit of Ceratonia siliqua were screened for tyrosinase inhibition and diphenolase activity. The bark extract exhibited significant inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine as a substrate and showed diphenolase activity. The extract further significantly lowered tyrosinase mRNA levels in B16-F10 mouse melanocytes. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six compounds. Compounds (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose and gallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed tyrosinase inhibitions with the IC50 values of 27.52, 83.30 and 28.30 µg/mL, respectively. These compounds also exhibited L-DOPA activities with IC50 values of >200, 150 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. A clinical study was conducted using 20 volunteers in a patch testing trial for irritancy potential and skin depigmentation. The clinical results showed the sample to be non-irritant with irritancy potential of -34.21 and depigmentation trial showed an improvement in the even skin tone of UV induced pigmentation at 3% after 28 days of application. PMID:26201055

  11. Does greater low frequency EEG activity in normal immaturity and in children with epilepsy arise in the same neuronal network?

    PubMed

    Michels, L; Bucher, K; Brem, S; Halder, P; Lüchinger, R; Liechti, M; Martin, E; Jeanmonod, D; Kröll, J; Brandeis, D

    2011-03-01

    Greater low frequency power (<8 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest is normal in the immature developing brain of children when compared to adults. Children with epilepsy also have greater low frequency interictal resting EEG activity. Whether these power elevations reflect brain immaturity due to a developmental lag or the underlying epileptic pathophysiology is unclear. The present study addresses this question by analyzing spectral EEG topographies and sources for normally developing children and children with epilepsy. We first compared the resting EEG of healthy children to that of healthy adults to isolate effects related to normal brain immaturity. Next, we compared the EEG from 10 children with generalized cryptogenic epilepsy to the EEG of 24 healthy children to isolate effects related to epilepsy. Spectral analysis revealed that global low (delta: 1-3 Hz, theta: 4-7 Hz), medium (alpha: 8-12 Hz) and high (beta: 13-25 Hz) frequency EEG activity was greater in children without epilepsy compared to adults, and even further elevated for children with epilepsy. Topographical and tomographic EEG analyses showed that normal immaturity corresponded to greater delta and theta activity at fronto-central scalp and brain regions, respectively. In contrast, the epilepsy-related activity elevations were predominantly in the alpha band at parieto-occipital electrodes and brain regions, respectively. We conclude that lower frequency activity can be a sign of normal brain immaturity or brain pathology depending on the specific topography and frequency of the oscillating neuronal network. PMID:20820898

  12. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

  13. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  14. Growing Up without Siblings and Adult Sociability Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Katherine; Spitze, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    The authors use data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine a range of sociability behaviors for adults who grew up with and without siblings. Compared with adults who grew up with siblings, adults who grew up without siblings have less frequent social activities with relatives, and the difference is greater among those who…

  15. A Greater Fairness: May Justus as Popular Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, George W.

    2001-01-01

    May Justus taught in rural Appalachian schools in the 1930s, then worked at the Highlander Folk School, which focused on adult education, labor organizing, and the civil rights movement. Her children's books reflected Appalachian values of commitment to family and community. She was a true radical educator, who drew on the region's best values to…

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  17. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  18. Do losses loom larger for children than adults?

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 70) and young adults (N = 70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, along with 2 probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio et al. (2015), which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias toward responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach, and avoidance behavior, respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups; however, children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower RTs specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524484

  19. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  20. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R.; D`amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

  1. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Fieo, Robert A; O'Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C; Woods, Adam J; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  2. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

  4. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  5. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  7. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C—Provisions Exhibit... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  8. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  9. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  10. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  11. Predictors of Adult Education Program Satisfaction in Urban Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; López, Erick B.; Keene, Jennifer R.; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning is receiving greater attention due to population aging in modern societies. Lifelong learning benefits individuals by supporting their physical, psychological, social, and economic well-being. However, older adults generally have lower motivation for learning than younger adults, and facilitating long-term participation in…

  12. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  13. Building Sustainable Adult Literacy Provision: A Review of International Trends in Adult Literacy Policy and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Rosa; Fitzpatrick, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes an extensive study of policies and practices in adult literacy and adult basic education in a number of countries undertaken by Rosa McKenna and Lynne Fitzpatrick. The original study contains considerably greater detail and analyses issues on a country-by-country basis. The countries studied--Canada, the Republic of…

  14. Using Network Science to Evaluate Exercise-Associated Brain Changes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Espeland, Mark A.; Morgan, Ashley; Telesford, Qawi; Vechlekar, Crystal D.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Jennings, Janine M.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2010-01-01

    Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET) or healthy aging educational control (HAC) treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P) trial. Following the 4-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group's hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module) as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and CBF, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise. PMID:20589103

  15. Resting-State EEG Delta Power is Associated with Psychological Pain in Adults with a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Meerwijk, Esther L.; Ford, Judith M.; Weiss, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological pain is a prominent symptom of clinical depression. We asked if frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal EEG power, and frontal fractal dimension asymmetry predicted psychological pain in adults with a history of depression. Resting-state frontal EEG (F3/F4) was recorded while participants (N=35) sat upright with their eyes closed. Frontal delta power predicted psychological pain while controlling for depressive symptoms, with participants who exhibited less power experiencing greater psychological pain. Frontal fractal dimension asymmetry, a nonlinear measure of complexity, also predicted psychological pain, such that greater left than right complexity was associated with greater psychological pain. Frontal alpha asymmetry did not contribute unique variance to any regression model of psychological pain. As resting-state delta power is associated with the brain’s default mode network, results suggest that the default mode network was less activated during high psychological pain. Findings are consistent with a state of arousal associated with psychological pain. PMID:25600291

  16. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  17. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  18. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  19. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  20. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  1. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

  2. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  3. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  4. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  5. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  6. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  7. Unpacking Unpacking: Greater Detail Can Reduce Perceived Likelihood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Joseph P.; Frederick, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that a categorical event is perceived to be more likely if its subcases are explicitly delineated or "unpacked." In 6 studies, we find that unpacking can often make an event seem less likely, especially when the details being unpacked are already highly accessible. Process evidence shows that the provision of greater detail…

  8. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  9. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  10. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  11. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  12. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  13. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  14. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  15. Greater Monoamine Oxidase A Binding in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brittany A.; Kish, Stephen J.; Xu, Xin; Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo M.; Wilson, Alan A.; DiGiacomo, Dan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) is a multiorgan disease in which excessive oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme on the outer mitochondrial membrane that participates in the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity. It is unknown whether MAO-A levels are abnormal in AD. We hypothesized that MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A level, is elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during AD, because markers of greater oxidative stress and apoptosis are reported in the brain in AD and a microarray analysis reported greater MAO-A messenger RNA in the PFC of rodents exposed to alcohol vapor. Methods Sixteen participants with alcohol dependence and 16 healthy control subjects underwent [11C]-harmine positron emission tomography. All were nonsmoking, medication- and drug-free, and had no other past or present psychiatric or medical illnesses. Results MAO-A VT was significantly greater in the PFC (37%, independent samples t test, t30 = 3.93, p < .001), and all brain regions analyzed (mean 32%, multivariate analysis of variance, F7,24 = 3.67, p = .008). Greater duration of heavy drinking correlated positively with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC (r = .67, p = .005) and all brain regions analyzed (r = .73 to .57, p = .001–.02). Conclusions This finding represents a new pathological marker present in AD that is therapeutically targetable through direct inhibition or by novel treatments toward oxidative/pro-apoptotic processes implicated by MAO-A overexpression. PMID:24269057

  16. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the

  17. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  18. CPR: Adult

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  19. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  20. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  1. Racial-ethnic related clinical and neurocognitive differences in adults with gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A; Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E

    2016-08-30

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups. PMID:27262266

  2. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  3. APOPHYSEAL FRACTURE OR AVULSION OF THE GREATER TROCHANTER

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, ANDERSON; MACEDO, SÍLVIO LEITE DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTS The apophyseal fracture or avulsion of the greater trochanter occurs in skeletally immature patients. It has at etiological factors indirect mechanisms (avulsion) and direct mechanisms (trauma on the trochanter), the latter being the most common. The clinical presentation is easily identified and a simple X- ray can confirm the diagnosis. Regardless of the treatment chosen, this pathology has a high correlation with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, even as a rare fact, however with innocent appearance, on this pathology. PMID:27217820

  4. Greater forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Michiya; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2010-11-01

    Greater venous compliance is associated with attenuation of the tolerance response to orthostatic stress and reduced incidence of venous diseases. Resistance training induces tolerance to orthostatic challenge and the growth of capillaries, which may lead to negative and positive effects on venous compliance, respectively. It has not been confirmed, however, whether habitual resistance training positively or negatively affects venous compliance. We compared the forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men with age-matched controls. Eleven resistance-trained middle-aged men (37.7 ± 1.5 years) and 12 age-matched sedentary controls (36.7 ± 1.6 years) were studied. Forearm venous compliance was measured in subjects in the supine position by inflating a venous collecting cuff placed around the upper arm to 60 mmHg for 8 min and then decreasing cuff pressure to 0 mmHg at a rate of 1 mmHg/s. Forearm venous compliance was determined using the first derivative of the pressure-volume relation during cuff pressure reduction (compliance = β(1) + 2β(2) × cuff pressure). Forearm venous compliance at 20 mmHg cuff pressure was 16% greater in the resistance-trained group than in the age-matched sedentary controls (0.097 ± 0.005 vs. 0.083 ± 0.004 ml/dl/mmHg, P < 0.05). Forearm venous compliance was positively related to forearm venous volume (r = 0.643, P = 0.0009), but not forearm muscle mass (r = 0.391, P = 0.0648). In conclusion, the present study suggests that (1) the resistance-trained men have greater forearm venous compliance than age-matched controls, and (2) the higher forearm venous compliance in the resistance-trained men may be explained by greater forearm venous capacitance. PMID:20596725

  5. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  6. Occult Intertrochanteric Fracture Mimicking the Fracture of Greater Trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Phil Hyun; Kang, Suk; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Young Sung; Back, In Hwa; Eom, Kyeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Occult intertrochanteric fractures are misdiagnosed as isolated greater trochanteric fractures in some cases. We investigated the utility of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and outcome management of occult intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods This study involved 23 cases of greater trochanteric fractures as diagnosed using plain radiographs from January 2004 to July 2013. Until January 2008, 9 cases were examined with 3D-CT only, while 14 cases were screened with both 3D-CT and MRI scans. We analyzed diagnostic accuracy and treatment results following 3D-CT and MRI scanning. Results Nine cases that underwent 3D-CT only were diagnosed with isolated greater trochanteric fractures without occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, a patient with displacement received surgical treatment. Of the 14 patients screened using both CT and MRI, 13 were diagnosed with occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, 11 were treated with surgical intervention and 2 with conservative management. Conclusion Three-dimensional CT has very low diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing occult intertrochanteric fractures. For this reason, MRI is recommended to confirm a suspected occult intertrochanteric fracture and to determine the most appropriate mode of treatment.

  7. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  8. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. PMID:27345593

  9. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  10. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  11. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  12. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...

  13. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  14. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  15. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  16. Oxidative effects and metabolic changes following exposure of greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) to diethyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lee-Ju; Cheng, Tai-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    The toxicity and effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the growth of greater duckweed were studied. Biochemical analyses and physiological methods were combined to investigate oxidative stress, adverse effects and their mechanisms in greater duckweeds grown in 0-2 mM of diethyl phthalate (DEP) after cultivation for 7 days. The results showed that J-shaped concentration response curves were displayed in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASA) and dehydroascorbate (DHA) levels, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gualacol peroxidase (POD) activities, indicating reduced oxidative stress and toxic effect. The inverted U-shaped curves were exhibited in relative growth rate (RGR), fresh weight/dry weight (FW/DW) ratio, total chlorophyll content, total soluble thiols, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, revealing beneficial effect in plant growth. The inverted U-shaped curves were also found in malondialdehyde (MAD) and superoxide radical (O2-) contents with the increasing concentration of DEP, indicative of enhanced oxidative stress. The results suggest that DEP is toxic to the greater duckweed by inducing oxidative stress and antioxidative enzymes may play important roles in the defense strategy against DEP toxicity. PMID:22030411

  17. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is greater in sexual risk takers

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Claire; Ratcliffe, Joanne M.; Mitchell, Melanie; Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between deviant behaviour and cortisol reactivity to stress. However, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between psychobiological stress reactivity and sexual risk-taking behaviours. In this study, cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured in 26 healthy young adults prior to the administration of a sexual health and behaviour questionnaire. The cortisol response to the TSST was greater in those individuals who reported that at least one of their previous two sexual partners was someone whom they had just met. Results are discussed in the context of a model which suggests that early life stress dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and increases the likelihood of later life risk-taking behaviour. The findings have implications in terms of improving our understanding of psychobiological factors which predispose individuals to engage in adverse sexual health behaviours. PMID:25750779

  18. Very early onset and greater vulnerability in schizophrenia: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Presicci, Anna; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Ventura, Patrizia; Di Cuonzo, Franca; Palma, Michele; Margari, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has been diagnosed in children, this group of disorders has received too little attention in the clinical and research literature. Preliminary data suggest that early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and very early onset schizophrenia (VEOS) tend to have a worse outcome than adult onset schizophrenia, and seem to be related to a greater familial vulnerability, due to genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Recently, advanced neuroimaging techniques have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in some cerebral areas. This paper reports on a case diagnosed as VEOS, with premorbid year-long psychopathological history. The patient showed atypical proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings, and normal brain and spine computer tomography and brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:19043525

  19. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  1. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  2. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  3. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  4. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  5. Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese dogs.

    PubMed

    Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Bergman, Richard N

    2009-04-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here, we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy (OM), on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and beta-cell function in nonobese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in this research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either OM (n = 7), or sham-surgery (SHAM) (n = 6). OM failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P = 0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P = 0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 +/- 6.4%; P = 0.29); although primary analysis showed a trend for OM to increase S(I) when compared to sham operated animals (P = 0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting S(I) of the periphery (+67.7 +/- 35.2%; P = 0.03), as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (presurgery 6.82 +/- 1.4 vs. postsurgery: 6.7 +/- 1.2 pmol/l/mg/dl, P = 0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater OM procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

  6. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

  7. Adiposity and Insufficient MVPA Predict Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Snih, Soham Al; Stoddard, Jonathan; McClain, James; Lee, IMin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the extent to which different combinations of objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity contribute to cardiometabolic health. Design and Methods A population representative sample of 5,268 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2003-2006 NHANES datasets. Activity categories were created on the combined basis of objectively measured SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) tertiles. Cardiometabolic abnormalities included elevated blood pressure, levels of triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance value, and low HDL-cholesterol level. BMI, and DXA-derived percent body fat (% BF) and android adiposity were also compared across groups. Predictors for a metabolically abnormal phenotype (≥3 cardiometabolic abnormalities, or insulin resistance) were determined. Results Adults with the least SB and greatest MVPA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest MVPA were older and had elevated risk. Time spent in SB was not a predictor of the metabolically abnormal phenotype when MVPA was accounted for. Adults with the highest MVPA across SB tertiles did not differ markedly in prevalence of obesity, adiposity, and/or serum cardiometabolic risk factors; however, less MVPA was associated with substantial elevations of obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Android adiposity (per kilogram) was independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype in both men (OR: 2.36 [95% CI, 1.76-3.17], p<0.001) and women (OR: 2.00 [95% CI, 1.63-2.45], p<0.001). Among women, greater SB, and less lifestyle moderate activity and MVPA were each independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype, whereas only less MVPA was associated with it in men. Conclusions MVPA is a strong predictor of cardiometabolic health among adults, independent of time spent in SB. PMID

  8. Single-dose oral guanidinoacetic acid exhibits dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Vojvodic-Ostojic, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the natural precursor of creatine, has potential as a dietary supplement for human nutrition, yet no data are available regarding its dose-dependent pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. We hypothesized that a single dose of orally administered GAA exhibited dose-dependent PK behavior in healthy volunteers. Forty-eight young adults were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial to receive single oral doses of GAA (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g) or a placebo. Pharmacokinetic metrics for plasma GAA and creatine were assessed immediately before (0 hours) and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after GAA ingestion. The lag time appeared to be similar after the bolus ingestion of GAA (0.14 ± 0.17 hours for low-dose GAA, 0.31 ± 0.18 hours for medium-dose GAA, and 0.38 ± 0.32 hours for high-dose GAA; P = .05). An increase in the area under the concentration-time curve for plasma GAA was found for the dose range tested, with 2.4- and 9.3-fold increases in the area under the concentration-time curve for every 2-fold increase in the GAA dose (P < .0001). No differences were found for elimination half-time between the low-dose and medium-dose groups (<1.75 hours), whereas the elimination half-time was significantly longer (>2.1 hours) for the high-dose GAA regimen (P = .001). The volume of distribution was affected by the dosage of GAA applied (102.6 ± 17.3 L for low-dose GAA, 97.5 ± 15.7 L for medium-dose GAA, and 61.1 ± 12.7 L for high-dose GAA; P < .0001). Ingestion of GAA elevated plasma creatine by 80%, 116%, and 293% compared with the placebo for the 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g doses, respectively (P < .0001). Guanidinoacetic acid single-dose PK metrics were nonlinear with respect to dose size. Across the dose range of 1.2 to 4.8 g, systemic exposure to GAA increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner. PMID:25622538

  9. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  10. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles. PMID:26248935

  11. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  12. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  13. Location and phenotype of human adult keratinocyte stem cells of the skin.

    PubMed

    Webb, Angela; Li, Amy; Kaur, Pritinder

    2004-10-01

    The location and identity of interfollicular epidermal stem cells of adult human skin remain undefined. Based on our previous work in both adult murine and neonatal human foreskin, we demonstrate that cell surface levels of the alpha6 integrin and the transferrin receptor (CD71) are valid markers for resolving a putative stem cell, transit amplifying and differentiating compartment in adult human skin by flow cytometry. Specifically, epidermal cells expressing high levels of alpha6 integrin and low levels of the transferrin receptor CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(dim)) exhibit several stem cell characteristics, comprising a minor population (2%-5%) of the K14(bri) fraction, enriched for quiescent and small blast-like cells with high clonogenic capacity, lacking the differentiation marker K10. Conversely, the majority of K14(bri) K10(neg) epidermal cells express high levels of CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri)), and represent the actively cycling fraction of keratinocytes displaying greater cell size due to an increase in cytoplasmic area, consistent with their being transient amplifying cells. The alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri) population exhibited intermediate clonogenic capacity. A third population of K14(dim) but K10 positive epidermal cells could be identified by their low levels of alpha6 integrin expression (i.e. alpha6 (dim) cells), representing the differentiation compartment; predictably, this subpopulation exhibited poor clonogenic efficiency. Flow cytometric analysis for the hair follicle bulge region (stem cell) marker K15 revealed preferential expression of this keratin in alpha6 (bri) cells (i.e., both stem and transient amplifying fractions), but not the alpha6 (dim) population. Given that K15 positive cells could only be detected in the deep rete ridges of adult skin in situ, we conclude that stem and transient amplifying cells reside in this location, while differentiating (K15 negative) cells are found in the shallow rete ridges. PMID:15606498

  14. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  15. Making connections: Listening to visitor conversations at different styles of sea jelly exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, Tamara M.

    This study sought to determine what types of connections to prior experiences and knowledge were being made at two different styles of exhibits focusing on sea jellies. Family groups, consisting of one or two adults with one or two children aged 6-11, were audio recorded and tracked as they visited a view-only or touch pool sea jelly exhibit. A short interview was given after their visit to the sea jelly exhibit. The discourse from the exhibit and survey were coded for types of learning talk. Coding was also done to determine the inspiration for the connection and the subject of the connection (structural or behavioral). Visitors made connections regardless of the seajelly.exhibit design and results showed no differences in the type or frequency of the connections made. However, visitors were more likely to make connections on the subject of the sea jelly structure at the view only exhibit. Many of the connections, regardless of subject or inspiration, were metaphoric connections, demonstrating the importance of metaphors for making prior experience connections. Findings provide useful information for future aquarium practice.

  16. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  17. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  18. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  19. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  20. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  1. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S.; Postacchini, F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks. PMID:18256834

  2. Mammalian embryonic cerebrospinal fluid proteome has greater apolipoprotein and enzyme pattern complexity than the avian proteome.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2005-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid, which has an essential role in the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. We identified and analyzed the proteome of Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid from rat embryos (Rattus norvegicus), which includes proteins involved in the regulation of Central Nervous System development. The comparison between mammalian and avian Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteomes reveals great similarity, but also greater complexity in some protein groups. The pattern of apolipoproteins and enzymes in CSF is more complex in the mammals than in birds. This difference may underlie the greater neural complexity and synaptic plasticity found in mammals. Fourteen Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid gene products were previously identified in adult human Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteome, and interestingly they are altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis may contribute to our understanding of Central Nervous System development and evolution, and these human diseases. PMID:16335996

  3. Clinical Features of Infection in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Norman, Dean C

    2016-08-01

    The impact of infectious diseases on older adults is far greater than on younger adults because of significantly higher morbidity and mortality caused by infection. The reasons for this greater impact include factors such as lower physiologic reserve due to age and chronic disease, age-related changes in host defenses, loss of mobility, higher risk for polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions, and being on drugs that increase the risk for infection (e.g., anticholinergic and other sedating medications increase the risk for pneumonia). PMID:27394015

  4. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  5. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  6. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    PubMed

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy

  7. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  8. CHRONIC METHYLPHENIDATE TREATMENT DURING EARLY LIFE IS ASSOCIATED WITH GREATER ETHANOL INTAKE IN SOCIALLY ISOLATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kathryn E; Chappell, Ann; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Porrino, Linda J; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate is a stimulant prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Its primary mechanism of action is in the dopamine system, alterations of which are associated with vulnerability to alcohol abuse. There are concerns that juvenile MPH treatment may influence adult drinking behavior. This study examined the interaction of MPH treatment and environmental rearing conditions, which are known to independently influence ethanol (EtOH) drinking behavior, on anxiety-like behavior and vulnerability to alcohol abuse in a juvenile rodent model. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were housed in enriched, standard, or isolated conditions for four weeks, starting at postnatal day 21. Rats were concurrently treated with 8 mg/kg/day MPH or saline, delivered via osmotic minipump. Anxiety-like behavior was determined at the end of the treatment session, and 5 weeks later. After MPH treatment, rats were exposed to a two-bottle choice EtOH drinking procedure that lasted three weeks. Results Early life chronic MPH treatment was associated with greater EtOH intake and greater EtOH preference, but only in socially isolated animals. Isolated animals had greater levels of anxiety-like behavior than standard-housed or enriched animals after 4 weeks of exposure to the housing conditions, a difference that persisted even after all animals had been individually housed for an additional 5 weeks and exposed to EtOH. Conclusions These results suggest that early life MPH treatment may increase vulnerability to EtOH drinking in adulthood in a subset of the population. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of early rearing condition for establishing long-lasting behavioral phenotypes. Environmental histories should be considered when prescribing MPH treatment to young children. PMID:25156616

  9. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  10. Ecosystem management: A comparison of greater yellowstone and georges bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, Richard H.; Clark, Tim W.

    1995-09-01

    Ecosystem management links human activities with the functioning of natural environments over large spatial and temporal scales. Our examination of Greater Yellowstone and Georges Bank shows similarities exist between human uses, administrative characteristics, and some biophysical features. Each region faces growing pressures to replace traditional extractive uses with more sustainable extractive or noncommodity uses coupled with concern about endangered species. Ecosystem management as a set of practical guidelines for making decisions under evolving expectations is far from complete, and it embodies new demands on individuals and institutions. In each system these challenges are considered relative to: the public's symbolic understanding of the management challenge, ecosystem management ambiguities, information availability, information use, administrative setting, and learning capabilities of governance organizations Progress in making ecosystem management operational may occur as refinements in content and approach make it an increasingly attractive option for resource users, the public, and government officials.

  11. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  12. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  13. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  14. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  15. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  16. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  17. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  18. Reduced Fitness in Adults From Larval, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Reared on Media Amended With the Antihelmintic, Mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Çalik, Gülşah; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Büyükgüzel, Ender

    2016-02-01

    Benzimidazole antihelmintics, including mebendazole, have a broad antiparasitic spectrum. These drugs play a major role in the treatments of parasites of intestines or other organs of vertebrates, humans, and other animals.The impact of mebendazole on the biology of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), was assessed by observation of several developmental parameters as follows: survivorship, developmental time, and adult longevity. Sublethal toxicity was measured through reproductive parameters such as fecundity and hatchability.The larvae were reared on artificial diet from first-instar larvae to the adult stage in the laboratory. The diets contained mebendazole at different concentrations of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, or 1.0%. Control diet did not containme bendazole and produced seventh-instar larvae in 96.6±1.67% of cases, whereas the addition of mebendazole into diet at 1.0% significantly decreased survivorship of seventh-instar larvae to 79.9±4.08%. The diet with the highest concentration of mebendazole decreased survivorship in the adult stage from 79.9±2.35 to 56.6±4.73%, and shortened the developmental time for adult emergence from 36.7±0.48 to 34.1±0.63 d. All mebendazole concentrations shortened adult longevity and significantly decreased fecundity and hatch ability of G. mellonella. The highest dietary concentration of this antihelmintic significantly decreased the egg number to 28.6±2.89 and hatching rate to 51.7±1.85%. The present study demonstrates that mebendazole exhibits significant adverse effects on greater wax moth, leading to deteriorated life table parameters and decreased adult fitness. PMID:26491189

  19. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the adult cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Annie S; Paldor, Iddo; Tsui, Alpha E; Yuen, Tanya I

    2016-05-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently recognised World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II tumour that was previously characterised as a subtype of the WHO Grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). PMA has a histological appearance distinct from PA and a poorer prognosis due to its greater propensity for local recurrence and cerebrospinal dissemination. Although originally considered a paediatric tumour involving mainly the hypothalamic and chiasmatic region, reports of the lesion occurring in the adult population and other areas of the neuroaxis are emerging. We review the literature on PMA within the adult population and present the first case of PMA in the cerebellum of an adult female. PMID:26777083

  20. Intrauterine growth-restricted sheep fetuses exhibit smaller hindlimb muscle fibers and lower proportions of insulin-sensitive Type I fibers near term.

    PubMed

    Yates, Dustin T; Cadaret, Caitlin N; Beede, Kristin A; Riley, Hannah E; Macko, Antoni R; Anderson, Miranda J; Camacho, Leticia E; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reduces muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in offspring. Insulin sensitivity varies among muscle fiber types, with Type I fibers being most sensitive. Differences in fiber-type ratios are associated with insulin resistance in adults, and thus we hypothesized that near-term IUGR sheep fetuses exhibit reduced size and proportions of Type I fibers. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR fetuses were ∼54% smaller (P < 0.05) than controls and exhibited hypoxemia and hypoglycemia, which contributed to 6.9-fold greater (P < 0.05) plasma norepinephrine and ∼53% lower (P < 0.05) plasma insulin concentrations. IUGR semitendinosus muscles contained less (P < 0.05) myosin heavy chain-I protein (MyHC-I) and proportionally fewer (P < 0.05) Type I and Type I/IIa fibers than controls, but MyHC-II protein concentrations, Type II fibers, and Type IIx fibers were not different. IUGR biceps femoris muscles exhibited similar albeit less dramatic differences in fiber type proportions. Type I and IIa fibers are more responsive to adrenergic and insulin regulation than Type IIx and may be more profoundly impaired by the high catecholamines and low insulin in our IUGR fetuses, leading to their proportional reduction. In both muscles, fibers of each type were uniformly smaller (P < 0.05) in IUGR fetuses than controls, which indicates that fiber hypertrophy is not dependent on type but rather on other factors such as myoblast differentiation or protein synthesis. Together, our findings show that IUGR fetal muscles develop smaller fibers and have proportionally fewer Type I fibers, which is indicative of developmental adaptations that may help explain the link between IUGR and adulthood insulin resistance. PMID:27053651

  1. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  2. African Past: Migrant Present. A Guide to the Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twining, Mary Arnold; Roark-Calnek, Sue

    This exhibit guide describes an exhibition of African folk arts produced by seasonal migrant farmworkers in western New York State. Workers come from the American South, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. The exhibition pieces were collected through the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center's Folk Arts Program and Creative Artists Migrant Program Services…

  3. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  4. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  5. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262.202... PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defiined in § 1262.104(f) when...

  6. 10 CFR 12.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 12.202 Section 12.202 Energy NUCLEAR... Required From Applicants § 12.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  7. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  8. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  9. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  10. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 960.10 Section 960.10 Postal... JUSTICE ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 960.10 Net worth exhibit... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  11. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  12. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  13. 10 CFR 12.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 12.202 Section 12.202 Energy NUCLEAR... Required From Applicants § 12.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  14. 49 CFR 826.22 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 826.22 Section 826.22... Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  15. 7 CFR 1.191 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1.191 Section 1.191 Agriculture... § 1.191 Net worth exhibit. (a) An applicant, except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association, must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant...

  16. 17 CFR 148.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 148.12... Required from Applicants § 148.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  17. 17 CFR 148.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 148.12... Required from Applicants § 148.12 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a qualified tax-exempt organization or cooperative association must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  18. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1262.202 Section 1262... AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1262.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defiined in §...

  19. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  20. 17 CFR 201.42 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 201.42... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.42 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant... a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  1. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1016.202 Section 1016.202... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1016.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant must provide with its application a detailed exhibit showing the...

  2. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2610.202 Section 2610... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... with its application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates...

  3. 31 CFR 6.9 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.9 Section 6.9... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 6.9 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  4. 49 CFR 6.19 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 6.19 Section 6.19... PROCEEDINGS Information Required from Applicants § 6.19 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in this part) when...

  5. 10 CFR 1023.311 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1023.311 Section 1023.311 Energy... Access to Justice Act Information Required from Applicants § 1023.311 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each... application a detailed exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in §...

  6. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items...

  7. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items...

  8. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items...

  9. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items...

  10. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items...

  11. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual elements,…

  12. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  13. 18 CFR 157.16 - Exhibits relating to acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment § 157.16 Exhibits relating to acquisitions. In addition to the exhibits required by § 157.14, every application involving acquisition of... follow the procedures set out in § 157.10(d). (a) Exhibit Q—Effect of acquisition on existing...

  14. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  15. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Howard R; Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  16. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  17. Spatial and temporal structures of four financial markets in Greater China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, F. Y.; Zheng, B.; Jiang, X. F.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the spatial and temporal structures of four financial markets in Greater China. In particular, we uncover different characteristics of the four markets by analyzing the sector and subsector structures which are detected through the random matrix theory. Meanwhile, we observe that the Taiwan and Hong Kong stock markets show a negative return-volatility correlation, i.e., the so-called leverage effect. The Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets are more complicated. Before the year 2000, the two markets exhibited a strong positive return-volatility correlation, which is called the anti-leverage effect. After 2000, however, it gradually changed to the leverage effect. We also find that the recurrence interval distributions of both the trading volume volatilities and price volatilities follow a power law behavior, while the exponents vary among different markets.

  18. Over-Responsiveness and Greater Variability in Roughness Perception in Autism.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Minshew, Nancy; Heeger, David J; Dinstein, Ilan; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-03-01

    Although sensory problems, including tactile hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity (DSM-5) are commonly associated with autism, there is a dearth of systematic and rigorous research in this domain. Here, we report findings from a psychophysical experiment that explored differences in tactile perception between individuals with autism and typically developing control participants, who, using their index finger, rated a series of surfaces on the extent of their roughness. Each surface was rated multiple times and we calculated both the average rating and the variability across trials. Relative to controls, the individuals with autism perceived the surfaces as rougher overall and exhibited greater variability in their ratings across trials. These findings characterize altered tactile perception in autism and suggest that sensory problems in autism may be the product of overly responsive and variable sensory processing. Autism Res 2016, 9: 393-402. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26011310

  19. How to create an effective scientific exhibit: analysis of award-winning exhibits from the 1998 RSNA meeting.

    PubMed

    Choi, J R; Kruskal, J B; Rosen, M P; Davis, R B

    2000-01-01

    Although the most important component of an effective scientific exhibit is content, the way in which an exhibit is constructed can greatly influence its overall effectiveness. Choice of format should be determined by carefully analyzing the purpose of one's exhibit, expected audience, and data at hand, as well as type of meeting and funding. Depending on the type of data to be presented and available equipment and budget, the most appropriate style for a scientific exhibit may be a traditional mat board, computer-generated tiles or large-print backboard panel, traditional mat board with viewbox exhibit, matted transparency tiles with viewbox exhibit, or computer-generated large-film display. The authors analyzed 993 of 1, 041 (95.4%) scientific exhibits on display at the 84th RSNA Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting and categorized each exhibit according to the following characteristics: display type and size, color scheme, display font size, and graphic styles. These characteristics were then correlated with scientific exhibit and design awards as well as invitations for submission to RadioGraphics. Chance of winning an award or being asked to publish the presentation in RadioGraphics was significantly increased for viewbox exhibits (compared with backboard panel exhibits) and for larger exhibits (compared with smaller exhibits). PMID:10903695

  20. Pain assessment and management in critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Kirksey, Kenn M; McGlory, Gayle; Sefcik, Elizabeth F

    2015-01-01

    Older adults comprise approximately 50% of patients admitted to critical care units in the United States. This population is particularly susceptible to multiple morbidities that can be exacerbated by confounding factors like age-related safety risks, polypharmacy, poor nutrition, and social isolation. The elderly are particularly vulnerable to health conditions (heart disease, stroke, and diabetes) that put them at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. When an older adult presents to the emergency department with 1 or more of these life-altering diagnoses, an admission to the intensive care unit is often inevitable. Pain is one of the most pervasive manifestations exhibited by intensive care unit patients. There are myriad challenges for critical care nurses in caring for patients experiencing pain-inadequate communication (cognitively impaired or intubated patients), addressing the concerns of family members, or gaps in patients' knowledge. The purpose of this article was to discuss the multidimensional nature of pain and identify concepts innate to pain homeostenosis for elderly patients in the critical care setting. Evidence-based strategies, including an interprofessional team approach and best practice recommendations regarding pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management, are presented. PMID:26039645

  1. Determinants of Hearing Aid Acquisition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We determined factors associated with hearing aid acquisition in older adults. Methods. We conducted a population-based, prospective study that used information from 3 examinations performed on study participants as part of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (1993–2005). We included participants (n = 718; mean age = 70.5 years) who exhibited hearing loss at baseline or the first follow-up and had no prior history of hearing aid use. We defined hearing loss as a pure tone threshold average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kilohertz in the better ear of greater than 25 decibels Hearing Level. Results. The 10-year cumulative incidence of hearing aid acquisition was 35.7%. Associated factors included education (college graduate vs all others: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 4.1), self-perception of hearing (poor vs good or better: HR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.3, 5.0), score on a perceived hearing handicap inventory (+ 1 difference: HR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.1), and PTA (+ 5 dB difference: HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.6). Conclusions. The low rate of hearing aid ownership among older adults is a problem that still needs to be addressed. PMID:21680930

  2. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  3. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25968137

  4. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  5. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  6. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

    2006-08-15

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations

  7. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  8. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  9. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  10. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  11. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  12. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  13. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  14. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  15. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  16. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  17. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  18. Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Della Costa, Natalia S; Marin, Raul H; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2016-05-01

    Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928950

  19. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  20. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  1. Determinants and Patterns of Reproductive Success in the Greater Horseshoe Bat during a Population Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Helen L.; Ransome, Roger D.; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    An individual's reproductive success will depend on traits that increase access to mates, as well as the number of mates available. In most well-studied mammals, males are the larger sex, and body size often increases success in intra-sexual contests and thus paternity. In comparison, the determinants of male success in species with reversed sexual size dimorphism (RSD) are less well understood. Greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) exhibit RSD and females appear to exert mate choice when they visit and copulate with males in their underground territories. Here we assessed putative determinants of reproductive success in a colony of greater horseshoe bats during a 19-year period of rapid population growth. We genotyped 1080 bats with up to 40 microsatellite loci and assigned maternity to 99.5% of pups, and paternity to 76.8% of pups. We found that in spite of RSD, paternity success correlated positively with male size, and, consistent with our previous findings, also with age. Female reproductive success, which has not previously been studied in this population, was also age-related and correlated positively with individual heterozygosity, but not with body size. Remarkable male reproductive skew was detected that initially increased steadily with population size, possibly coinciding with the saturation of suitable territories, but then levelled off suggesting an upper limit to a male's number of partners. Our results illustrate that RSD can occur alongside intense male sexual competition, that male breeding success is density-dependent, and that male and female greater horseshoe bats are subject to different selective pressures. PMID:24551052

  2. Psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial superiority in adults with developmental dyslexia. The results suggest, however, that visual-spatial processing of nonverbal material by adults with developmental dyslexia allows them to efficiently execute tasks that are based on sequential material. Moreover, the participants with specific difficulties in reading and writing exhibited a significantly higher level of aspirations than their peers without such difficulties with a comparable level of educational achievement. These results suggest that succeeding in different fields by highly functioning adult dyslexics may depend on personality and motivational factors, rather than cognitive factors. PMID:23462191

  3. Ancestral Puebloan mtDNA in Context of the Greater Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Kathy R.; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) was extracted from the human remains of seventy-three individuals from the Tommy and Mine Canyon sites (dated to PI-II and PIII, respectively), located on the B-Square Ranch in the Middle San Juan region of New Mexico. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of forty-eight (65.7%) of these samples were identified, and their frequency distributions were compared with those of other prehistoric and modern populations from the Greater Southwest and Mexico. The haplogroup frequency distributions for the two sites were statistically significantly different from each other, with the Mine Canyon site exhibiting an unusually high frequency of haplogroup A for a Southwestern population, indicating the possible influence of migration or other evolutionary forces. However, both sites exhibited a relatively high frequency of haplogroup B, typical of Southwestern populations, suggesting continuity in the Southwest, as has been hypothesized by others (S. Carlyle 2003; Carlyle, et al. 2000; Kemp 2006; Malhi, et al. 2003; Smith, et al. 2000). The first hypervariable region of twenty-three individuals (31.5%) was also sequenced to confirm haplogroup assignments and compared with other sequences from the region. This comparison further strengthens the argument for population continuity in the Southwest without a detectable influence from Mesoamerica. PMID:20514346

  4. Greater executive and visual memory dysfunction in comorbid bipolar disorder and substance use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, David F.; Walker, Sara J.; Ryan, Kelly A.; Kamali, Masoud; Saunders, Erika F.H.; Weldon, Anne L.; Adams, Kenneth M.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Measures of cognitive dysfunction in Bipolar Disorder (BD) have identified state and trait dependent metrics. An influence of substance abuse (SUD) on BD has been suggested. This study investigates potential differential, additive, or interactive cognitive dysfunction in bipolar patients with or without a history of SUD. Two hundred fifty-six individuals with BD, 98 without SUD and 158 with SUD, and 97 Healthy Controls (HC) completed diagnostic interviews, neuropsychological testing, and symptom severity scales. The BD groups exhibited poorer performance than the HC group on most cognitive factors. The BD with SUD exhibited significantly poorer performance than BD without SUD in visual memory and conceptual reasoning/set-shifting. In addition, a significant interaction effect between substance use and depressive symptoms was found for auditory memory and emotion processing. BD patients with a history of SUD demonstrated worse visual memory and conceptual reasoning skills above and beyond the dysfunction observed in these domains among individuals with BD without SUD, suggesting greater impact on integrative, gestalt-driven processing domains. Future research might address longitudinal outcome as a function of BD, SUD, and combined BD/SUD to evaluate neural systems involved in risk for, and effects of, these illnesses. PMID:22769049

  5. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  6. Adult Literacy Volunteers. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Although volunteer tutors traditionally have formed the basis of the programs of Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, volunteers have begun to play a greater role in adult literacy instruction provided through community-based organizations, correctional institutions, churches, and federally funded adult basic education.…

  7. The Adult Community Education Administrator Position. A Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to explore in depth the adult/community education administrator position as it exists in Florida in order to gain as much information as possible about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to do the job well. A special focus was on the skills needed by adult/community educators to a greater extent than K-12…

  8. National Adult Student Priorities Report. Research Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Serving the needs of adult learners in today's economic environment is becoming a greater priority for colleges and universities. Student satisfaction is considered a core element for higher education institutions serving traditional-age students. More colleges and universities are expanding this assessment activity to adult students as well. As…

  9. Andragogy: Implications for Secondary and Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Norene F.

    The study of andragogy, a well developed science in Europe, is gaining greater acceptance in the United States. Malcolm Knowles introduced it to American adult educators in 1968 and has made it the central theme of his work since. The distinction between andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn) and pedagogy (the art and science of…

  10. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  11. Community Schools--Adults and Children: A Cumbrian AAE Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1977-01-01

    Examines the role of the "community school", particularly in reference to Cumberland County, England. Notes that a greater effort needs to be made to ensure that the adult part of the community is adequately considered and provided for, and that the adult education center should not be regarded as merely an adjunct of the secondary school. (WL)

  12. Correctional Sentence Plan: A Pathway to Adult Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokoele, Matata

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Matata Mokoele reflects on the importance of prisoner education, and notes that what is missing is official recognition of this or adult-specific components outlining an upper secondary school adult education diploma entitling holders to apply for higher education. Studies reporting a correlation between greater education and lower…

  13. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  14. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  15. Lancet Dynamics in Greater Horseshoe Bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    PubMed Central

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C.; Gupta, Anupam K.; Simmons, James A.; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages (‘noseleaves’) that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that—in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna—horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  16. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  17. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  18. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  19. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  20. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.