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Sample records for adults factor analysis

  1. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  2. Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Huang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among Taiwanese adults, we evaluated 579 healthy participants who underwent health examinations between May and December 2007. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine risk factor clustering. Smoking, alcohol intake, exercise habits, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, serum hepatic enzymes, and mean arterial pressure were assessed. Separate factor analyses assessed total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Principal components analysis identified five factors for a model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and four factors for a model without total cholesterol. Four common factors in both models explained between 51.1 and 51.8% of variance in the original 14 factors. Metabolic factors, hematological factors (white blood cells and platelets), lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and exercise habits and fasting blood glucose explained about 20, 11, 10, 10% of total variance, respectively. In the model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol factor explained 8.83% of variance. This study confirmed clustering of established metabolic syndrome components and revealed additional associated cardiovascular disease risk factors, including lifestyle factors, exercise and total cholesterol, which should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  3. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  4. Examining the Dimensionality of ADHD Symptomatology in Young Adults Using Factor Analysis and Outcome Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria specify that ADHD involves difficulties with inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Researchers using factor analysis have consistently found support for an inattention factor in both children and adults. Findings have been mixed regarding whether hyperactivity and impulsivity reflect one or two…

  5. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  7. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  8. Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: a latent class analysis (LCA) approach.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2013-03-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population.

  9. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  10. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Adult Asperger Assessment: the association of symptom domains within a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours and activities. Proposed changes to diagnostic criteria suggest that the diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD, and that social and communication impairments should be considered as a single domain. The aim of this study was to examine the structure of symptom domains within the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Robinson, & Woodbury-Smith, 2005), a diagnostic tool for high functioning adults. As theoretical models already exist, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine data from a clinical population of adults (n = 153) diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit different models based on the structure proposed by the authors of the AAA, the traditional triad and the newly proposed diagnostic dyad. Analysis suggested that none of the tested models were a good fit on the AAA dataset. However, it did highlight very high correlations between social and communication factors (r > 0.9) within unmodified models. The results of the analysis provide tentative support for the move towards considering ASD as a dyad of 'social-communication' impairments and repetitive/restricted interests behaviours and activities, rather than the traditional triad.

  11. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  12. Analysis of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among Uygur adults in Tushala and Hetian Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Ran, Jian-Xin; Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Jun; Aisha, Mayinuer; Abudureheman, Rebiya; Xiawudong, Adalaiti; Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Mao, Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to survey the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Uygur adults in Tushala Township, Hetian area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Cross-sectional study of possible risk factors for hypertension was conducted in Tushala and in 28 surrounding villages using a stratified random sampling method. A modified version of the WHO STEP wise approach for risk factor survey was employed. Data collection on these relevant risk factors was performed using the WHO STEPS approach. Physical and body parameters were collected and used for analysis of variance. In addition, risk factors for hypertension were screened using a multifactor logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of hypertension in Hetian Township was 25.6%. The incidence of hypertension was positively correlated with body mass index and triglyceride cholesterol. There was also a positive correlation between risk of hypertension and levels of waist-to-hip ratio as well as abdominal circumference (AC). Logistic regression analysis exhibited AC as the predominant risk factor while high-density lipoprotein as the main protective factor for hypertension. In conclusion, our results indicated that high caloric food intake may trigger hyperlipidemia and subsequently elevated blood pressure, with elevated BMI and cholesterol levels being the major risk factors for hypertension.

  13. Orthogonal higher order structure and confirmatory factor analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data published in the French technical manual for the WAIS-III. Results showed that the general factor accounted for 63% of the common variance and that the specific contributions of the 1st-order factors were weak (4.7%-15.9%). We also addressed this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the bifactor model (with 1st-order group and general factors) better fit the data than did the traditional higher order structure. Models based on the CHC framework were also tested. Results indicated that a higher order CHC model showed a better fit than did the classical 4-factor model; however, the WAIS bifactor structure was the most adequate. We recommend that users do not discount the Full Scale IQ when interpreting the index scores of the WAIS-III because the general factor accounts for the bulk of the common variance in the French WAIS-III. The 4 index scores cannot be considered to reflect only broad ability because they include a strong contribution of the general factor.

  14. Application of factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and use of factor scores to study their relationship with nutritional status of adult rural populations.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Brahmam, G N V; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess estimates, at district level, of diet and nutritional status in Orissa State, India. Factor analysis was used for exploring the existence of consumption pattern of food and nutrients and their relationship with the nutritional status of rural adult population. Data on 2,864 adult men and 3,525 adult women in Orissa state revealed that there exists six patterns among food-groups explaining 59% of the total variation and three patterns among nutrients that explain 73% of the total variation among both adult men and women. The discriminant function analysis revealed that, overall, 53% of the men were correctly classified as either with chronic energy deficiency (CED) or without CED. Similarly, overall, 54% of the women were correctly classified as either with CED or without CED. The sensitivity of the model was 65% for both men and women, and the specificity was 46% and 41% respectively for men and women. In the case of classification of overweight/obesity, the prediction of the model was about 75% among both men and women, along with high sensitivity. Using factor analysis, the dietary patterns were identified from the food and nutrient intake data. There exists a strong relationship between the dietary patterns and the nutritional status of rural adults. These results will help identify the community people with CED and help planners formulate nutritional interventions accordingly.

  15. Supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas: an analysis of 109 adults for survival and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Todd; Nguyen, Vincent; Smith, Brandon W; Lewis, Spencer; Junck, Larry; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Survival rates and prognostic factors for supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas have not been determined. The authors therefore designed a retrospective study to determine progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for hemispheric ependymomas. METHODS The study population consisted of 8 patients from our institution and 101 patients from the literature with disaggregated survival information (n = 109). Patient age, sex, tumor side, tumor location, extent of resection (EOR), tumor grade, postoperative chemotherapy, radiation, time to recurrence, and survival were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were completed to determine survival rates and prognostic factors. RESULTS Anaplastic histology/WHO Grade III tumors were identified in 62% of cases and correlated with older age. Three-, 5-, and 10-year PFS rates were 57%, 51%, and 42%, respectively. Three-, 5-, and 10-year OS rates were 77%, 71%, and 58%, respectively. EOR and tumor grade were identified on both Kaplan-Meier log-rank testing and univariate Cox proportional hazard models as prognostic for PFS and OS. Both EOR and tumor grade remained prognostic on multivariate analysis. Subtotal resection (STR) predicted a worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.764, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 4.216, p = 0.008). Subgroup survival analysis of patients with STR demonstrated a 5- and 10-year OS of 28% and 0%, respectively. WHO Grade III tumors also had worse PFS (HR 10.2, p = 0.004) and OS (HR 9.1, p = 0.035). Patients with WHO Grade III tumors demonstrated 5- and 10-year OS of 61% and 46%, respectively. Postoperative radiation was not prognostic for PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS A high incidence of anaplastic histology was found in hemispheric ependymomas and was associated with older age. EOR and tumor grade were prognostic factors for PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. STR or WHO Grade III pathology, or both, predicted worse overall prognosis in patients

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  18. Analysis of older adults' domestic kitchen storage practices in the United Kingdom: identification of risk factors associated with listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2015-04-01

    Increased listeriosis incidence among older adults (≥ 60 years) has been reported internationally, with many cases reported to be sporadic and associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products with extended refrigerated shelf life. Given that the home kitchen is recognized as a significant location where foodborne illnesses are acquired, it is important that consumers implement safe food practices to minimize risks. This is crucial for vulnerable consumers, such as older adults. Consumer food safety recommendations in the United Kingdom to reduce the risk of listeriosis at home include (i) following "use-by" dates on unopened prepacked RTE food products, (ii) consuming RTE food products within 2 days of opening, and (iii) ensuring the safe operating temperatures of domestic refrigerators (≤ 5 °C). This study utilized observation, self-reporting, and microbiological analysis to determine actual food storage practices to identify behavioral risk factors. A domestic kitchen survey was conducted in older adult (≥ 60 years) consumers' domestic kitchens (n = 100) in South Wales, United Kingdom. Forty-one percent of foods in home refrigerators were beyond the use-by date, of which 11% were unopened RTE food products commonly associated with listeriosis. Sixty-six percent of opened RTE foods had been or were intended to be stored beyond the recommended 2 days after opening. Older adults failed to ensure safe refrigeration temperatures, with 50% of central storage and 85% of door storage areas operating at temperatures >5 °C. Older refrigerators operated at significantly (P < 0.05) higher temperatures. Given that Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 2% of kitchens, these findings suggest that storage malpractices may have a greater effect on the potential risk of listeriosis than its presence alone. The study has determined that many older adults fail to adhere to recommendations and subject RTE foods associated with L. monocytogenes to prolonged storage at unsafe

  19. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  20. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  1. Factors Associated with Community Adjustment of Young Adults with Serious Emotional Disturbance: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kathleen H.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Rates of change in behaviors in relation to community adjustment were examined for 292 participants in the 7-year longitudinal National Adolescent and Child Treatment Study (NACTS) as they transitioned to the adult world. Participants with initially higher social-adaptive behavior and whose behavior improved over time attained higher adjustment…

  2. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-09-10

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population.

  3. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options. PMID:27512721

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican American adults: a transcultural analysis of NHANES III, 1988-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, J; Winkleby, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which cardiovascular disease risk factors differ among subgroups of Mexican Americans living in the United States. METHODS: Using data from a national sample (1988-1994) of 1387 Mexican American women and 1404 Mexican American men, aged 25 to 64 years, we examined an estimate of coronary heart disease mortality risk and 5 primary cardiovascular disease risk factors: systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk were evaluated by country of birth and primary language spoken. RESULTS: Estimated 10-year coronary heart disease mortality risk per 1000 persons, adjusted for age and education, was highest for US-born Spanish-speaking men and women (27.5 and 11.4, respectively), intermediate for US-born English-speaking men and women (22.5 and 7.0), and lowest for Mexican-born men and women (20.0 and 6.6). A similar pattern of higher risk among US-born Spanish-speaking men and women was demonstrated for each of the 5 cardiovascular disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the heterogeneity of the Mexican American population and identify a new group at substantial risk for cardiovascular disease and in need of effective heart disease prevention programs. PMID:10224985

  5. A confirmatory factor analysis of the "Autoconcepto Forma 5" questionnaire in young adults from Spain and Chile.

    PubMed

    García, José Fernando; Musitu, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Enrique; Riquelme, Paula

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the pentafactorial validity of the AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire in Spanish and Chilean young adults. From the responses of a total of 4,383 young adults aged 17 to 22 years (1,918 Spanish, 44%, and 2,465 Chilean, 56%) it was analyzed the reliability of the instrument, the compared validity of the 5 oblique factor model proposed by the authors versus the unifactorial and the orthogonal alternative models, and was studied the invariance of one Chilean sample. The results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the authors' pentafactorial model. The multi-group factorial invariance showed that Chilean sample of the AF5 does not change neither the Spanish factor weights, nor the variances and covariances of the factors, or the error variances of items. Finally, the internal consistency of the five scales was good in the samples of both countries.

  6. Analysis of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Nocturia in Adult Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Bang, Woojin; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with nocturia in Korean men. A total of 92,626 participants aged between 19 and 103 years from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) were enrolled. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling investigated participants’ personal health and socioeconomic and disease factors. The prevalence of nocturia ≥1 time and ≥2 times/night was 41.8% and 17.6%, respectively, and nocturia increased with age (1.44 [1.39–1.50] for each 10-year increase, P < 0.001). Lower income levels (lowest, 1.27 [1.19–1.36]; low-middle, 1.13 [1.07–1.19]; upper-middle, 1.00 [0.95–1.06], P = 0.022) and higher levels of stress (severe, 1.38 [1.23–1.55]; moderate, 1.23 [1.16–1.31]; some, 1.11 [1.05–1.16]) exhibited dose-dependent relationships with nocturia (≥1 time; P < 0.001). Low education level (1.27 [1.20–1.36]), long sleep duration (1.33 [1.18–1.50]), and type of occupation showed significant associations with nocturia (≥1 time; P < 0.001). Underweight (1.19 [1.05–1.34]), hypertension (1.09 [1.03–1.15]), diabetes mellitus (1.32 [1.23–1.41]), hyperlipidaemia (1.28 [1.20–1.35]), and cerebral stroke (1.63 [1.40–1.89]) were significantly related to nocturia (≥1 time; P < 0.001). Married men were less likely to experience nocturia ≥2 times per night (0.72 [0.64–0.82], P < 0.001). PMID:28139743

  7. Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Demewoz; Lakew, Yihunie

    2015-01-01

    Background Khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in Ethiopia. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among Ethiopian adults. Methods The study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross-sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to quantify the predictors. Results The overall khat chewing prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 14.90–15.71). Regional variation was observed with the highest in Harari [(53.2% (95% CI: 43.04–63.28)] and lowest in Tigray regional state [(1.1% (95% CI: 0.72–1.66)]. Multivariable analysis showed that Islam followers were 23.8 times more likely to chew khat as compared to Orthodox followers. Being a resident in Oromiya, South Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Gambella, Harari and Dire Dawa regions had 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher odds of chewing khat as compared to Addis Ababa residents, respectively. Adults in the age group 45–49 years were 3.6 times more likely to chew khat as compared to 15–19 years. The middle and richest wealth quintiles were 1.3 and 1.5 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to the poorest category. Rural residents had 1.3 odds of chewing khat than urban residents. Those individuals who had occupation in sales, agriculture, service sector, skilled and unskilled manual workers were 1.6, 1.3, 2.4, 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to those who have no occupation. Females were 77% less likely to chew khat as compared to males. Formerly married and those experienced in child death had 1.4 and 1.2 times higher odds to chew khat as compared

  8. Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Znaor, Ariana; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Vilensky, Marta; Vaughan, Thomas; Thomson, Peter; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ramroth, Heribert; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, José; Muscat, Joshua; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mates, Dana; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Lagiou, Pagona; Koifman, Sergio; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kelsey, Karl; Holcatova, Ivana; Herrero, Rolando; Healy, Claire; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Conway, David I; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Canova, Cristina; Cadoni, Gabriella; Brennan, Paul; Boccia, Stefania; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Agudo, Antonio; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Filho, Victor Wünsch

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in young adults has been reported. We aimed to compare the role of major risk factors and family history of cancer in HNC in young adults and older patients. Methods: We pooled data from 25 case-control studies and conducted separate analyses for adults ≤45 years old (‘young adults’, 2010 cases and 4042 controls) and >45 years old (‘older adults’, 17 700 cases and 22 704 controls). Using logistic regression with studies treated as random effects, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The young group of cases had a higher proportion of oral tongue cancer (16.0% in women; 11.0% in men) and unspecified oral cavity / oropharynx cancer (16.2%; 11.1%) and a lower proportion of larynx cancer (12.1%; 16.6%) than older adult cases. The proportions of never smokers or never drinkers among female cases were higher than among male cases in both age groups. Positive associations with HNC and duration or pack-years of smoking and drinking were similar across age groups. However, the attributable fractions (AFs) for smoking and drinking were lower in young when compared with older adults (AFs for smoking in young women, older women, young men and older men, respectively, = 19.9% (95% CI = 9.8%, 27.9%), 48.9% (46.6%, 50.8%), 46.2% (38.5%, 52.5%), 64.3% (62.2%, 66.4%); AFs for drinking = 5.3% (−11.2%, 18.0%), 20.0% (14.5%, 25.0%), 21.5% (5.0%, 34.9%) and 50.4% (46.1%, 54.3%). A family history of early-onset cancer was associated with HNC risk in the young [OR = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.26, 4.10)], but not in the older adults [OR = 1.10 (0.91, 1.31)]. The attributable fraction for family history of early-onset cancer was 23.2% (8.60% to 31.4%) in young compared with 2.20% (−2.41%, 5.80%) in older adults. Conclusions: Differences in HNC aetiology according to age group may exist. The lower AF of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in young

  9. A comparison of depressive mood of older adults in a community, nursing homes, and a geriatric hospital: factor analysis of Geriatric Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Joji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hidetoshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2006-03-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 was used in 607 adults aged 65+ years living in a community, nursing homes, and a general hospital to explore characteristics of depressive mood in different care settings. Factor analysis of GDS-15 extracted 4 factors labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, loss of hope and morale, and energy loss. The scale scores labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, and loss of hope and morale were negatively correlated with the Barthel Index and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The results classified the depressive patterns into 2 types, one fitting the nursing home residents and the other fitting the hospital patients. The dominant factors of the nursing-home type were unhappiness and loss of hope and morale, and the hospital type was highly related with apathy and anxiety. The results indicate an extended utility of the GDS-15 for a deeper understanding of depressive mood in various care settings.

  10. The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Jan; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2002-01-01

    Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised on 88 adults with dyslexia showed a three-factor structure: a verbal comprehension (VC) factor, a perceptual organization (PO) factor, and a freedom from distractibility (FD) factor. The PO factor had the highest scores and the FD the lowest. (Contains…

  11. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

    1971-01-01

    Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)

  12. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  13. Applicability of action planning and coping planning to dental flossing among Norwegian adults: a confirmatory factor analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2008-06-01

    Using a prospective design and a representative sample of 25-yr-old Norwegians, this study hypothesized that action planning and coping planning will add to the prediction of flossing at 4 wk of follow-up over and above the effect of intention and previous flossing. This study tested the validity of a proposed 3-factor structure of the measurement model of intention, action planning, and coping planning and for its invariance across gender. A survey was conducted in three Norwegian counties, and 1,509 out of 8,000 randomly selected individuals completed questionnaires assessing the constructs of action planning and coping planning related to daily flossing. A random subsample of 500 participants was followed up at 4 wk with a telephone interview to assess flossing. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the proposed 3-factor model after respecification. Although the chi-square test was statistically significant [chi(2) = 58.501, degrees of freedom (d.f.) = 17), complementary fit indices were satisfactory [goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.99, root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04]. Multigroup CFA provided evidence of complete invariance of the measurement model across gender. After controlling for previous flossing, intention (beta = 0.08) and action planning (beta = 0.11) emerged as independent predictors of subsequent flossing, accounting for 2.3% of its variance. Factorial validity of intention, action planning and coping planning, and the validity of action planning in predicting flossing prospectively, was confirmed by the present study.

  14. Risk factors for mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease: a meta-analysis of studies in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Poulami; Caughey, Melissa; Robinson, Laura; Desai, Payal C; Jones, Susan; Nouraie, Mehdi; Gladwin, Mark T; Hinderliter, Alan; Cai, Jianwen; Ataga, Kenneth I

    2017-01-19

    Although recent studies show an improved survival of children with sickle cell disease in the US and Europe, mortality remains high for adult patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with mortality in adult patients following the approval of hydroxyurea. We first evaluated the association between selected variables and mortality at an academic center (UNC cohort). Data sources were then searched for publications from 1998 to June, 2016, with meta-analysis of eligible studies conducted in North America and Europe to evaluate the associations of selected variables with mortality in adult patients. Nine studies, combined with the UNC cohort (total: 3257 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Mortality was significantly associated with age (per 10-year increase in age) (7 studies, 2,306 participants; hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.50), tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity ≥ 2.5 m/s (5 studies, 1,577 participants; hazard ratio: 3.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 - 4.60), reticulocyte count (3 studies, 1,050 participants; hazard ratio: 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.10), log(N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide) (3 studies, 800 participants; hazard ratio: 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.48 - 1.90), and fetal hemoglobin (7 studies, 2,477 participants; hazard ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.0). This study identifies variables associated with mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease in the hydroxyurea era.

  15. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Brian C.; Garvan, Gerard J.; Garvan, Cynthia S.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:28138493

  16. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, S.; García-Espinosa, V.; Arana, M.; Farro, I.; Chiesa, P.; Giachetto, G.; Zócalo, Y.; Bia, D.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4–28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4–8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504

  17. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Factor Structure and Cross-Age Invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Witta, E. Lea

    2004-01-01

    In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), the manual reports several confirmatory factor analyses in support of the instrument's latent factor structure. In practice, examiners frequently compare an examinee's score from a current administration of the WAIS-III with the results from a previous test…

  18. A bright side, facet analysis of histrionic personality disorder: the relationship between the HDS Colourful factor and the NEO-PI-R facets in a large adult sample.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at "bright-side," Big Five Personality trait correlates of a "dark-side" Personality Disorder, namely Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD). More than 5000 British adults completed the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1985), which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the Domain (Super Factor) and the Facet (Factor) level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 2009), which has a measure of HPD, exclusively called "Colourful" in the HDS terminology. Correlation and regression results confirmed many of the associations between these "bright" and "dark" side individual difference variables. The Colourful (HPD) score from the HDS was the criterion variable in all analyses. Colourful individuals are high on Extraversion and Openness, but also Stable and disagreeable. The Facet analysis identified Assertiveness and Immodesty as particularly characteristic of that type. The study confirmed work on HPD using different population groups and different measures, showing that personality traits are predictable and correlated with various personality disorders.

  19. Adult Nephrotic Syndrome and Acquired Coagulopathies: Hageman Factor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Branson, Herman E.; Vaziri, N. Dabir; Slater, Lewis M.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of tests of coagulation and fibrinolysis from 20 adult nephrotics prior to the onset of therapy disclosed that 40 percent had low factor XII levels. The mean factor XI was normal. The platelet count and fibrinogen concentration were elevated. The findings of this study on adults are similar to those of Honig and Lindley21 in the nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Subjects with minimal change disease constituted a small (15 percent) but readily segregated subpopulation without evidence of fibrinolysis in association with low factor XII activity. Prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time corresponded in every instance with factor XII activities of ≤30 percent. Lengthening of the one stage prothrombin time was not directly attributable to factor deficiencies. PMID:7120469

  20. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  1. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian'an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-06-21

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55-2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22-1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12-2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21-1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04-1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48-2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01-1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64-1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41-4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended.

  2. Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status and Cancer-Related Risk Factors: Analysis of the WHO study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost 4 times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23–12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01–2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80–2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47–4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific subgroups in order to be most effective. PMID:27813060

  3. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and cancer-related risk factors: Analysis of the WHO study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-02-15

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost four times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23-12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01-2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17-2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11-1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15-1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80-2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47-4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07-12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific sub-groups in order to be most effective.

  4. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  5. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  6. Chewing impairment and associated factors among adults

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Daniela de Rossi; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Luchi, Carla Antoni; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chewing impairment according to sex, and its associated factors in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 2,016 subjects aged between 20 and 59 years in Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil, in 2009. The sampling was undertaken in two stages, census tracts and households. The outcome 'chewing impairment' was obtained from the question "How often do you have chewing impairment due to teeth or denture problems?". Analyses were carried out with demographics and socioeconomic factors, dental services utilization, and self-related oral health using multivariable logistic regression and stratified by sex. RESULTS The response rate was 85.3% (1,720 adults). The prevalence of chewing impairment was 13,0% (95%CI 10.3;15.8) and 18,0% (95%CI 14.6;21.3) among men and women, respectively. Women and men fifty years old and over, who had ten or fewer natural teeth and those who reported toothache were more likely to have chewing impairment. The combination of tooth loss and toothache on chewing impairment was almost four times higher among women. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of the associations among socioeconomic, demographics and self-related oral health factors was different according to sex, in general higher for women, with emphasis on toothache. The findings suggest that the impact of oral conditions varies by sex. PMID:24626541

  7. Discovering Factors that Influence the Decision to Pursue a Chemistry-Related Career: A Comparative Analysis of the Experiences of Non Scientist Adults and Chemistry Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salta, Katerina; Gekos, Michael; Petsimeri, Irene; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at identifying factors that influence students' choice not to pursue a chemistry-related career by analyzing the experiences of secondary education chemistry teachers in Greece and of Greek adults who have not pursued studies related to science. Data collection was done with the method of individual structured interviews. The…

  8. Factors Contributing to Employment and Enhancement in Quality of Life of Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jane

    A statistical analysis of an adult high school was conducted to determine factors for achievement and enhancement of quality of life of adult learners. Participants were 206 adult students studying English as a Second Language or enrolled in upgrading and business courses at a metropolitan Toronto (Ontario, Canada) secondary school. Variables…

  9. Suicide protective factors among trans adults.

    PubMed

    Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2013-07-01

    A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide resilience, which are known to protect cis (non-trans) individuals, also protect trans individuals. A sample of self-identified trans Canadian adults (N = 133) was recruited from LGBT and trans LISTSERVs. Data were collected online using a secure survey platform. A three block hierarchical multiple regression model was used to predict suicidal behavior from protective factors. Social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism significantly and negatively predicted 33 % of variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age. Reasons for living and suicide resilience accounted for an additional 19 % of the variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age, social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism. Of the factors mentioned above, perceived social support from family, one of three suicide resilience factors (emotional stability), and one of six reasons for living (child-related concerns) significantly and negatively predicted participants' suicidal behavior. Overall, these findings can be used to inform the practices of mental health workers, medical doctors, and suicide prevention workers working with trans clients.

  10. Factors associated with suicide ideation in adults.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Kristjansdottir, G; Sveinbjarnardottir, E

    1998-03-01

    The study considers numerous factors potentially related to suicide ideation in adults, including life stress, stress perceptions, social support, personality, alcohol use, chronic conditions, distress symptoms and sociodemographic background. Using data from a health survey of 825 adult residents in the urban Reykjavik area of Iceland, the study finds that financial hardship, legal stress, family difficulties, stress perceptions and low material support are significantly related to thoughts of committing suicide. Multiple chronic conditions, frequent alcohol use and various forms of distress (e.g. depression, anxiety, hopelessness, pain) are also related to suicide ideation. Furthermore, low self-esteem and external locus of control (low sense of mastery) are both associated with suicidal thoughts. No significant relationships were found between sociodemographic background and suicide ideation. The meaning of the results, and their implications for continued theoretical and clinical work in this area, are discussed. Suicide research has primarily focused on completed suicides (e.g. Durkheim [1897] 1951; Fisher et al. 1993; Henry and Short 1954; Lester 1974; Pritchard 1996) or suicide attempts (e.g. Diekstra 1982; Maris 1981; Slap et al. 1989; Smith and Crawford 1986; Stack and Wasserman 1995). Relatively few studies have focused on thoughts of own death or suicide, or suicide planning. Nevertheless, there is a growing understanding that ideation and planning are important steps in a process of suicide, characterised by a stepwise hierarchy of actions with an underlying gradient of severity (Beck 1986; Bonner and Rich 1987; Diekstra 1993; Smith and Crawford 1986). Ideation precedes planning, which may result in an attempt leading to death. If nonfatal, the attempt may increase the likelihood of subsequent ideation, planning and attempt (see paths a-e in Fig. 1). It should therefore be of theoretical as well as clinical value to consider the risk factors associated

  11. Analysis of Risk Factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Infection and Pneumonia and among Adult Patients with Acute Respiratory Illness during 2011-2014 Influenza Seasons in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wie, Seong-Heon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Young Keun; Park, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Shin Woo; Lee, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends the surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to respond effectively to both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics. In Korea, the “Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM)” surveillance system has been operated to monitor ILI and SARI occurrences. Materials and Methods A multi-center prospective observational study was conducted. Adult patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were enrolled during the 2011-12, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 influenza seasons at the 10 university hospitals using the HIMM surveillance system. With respect to SARI and pneumonia development, risk profiles were analyzed in patients with ARI in Korea. Results A total of 5,459 cases were eligible for this analysis. Among 5,459 cases with ARI, 2,887 cases (52.9%) were identified that they had influenza infection. Among enrolled cases, 750 cases belonged to the SARI group, while 4,709 cases belonged to the non-SARI group. With respect to pneumonia development, 317 cases were accompanied by pneumonia, and 5,142 cases were not. Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were associated with an increased risk of SARI: Old age (≥65 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.32), chronic heart disease (CHD) (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.68-2.98), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.10), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.73-3.99), chronic liver disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.81), and autoimmune diseases (OR 2.53, 1.57-4.08). Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were independent risk factors for pneumonia development: Old age (≥65 years) (OR 5.71, 95% CI 4.10-7.94), CHD (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.22), COPD (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), CKD (OR 2.62, 95

  12. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  13. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  14. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  15. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH gene family in planarians identifies factors required for adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Martis W; Brown, David D R; Nisperos, Sean V; Stanley, Brianna N; Pearson, Bret J; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to most well-studied model organisms, planarians have a remarkable ability to completely regenerate a functional nervous system from a pluripotent stem cell population. Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo. We analyzed the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors, many of which are crucial for nervous system development and have been implicated in human diseases. However, their potential roles in adult neurogenesis or central nervous system (CNS) function are not well understood. We identified 44 planarian bHLH homologs, determined their patterns of expression in the animal and assessed their functions using RNAi. We found nine bHLHs expressed in stem cells and neurons that are required for CNS regeneration. Our analyses revealed that homologs of coe, hes (hesl-3) and sim label progenitors in intact planarians, and following amputation we observed an enrichment of coe(+) and sim(+) progenitors near the wound site. RNAi knockdown of coe, hesl-3 or sim led to defects in CNS regeneration, including failure of the cephalic ganglia to properly pattern and a loss of expression of distinct neuronal subtype markers. Together, these data indicate that coe, hesl-3 and sim label neural progenitor cells, which serve to generate new neurons in uninjured or regenerating animals. Our study demonstrates that this model will be useful to investigate how stem cells interpret and respond to genetic and environmental cues in the CNS and to examine the role of bHLH transcription factors in adult tissue regeneration.

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Frailty Among Peruvian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Snih, Soham Al; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Parodi, José F.; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara”) were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) unintentional weight-loss, 2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), 3) self-reported exhaustion, and 4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-meter walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

  18. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  19. Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

  20. Factor Analysis and Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    1970-01-01

    Topics discussed include factor analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and factor analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of factor analytic techniques. Techniques for factor extraction discussed include principal components, canonical factor analysis, alpha…

  1. Initiating factors of Chinese intergenerational conflict: young adults' written accounts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Bing

    2004-12-01

    This study examined young adults' written accounts of intergenerational communication in conflict situations in the People's Republic of China. Using a content analysis approach, this study identified five major types of initiating factors that precipitated intergenerational conflict. Old-to-young criticism was most frequent, followed by illegitimate demand and rebuff. The least frequent initiating factors included young-to-old criticism and disagreement/generation gap. In addition, results indicated that more rebuffs were from nonfamily elders than from family elders, whereas disagreement with family elders was more frequent than with non-family elders. Proportionally speaking, no differences emerged between family and nonfamily elders for criticism (both old-to-young and young-to-old) and illegitimate demand. Results are discussed with respect to research in intergenerational communication, interpersonal conflict, and the Chinese socio-cultural norm of hierarchy and filial piety.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in older adults and its associated factors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Vega, María Fernanda; García-Peña, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was common in older adults from a country with adequate sun exposure. The variables associated with this deficiency provide insight into the next steps needed to characterize older adults with this deficiency and to treat it accordingly.

  3. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-01-01

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93–3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33–3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support. PMID:28282958

  4. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-03-09

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33-3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.

  5. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  6. Motivating Factors for Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogunro, Olusegun Agboola

    2015-01-01

    All learners learn best when they are motivated; so do adults. Hence, the way to ensure success of students in higher education is first to know what motivates and sustains them in the learning process. Based on a study of 203 university students, this paper presents eight top most motivating factors for adult learners in higher education. These…

  7. Evidence for a General Factor Model of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbins, Christopher; Toplak, Maggie E.; Flora, David B.; Weiss, Margaret D.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine factor structures of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) symptoms of ADHD in adults. Method: Two sets of models were tested: (a) models with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as separate but correlated latent constructs and (b) hierarchical general factor models with a general factor for…

  8. Factors To Consider: Developing Adult EFL Students' Speaking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumin, Kang

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that, to provide effective guidance in developing competent speakers of English, it is necessary to examine the factors affecting adult learners' oral communication, components underlying speaking proficiency, and specific skills or strategies used in communication. (Author/VWL)

  9. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  10. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  11. Risk factors which predispose first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations to recurrent instability in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olds, M; Ellis, R; Donaldson, K; Parmar, P; Kersten, P

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent instability following a first-time anterior traumatic shoulder dislocation may exceed 26%. We systematically reviewed risk factors which predispose this population to events of recurrence. Methods A systematic review of studies published before 1 July 2014. Risk factors which predispose recurrence following a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation were documented and rates of recurrence were compared. Pooled ORs were analysed using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Ten studies comprising 1324 participants met the criteria for inclusion. Recurrent instability following a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation was 39%. Increased risk of recurrent instability was reported in people aged 40 years and under (OR=13.46), in men (OR=3.18) and in people with hyperlaxity (OR=2.68). Decreased risk of recurrent instability was reported in people with a greater tuberosity fracture (OR=0.13). The rate of recurrent instability decreased as time from the initial dislocation increased. Other factors such as a bony Bankart lesion, nerve palsy and occupation influenced rates of recurrent instability. Conclusions Sex, age at initial dislocation, time from initial dislocation, hyperlaxity and greater tuberosity fractures were key risk factors in at least two good quality cohort studies resulting in strong evidence as concluded in the GRADE criteria. Although bony Bankart lesions, Hill Sachs lesions, occupation, physiotherapy treatment and nerve palsy were risk factors for recurrent instability, the evidence was weak using the GRADE criteria—these findings relied on poorer quality studies or were inconsistent among studies. PMID:25900943

  12. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  13. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  15. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    PubMed

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  16. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia

  17. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Peach, Brian C; Garvan, Gerard J; Garvan, Cynthia S; Cimiotti, Jeannie P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  19. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

  20. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Frakes, Robert A.; Belden, Robert C.; Wood, Barry E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old) adult panthers (35 males and 52 females) during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations), we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture) had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males). The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25%) of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology. PMID:26222526

  1. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    PubMed

    Frakes, Robert A; Belden, Robert C; Wood, Barry E; James, Frederick E

    2015-01-01

    Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old) adult panthers (35 males and 52 females) during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations), we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture) had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males). The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25%) of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  2. Individual Difference Factors in Risky Driving among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635

  3. Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

    2011-06-01

    Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

  4. Incarcerating Juveniles in Adult Prisons as a Factor in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Irene Y.H.; Shen, Xiaoyi; Sim, Helen; Sarri, Rosemary C.; Stoffregen, Elizabeth; Shook, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Background While existing research has shown higher prevalence of depression among incarcerated youths compared to non-incarcerated youths, none has studied incarceration as a cause of depression. Aims/hypothesis This study suggests that incarceration, in particular placement of youth in adult incarceration, is a factor of depression. Method A records based comparison of depression among youths in different types of incarceration with non-incarcerated youths, controlling for other predictors of depression, namely offense type, family poverty, parents’ history of incarceration, and demographic profile. Results Youths in adult placements were significantly more likely to be depressed than youths in juvenile placements and community-based youths. Conclusion and implications The findings suggest that there are mental health implications against incarcerating youths in adult prisons, a concern that current juvenile justice might not have considered adequately. PMID:20625981

  5. The Risk of Infection and Malignancy with Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists in Adult Patients with Psoriatic Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dommasch, E. D.; Abuabara, K.; Shin, D.B.; Nguyen, J.; Troxel, A. B.; Gelfand, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a need to better understand the safety of TNF inhibitors in patients with psoriatic disease in whom TNF inhibitors are frequently used as monotherapy. Objective Examine the risks of infection and malignancy with the use of TNF antagonists in adult patients with psoriatic disease. Methods Systematic search for trials of TNF antagonists for adults with plaque psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We included randomized, placebo-controlled trials of etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab for the treatment of PsO and PsA. 20 out of 820 identified studies with a total of 6,810 patients were included. Results were calculated using fixed effects models and reported as pooled odds ratios (OR). Results ORs for overall infection and serious infection over a mean of 17.8 weeks were 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.40, 1.21), respectively. When adjusting for patient-years, the incidence rate ratio for overall infection was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.11). The OR for malignancy was 1.48 (95% CI: 0.71, 3.09), and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.39, 4.15) when non-melanoma skin cancer was excluded. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and rarity of malignancies and serious infections. Conclusions There is a small increased risk of overall infection with the short-term use of TNF antagonists for psoriasis that may be attributable to differences in follow-up time between treatment and placebo groups. There was no evidence of an increased risk of serious infection and a statistically significant increased risk in cancer was not observed with short-term use of TNF inhibitors. PMID:21315483

  6. Analysis of DAX1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) in children and adults with primary adrenal failure: ten years' experience

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Gu, Wen-Xia; Ozisik, Gokhan; To, Wing S.; Owen, Catherine J.; Jameson, J. Larry; Achermann, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Context Primary adrenal failure is a life-threatening condition that can be caused by a range of etiologies, including autoimmune, metabolic, and developmental disorders. The nuclear receptors DAX1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) play an important role in adrenal development and function, and mutations in these transcription factors have been found in patients with adrenal hypoplasia. Objective To investigate the prevalence of DAX1 and SF1 mutations in children and adults with primary adrenal failure of unknown etiology (i.e., not caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenoleukodystrophy, autoimmune disease). Patients One-hundred and seventeen patients were included. Eighty-eight individuals presented in infancy or childhood with adrenal hypoplasia or primary adrenal failure of unknown etiology (n=64, 46,XY phenotypic males; n=17, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis/impaired androgenization; n=7, 46,XX females). Twenty-nine individuals presented in adulthood with “Addison disease” of unknown etiology. Methods Mutational analysis of DAX1 (NR0B1) (including exon 2α/1A) and SF1 (NR5A1) by direct sequencing. Results DAX1 mutations were found in 58% (37/64) of 46,XY phenotypic boys referred with adrenal hypoplasia, and in all boys (8/8) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a family history suggestive of adrenal failure in males. SF1 mutations causing adrenal failure were found only in two patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. No DAX1 or SF1 mutations were identified in the adult-onset group. Conclusions DAX1 mutations are a relatively frequent cause of adrenal failure in this group of boys. SF1 mutations causing adrenal failure in humans are rare and are more likely to be associated with significant underandrogenization and gonadal dysfunction in 46,XY individuals. PMID:16684822

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  8. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  9. Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates from Previously Vaccinated Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK

  10. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.

  11. Associations Between Macrolevel Economic Factors and Weight Distributions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Multilevel Analysis of 200 000 Adults in 40 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kawachi, Ichiro; Heymann, Jody; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between macrolevel economic factors hypothesized to drive changes in distributions of weight and body mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of 200 796 men and women from 40 low- and middle-income countries. Methods. We used meta-regressions to describe ecological associations between macrolevel factors and mean BMIs across countries. Multilevel regression was used to assess the relation between macrolevel economic characteristics and individual odds of underweight and overweight relative to normal weight. Results. In multilevel analyses adjusting for individual-level characteristics, a 1–standard-deviation increase in trade liberalization was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76, 0.99), 17% (95% CI = 0.71, 0.96), 13% (95% CI = 0.76, 1.00), and 14% (95% CI = 0.75, 0.99) lower odds of underweight relative to normal weight among rural men, rural women, urban men, and urban women, respectively. Economic development was consistently associated with higher odds of overweight relative to normal weight. Among rural men, a 1–standard-deviation increase in foreign direct investment was associated with 17% (95% CI = 1.02, 1.35) higher odds of overweight relative to normal weight. Conclusions. Macrolevel economic factors may be implicated in global shifts in epidemiological patterns of weight. PMID:24228649

  12. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  13. Association of Macroeconomic Factors With Nonrelapse Mortality After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Analysis From the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT

    PubMed Central

    Labopin, Myriam; Ibatici, Adalberto; Browne, Paul; Czerw, Tomasz; Socie, Gerard; Unal, Ali; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Goker, Hakan; Potter, Mike; Furness, Caroline L.; McQuaker, Grant; Beelen, Dietrich; Milpied, Noel; Campos, Antonio; Craddock, Charles; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. From a global perspective, the rates of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) are closely related to the economic status of a country. However, a potential association with outcome has not yet been documented. The goal of this study was to evaluate effects of health care expenditure (HCE), Human Development Index (HDI), team density, and center experience on nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after HLA-matched sibling alloHCT for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods. A total of 983 patients treated with myeloablative alloHCT between 2004 and 2008 in 24 European countries were included. Results. In a univariate analysis, the probability of day 100 NRM was increased for countries with lower current HCE (8% vs. 3%; p = .06), countries with lower HDI (8% vs. 3%; p = .02), and centers with less experience (8% vs. 5%; p = .04). In addition, the overall NRM was increased for countries with lower current HCE (21% vs. 17%; p = .09) and HDI (21% vs. 16%; p = .03) and for centers with lower activity (21% vs. 16%; p = .07). In a multivariate analysis, the strongest predictive model for day 100 NRM included current HCE greater than the median (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; p = .002). The overall NRM was mostly predicted by HDI greater than the median (HR, 0.65; p = .01). Both lower current HCE and HDI were associated with decreased probability of overall survival. Conclusion. Both macroeconomic factors and the socioeconomic status of a country strongly influence NRM after alloHCT for adults with ALL. Our findings should be considered when clinical studies in the field of alloHCT are interpreted. Implications for Practice: Results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and other advanced oncological procedures may vary among countries and be related to various economic factors. This study, which included a homogenous population of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, demonstrated significant associations of

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Adult Domain Framework Using Item Response Theory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Adam Christopher; Riley, William; Hays, Ron D.; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Background To guide measure development, National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) investigators developed a hierarchical domain framework. The framework specifies health domains at multiple levels. The initial PROMIS domain framework specified that physical function and symptoms such as pain and fatigue indicate Physical Health (PH); depression, anxiety, and anger indicate Mental Health (MH); and social role performance and social satisfaction indicate Social Health (SH). We used confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to evaluate the fit of the hypothesized framework to data collected from a large sample. Methods We used data (n = 14,098) from PROMIS’s wave 1 field test and estimated domain scores using the PROMIS item response theory parameters. We then used CFA to test whether the domains corresponded to the PROMIS domain framework as expected. Results A model corresponding to the domain framework did not provide ideal fit (RMSEA=0.13; CFI=0.92; TLI=0.88; SRMR=0.09). Based on modification indices and EFA, we allowed Fatigue to load on both PH and MH. This model fit the data acceptably (RMSEA=0.08; CFI=0.97; TLI=0.96; SRMR=0.03). Discussion Our findings generally support the PROMIS domain framework. Allowing fatigue to load on both PH and MH improved fit considerably. PMID:26366521

  15. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  16. Risk factors for pertussis in adults and teenagers in England.

    PubMed

    Wensley, A; Hughes, G J; Campbell, H; Amirthalingam, G; Andrews, N; Young, N; Coole, L

    2017-04-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis which can be fatal in infants. Although high vaccine coverage led to prolonged disease control in England, a national outbreak of pertussis in 2011 led to the largest increase in over two decades, including a marked increase in cases aged ⩾15 years. A case-control study in four regions of England was undertaken to investigate risk factors for pertussis in adolescents and adults, specifically employment type and professional and household contact with children. Pertussis cases were laboratory-confirmed and aged ⩾15 years. Controls were recruited through general practitioner nomination. Demographic and risk factor information were collected using an online survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate independent associations with outcome. Two hundred and thirty-one cases and 190 controls were recruited. None of the four employment variables (social care, education, health sector, patient contact) were significantly associated with pertussis. Professional contact with children aged < 1 year was associated with a significantly reduced odds of pertussis [odds ratio (OR) 0·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·08-0·78, P = 0·017]. Household contact with ⩾1 child aged 10-14 years was associated with significantly increased odds of pertussis (OR 2·61, 95% CI 1·47-4·64, P = 0·001). Occupational contact with very young children was associated with reduced odds of pertussis, probably due to immune boosting by low-level exposures to B. pertussis. Sharing a household with a young adolescent was a significant risk factor for pertussis in adults and older teenagers. The primary focus of the childhood pertussis vaccination programmes is to prevent infant disease. Although evidence is emerging that adolescent vaccination does not provide indirect protection to infants, our results highlight the importance of children aged 10-14 years in pertussis transmission to

  17. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  18. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors.

  19. Behavioral Factors Related to Sleep Quality and Duration in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Joohee; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to measure the sleep quality and duration in healthy adults and to identify any influencing factors. Methods This study was a descriptive research investigation that evaluated 240 healthy adults at least 19 years of age. The data were assessed using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Korean YZ, and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Results The PSQI global score was 5.69 ± 3.23, and 59.6% of the participants were classified as having poor quality sleep (PSQI score > 5). The significant risk factors for poor sleep quality were female gender (p = 0.021), number of comorbid conditions (p = 0.003), depression (p < 0.001), fatigue (p < 0.001), and anxiety (p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that significant predictors of poor sleep quality were depression (p < 0.001) and fatigue (p < 0.001). Participants slept an average of 6.16 ± 1.36 hours a night. A shorter sleep duration was correlated with older age (p = 0.010), a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.026), a greater depression score (p = 0.002), a higher fatigue score (p = 0.028), and lower sleep quality (p < 0.001). In addition, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that factors significantly associated with sleep duration were depression (p = 0.002) and BMI (p = 0.034). Conclusion The number of comorbid conditions and the presence of depression and fatigue were risk factors for both low sleep quality and short sleep duration. Therefore, to improve sleep quality, there is a need for comprehensive interventional programs to manage these and any other factors that disturb sleep. PMID:28261557

  20. [Factors associated with nursing workload in adult intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Kátia Grillo

    2007-12-01

    This study was aimed both at analyzing the nursing workload on the first day of admission of patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and the factors associated with it. This is a qualitative, retrospective, cross-section study that was carried out in April of 2002 and October of 2004. The data were taken from a database that gathered information from 5 ICUs from two private hospitals and the sample was comprised of 214 adult patients that remained in the ICU for at least 24 hours. The total Nursing Activities Score (NAS) average was 69.9%, and the median 68.0%. According to the median, it was verified that 109 (50.9%) individuals required heavy nursing attention and the remaining 105 (49.1%) required less attention. The severity of the illness, the patient's age and the kind of treatment were not factors associated with nursing workload in the first 24 hours at the ICU.

  1. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  2. Auditory and cognitive factors underlying individual differences in aided speech-understanding among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Larry E.; Kidd, Gary R.; Lentz, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male) ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2). Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures), psychophysical (17 measures), and speech-understanding (9 measures), as well as the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ) self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference). All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding) measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection) as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI), and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT) task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition). These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance. PMID

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with cardiovascular reactivity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vitaliano, P P; Russo, J; Bailey, S L; Young, H M; McCann, B S

    1993-01-01

    This study examined associations of psychosocial factors with cardiovascular reactivity in two groups of men and women--spouse caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (M age = 69.4 N = 82) and controls (M age = 68.5, N = 78) group-matched for age and gender. Cardiovascular responses to an emotional task (speech sample about one's spouse) yielded higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) than a spoken cognitive task, which in turn yielded higher BPs and heart rate (HR) than the baseline rest period. HR was greater in response to the two tasks than in response to the baseline period, but it did not differ across tasks. Regression models of SBP, DBP, and HR reactivity in response to the two tasks demonstrated that after controlling for hypertension and gender, combinations of hostility, anger expression, avoidance coping, Type A behavior and Expressed Emotion (criticism) explained more reactivity in response to the emotional (8-12%) than the cognitive task (4-7%). Caregivers were more reactive than controls only if they were hypertensive. Psychosocial factors may be as important in explaining reactivity in older adults as in younger adults.

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Multimorbidity and the Relationship to Socio-Demographic Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life. A National Population-Based Study of 162,283 Danish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Pedersen, Marie Hauge; Friis, Karina; Glümer, Charlotte; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of multimorbidity in the general population and examine how these patterns are related to socio-demographic factors and health-related quality of life. Study design and setting We used latent class analysis to identify subgroups with statistically distinct and clinically meaningful disease patterns in a nationally representative sample of Danish adults (N = 162,283) aged 16+ years. The analysis was based on 15 chronic diseases. Results Seven classes with different disease patterns were identified: a class with no or only a single chronic condition (59% of the population) labeled “1) Relatively Healthy” and six classes with a very high prevalence of multimorbidity labeled; “2) Hypertension” (14%); “3) Musculoskeletal Disorders” (10%); “4) Headache-Mental Disorders” (7%); “5) Asthma-Allergy” (6%); “6) Complex Cardiometabolic Disorders” (3%); and “7) Complex Respiratory Disorders” (2%). Female gender was associated with an increased likelihood of belonging to any of the six multimorbidity classes except for class 2 (Hypertension). Low educational attainment predicted membership of all of the multimorbidity classes except for class 5 (Asthma-Allergy). Marked differences in health-related quality of life between the seven latent classes were found. Poor health-related quality of life was highly associated with membership of class 6 (Complex Cardiometabolic Disorders) and class 7 (Complex Respiratory Disorders). Despite different disease patterns, these two classes had nearly identical profiles in relation to health-related quality of life. Conclusion The results clearly support that diseases tend to compound and interact, which suggests that a differentiated public health and treatment approach towards multimorbidity is needed. PMID:28056050

  5. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (r = .93). Validity was established by comparing scores of adults who as children received ICD-10 diagnoses of specific reading disorder (F81.0; n = 419) to those of adults defined as nondyslexics (n = 679). ROC curve analysis resulted in an area under the curve of .92 (95% CI = .90, .93, p < .001) and a cutoff score of .43 with sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 83.7%. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 2,187) suggested three subscales, Dyslexia Symptoms, Current Reading, and Memory, the mean scores of which differed significantly among diagnosed dyslexics, relatives of dyslexics, and population controls. Our results support the applicability of the ARHQ in Icelandic as a self-report screening tool for adult dyslexia in Iceland.

  6. Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ≥65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR = 2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with ≤ 1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

  7. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    PubMed

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  8. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  9. Has MRD monitoring superseded other prognostic factors in adult ALL?

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Monika; Raff, Thorsten; Kneba, Michael

    2012-11-29

    Significant improvements have been made in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the past 2 decades, and measurement of submicroscopic (minimal) levels of residual disease (MRD) is increasingly used to monitor treatment efficacy. For a better comparability of MRD data, there are ongoing efforts to standardize MRD quantification using real-time quantitative PCR of clonal immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, real-time quantitative-based detection of fusion gene transcripts or breakpoints, and multiparameter flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Several studies have demonstrated that MRD assessment in childhood and adult ALL significantly correlates with clinical outcome. MRD detection is particularly useful for evaluation of treatment response, but also for early assessment of an impending relapse. Therefore, MRD has gained a prominent position in many ALL treatment studies as a tool for tailoring therapy with growing evidence that MRD supersedes most conventional stratification criteria at least for Ph-negative ALL. Most study protocols on adult ALL follow a 2-step approach with a first classic pretherapeutic and a second MRD-based risk stratification. Here we discuss whether and how MRD is ready to be used as main decisive marker and whether pretherapeutic factors and MRD are really competing or complementary tools to individualize treatment.

  10. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  11. Arterial Hypertension and other risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults1

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; dos Santos, Lucimary Afonso; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adults. METHOD: cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study conducted with 408 adult individuals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. Person's Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: 23.03% of the individuals reported hypertension with a higher prevalence among women. Odds Ratio indicated that smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were positively associated with arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: high self-reported hypertension and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia show the need for specific nursing interventions and the implementation of protocols focused on minimizing complications arising from hypertension, as well as to prevent the emergence of other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296137

  12. Viewpoints on Factors for Successful Employment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the key factors for successful employment from the viewpoints of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and employers. Two groups of individuals participated in this study, 40 adults with ASD and 35 employers. Q method was used to understand and contrast the viewpoints of the two groups. Data were analysed using by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results showed that although both groups appear committed to the employment process, the difference in their understanding regarding the type of workplace support required, job expectations and productivity requirements continues to hinder successful employment. These results highlight the need to facilitate communication between employees and employers to ensure a clear understanding of the needs of both groups are met. The use of an ASD-specific workplace tool may assist in facilitating the necessary communication between these two groups. PMID:26462234

  13. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  14. Risk Factors for Intractable Ascites After Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Using Left Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Shinichi; Ishizaki, Yoichi; Yoshimoto, Jiro; Fujiwara, Noriko; Kawasaki, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Background Intractable ascites is one of the causes of graft loss after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using a small graft. Identification of factors associated with increasing posttransplant ascites has important implications for prevention and treatment. Methods All 59 consecutive adult patients who underwent left lobe LDLT without portal inflow modulation between October 2002 and February 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Factors associated with the average daily amount of ascites for 2 weeks after LDLT were assessed. Results The median daily amount of ascites during the 2 weeks was 1052 mL (range, 52-3480 mL). Although 16 of the 59 patients developed intractable ascites, exceeding 1500 mL daily (massive ascites group), the remaining 43 patients produced less than 1500 mL of ascites daily (nonmassive ascites group). The presence of pretransplant ascites (P = 0.001), albumin (P = 0.011), albumin/globulin ratio (P = 0.026), cold ischemia time (P = 0.004), operation time (P = 0.022), and pretransplant portal vein pressure (PVP) (P = 0.047) differed significantly between the 2 groups. Neither posttransplant PVP nor portal vein flow differed between the 2 groups. The variables associated with intractable ascites that remained significant after logistic regression analysis were pretransplant PVP (P = 0.047) and cold ischemia time (P = 0.049). After appropriate fluid resuscitation for intractable ascites, 58 (98%) of the 59 recipients were discharged from hospital after removal of the indwelling drains. Conclusions It is important to shorten the scold ischemia time to reduce massive ascites after LDLT. Pretransplant portal hypertension is more closely associated with ascites production than posttransplant hemodynamic status. PMID:28361122

  15. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  16. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  17. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Robbins, Wendie; Smith, Cynthia; Wiley, Dorothy; Leake, Barbara; Longshore, Douglas; Gelberg, Lillian

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a sample of homeless and impoverished adults and examine risk factors for HCV infection in the overall sample and as a function of injection drug use. DESIGN Assays were conducted on stored sera. Sociodemographic characteristics and risky sexual activity were measured by content-specific items. Substance use was measured by a structured questionnaire. HCV antibodies were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a confirmatory level was defined by recombinant immunoblot assay. SETTINGS Shelters (N = 36) and outdoor locations in Los Angeles. PARTICIPANTS Eight hundred eighty-four homeless women and/or partners or friends. RESULTS Among this sample of 884 homeless and impoverished adults, 22% were found to be HCV infected. Lifetime injection drug users (IDUs) (cocaine, crack, and methamphetamine) and recent daily users of crack were more likely than nonusers or less-frequent users of these drugs to be HCV-infected. Similar results were found for those who had been hospitalized for a mental health problem. Among non–injection drug users and persons in the total sample, those who reported lifetime alcohol abuse were more likely than those who did not to be HCV infected. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple logistic regression analyses revealed IDUs have over 25 times greater odds of having HCV infection than non-IDUs. HCV infection was also predicted by older age, having started living on one's own before the age of 18, and recent chronic alcohol use. Males and recent crack users had about one and a half times greater odds of HCV infection when compared to females and non–chronic crack users. CONCLUSIONS Targeted outreach for homeless women and their partners, including HCV testing coupled with referrals to HCV and substance abuse treatments, may be helpful. PMID:11841529

  18. Productive engagement in older adults: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the concept of productive engagement as it applies to older adults. The concept analysis was based on Walker and Avant's eight-step method. A literature review of articles published in English between 1990 and 2011 (n = 37) was conducted, using an electronic search of multiple sources. Results revealed that four defining attributes for productive engagement include continuing to work either paid or unpaid, caring for others, engaging in social activities, and growing spirituality. The antecedents of productive engagement are sociocultural factors as well as individual and institutional capacities. Meanwhile, the consequences are increased feelings of usefulness, improved health and well-being, aged successfully, and enhanced quality of life. Model, borderline, and contrary cases are presented to illustrate the concept's defining attributes. Defining the concept of productive engagement provides a basis for nurses and other health professionals to better understand productive engagement in older adults, thus effective strategic plans or programs for promoting productive roles among older adults can be further developed.

  19. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  20. Childhood factors associated with mammographic density in adult women.

    PubMed

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Moreno, María Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Román, Isabel González; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, María Carmen; Carrete, Jose Antonio Vázquez; Collado-García, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ederra, María; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco; Peris, Mercé; Abad, Soledad; Cabanes, Anna; Pollán, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Growth and development factors could contribute to the development of breast cancer associated with an increase in mammographic density. This study examines the influence of certain childhood-related, socio-demographic and anthropometric variables on mammographic density in adult woman. The study covered 3574 women aged 45-68 years, participating in breast cancer-screening programmes in seven Spanish cities. Based on a craniocaudal mammogram, blind, anonymous measurement of mammographic density was made by a single radiologist, using Boyd's semiquantitative scale. Data associated with the early stages of life were obtained from a direct survey. Ordinal logistic regression and generalised linear models were employed to estimate the association between mammographic density and the variables covered by the questionnaire. Screening programme was introduced as a random effects term. Age, number of children, body mass index (BMI) and other childhood-related variables were used as adjustment variables, and stratified by menopausal status. A total of 811 women (23%) presented mammographic density of over 50%, and 5% of densities exceeded 75%. Our results show a greater prevalence of high mammographic density in women with low prepubertal weight (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.36); marked prepubertal height (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97-1.60) and advanced age of their mothers at their birth (>39 years: OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60); and a lower prevalence of high mammographic density in women with higher prepubertal weight, low birth weight and earlier menarche. The influence of these early-life factors may be explained by greater exposure to hormones and growth factors during the development of the breast gland, when breast tissue would be particularly susceptible to proliferative and carcinogenic stimulus.

  1. Initial Factors Influencing Duration of Hospital Stay in Adult Patients With Peritonsillar Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Hsi; Su, Hsing-Hao; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Hou, Yu-Yi; Chang, Kuo-Ping; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Yee; Wu, Pi-Hsiung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To review cases of peritonsillar abscess and investigate the initial clinical factors that may influence the duration of hospitalization. To determine the predictive factors of prolonged hospital stay in adult patients with peritonsillar abscess. Methods Subjects were adults hospitalized with peritonsillar abscess. We retrospectively reviewed 377 medical records from 1990 to 2013 in a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan. The association between clinical characteristics and the length of hospital stay was analyzed with independent t-test, univariate linear regression and multiple linear regression analysis. Results The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.2±6.0 days. With univariate linear regression, a prolonged hospital stay was associated with several variables, including female gender, older ages, nonsmoking status, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, band forms in white blood cell (WBC) counts, and lower hemoglobin levels. With multiple linear regression analysis, four independent predictors of hospital stay were noted: years of age (P<0.001), history of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001), ratio of band form WBC (P<0.001), and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001). Conclusion In adult patients with peritonsillar abscess, older ages, history of diabetes mellitus, band forms in WBC counts and lower hemoglobin levels were independent predictors of longer hospitalization. PMID:27334514

  2. The Analysis of Adult Immigrants' Learning System in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukan, Nataliya; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the article the problem of adult immigrants' learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants' learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative…

  3. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  4. Pathways to Adult Sexual Revictimization: Direct and Indirect Behavioral Risk Factors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, Jamison D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…

  5. Factor Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the factor structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated factor loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated factor loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed factor loading…

  6. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  7. Sixteen-Item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory Factor Analytic Evidence, Internal Consistency, and Construct Validity in a Young Adult Sample from the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420) from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively evaluate two-factor, three-factor, and…

  8. Steroidogenic Factor 1 Differentially Regulates Fetal and Adult Leydig Cell Development in Male Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Karpova, Tatiana; Ravichandiran, Kumarasamy; Insisienmay, Lovella; Rice, Daren; Agbor, Valentine; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, AD4BP, NR5A1) is a key regulator of the endocrine axes and is essential for adrenal and gonad development. Partial rescue of Nr5a1−/− mice with an SF-1-expressing transgene caused a hypomorphic phenotype that revealed its roles in Leydig cell development. In contrast to controls, all male rescue mice (Nr5a1−/−;tg+/0) showed varying signs of androgen deficiency, including spermatogenic arrest, cryptorchidism, and poor virilization. Expression of various Leydig cell markers measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR indicated fetal and adult Leydig cell development were differentially impaired. Whereas fetal Leydig cell development was delayed in Nr5a1−/−;tg+/0 embryos, it recovered to control levels by birth. In contrast, Sult1e1, Vcam1, and Hsd3b6 transcript levels in adult rescue testes indicated complete blockage in adult Leydig cell development. In addition, between Postnatal Days 8 and 12, peritubular cells expressing PTCH1, SF-1, and CYP11A1 were observed in control testes but not in rescue testes, indicating SF-1 is needed for either survival or differentiation of adult Leydig cell progenitors. Cultured prepubertal rat peritubular cells also expressed SF-1 and PTCH1, but Cyp11a1 was expressed only after treatment with cAMP and retinoic acid. Together, data show SF-1 is needed for proper development of fetal and adult Leydig cells but with distinct primary functions; in fetal Leydig cells, it regulates differentiation, whereas in adult Leydig cells it regulates progenitor cell formation and/or survival. PMID:26269506

  9. Assessing Articulatory Speed Performance as a Potential Factor of Slowed Speech in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Corder, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve our understanding about the underlying factors of aging-related speaking rate decline, the authors sought to determine if lip and jaw speeds are physiologically constrained in older adults. Method: Thirty-six female--10 young adults (ages 22-27 years), 9 middle-aged adults (ages 45-55 years), 10 young-old adults (65-74 years),…

  10. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB), more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23) and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65%) females were evaluated. 27 (29.67%) subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58%) were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002), frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01) and uncontrolled asthma (p < 0.000001). Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA) had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing. PMID:22992302

  11. Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Kemper, Kathi J; Legedza, Anna; Phillips, Russell S

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle/behavior factors in young adults in the US. Methods Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results In our sample of 18 to 30 year olds (n = 6666), 26% were current smokers, 24% were moderate/heavy drinkers, 43% had high physical activity, and 54% and 76% use prescription and over the counter (OTC) medications respectively. Non-vitamin, non-mineral HDS was used by 17% of the overall sample in the last 12 months. In the multivariable analysis, the lifestyle and behavioral factors associated with HDS use include: current smoking (odds ratio 1.41 95% CI [1.16–1.72]); being a former smoker (1.50 [1.15–1.95]); moderate/heavy alcohol use (2.02 [1.53–2.65]); high physical activity levels (2.45 [1.98–3.03]); and prescription medication use (1.51 [1.26–1.81]). Among HDS users, only 24% discussed their use with a health care professional. Conclusion Nearly one in five young adults report using non-vitamin/non-mineral HDS. PMID:18053129

  12. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  13. The Five Factor Model of Personality Applied to Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…

  14. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  15. Factors Influencing Career Decision Making in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Fogarty, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    In separate studies, 121 high school students and 127 adults completed the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. Its multidimensional structure was confirmed and the model of career decision making fit both groups. The adults reported fewer difficulties on all subscales. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  16. Oral History as a Motivating Factor among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet H.; Lehman, Esther

    An exploratory study was designed to assess (1) whether a class created around older adults' personal recollections would motivate the class's involvement in adult education activities, (2) the oral history preparation process's impact on younger interviewers and older respondents, and (3) the instructional approach's strengths and weaknesses. The…

  17. Adult Regularization of Inconsistent Input Depends on Pragmatic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In a variety of domains, adults who are given input that is only partially consistent do not discard the inconsistent portion (regularize) but rather maintain the probability of consistent and inconsistent portions in their behavior (probability match). This research investigates the possibility that adults probability match, at least in part,…

  18. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF DSM-IV SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: In up to 50% of clinic-referred samples of children, ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood,1-3 with the prevalence of adult ADHD currently estimated at 4.4%4. Similar to the pervasive impairments experienced by children with ADHD, adults with ADHD are less likely to com...

  19. Influence factors for successful corneal donation among Chinese adults: data from Nanjing between 2001 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Xun; Liu, Qing-Huai

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the factors that may influence the successful corneal donation among adults in China. METHODS This retrospective study was conducted in 2012. The eligible participants were all the adults registered in Nanjing Red Cross Eye Bank to donate their corneas after death during the period of 2001 and 2012. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to investigate the influence factors for successful donation, the outcome events. RESULTS Totally, 210 of 328 (64.0%) registered potential donors successfully donated their corneas after death. The mean (SD) age at registration was 64.7 (12.5) for all participants, with 65.5 (10.1) and 63.2 (15.8) for successful and unsuccessful donors, respectively. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, five factors, the willingness of donation, age, education level, residence area, and cause of death were identified to be associated with successful corneal donation. CONCLUSION The willingness of donation and some socio-demographic factors might substantially affect their successful donation after death for people who registered to donate corneas. PMID:25540751

  20. Risk Factors of Emergence Agitation in Adults Undergoing General Anesthesia for Nasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Yeol; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Choi, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence and the risk factors of emergence agitation in adults undergoing general anesthesia for nasal surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined 792 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general anesthesia for elective nasal surgery between July 2012 and August 2013. Patients in the postanesthesia care unit with a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale≥+1 at any time were considered to have emergence agitation. Results The overall incidence of emergence agitation is 22.2%. From multivariate regression analysis, the following six variables were found to be significantly associated with emergence agitation (P<0.05): younger age, recent smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain on the numerical rating scale (NRS)≥5, presence of a tracheal tube, and presence of a urinary catheter. Presence of a tracheal tube was the greatest risk factor, increasing the risk of developing emergence agitation by approximately fivefold (odds ratio, 5.448; 95% confidence interval, 2.973 to 9.982). Younger age was also a strong risk factor (odds ratio, 0.975 for each 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.964 to 0.987). Current smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain of NRS≥5, and the presence of a urinary catheter nearly doubled the risk of emergence agitation. Conclusion Emergence agitation following general anesthesia is a common complication in adult nasal surgery patients. To reduce the occurrence and consequences of agitation episodes, elimination of the associated risk factors is necessary, especially in at-risk patients. PMID:25729495

  1. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs) associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL) in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL) were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL) and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. PMID:24249950

  2. States' Potential Enrollment of Adult Students: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Marvin A.; Pusser, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that financial aspects of state higher education policies, particularly tuition, have an impact on the level of enrollment of adult undergraduates within a state. This study also demonstrates how stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) can be utilized to examine the "potential" maximum enrollment of adult learners in…

  3. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  4. Hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. Concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Caboral, Meriam F; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Whetsell, Martha V

    2012-01-01

    This topic review employed Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis to explore the construct of hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. The articles analyzed revealed that hope, as the belief of the occurrence of a positive result without any guarantee that it will be produced, is necessary for the survival and wellbeing of the elderly adults enduring this disease.

  5. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  6. Mobility adaptations of older adults: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Watts, Wilda E; Stanbury, Janice

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this secondary study was to describe the mobility adaptations of community-living older adults. The primary study, designed to understand weakness and aging from the perspective of older adults, revealed that older adults viewed weakness as a progression from inability to an end point of 'giving up,' which prompted the use of adaptation strategies to preserve mobility and to counter a self-identity of being weak. A qualitative descriptive design guided the primary study of 15 community-living older adults, who participated in in-depth interviews. A systematic secondary analysis using Baltes and Baltes' theory of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) showed that older adults used selection, optimization, and compensation adaptations across a range of mobility behaviors. The SOC model offered a framework for profiling older adults' agency and motivations in meeting mobility challenges as they age and provided the basis for targeted interventions to maximize mobility with aging.

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery.

    PubMed

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L; McLaren, Donald G; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J

    2012-12-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI.

  8. Factor Structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory--18 in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; Parsons, Susan K.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Mertens, Ann; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2006-01-01

    The factor structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory--18 (BSI-18; L. R. Derogatis, 2000) was investigated in a sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; N = 8,945). An exploratory factor analysis with a randomly chosen subsample supported a 3-factor structure closely corresponding to the 3…

  9. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults: evidence from the SABE Study

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Ligiana Pires; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults. METHODS The prevalence and factors associated with anemia in older adults were studied on the basis of the results of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Welfare and Aging) study. A group of 1,256 individuals were interviewed during the third wave of the SABE study performed in Sao Paulo, SP, in 2010. The study included 60.4% females; the mean age of the participants was 70.4 years, and their average education was 5.3 years. The dependent variable was the presence of anemia (hemoglobin levels: 12 g/dL in women and 13 g/dL in men). Descriptive analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were performed. The independent variables were as follows: a) demographics: gender, age, and education and b) clinical characteristics: self-reported chronic diseases, presence of cognitive decline and depression symptoms, and body mass index. RESULTS The prevalence of anemia was 7.7% and was found to be higher in oldest adults. There was no difference between genders, although the hemoglobin distribution curve in women showed a displacement toward lower values in comparison with the distribution curve in men. Advanced age (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 0.57;1.64; p < 0.001), presence of diabetes (OR = 2.30; 95%CI 1.33;4.00; p = 0.003), cancer (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.2;6.11; p = 0.016), and presence of depression symptoms (OR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.06;2.88; p = 0.028) remained significant even after multiple analyses. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of anemia in older adults was 7.7% and was mainly associated with advanced age and presence of chronic diseases. Thus, anemia can be an important marker in the investigation of health in older adults because it can be easily diagnosed and markedly affects the quality of life of older adults. PMID:25372162

  10. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  11. Homeownership among Older Adults in Urban China: the Importance of Institutional Factors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Yin, Yin; Zhou, Junshan; Sautter, Jessica; Qiu, Li

    2016-12-01

    Homeownership is a key element to maintain social welfare and stability in an aging society. Yet, the existing literature on homeownership does not adequately address non-Western cultures and institutional factors. We used two nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 to investigate how institutional factors are associated with homeownership among older adults in China. Institutional factors were measured by proxy measures of job seniority, political status, type of work units, and hierarchy of cities. After controlling for demographics, resources, health needs, neighborhood characteristics, and cultural factors, we found that homeownership was strongly associated with these institutional factors among the current cohorts of older adults in China. Older adults who were more senior or who were from public sectors tended to have a higher odds of homeownership. Older adults in the top or bottom of the city hierarchy tended to have a lower odds of homeownership than those in other types of cities. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Eva; Perez, Raul; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tejada, Pilar; Arteta, Marta; Ramos, Jose T.

    2011-01-01

    Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults. PMID:24310425

  13. Influencing Factors in OER Usage of Adult Learners in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byoung Wook; Lee, Won Gyu; Lee, Byeong Rae; Shon, Jin Gon

    2015-01-01

    Open Educational Resources (OER) is terminology that refers to educational resources (content and software) distributed through the Internet, free of charge and freely accessible, expanding learning opportunities for adult learners. This terminology first appeared around 2002, although its roots can be traced to the open architecture of the…

  14. Factors Associated with Truancy: Emerging Adults' Recollections of Skipping School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Although truancy has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to the actual voices of the truants themselves. The current study helps fill that gap by examining recollections from a sample of 34 emerging adults (ages 18-25) who experienced various levels of high school truancy across different geographical settings. A qualitative…

  15. Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Predictive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Amy; Newton, Jonathan; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; Holt, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Information on admission to psychiatric inpatient units is lacking from the literature on contemporary services for people with intellectual disability and mental health needs. Here we report on predictors of admission for a cohort of 752 adults from this population living in community settings; 83 were admitted. We also report on two subsamples…

  16. Limiting Factors in Reducing Participation in Older Adult Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Bruce A.

    1975-01-01

    A community based study of 268 randomly selected subjects over the age of 65 provided information concerning major limitations that prevent older adults from taking advantage of existing or future educational programs. The three most prevalent were poor vision, home responsibilities, and lack of transportation. (Author)

  17. New Procedure for Extension Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    In exploratory common factor analysis, extension analysis refers to computing the relationship of the common factors to variables that were not included in the factor analysis. A new extension procedure is presented that gives correlations without using estimated factor scores. Advantages of the new method are illustrated. (SLD)

  18. Modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with lower pain levels in adults with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, A Erin; Tucker, Amy J; Kott, Laima S; Wright, Amanda J; Duncan, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With no cure or effective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), the need to identify modifiable factors to decrease pain and increase physical function is well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that characterize OA patients at different levels of pain, and to investigate the relationships among these factors and pain. METHODS: Details of OA characteristics and lifestyle factors were collected from interviews with healthy adults with knee OA (n=197). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain. Factors were summarized across three pain score categories, and χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences. Multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise selection procedure was used to examine associations between lifestyle factors and pain. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that pain was significantly higher with the use of OA medications and higher body mass index category, and significantly lower with the use of supplements and meeting physical activity guidelines (≥150 min/week). Stiffness and physical function scores, bilateral knee OA, body mass index category and OA medication use were significantly higher with increasing pain, whereas self-reported health, servings of fruit, supplement use and meeting physical activity guidelines significantly lower. No significant differences across pain categories were found for sex, age, number of diseases, duration of OA, ever smoked, alcoholic drinks/week, over-the-counter pain medication use, OA supplement use, physical therapy use, servings of vegetables or minutes walked/week. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy weight maintenance, exercise for at least 150 min/week and appropriate use of medications and supplements represent important modifiable factors related to lower knee OA pain. PMID:26125195

  19. Determining Factors for Utilization of Preventive Health Services among Adults with Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Li, Ya-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan has provided free health checks for adults since 1995. However, very little previous research has explored the use of preventive health services by physically and mentally disabled adults. The present study aimed to understand this use of preventive health services and the factors that influence it. Research participants included disabled…

  20. Early Detection of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presentation and risk factors for depression in adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 151 adults (83 males and 68 females) participated in a semi-structured interview. According to results on the Beck Depression Inventory II, 39.1% of participants evinced symptoms of…

  1. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  2. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  3. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  4. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  5. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  6. Using Horn's Parallel Analysis Method in Exploratory Factor Analysis for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Koçak, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the number of factors obtained from parallel analysis, a method used for determining the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis, was compared to that of the factors obtained from eigenvalue and scree plot--two traditional methods for determining the number of factors--in terms of consistency. Parallel analysis is based on…

  7. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  8. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  9. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P < 0.05; S-N-sm, P < 0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P < 0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P < 0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P < 0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P < 0.05) and TMD signs (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P < 0.001), TMD symptoms (P < 0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P < 0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R (2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment.

  10. Hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. Concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caboral, Meriam F.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Whetsell, Martha V.

    2015-01-01

    This topic review employed Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis to explore the construct of hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. The articles analyzed revealed that hope, as the belief of the occurrence of a positive result without any guarantee that it will be produced, is necessary for the survival and wellbeing of the elderly adults enduring this disease. PMID:26321777

  11. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  12. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  13. The analysis of an adult with night terror.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D V

    1991-10-01

    The author discusses the analysis of a woman with night terror, a condition rarely seen in adults. The analysis revealed the pathogenicity of splitting mechanisms which had developed under the influence of an overstimulating environment and exposure to the primal scene, followed by the separation and divorce of the patient's parents.

  14. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for lymphoproliferative disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Salem, E A; Hegazy, M M; El Khouley, E A

    2014-06-18

    In view of the widespread use of pesticides in Egypt and the increasing incidence of leukaemia and lymphoma we aimed to assess pesticide exposure and other selected variables as risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders (leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In a hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study in 2011-2012, adult cases of lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 130) were recruited from outpatient clinics in Menoufia, Egypt, while controls (n = 130) were age- and sex-matched fracture patients. Family history of cancer, exposure to X-rays, smoking and use of hair dyes were not risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in univariate analysis. History of exposure to pesticides and HCV infection were significant risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in multivariate analysis (OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.22-4.11 and OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.50-4.80 respectively). The risk was significant for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

  15. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2016-10-21

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  16. Pathways to adult sexual revictimization: direct and indirect behavioral risk factors across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Jamison D

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual victimization as well as other background and lifestyle characteristics. Structural equation modeling indicates that the relationship between child and adolescent sexual victimization is indirect, mediated by adolescent risk-taking behavior. The relationship between adolescent and adult sexual victimization is also indirect, mediated by risky sexual behavior. The residual effects of early childhood family environment and childhood physical abuse also indirectly predict sexual revictimization. Results provide empirical support for the general supposition that the relationship between child and adult sexual victimization is complex and that many intermediary factors differentially affect risk for a heightened vulnerability to sexual revictimization.

  17. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  18. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, p<0.001). The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.306, which corresponds to the explanatory power of 30.6%. The factor found to have the greatest influence on these adults' life satisfaction was depression (beta=0.090), monthly pocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  20. Habitual physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Crowley, Vivion E; Hensey, Owen; Broderick, Julie M; McGahey, Ailish; Gormley, John

    2014-09-01

    Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to participate in reduced levels of total physical activity. There is no information available however, regarding levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in this population. Reduced participation in MVPA is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study was firstly to compare levels of sedentary, light, MVPA and total activity in adults with CP to adults without CP. Secondly, the objective was to investigate the association between physical activity components, sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with CP. Adults with CP (n=41) age 18-62 yr (mean ± SD=36.5 ± 12.5 yr), classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I (n=13), II (n=18) and III (n=10) participated in this study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry in adults with CP and in age- and sex-matched adults without CP over 7 days. Anthropometric indicators of obesity, blood pressure and several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease were also measured in adults with CP. Adults with CP spent less time in light, moderate, vigorous and total activity, and more time in sedentary activity than adults without CP (p<0.01 for all). Moderate physical activity was associated with waist-height ratio when adjusted for age and sex (β=-0.314, p<0.05). When further adjustment was made for total activity, moderate activity was associated with waist-height ratio (β=-0.538, p<0.05), waist circumference (β=-0.518, p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.592, p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.636, p<0.05). Sedentary activity was not associated with any risk factor. The findings provide evidence that relatively young adults with CP participate in reduced levels of MVPA and spend increased time in sedentary behavior, potentially increasing their risk of developing cardiometabolic disease.

  1. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  2. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  3. Behaviour Problems and Adults with Down Syndrome: Childhood Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with intellectual disability suggest that several individual characteristics and environmental factors are associated with behaviour disorder. To date there are few studies looking at risk factors within specific syndromes and the relationship between early risk markers and later behaviour disorder. The key aim of the…

  4. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  5. Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.

    PubMed

    Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors.

  6. Exploratory factor analysis: its role in item analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, R L

    1997-06-01

    The special characteristics of items-low reliability, confounds by minor, unwanted covariance, and the likelihood of a general factor-and better understanding of factor analysis means that the default procedure of many statistical packages (Little Jiffy) is no longer adequate for exploratory item factor analysis. It produces too many factors and precludes a general factor even when that means the factors extracted are nonreplicable. More appropriate procedures that reduce these problems are presented, along with how to select the sample, sample size required, and how to select items for scales. Proposed scales can be evaluated by their correlations with the factors; a new procedure for doing so eliminates the biased values produced by correlating them with either total or factor scores. The role of exploratory factor analysis relative to cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis is noted.

  7. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yung

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module), and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR) = 4.42) with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03) were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24). Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86) and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69) were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. PMID:27007385

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  9. Long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults: a population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Deirdre; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives (z-drugs) presents substantial risks to people of all ages. We sought to assess trends in long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults in British Columbia. Methods: Using population-based linked administrative databases, we examined longitudinal trends in age-standardized rates of sedative use among different age groups of community-dwelling adults (age ≥ 18 yr), from 2004 to 2013. For each calendar year, we classified adults as nonusers, short-term users, or long-term users of sedatives based on their patterns of sedative dispensation. For calendar year 2013, we applied cross-sectional analysis and estimated logistic regression models to identify health and socioeconomic risk factors associated with long-term sedative use. Results: More than half (53.4%) of long-term users of sedatives in British Columbia are between ages 18 and 64 years (young and middle-aged adults). From 2004 to 2013, long-term sedative use remained stable among adults more than 65 years of age (older adults) and increased slightly among young and middle-aged adults. Although the use of benzodiazepines decreased during the study period, the trend was offset by equal or greater increases in long-term use of z-drugs. Being an older adult, sick, poor and single were associated with increased odds of long-term sedative use. Interpretation: Despite efforts to stem such patterns of medication use, long-term use of sedatives increased in British Columbia between 2004 and 2013. This increase was driven largely by increased use among middle-aged adults. Future deprescribing efforts that target adults of all ages may help curb this trend.

  10. Health-related risk factors of homeless families and single adults.

    PubMed

    Winkleby, M A; Boyce, W T

    1994-02-01

    Using data from two cross-sectional surveys, we examine how homeless adults living with children differ in sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, and addictive and psychiatric disorders from homeless adults who are not living with children. The surveys were conducted in late 1989 and early 1990 in Santa Clara County, California. Women (n = 100) and men (n = 41) with children were sampled from the two largest family shelters in the County (94% response rate); women (n = 169) and men (n = 1268) without children were sampled from the three main adult shelters in the County (98% response rate). Adults with children (especially women) were significantly younger, less educated, less likely to have experienced full-time employment, and more likely to have been supported by public assistance before first becoming homeless than adults without children. In addition, adults with children became homeless at younger ages, had been homeless for less time, and were less likely to experience multiple episodes of homelessness. Further differences were found for addictive and psychiatric disorders--adults with children were significantly less likely to enter homelessness with histories of excessive alcohol intake (both men and women) and psychiatric hospitalizations (women only) than adults without children. The distinct risk factor profile of homeless adults living with children renders them a critically important demographic group on which to focus new public health programs and social strategies.

  11. Risk factors for active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults: a household survey in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Gebre, Teshome; Shargie, Estifanos B; Graves, Patricia M; Ejigsemahu, Yeshewamebrat; Teferi, Tesfaye; Genet, Asrat; Mosher, Aryc W; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Messele, Ayenew; Richards, Frank O; Emerson, Paul M

    2008-05-01

    Identification of risk factors is essential for planning and implementing effective trachoma control programmes. We aimed to investigate risk factors for active trachoma and trichiasis in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. A survey was undertaken and eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and adults aged 15 years and above) examined for trachoma. Risk factors were assessed through interviews and observations. Using ordinal logistic regression, associations between signs of active trachoma in children and potential risk factors were explored. Associations between trichiasis in adults and potential risk factors were investigated using conventional logistic regression. A total of 5427 children from 2845 households and 9098 adults from 4039 households were included in the analysis. Ocular discharge [odds ratio (OR)=5.9; 95% CI 4.8-7.2], nasal discharge (OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9), thatch roof in household (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.5), no electricity in household (OR=2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.3) and increasing altitude (Ptrend<0.001) were independently associated with severity of active trachoma. Trichiasis was associated with increasing age (ORper 5 year increase=1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), female gender (OR=4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8), increasing prevalence of active trachoma in children (Ptrend=0.003) and increasing altitude (Ptrend=0.015).

  12. Effective factors on linguistic disorder during acute phase following traumatic brain injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Kapourchali, Sara Ramezani; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Saberi, Alia; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been known to be the leading cause of breakdown and long-term disability in people under 45 years of age. This study highlights the effective factors on post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and relations between linguistic and cognitive function after trauma in adults with acute TBI. A cross-sectional design was employed to study 60 post-TBI hospitalized adults aged 18-65 years. Post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and cognitive deficit after TBI were respectively diagnosed using the Persian Aphasia Test (PAT) and Persian version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at discharge. Primary post-resuscitation consciousness level was determined using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Paracilinical data was obtained by CT scan technique. Multiple logistic regression analysis illustrated that brain injury severity was the first powerful significant predictor of PT linguistic disorder after TBI and frontotemporal lesion was the second. It was also revealed that cognitive function score was significantly correlated with score of each language skill except repetition. Subsequences of TBI are more commonly language dysfunctions that demand cognitive flexibility. Moderate, severe and fronto-temporal lesion can increase the risk of processing deficit in linguistic macrostructure production and comprehension. The dissociation risk of cortical and subcortical pathways related to cognitive-linguistic processing due to intracranial lesions can augment possibility of lexical-semantic processing deficit in acute phase which probably contributes to later cognitive-communication disorder.

  13. Nerve growth factor in the adult brain of a teleostean model for aging research: Nothobranchius furzeri.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, L; Castaldo, L; Cellerino, A; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C

    2014-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on central nervous system neurons, regulating naturally occurring cell death, synaptic connectivity, fiber guidance and dendritic morphology. The dynamically regulated production of NGF beginning in development, extends throughout adult life and aging, exerting numerous roles through a surprising variety of neurons and glial cells. This study analyzes the localization of NGF in the brain of the teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri, an emerging model for aging research due to its short lifespan. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical experiments were performed by employing an antibody mapping at the N-terminus of the mature chain human origin NGF. Western blot analysis revealed an intense and well defined band of 20 kDa, which corresponds to proNGF of N. furzeri. Immunohistochemistry revealed NGF immunoreactivity (IR) diffused throughout all regions of telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhomboencephalon. It was detected in neurons and in glial cells, the latter mostly lining the mesencephalic and rhomboencephalic ventricles. Particularly in neurons, NGF IR was localized in perikarya and, to a less extent, in fibers. The widespread distribution of proNGF suggests that it might modulate numerous physiological functions in the adult brain of N. furzeri. The present survey constitutes a baseline study to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of NGF during aging processes.

  14. Research Resource: Comprehensive Expression Atlas of the Fibroblast Growth Factor System in Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bookout, Angie L.; Ding, Xunshan; Kurosu, Hiroshi; John, George B.; Wang, Lei; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Kuro-o, Makoto; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Although members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and their receptors have well-established roles in embryogenesis, their contributions to adult physiology remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use real-time quantitative PCR to determine the mRNA expression patterns of all 22 FGFs, the seven principal FGF receptors (FGFRs), and the three members of the Klotho family of coreceptors in 39 different mouse tissues. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the mRNA expression data reveals that most FGFs and FGFRs fall into two groups the expression of which is enriched in either the central nervous system or reproductive and gastrointestinal tissues. Interestingly, the FGFs that can act as endocrine hormones, including FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23, cluster in a third group that does not include any FGFRs, underscoring their roles in signaling between tissues. We further show that the most recently identified Klotho family member, Lactase-like, is highly and selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue and eye and can function as an additional coreceptor for FGF19. This FGF atlas provides an important resource for guiding future studies to elucidate the physiological functions of FGFs in adult animals. PMID:20667984

  15. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients.

  16. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-04

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks.

  17. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  18. Perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling for transportation in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yung; Wang, I-Ting; Hsu, Hsiu-Hua; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2015-02-13

    This study examined perceived environmental and personal factors associated with walking and cycling as means of transportation for Taiwanese adults. A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with Taiwanese adults aged 20 to 64 years. Data on time spent walking and cycling for transportation and perceptions of neighborhood environment and personal characteristics were obtained from 1065 adults by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long version and its environmental module. Adjusted binary logistic regression was performed. The results showed that, after adjusting potential confounders, common and different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking and cycling for transportation. For common personal factors, adults who had employment were less likely to engage in 150 min of walking per week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.62) and to use cycling as a means of transportation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32-0.79). For common perceived environmental factors, adults who perceived good connectivity of streets were more likely to walk (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.20-3.16) and cycle (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.16-3.54) for transportation. Targeting employed adults and improving the connectivity of streets should be a priority for developing transport policies and intervention strategies to promote active transportation.

  19. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    Electrotek Concepts.

    1995-03-01

    Power factor is a way of measuring the percentage of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because the electrical current is out of phase with the voltage. Reactive power is used by inductive loads (such as, motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, arc welders and induction furnaces) to sustain their magnetic fields. Electric systems with many motors exhibit low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power factor can be improved by the addition of shunt capacitors. Capacitors act in opposition to inductive loads, thereby minimizing the reactive power required to serve them. In raising the power factor, shunt capacitors release energy to the system, reduce system losses, and ultimately decrease power costs. Improving system power factor can reduce reactive and active power losses for both industry and utilities through the addition of shunt capacitors. This Guide Book gives electric utility technical staff, industrial end-users, consultants and BPA employees a step-by-step method for evaluating the cost effectiveness of installing power factor correction capacitors in an industrial plant.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  1. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation among Chinese Adults in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tingzhong; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Mustafa, Jabed; Chen, Bin; Feng, Xiangxian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the factors associated with smoking cessation among adult Chinese males in rural China. Methods: The data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the respondents' household using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: The factors associated with quitting were being residents of Guiyang, having received junior…

  2. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  3. Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC): Factor Structure and Invariance across Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…

  4. Re-employment of developmental transcription factors in adult heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Toru; Xu, Jian; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2007-01-01

    A finite number of transcription factors constitute a combinatorial code that orchestrates cardiac development and the specification and differentiation of myocytes. Many, if not all of these same transcription factors are re-employed in the adult heart in response to disease stimuli that promote hypertrophic enlargement and/or dilated cardiomyopathy, as part of the so called “fetal gene program”. This review will discuss the transcription factors that regulate the hypertrophic growth response of the adult heart, with a special emphasis on those regulators that participate in cardiac development. PMID:17161634

  5. Zero-Inflated Poisson Modeling of Fall Risk Factors in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dukyoo; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Mi Young; Ma, Rye-Won; Bhandari, Pratibha

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for falls among community-dwelling older adults. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from 658 community-dwelling older adults and were analyzed using logistic and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression. Perceived health status was a significant factor in the count model, and fall efficacy emerged as a significant predictor in the logistic models. The findings suggest that fall efficacy is important for predicting not only faller and nonfaller status but also fall counts in older adults who may or may not have experienced a previous fall. The fall predictors identified in this study--perceived health status and fall efficacy--indicate the need for fall-prevention programs tailored to address both the physical and psychological issues unique to older adults.

  6. Conduct, Biological Factors and Adult Delinquency in a Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, David

    In the course of a longitudinal research program conducted in Sweden, data were being collected on biological and psychological aspects of individual functioning and on environmental factors for a fairly large representative sample (approximately 1,000) of Swedish males and females between 10 and 27 years of age. Based on data from the…

  7. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  8. Factors Contributing to Adult Knowledge of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…

  9. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  10. Factors Underlying Second Language Reading Motivation of Adult EAP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komiyama, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…

  11. A Primer on Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, James Arthur, Jr.

    This introduction to confirmatory factor analysis presents an overview of its basic concepts and processes. Conventional factor analysis can be described as set of analytic techniques designed to examine the covariance structure of a set of variables and to provide an explanation of the relationships among those variables in terms of a smaller…

  12. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults.

    PubMed

    Holden, C; Mace, R

    1997-10-01

    In most of the world's population the ability to digest lactose declines sharply after infancy. High lactose digestion capacity in adults is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin and is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to millennia of drinking milk from domestic livestock. Milk can also be consumed in a processed form, such as cheese or soured milk, which has a reduced lactose content. Two other selective pressures for drinking fresh milk with a high lactose content have been proposed: promotion of calcium uptake in high-latitude populations prone to vitamin-D deficiency and maintainance of water and electrolytes in the body in highly and environments. These three hypotheses are all supported by the geographic distribution of high lactose digestion capacity in adults. However, the relationships between environmental variables and adult lactose digestion capacity are highly confounded by the shared ancestry of many populations whose lactose digestion capacity has been tested. The three hypotheses for the evolution of high adult lactose digestion capacity are tested here using a comparative method of analysis that takes the problem of phylogenetic confounding into account. This analysis supports the hypothesis that high adult lactose digestion capacity is an adaptation to dairying but does not support the hypotheses that lactose digestion capacity is additionally selected for either at high latitudes or in highly arid environments. Furthermore, methods using maximum likelihood are used to show that the evolution of milking preceded the evolution of high lactose digestion.

  14. Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Psychometric analysis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeremy P.; Carson, Cody S.; Shrestha, Srijana; Kunik, Mark E.; Armento, Maria E.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Amspoker, Amber B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assist researchers and clinicians considering using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) with older-adult samples, the current study analyzed the psychometrics of SCSRFQ scores in two older-adult samples. Method Adults age 55 or older who had formerly participated in studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and/or depression were recruited to complete questionnaires. In Study 1 (N = 66), the authors assessed the relations between the SCSRFQ and other measures of religiousness/spirituality, mental health, and demographic variables, using bivariate correlations and nonparametric tests. In Study 2 (N = 223), the authors also conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the SCSRFQ, as well as an Item Response Theory analysis. Results The SCSRFQ was moderately to highly positively correlated with all measures of religiousness/spirituality. Relations with mental health were weak and differed across samples. Ethnic minorities scored higher than White participants on the SCSRFQ, but only in Study 2. Factor analyses showed that a single-factor model fit the SCSRFQ best. According to Item Response Theory analysis, SCSRFQ items discriminated well between participants with low-to-moderate levels of the construct but provided little information at higher levels. Conclusion Although the SCSRFQ scores had adequate psychometric characteristics, the measure’s usefulness may be limited in samples of older adults. PMID:24892461

  15. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozińska, Sandra; Grzanka, Małgorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1c<7.0% (53 mmol/mol) showed that the independent predictors of achieving this goal included the same four variables. In a large clinical observation, we identified that patient-related and technological factors associated with glycemic control in adult pump-treated T1DM subjects.

  16. [BREAST FEEDING AS PREVENTIVE FACTOR FOR OSTEOPOROSIS IN ADULT WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Arreola, Jazmín; Aguilera Barreiro, Ma de los Angeles

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la lactancia materna es considerada protectora de osteoporosis, por cambios endocrinos, como el aumento de absorción intestinal de calcio y la conservación renal del mismo; sin embargo, otros estudios demuestran que con más de un hijo presentan pérdida de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) (2-9%). Objetivo: determinar si la lactancia materna es un factor protector o de riesgo en osteoporosis en mujeres queretanas. Sujetos y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles. 114 mujeres de 35-60 años divididas en grupo control (sin lactar) y grupo mujeres que lactaron. Diagnóstico de DMO por densitometría ósea de dos regiones: cadera (fémur) y lumbar. Se aplicó historia clínica. Criterios de inclusión: edad 35-60 años. Criterios de exclusión: consumo: calcio, terapia hormonal de reemplazo; tratamiento para osteoporosis: lactando o embarazadas. Se realizaron pruebas de tendencia central, T pareada, correlaciones, Chi2 y razón de momios. Resultados: se encontró como factor de protección la lactancia con 0,903 OR (0,768-1,000). Correlación inversamente proporcional del IMC/DMO cadera y lumbar en mujeres que no lactaron frente a las que si lactaron; en ambos grupos se determinó una mayor edad de embarazo con mayor DMO en cadera y mayor talla del hijo, solo en las mujeres que lactaron. Siendo la obesidad factor protector de las mujeres que lactaron. Sin embargo, se encontró una correlación inversamente proporcional entre edad/DMO en las tres regiones de mujeres que lactaron, frente a las que no lactaron específicamente en DMOlumbar. Conclusión: la lactancia materna es beneficiosa para la madre, ya que es un factor protector contra la osteoporosis, siempre y cuando lleve a cabo los primeros seis meses, así como para el recién nacido, ya que proporciona un crecimiento lineal óptimo.

  17. Transcription factor E93 specifies adult metamorphosis in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Ureña, Enric; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David

    2014-05-13

    All immature animals undergo remarkable morphological and physiological changes to become mature adults. In winged insects, metamorphic changes either are limited to a few tissues (hemimetaboly) or involve a complete reorganization of most tissues and organs (holometaboly). Despite the differences, the genetic switch between immature and adult forms in both types of insects relies on the disappearance of the antimetamorphic juvenile hormone (JH) and the transcription factors Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) during the last juvenile instar. Here, we show that the transcription factor E93 is the key determinant that promotes adult metamorphosis in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, thus acting as the universal adult specifier. In the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, BgE93 is highly expressed in metamorphic tissues, and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BgE93 in the nymphal stage prevented the nymphal-adult transition, inducing endless reiteration of nymphal development, even in the absence of JH. We also find that BgE93 down-regulated BgKr-h1 and BgBR-C expression during the last nymphal instar of B. germanica, a key step necessary for proper adult differentiation. This essential role of E93 is conserved in holometabolous insects as TcE93 RNAi in Tribolium castaneum prevented pupal-adult transition and produced a supernumerary second pupa. In this beetle, TcE93 also represses expression of TcKr-h1 and TcBR-C during the pupal stage. Similar results were obtained in the more derived holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that winged insects use the same regulatory mechanism to promote adult metamorphosis. This study provides an important insight into the understanding of the molecular basis of adult metamorphosis.

  18. Factors related to gait and balance deficits in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Momani, Murad; Al-Momani, Fidaa; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Alharethy, Sami; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    psychiatric disorders and cognitive disabilities on gait and balance deficits among home-resident older adults. PMID:27570449

  19. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension.

  1. Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bédard, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use

  2. NAC Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (NACMAAS): risk factors for asthma and allergic disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Simpson, B M; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Hallam, C L; Walsh, D; Marolia, H; Campbell, J; Woodcock, A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma and atopic disorders are the most common chronic diseases in the developed countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for these disorders may facilitate the development of preventive strategies aimed at reducing prevalence rates. To investigate the risk factors for asthma and allergic diseases in a large number of adults who are the parents of children in the National Asthma Campaign Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study. All pregnant women and their partners attending "Booking" antenatal clinics were invited to take part in the study. Questionnaire data were collected including the history of asthma and other atopic diseases, pet ownership and smoking habits, and skin prick tests were performed. The prevalence of atopy and the risk factors for asthma and allergic disorders were investigated in all subjects who completed the questionnaire and underwent skin testing. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Initially, risk factors were assessed by univariate analysis to see how each potential explanatory variable affected the probability of having allergic disease. Variables were then tested in a forward stepwise multivariate analysis. In 5687 adult subjects there was a very high (48.2%) prevalence of atopy, and 9.7% of subjects had a diagnosis of asthma. In a multivariate regression analysis sensitization to dust mite, cat, dog and mixed grasses were all independently associated with asthma. The odds ratios for current asthma increased with the increasing number of positive skin tests (any two allergens - OR 4.3, 95% CI 3.3-5.5; any three allergens - OR 7.0 95% CI 5.3-9.3; all four allergens - OR 10.4, 95% CI 7.7-14; P < 0.00001). Dog ownership (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57; P = 0.003) and current smoking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.62; P = 0.0004) were significantly and directly associated with "asthma ever". Thirteen per cent of participants reported a history of eczema. In the multivariate analysis the strongest independent associate of eczema

  3. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, L.; Cammi, A.; Dragoni, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (P = 0.04; OR 0.4), stress at onset (P = 0.002; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (P = 0.003; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (P = 0.001; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (P = 0.003; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (P < 0.001; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients. PMID:27747240

  4. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, L; Colucci, R; Cammi, A; Dragoni, F; Moretti, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (P = 0.04; OR 0.4), stress at onset (P = 0.002; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (P = 0.003; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (P = 0.001; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (P = 0.003; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (P < 0.001; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy among adult Saudi medical outpatients at a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Salih Bin; Yousuf, Muhammad; Durihim, Huda; Almodaimegh, Hind; Tamim, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy (PP) and the associated factors in medical outpatients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out in adult medical outpatients attending internal medicine clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 1 March 2009 to 31 December 2009. PP was defined as the concomitant use of ≥5 medications daily. The number of medications being currently taken by patient was recorded. Effect of patients’ age, gender, educational level, number of prescribers, disease load and disease type on PP was assessed by multivariate analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Incorporated (SPSS Inc) Version 18. Results: Out of 766 patients included in the study, 683 (89%) had PP. The mean number of prescribed medications, oral pills and doses was 8.8, 9.6 and 12.1, respectively. Factors significantly associated with PP included age (≥61 years), disease load and the number of prescribers. Gender had no impact on PP while education beyond primary education significantly decreased PP. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia alone and as a cluster increased PP. Conclusion: We found an extremely high level of PP in medical outpatients at our tertiary care center. The impact of PP on medication compliance and control of underlying diseases in Saudi Arabia is unknown and needs to be studied at different levels of care. PMID:24672273

  6. Relationship between Anthropometric Factors, Gender, and Balance under Unstable Conditions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Cuğ, Mutlu; Dülgeroğlu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788

  7. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034

  8. Construct Validity of WAIS-R Factors: Neuropsychological Test Correlates in Adults Referred for Evaluation of Possible Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elisabeth M. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A 3-factor solution of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) in 260 adults with suspected head injury suggested relatively good construct validity for the factors, based on correlations with neuropsychological tests. Findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional nature of neuropsychological tests and WAIS-R factors.…

  9. Derived Basic Ability Factors: A Factor Analysis Replication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mickey, M.; Lee, Lynda Newby

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the study conducted by Potter, Sagraves, and McDonald to determine whether their recommended analysis could separate criterion variables into similar factors that were stable from year to year and from school to school. The replication samples consisted of all students attending Louisiana State University…

  10. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE ELKINS HYPNOTIZABILITY SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee K.; Johnson, Alisa J.; Sliwinski, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of hypnotizability can provide important information for hypnosis research and practice. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) consists of 12 items and was developed to provide a time-efficient measure for use in both clinical and laboratory settings. The EHS has been shown to be a reliable measure with support for convergent validity with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (r = .821, p < .001). The current study examined the factor structure of the EHS, which was administered to 252 adults (51.3% male; 48.7% female). Average time of administration was 25.8 minutes. Four factors selected on the basis of the best theoretical fit accounted for 63.37% of the variance. The results of this study provide an initial factor structure for the EHS. PMID:25978085

  11. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  12. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  14. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  15. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    PubMed

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  16. Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a social ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hye A; Fleury, Julie; Keller, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of risk factors for mobility limitation in older adults have been examined, a collective review of relevant literature has not been reported. The purposes of this review are to report the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and organizational risk factors related to mobility limitation using a social ecological perspective and to discuss the direction of future clinical practice consistent with current literature on mobility limitation of community-dwelling older adults. Intrapersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include advanced age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, lack of motivation (i.e., dependent personality, decreased self-efficacy), lifestyle factors (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity), and physiological factors (i.e., vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, poor nutritional status). Interpersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include weak social networks and limited social activities. Geriatric clients may also experience a decline in mobility when they encounter environmental challenges such as an inconvenient home environment and lack of availability of services in their community, as well as lack of organizational resources stemming from social policy. Potential intervention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors may include lifestyle modifications, social networking programs, and enhancing awareness of environmental and organizational resources in the community for older adults at risk for mobility limitation.

  17. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the

  18. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  19. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders.

  20. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  1. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-10-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development.

  2. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  3. The Relationships among Adult Affective Factors, Engagement in Science, and Scientific Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…

  4. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  5. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  6. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  7. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  8. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  9. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  10. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  11. Motivations and Characteristics of Adult Students: Factor Stability and Construct Validity of the Educational Participation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.

    1996-01-01

    Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…

  12. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  13. Factor Structure of the DSM-IV Criteria for College Students Using the Adult Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian D.; Smith, Everett V., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The factor structure of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is evaluated in a sample of 1,503 college students. The Adult Behavior Checklist is evaluated as a screening instrument. Results support the extension of ADHD criteria for diagnosis to college…

  14. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia.

  15. Food patterns measured by principal component analysis and obesity in the Nepalese adult

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Gary Chan, Kwun Chuen; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2016-01-01

    Objective About one-fourth of Nepalese adults are overweight or obese but no studies have examined their risk factors, especially pertaining to diet. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in a suburban Nepalese community and assess their associations with overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 1073 adults (18 years or older) participating in the baseline survey of the Dhulikhel Heart Study. We derived major dietary patterns from a principal component analysis of reported intake from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Overweight was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or higher and obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised estimating equations with multivariate logistic regression (with household as cluster) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, religion, marital status, income, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and systolic blood pressure. Results Four dietary patterns were derived: mixed, fast food, refined grain–meat–alcohol and solid fats–dairy. The refined grain–rice–alcohol pattern was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.39; p=0.02) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In adults of 40 years or older, the fast food pattern was associated with obesity controlling for demographic and traditional risk factors (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.39; p value=0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that refined grains–meat–alcohol intake is associated with higher prevalence of overweight, and fast food intake is associated with higher prevalence of obesity in older adults (40 years or above) in suburban Nepalese adults. PMID:27326232

  16. Confirmatory factor analysis of the supports intensity scale for children.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Guillén, Verónica M; Arias, Benito; Vicente, Eva; Badia, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Support needs assessment instruments and recent research related to this construct have been more focused on adults with intellectual disability than on children. However, the design and implementation of Individualized Support Plans (ISP) must start at an early age. Currently, a project for the translation, adaptation and validation of the supports intensity scale for children (SIS-C) is being conducted in Spain. In this study, the internal structure of the scale was analyzed to shed light on the nature of this construct when evaluated in childhood. A total of 814 children with intellectual disability between 5 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Their support need level was assessed by the SIS-C, and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), including different hypotheses, was carried out to identify the optimal factorial structure of this scale. The CFA results indicated that a unidimensional model is not sufficient to explain our data structure. On the other hand, goodness-of-fit indices showed that both correlated first-order factors and higher-order factor models of the construct could explain the data obtained from the scale. Specifically, a better fit of our data with the correlated first-order factors model was found. These findings are similar to those identified in previous analyses performed with adults. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  17. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time. PMID:27420086

  18. Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

  19. Women in Adult Education: An Analysis of Perspectives in Major Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Smith, Letitia

    To clarify dominant perspectives on women in adult education publications, ethnographic content analysis was used to examine 112 journal articles in 4 major adult education journals. Articles analyzed were from two North American journals ("Adult Education"/"Adult Education Quarterly" and "Adult…

  20. Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, India

    PubMed Central

    Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. Results A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth

  1. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  2. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  3. Factor analyses of an Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI).

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam; Bamps, Yvan; LaFrance, W Curt; Stoll, Shelley; Shegog, Ross; Buelow, Janice; Shafer, Patricia; Thompson, Nancy J; McGee, Robin E; Hatfield, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of an enhanced Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI). An instrument of 113 items, covering 10 a priori self-management domains, was generated through a multiphase process, based on a review of the literature, validated epilepsy and other chronic condition self-management scales and expert input. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 422 adults with epilepsy. The instrument was reduced to 65 items, converging on 11 factors: Health-care Communication, Coping, Treatment Management, Seizure Tracking, Social Support, Seizure Response, Wellness, Medication Adherence, Safety, Stress Management, and Proactivity. Exploratory factors supported the construct validity for 6 a priori domains, albeit with significant changes in the retained items or in their scope and 3 new factors. One a priori domain was split in 2 subscales pertaining to treatment. The configuration of the 11 factors provides additional insight into epilepsy self-management behaviors. Internal consistency reliability of the 65-item instrument was high (α=.935). Correlations with independent measures of health status, quality of life, depression, seizure severity, and life impact of epilepsy further validated the instrument. This instrument shows potential for use in research and clinical settings and for assessing intervention outcomes and self-management behaviors in adults with epilepsy.

  4. Specification of individual adult motor neuron morphologies by combinatorial transcription factor codes.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Jonathan; Venkatasubramanian, Lalanti; Baek, Myungin; Peterson, Meredith; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Mann, Richard S

    2015-05-20

    How the highly stereotyped morphologies of individual neurons are genetically specified is not well understood. We identify six transcription factors (TFs) expressed in a combinatorial manner in seven post-mitotic adult leg motor neurons (MNs) that are derived from a single neuroblast in Drosophila. Unlike TFs expressed in mitotically active neuroblasts, these TFs do not regulate each other's expression. Removing the activity of a single TF resulted in specific morphological defects, including muscle targeting and dendritic arborization, and in a highly specific walking defect in adult flies. In contrast, when the expression of multiple TFs was modified, nearly complete transformations in MN morphologies were generated. These results show that the morphological characteristics of a single neuron are dictated by a combinatorial code of morphology TFs (mTFs). mTFs function at a previously unidentified regulatory tier downstream of factors acting in the NB but independently of factors that act in terminally differentiated neurons.

  5. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level.

  6. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  7. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension among Adults in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Predictors and Treatment. Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla Abdelwahid; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, diastolic hypertension was the main criterion for treatment, but currently, systolic pressure is the main criterion because it was thought that Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH) is not associated with complications. Studies later revealed that IDH carries significant risks. Quantifying the magnitude and risk factors of IDH in the community is essential for all intervention strategies. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors, predictors, treatment modalities and lifestyle practices of IDH adult patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study using STEPwise approach among adults using a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample was carried out. Data were collected using questionnaires which included socio-demographics, blood pressure, biochemical, anthropometric measurements and lifestyle practices. Statistical analysis included calculating means and standard deviations, proportions, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Of a total 4562 subjects, 180 (3.95%) suffered from IDH, which was significantly related to age, gender, employment, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. More than 93% were using some form of treatment, with 77.2% on prescribed drugs, 63% using diet, and 23% using exercise. Significant predictors of IDH were retirement and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: IDH is associated with some sociodemographic characteristics and co-morbidity. Given the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with IDH, the findings of this study emphasize the need for diagnosing the disease in middle-aged persons focusing on the modifiable risk factors of IDH. PMID:26966618

  8. Factors that influence the use of assistance technologies by older adults who have a hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Southall, Kenneth; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Leroux, Tony

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and better understand the factors that influence the use of assistance technologies by older adults who have a hearing loss. We were interested in adopting a methodological approach that would provide an in-depth account of individual experiences related to the use of these technologies. A qualitative research design was therefore selected. Audio-recorded interviews were conducted with ten individuals who were 65 years of age or older and were current successful assistance technology users. Thematic analysis was used to draw meaning from the interview transcripts. The results suggest that successful use of these assistance technologies involves the recognition of hearing difficulties, an awareness that technological solutions exist, consultation for and acquisition of devices, and adapting to device use and modified behaviour. These four landmarks seem to be crucial stages when people either move toward successful assistance technology use or are discouraged from assistance technology use. Based on these results, a representative model of assistance technology awareness, acquisition and utilization is proposed.

  9. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  10. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood.

  11. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  12. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.; Frisby, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) parameterization of the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) model to demonstrate validation of profile pattern hypotheses derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS). Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is an exploratory method for identifying major…

  14. Oral health-related quality of life and associated factors in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Wang, Nina J; Skau, Irene; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate associations between oral health-related quality of life assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 and demographic factors, number of teeth present, dental visits, dental health behaviour and self-rated oral health in a representative sample of 20-80-year-old Norwegians. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted in a stratified random sample of 3538 individuals. Questionnaires including questions on demographic factors, number of remaining teeth, dental visits, dental health behaviour, self-rated oral health and OHIP-14 were mailed to the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS. The response rate was 69%. The mean OHIP-14 score was 4.1 (standard deviation = 6.2). No problem was reported by 35% of the respondents. The most frequently reported problems were: physical pain (56%), psychological discomfort (39%) and psychological disability (30%). When the effect of all independent variables was analysed in multivariate analysis, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the prevalence of having problems and frequent problems. Self-rated oral health had the strongest association with having problems [odds ratio (OR) 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-6.0] and with having frequent problems (OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.7-5.8). Dental health behaviour, use of floss and toothpicks and oral rinsing were not associated with having problems related to oral quality of life in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION. In this Norwegian adult sample, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were associated with having problems as estimated using the OHIP-14.

  15. Factors Associated with Paranoid Symptoms in a Community Sample of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates paranoia in older adults. In cross-sectional analyses, symptoms were strongly associated with black race, lower income and education, less exercise, and more depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analysis, three years following initial interview, symptoms were predicted by baseline paranoid symptoms, education and depressive symptoms…

  16. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

  17. Adults with Reading Disabilities: Converting a Meta-Analysis to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on…

  18. Youth-Adult Connectedness:: A Key Protective Factor for Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Gower, Amy L; Kapa, Hillary M; Beckman, Kara J; Doty, Jennifer L; Plowman, Shari L; Resnick, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, prevention science in the adolescent health field has moved from interventions focused on preventing single problem behaviors to efforts employing a dual approach, addressing risk factors that predict problems while simultaneously nurturing protective factors and promoting positive development. Through an examination of previous research and empirical case examples with vulnerable youth, this article considers the hypothesis that adolescents' sense of connectedness to caring adults acts as a protective factor against a range of risk behaviors. Multivariate analyses with existing data examined indicators of youth-adult connectedness among two groups at high risk for poor health outcomes: (1) mentor-youth relationship quality in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of students in a school-based mentoring program (2014 survey, N=239); and (2) parent-youth connectedness in a statewide sample of high school students who reported homelessness in the past year (2013 survey, N=3,627). For youth in the mentoring program, a high-quality youth-mentor relationship was significantly associated with positive social, academic, and health-related behaviors. Among students who experienced homelessness, all measures of parent connectedness were significantly associated with lower sexual risk levels. Collectively, findings from these analyses and previously published studies by this research group provide evidence that strong, positive relationships with parents and other caring adults protect adolescents from a range of poor health-related outcomes and promote positive development. Youth-adult connectedness appears to be foundational for adolescent health and well-being. Program, practice, and policy decisions should consider what strengthens or hinders caring, connected youth-adult relationships.

  19. Systematic review of factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Atami; Gallo, Joseph J; Pontone, Gregory M

    2014-07-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have a substantial impact on the quality of life, the functioning and mortality of older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among individuals with PD aged 60 years and older. Following a literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE, 5 articles met the inclusion criteria (adults aged 60 years and older, individuals with PD, and with depression and anxiety disorders, and English-language peer reviewed articles) and were included in this review. These studies were conducted in the U.S (n = 3), in Italy (n = 1) and the U.K (n = 1). Findings indicated that autonomic symptoms, motor fluctuations, severity and frequency of symptoms, staging of the disease, and PD onset and duration were associated with the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults suffering from PD. Despite the limited number of studies included in the review, depression and anxiety disorders are often unrecognized and untreated and the comorbidity greatly exacerbates PD symptoms. The identification of factors associated with the development of depression and anxiety disorders could help in designing preventive interventions that would decrease the risk and burden of depression and anxiety disorders among older adults with PD.

  20. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M; Derom, Catherine A; Lubke, Gitta H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not yet at the genetic level. The present study investigates the genetic and environmental contributions to the association between borderline personality traits (BPT) and ADHD symptoms in a sample of 7,233 twins and siblings (aged 18-90 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register and the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS) . Participants completed the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS-S:SV) and the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale (PAI-BOR). A bivariate genetic analysis was performed to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence variation in BPT and ADHD symptoms and the covariance between them. The heritability of BPT and ADHD symptoms was estimated at 45 and 36%, respectively. The remaining variance in BPT and ADHD symptoms was explained by unique environmental influences. The phenotypic correlation between BPT and ADHD symptoms was estimated at r = 0.59, and could be explained for 49% by genetic factors and 51% by environmental factors. The genetic and environmental correlations between BPT and ADHD symptoms were 0.72 and 0.51, respectively. The shared etiology between BPT and ADHD symptoms is thus a likely cause for the comorbidity of the two disorders.

  1. Factors underlying the association of body mass index with serum ALT in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Qin, Xian-hui; Li, Jian-ping; Cui, Yi-min; Liu, Ze-yuan; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Jun-bo; Guan, De-ming; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xi-ping; Huo, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: High body mass index (BMI) is considered as the most important risk factor for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration. This study examined an array of factors, including waist circumference (WC) and folate deficiency, which may mediate the association of BMI with serum ALT concentration in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 378 patients with mild or moderate hypertension and without known hepatic diseases were recruited from five hospitals in Harbin, Shanghai, Beijing, Xi’an, and Nanjing. Results: Of the 360 hypertensive patients with complete data in our final analysis, 13.6% had high ALT concentrations (>40 IU/L). Factors including BMI, WC, triglyceride level, and folate concentration were associated with ALT concentration in univariate analysis. Consistently higher prevalence rates of elevated ALT were observed in subjects with lower folate concentrations (≥12 vs. <12 nmol/L, 9.9% vs. 17.8%, P=0.03), with higher BMI (≥28 vs. <28 kg/m2, 21.5% vs. 11.4%, P=0.02) or higher WC (≥90 vs. <90 cm, 18.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.02). However, in multivariate analysis, the association between BMI and ALT concentration disappeared (P=0.802 in males and 0.369 in females), while WC in females (P<0.001) and folate concentration (P=0.036 in males and 0.044 in females) remained as significant predictors for ALT concentration. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated that WC and low folate concentration were important factors underlying the association between BMI and ALT concentrations in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. PMID:23897794

  2. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  3. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  4. Some growth factors stimulate cultured adult rabbit ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.

  5. Factor Analysis Applied the VFY-218 RCS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Alex; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Present statistical factor analysis of computer simulations and measurement data for the VFY-218 configuration. Factor analysis try to quantify the statistical grouping of measurements and simulations.

  6. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  7. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  8. Lack of neurogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after Purkinje cell degeneration and growth factor infusion.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2006-05-01

    Although constitutive neurogenesis exclusively occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, resident progenitors can be isolated from many different CNS sites, and neuronal neogeneration can be stimulated in vivo by injury or infusion of growth factors. To ask whether latent compensatory mechanisms, which may be exploited to promote repair processes, are present throughout the CNS, we examined the neurogenic potentialities of the adult rat cerebellum in normal conditions, following injury, and after infusion of growth factors. Degeneration of Purkinje cells was induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the toxin saporin, conjugated to anti-p75 antibodies. In addition, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, or FGF8, were infused for 2 weeks to either intact or injured animals. In all conditions, proliferating cells were identified from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In the unmanipulated cerebellum there were rare dividing cells, mainly represented by NG2-positive presumptive oligodendrocyte precursors. Mitotic activity was strongly enhanced in cortical areas with Purkinje cell degeneration, being mostly sustained by microglia, plus minor fractions of NG2-expressing cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, growth factor infusion had a weak effect on both intact and injured cerebella. In all experimental conditions, we never found any BrdU-positive cells coexpressing distinctive markers for immature or differentiated cerebellar neurons. Therefore, although some progenitor cells reside in the adult cerebellum, the local environment, either intact or injured, does not provide efficient cues to direct their differentiation towards neuronal phenotypes. In addition, neurogenic potentialities cannot be induced or boosted by the application of growth factors which are effective in other CNS regions.

  9. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  10. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Depression in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Soon; Chang, Sun Ju; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the levels of depression and to identify the predictors of depression among older adults in 3 different environments based on their primary place of leisure time activity, including their homes, small community halls, and senior welfare centers. A convenience sample of 833 older adults participated in the study. Instruments for measuring functional independence, social support, life satisfaction, and depression were used. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple hierarchical regressions. The level of depression in older adults at home was significantly greater than the level of depression in those in both small community halls and senior welfare centers. Life satisfaction was the strongest negative predictor of depression in older adults both at home and in senior welfare centers, whereas employment status was the one in those in small community halls. Across the 3 groups, poor subjective health was the strongest positive predictor of depression. The levels of depression and predictors differed among the settings. Nurses should have a thorough understanding of these differences when planning effective strategies for managing depression in older adults.

  11. Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in a Sample of Greek Adults: The Saronikos Study

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Lambadiari, Vaia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pappas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive data regarding prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated factors in different geographical regions are very important to our understanding of global distribution and evolution of CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of self-reported risk factors and CHD in Greek adult population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014, during an election day, among residents of Saronikos municipality (Attica region). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews. The study sample included 2636 subjects (men, 49.5%; mean age, 50.5; range 20-95 years), with similar age and sex distribution to the target population. Results: The age-standardized prevalence rates of five major risk factors were as follows: type 2 diabetes 11.1%, hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>240 mg/dl or using cholesterol-lowering medication) 23.8%, hypertension 27.2%, current smoking 38.9% and physical inactivity 43%. Of the participants, only 21% were free of any of these factors. Clustering of two to five risk factors was more frequent among persons aged 50 years and older as compared with younger ones (60% vs 27%, P=0.000). The age-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 6.3% (in men, 8.9%; in women, 3.8%) and that of myocardial infarction was 3.6% (in men, 5.2%; in women, 2.1%). According to multivariate analysis age, gender, education level, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever smoking were strongly associated with CHD. Conclusion: Classic risk factors are highly prevalent and frequently clustered, especially in adults aged 50 years and older. These findings raise concerns about future trends of already increased rates of CHD. Multifactorial and integrated population-based interventions need to be applied to reduce the burden of cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27429668

  12. Prevalence, incidence and predictive factors for hand eczema in young adults – a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is common in the general population and affects women twice as often as men. It is also the most frequent occupational skin disease. The economic consequences are considerable for society and for the affected individuals. Methods To investigate the prevalence and incidence of hand eczema and to evaluate risk factors for development of hand eczema in young adults. Subjects and methods; This is a prospective follow-up study of 2,403 young adults, 16 – 19 years old in 1995 and aged 29 – 32 years, 13 years later, in 2008. They completed a postal questionnaire that included questions regarding one-year prevalence of hand eczema, childhood eczema, asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and factors considered to affect hand eczema such as hand-washing, washing and cleaning, cooking, taking care of small children and usage of moisturisers. These factors were evaluated with the multinominal logistic regression analysis. Results The one-year prevalence of hand eczema was 15.8% (females 20.3% and males 10.0%, p < 0.001). The incidence was 11.6 cases per 1000 person-years (females 14.3 and males 5.2, p < 0.001). Childhood eczema was the most important risk factor for hand eczema. The odds ratios were 13.17 when having hand eczema 1995 and 2008 compared to 5.17 in 2008 (p < 0.001). A high frequency of hand washing was important in predicting hand eczema only when having 1-year prevalence 2008, OR 1.02 (p = 0.038). Conclusions After 13 years an increased 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was found. The significant risk factors for hand eczema changed over time from endogenous to exogenous factors. PMID:24164871

  13. All About Running: Synaptic Plasticity, Growth Factors and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vivar, Carmen; Potter, Michelle C.; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal and human research shows exercise benefits learning and memory, which may reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, and could delay age-related cognitive decline. Exercise-induced improvements in learning and memory are correlated with enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. In this present chapter we will highlight the effects of physical activity on cognition in rodents, as well as on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, spine density, neurotransmission and growth factors, in particular brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF). PMID:22847651

  14. Comparing outcomes of pediatric and adult external dacryocystorhinostomy in Nepal: Is age a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Limbu, Ben; Katwal, Sulaxmi; Lim, Nicole S; Faierman, Michelle L; Gushchin, Anna G; Saiju, Rohit

    2017-03-31

    We determine whether age is a prognostic factor for surgical outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR). This retrospective cohort study conducted at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (Kathmandu, Nepal) compared pediatric Ex-DCR procedures (age ≤ 15 years) to adult Ex-DCR procedures (age > 15 years) and was performed between January 2013 and December 2013, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Primary outcome measure was rate of success, defined as complete resolution of subjective symptom(s) of epiphora (subjective success), combined with patent lacrimal passage on syringing (anatomical success) at last follow-up visit. Other outcome measures included clinical presentation, diagnosis, intraoperative complications and post-operative complications. In total, 154 Ex-DCR procedures were included, with an age range of 8 months to 81 years (mean age 36.4 ± 21.0 years). In all, 38 pediatric Ex-DCR procedures were compared to 116 adult procedures. Success rates were 97% in the pediatric group and 95% in the adult group, with no clinically or statistically significant difference in success rate or complication rate between groups (p > 0.05). Our study yielded high success rates of Ex-DCR in both pediatric and adult age groups suggesting that Ex-DCR remains an optimal treatment choice for all age groups. With no difference in surgical outcomes between pediatric and adult patients, including complication rate, we conclude that age is not a prognostic factor for Ex-DCR failure. We do not recommend adjuvant therapy for pediatric patients.

  15. Factors Contributing to the Quality of Sibling Relationships for Adults With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that the quality of sibling relationships has a significant impact on the lives of adults with schizophrenia. A life course perspective was used to guide an investigation of the predictors of the quality of the relationship between adults with schizophrenia and their siblings. Methods The data come from a longitudinal study of families of adults with schizophrenia. This study is based on a survey of 136 siblings of adults with schizophrenia. Multiple regression was used to estimate the predictors of sibling relationship quality. Results Siblings reported a better relationship when they grew up in a more cohesive family environment (beta=.16, p<.05) and when they experienced more personal gains from coping with the challenges of a brother’s or sister’s mental illness (beta=.37, p<.001). Siblings reported a worse relationship when they perceived their brother or sister with schizophrenia as having control over his or her symptoms (beta=−.18, p<.05), expressed greater fear of their brother’s or sister’s behavior (beta=−.17, p<.05), and indicated that their brother or sister had struck or threatened them at some point in their lives (beta=−.18, p<.05). Conclusions The quality of the sibling relationship is a major contributor to sibling involvement in the future and to the quality of life of adults with schizophrenia. By identifying the factors associated with positive sibling relationships, mental health providers will be better prepared to engage siblings in the treatment process and help promote stronger bonds of affection between adults with schizophrenia and their siblings. PMID:18182540

  16. Factors Affecting Length of Stay in Adult Outpatient Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Christina; Turgeon-Provost, Félix; Dagenais, Kristin; Roy-Mathie, Bianca; Aggban, Martina; Preuss, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify factors affecting length of stay (LOS) for adults participating in outpatient physical or occupational therapy programmes. Method: A scoping review of the literature was conducted using the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Library databases. Results: A total of 19 articles were retained from the search, and 2 additional articles were retrieved from grey literature (i.e., non-published sources). Personal factors affecting LOS are age and sex, both of which had inconsistent effects on LOS, and communication, language, physical, and cognitive difficulties, for which higher levels of function were generally associated with shorter LOS. Institutional factors affecting LOS were location, interdisciplinary communication, number of disciplines involved, and type of rehabilitation setting. Finally, two clinician-related factors—fewer treatment goals and a selection of evidence-informed treatment techniques—were associated with shorter LOS. Conclusions: Research on factors affecting adult outpatient rehabilitation LOS is limited and inconsistent. A preliminary list of LOS factors was produced, but this topic should be further explored with the collaboration of researchers and clinical institutions. PMID:27504032

  17. Factors associated with physical activity among young adults with a disability.

    PubMed

    Saebu, M; Sørensen, M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: (1) total physical activity and (2) the relative importance of functioning and disability, environmental and personal factors for total physical activity among young adults with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health developed by the World Health Organization was used as a structural framework for a cross-sectional survey, based on a questionnaire. The population studied was 327 young adults (age 18-30) with a disability who were members of interest organizations for persons with disabilities. Using an adapted version of the self-administered short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the sample reported some differences in physical activity related to the type and the onset of disability. Linear regression analyses revealed that personal factors demonstrated more power in explaining the variance in physical activity than both the environmental factors and factors related to functioning and disability. As for the able-bodied, intrinsic motivation and identity as an active person were the factors most strongly associated with physical activity behavior. This should have important consequences for how professionals try to motivate people with disabilities for physical activity, and how they plan and implement rehabilitation.

  18. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  19. Modification and Factor Analysis of the Grief Experience Inventory in Non-Death Loss/Bereavement Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinner, Ellen S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Grief Experience Inventory (GEI) to 102 mothers of brain-injured adolescents and young adults across 3 years postinjury. Factor analysis of data was computed and compared to factors derived from original GEI General Reference Group (n=135). Found strikingly similar factor structures between modified nondeath form and original GEI.…

  20. Perceptions of Factors Impacting Longevity among Hawai‘i Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn; Homma, Mieko; Nobuhara, Hiroaki; Kubota, Tomio; Sakai, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    With increased life expectancy, people need more education about healthy aging. This paper examines older adult perceptions regarding various factors impacting longevity, including genetics, lifestyle, and the environment. Data were collected from 733 Hawai‘i adults age 50 years and older (39% Caucasian, 27% Japanese, 19% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHOPI), 9% Chinese, and 7% Filipino) through randomized telephone interviews. Participants were asked to rate a variety of factors as having “great impact,” “some impact,” or “no impact” on lifespan. Regardless of ethnicity, more than half of the participants felt that eating habits, exercise, health information, health care, and the environment had great impact on lifespan. Less than half felt that economic status and community had great impact. Compared to the all ethnic groups, Filipino respondents were significantly less likely to feel that smoking (44%, compared with an average across all race/ethnicities of 64%) and stress (48%, average 62%) had great impact. Chinese participants were more likely to feel that drinking alcohol (64%) had great impact (average 38%). Filipinos and Chinese were more likely to perceive that working conditions have great impact (65% and 56%, respectively; average 45%), and NHOPI and Filipinos were more likely to perceive the natural environment as having great impact (59% and 54%, respectively; average 46%). Findings suggest that cultural values and experiences may shape older adults' perceptions of factors associated with lifespan, providing guidance for health professionals on how to tailor health messages to older adults in different ethnic groups. PMID:28352492

  1. Pathogenic and Obesogenic Factors Associated with Inflammation in Chinese Children, Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Houck, Kelly M.; Adair, Linda; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Du, Shufa; Zhang, Bing; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Influenced by pathogen exposure and obesity, inflammation provides a critical biological pathway linking changing environments to the development of cardiometabolic disease. This study tests the relative contribution of obesogenic and pathogenic factors to moderate and acute CRP elevations in Chinese children, adolescents and adults. Methods Data come from 8795 participants in the China Health and Nutrition Study. Age-stratified multinomial logistic models were used to test the association between illness history, pathogenic exposures, adiposity, health behaviors and moderate (1-10 mg/L in children and 3-10 mg/L in adults) and acute (>10mg/L) CRP elevations, controlling for age, sex and clustering by household. Backward model selection was used to assess which pathogenic and obesogenic predictors remained independently associated with moderate and acute CRP levels when accounting for simultaneous exposures. Results Overweight was the only significant independent risk factor for moderate inflammation in children (RRR 2.10, 95%CI 1.13-3.89). History of infectious (RRR 1.28, 95%CI 1.08-1.52) and non-communicable (RRR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12-1.69) disease, overweight (RRR 1.66, 95%CI 1.45-1.89) and high waist circumference (RRR 1.63, 95%CI 1.42-1.87) were independently associated with a greater likelihood of moderate inflammation in adults while history of infectious disease (RRR 1.87, 95%CI 1.35-2.56) and overweight (RRR 1.40, 95%CI 1.04-1.88) were independently associated with acute inflammation. Environmental pathogenicity was associated with a reduced likelihood of moderate inflammation, but a greater likelihood of acute inflammation in adults. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of both obesogenic and pathogenic factors in shaping inflammation risk in societies undergoing nutritional and epidemiological transitions. PMID:24123588

  2. Risk factors for development of asthma in Thai adults in Phitsanulok: a university-based study.

    PubMed

    Uthaisangsook, Suwannee

    2010-03-01

    Studies have shown that asthma in children is caused by environmental and genetic factors. In adult asthma, risk factors were less well recognized. Likewise, in Thailand, data in adult asthma is limited. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors, determine skin reactivities to allergens, and assess concomitant allergy among adult asthma in Phitsanulok, a major city in the lower northern Thailand. Five hundred and thirteen Naresuan University staff members and students completed 2 sets of questionnaires and underwent allergy skin prick tests. The first set of questionnaires was standardized Thai version of ISAAC questionnaire for identifying asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. The second set was modified from ISAAC phase II questionnaire to identify asthma risk factors. Fifty-eight subjects (11.6%) were identified as having physician's diagnosed asthma and 89 subjects (17.7%) wheezed in the past 12 months. Among 89 subjects, 14.4% wheezed more than once a month, 45.6% had wheezes interfering with sleep. Concomitant allergic rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema among these asthma subjects were 82.5%, 67.9%, and 14.9%, respectively. Eighty seven point nine percent of asthmatic subjects had positive skin reactivities to at least one allergen. Two of the most common allergens were house dust mites and cockroaches. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking among family members, and family history of allergy were statistically significant risks for developing asthma, while having a rice field around the residence represented a significant protective factor. In conclusion, high prevalence of asthma presented in Phitsanulok and many asthmatic subjects were partly controlled or uncontrolled. The environment such as a rice field could protect against asthma, however atopy and smoking exposure were significant risks for asthma development

  3. Aerobic training-induced improvements in arterial stiffness are not sustained in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K M; Lockhart, C; Cuff, D; Potter, T F; Meneilly, G S

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether a long-term aerobic exercise intervention (6 months) would increase arterial compliance in older adults with hypertension complicated by Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia. A total of 52 older adults (mean age 69.3±0.6 years, 30 males and 22 females) with diet/oral hypoglycemic-controlled T2DM, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (6 months vigorous aerobic exercise, AT group) and a non-aerobic group (6 months of no aerobic exercise, NA group). Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) using the Complior device. Aerobic training decreased arterial stiffness as measured by both radial (P=0.001, 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures) and femoral (P=0.002) PWV. This was due to a decrease in arterial stiffness in the AT group after 3 months of training, which was not maintained after 6-month training for either radial (P=0.707) or femoral (P=0.680) PWV. Our findings indicate that in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, short-term improvements in arterial stiffness became attenuated over the long term. PMID:22951625

  4. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Nilofer F; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Cordeiro, Lorraine; Jafar, Tazeen H; Cohen, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.

  5. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  6. Adolescent lifestyle factors and adult breast density in U.S. Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Marilyn; Olufade, Temitope O; Evers, Kathryn A; Byrne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    We examined recalled measures of adolescent diet, physical activity, and body size in relation to adult breast density in 201 U.S. Chinese immigrant women recruited in January 2002 to May 2003 from Philadelphia region screening programs. Mammographic images were classified into 1 of 4 categories ranging from "entirely fatty" to "extremely dense." Questionnaires assessed diet and physical activity between ages 12-17, relative weight and height at age 10, and weight at age 18. To estimate odds ratios (ORs), we conducted logistic regression analyses using proportional odds models for polychotomous outcomes. Higher adult breast density was significantly associated with adolescent red meat intake (adjusted 3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-6.4, trend P = 0.003) but not with other adolescent factors. For the association of adult acculturation with breast density, adjustment for adolescent red meat intake attenuated the OR for the highest vs. lowest level of acculturation from 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.3) to 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.0). Greater adolescent red meat intake may have increased adult breast density and partly accounted for the strong association between acculturation and breast density in this sample of immigrant Chinese women. If confirmed by further study, dietary prevention efforts for breast cancer should be considered earlier in life.

  7. Abundant Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by Adult Visceral Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Lommatzsch, Marek; Braun, Armin; Mannsfeldt, Anne; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Paus, Ralf; Fischer, Axel; Lewin, Gary R.; Renz, Harald

    1999-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role for the survival of visceral sensory neurons during development. However, the physiological sources and the function of BDNF in the adult viscera are poorly described. We have investigated the cellular sources and the potential role of BDNF in adult murine viscera. We found markedly different amounts of BDNF protein in different organs. Surprisingly, BDNF levels in the urinary bladder, lung, and colon were higher than those found in the brain or skin. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that BDNF mRNA was made by visceral epithelial cells, several types of smooth muscle, and neurons of the myenteric plexus. Epithelia that expressed BDNF lacked both the high- and low-affinity receptors for BDNF, trkB and p75NTR. In contrast, both receptors were present on neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Studies with BDNF−/−mice demonstrated that epithelial and smooth muscle cells developed normally in the absence of BDNF. These data provide evidence that visceral epithelia are a major source, but not a target, of BDNF in the adult viscera. The abundance of BDNF protein in certain internal organs suggests that this neurotrophin may regulate the function of adult visceral sensory and motor neurons. PMID:10514401

  8. Neighborhood Factors and Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults Seen by Emergency Medical Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Chanam; Rodiek, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS). Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 2011 to 2014 involving adults aged 65 and older in the city of San Antonio (TX, USA) were analyzed at the census tract level (n = 264). Negative binomial regression was used to identify significant census tract-based neighborhood environmental variables associated with the count of fall injuries in each census tract. Adjusting for exposure variable and the size of the census tract, neighborhoods with higher residential stability, captured as the percent of those who lived in the same house as the previous year were associated with decreased count of fall injuries. Neighborhoods with higher residential density and having a higher vacancy rate were associated with increased count of fall injuries. The study highlights the importance of stable and safe neighborhoods in reducing fall risks among older adults, which should be considered a prerequisite for promoting age-friendly environments. PMID:28208748

  9. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  10. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke 1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. PMID:27878217

  11. Temporal trends and risk factors for healthcare-associated vancomycin-resistant enterococci in adults

    PubMed Central

    Monteserin, N.; Larson, E.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Published data regarding temporal trends in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) prevalence within specific regions or healthcare systems are scarce. Aim To characterize temporal trends and risk factors for healthcare-associated infections caused by VRE. Methods The study included all adult discharges occurring from 2006 to 2014 with an enterococcal infection from three hospitals in a large academic healthcare system. Bivariate analyses were used to identify statistically significant factors associated with vancomycin-susceptible or -resistant infection. Statistically significant variables were included in a final logistic regression model. Trends assessed whether the proportion of enterococcal infections resistant to vancomycin changed over time. Findings The sample included 10,186 adults with first-time healthcare-associated enterococcal infection. Significant risk factors (P ≤ 0.05) for VRE in the final logistic regression model included: tertiary 1 hospital, intensive care unit length of stay, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, previous immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic medications, previous hospitalization, renal failure, malignancy, longer length of stay prior to infection, taking an antibiotic prior to infection, being female, and having an infection in winter or spring. Between 2006 and 2014, the rate of resistance varied from 37.1 to 42.9% but there were no significant differences in the proportion resistant to vancomycin over time (P = 0.36). Conclusion Research targeted at risk factors is important to decrease the amount of VRE infections. PMID:27645212

  12. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  13. Diet scores and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the association of four diet quality scores with multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes among Guatemalan young adults experiencing the nutrition transition. We obtained cross-sectional dietary, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 1220 Guatemalan adults (mean age 32·7 (SD 5·8) years) in 2002–4, and computed a Recommended Food Score (RFS), Not Recommended Food Score (NRFS), Food Variety Score (FVS) and the Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I). All four scores were correlated with energy intake (r 0·23–0·49; all P<0·01), but had varying associations with socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and nutrient intakes. None of the scores was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome or its components; rather some were positively associated with risk factors. Among both men and women the DQI-I was positively associated with BMI (kg/m2; β = 0·10, 95 % CI 0·003, 0·21 (men); β = 0·07, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·14 (women)) and waist circumference (cm; β = 0·02, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·03 (men); β = 0·02, 95 % CI = 0·01, 0·02 (women)). Among men, the RFS was positively associated with TAG (mg/l; β = 0·11, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·21) and glucose (mg/l; β = 0·13: 95 % CI 0·03, 0·22). We conclude that indices of diet quality are not consistently associated with chronic disease risk factor prevalence in this population of Guatemalan young adults. PMID:19025721

  14. Deep Learning with Hierarchical Convolutional Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Polatkan, Gungor; Sapiro, Guillermo; Blei, David; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised multi-layered (“deep”) models are considered for general data, with a particular focus on imagery. The model is represented using a hierarchical convolutional factor-analysis construction, with sparse factor loadings and scores. The computation of layer-dependent model parameters is implemented within a Bayesian setting, employing a Gibbs sampler and variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, that explicitly exploit the convolutional nature of the expansion. In order to address large-scale and streaming data, an online version of VB is also developed. The number of basis functions or dictionary elements at each layer is inferred from the data, based on a beta-Bernoulli implementation of the Indian buffet process. Example results are presented for several image-processing applications, with comparisons to related models in the literature. PMID:23787342

  15. The Influence of Biographical Factors on Adult Learner Self-Directedness in an Open Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Jo-Anne; Coetzee, Mariette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between self-directedness (as measured by the Adult Learner Self-Directedness Scale) and biographical factors such as age, race, and gender of adult learners enrolled at a South African open distance learning (ODL) higher education institution. Correlational and inferential statistical analyses were used. A…

  16. The Influences of Socio-Demographic Factors, and Non-Formal and Informal Learning Participation on Adult Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digby, Cynthia L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…

  17. Does Food Group Consumption Vary by Differences in Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Lifestyle Factors in Young Adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. The design is cross-sectional. The subjects are young adults (n = 1,266, 74% European-American, 26% ...

  18. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  19. Perspectives of Constraining and Enabling Factors for Health-Promoting Physical Activity by Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…

  20. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  1. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

  2. Sequential auditory scene analysis is preserved in normal aging adults.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Joel S; Alain, Claude

    2007-03-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by speech perception difficulties, especially in adverse listening situations such as a cocktail party. To assess whether such difficulties might be related to impairments in sequential auditory scene analysis, event-related brain potentials were recorded from normal-hearing young, middle-aged, and older adults during presentation of low (A) tones, high (B) tones, and silences (--) in repeating 3 tone triplets (ABA--). The likelihood of reporting hearing 2 streams increased as a function of the frequency difference between A and B tones (Delta f) to the same extent for all 3 age groups and was paralleled by enhanced sensory-evoked responses over the frontocentral scalp regions. In all 3 age groups, there was also a progressive buildup in brain activity from the beginning to the end of the sequence of triplets, which was characterized by an enhanced positivity that peaked at about 200 ms after the onset of each ABA--triplet. Similar Delta f- and buildup-related activity also occurred over the right temporal cortex, but only for young adults. We conclude that age-related difficulties in separating competing speakers are unlikely to arise from deficits in streaming and might instead reflect less efficient concurrent sound segregation.

  3. Proximal Risk Factors for Short-Term Community Violence Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Tueller, Stephen J.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role of static indicators and proximal, clinically relevant indicators in the prediction of short-term community violence in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses. Methods Data were pooled from five studies of adults with mental illnesses (N=4,484). Follow-up data were available for 2,579 participants. A hierarchical linear regression assessed the incremental validity of a series of variable clusters in the prediction of violence risk at six months: static characteristics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, and primary diagnosis), substance use (alcohol use and drug use at baseline), clinical functioning (psychiatric symptoms at baseline and recent hospitalization), recent violence, and recent victimization. Results Results demonstrated improved prediction with each step of the model, indicating that proximal indicators contributed to the prediction of short-term community violence above and beyond static characteristics. When all variables were entered, current alcohol use, recent violence, and recent victimization were positive predictors of subsequent violence, even after the analysis controlled for participant characteristics. Conclusions This study provides empirical evidence for three proximal, clinically relevant indicators in the assessment and management of short-term violence risk among adults with mental illnesses: current alcohol use, recent violence, and recent victimization. Consideration of these indicators in clinical practice may assist in the identification of adults with mental illnesses who are at heightened risk of short-term community violence. PMID:26927580

  4. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  5. Factors influencing the adaptation to skilled nursing facilities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Yi; Sok, Sohyune R

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence the level of adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities. The subjects were 500 adults aged 65 or older who were living in six different skilled nursing facilities in Seoul and Gyeong-gi-do, South Korea. The measures were a demographic form, Health Self-Rating Scale, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Self-Efficacy Instrument, Korean Simple Depression Scale, Quality of the Facility Scale and Facility Adaptation Scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant (F = 128.624, P < 0.001). The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.435, which corresponds to the explanatory power of 43.5%. The factor that was found to have the greatest influence on the adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities was activities of daily living (β = -0.564), followed by self-efficacy (β = 0.321), quality of the facility (β = 0.164), depression (β = 0.133), decision to enter a skilled nursing facility (β = 0.122), perceived health status (β = 0.064) and age (β = -0.010). This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that the level of adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities is related to their activities of daily living, self-efficacy, depression, decision to enter a skilled nursing facility, perceived health status and age, and to the quality of the facility.

  6. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

  7. Factor structure of the Emotional Eating Scale in overweight and obese adults seeking treatment ✩

    PubMed Central

    Goldbacher, E.M.; Grunwald, H.E.; LaGrotte, C.A.; Klotz, A.A.; Oliver, T.L.; Musliner, K.L.; VanderVeur, S.S.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure and anthropometric correlates of the Emotional Eating Scale in overweight and obese adults presenting for weight loss. Participants were 217 men and women with a mean body-mass index of 33.1 (±3.4) kg/m2. Results indicated a four factor structure: depression, anger, anxiety, and somatic arousal. These factors demonstrated strong internal consistency, and together accounted for approximately 60% of the total variance. Women had significantly higher depression and total scores than did men. There were no significant correlations between the Emotional Eating Scale scores and anthropometric measures. This work begins to add to the literature base regarding the applicability of the original design of the Emotional Eating Scale for samples consisting of men and African Americans. PMID:22510311

  8. Comparison of melatonin with growth factors in promoting precursor cells proliferation in adult mouse subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Sotthibundhu, Areechun; Ekthuwapranee, Kasima; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, secreted mainly by the pineal gland, plays roles in various physiological functions including protecting cell death. We showed in previous study that the proliferation and differentiation of precursor cells from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) can be modulated by melatonin via the MT1 melatonin receptor. Since melatonin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) share some signaling pathway components, we investigated whether melatonin can promote the proliferation of precursor cells from the adult mouse SVZ via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase /mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathways in comparison with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Melatonin-induced ERK/MAPK pathways compared with EGF were measured by using in vitro and vivo models. We used neurosphere proliferation assay, immunocytochemistry, and immuno-blotting to analyze significant differences between melatonin and growth factor treatment. We also used specific antagonist and inhibitors to confirm the exactly signaling pathway including luzindole and U0126. We found that significant increase in proliferation was observed when two growth factors (EGF+bFGF) and melatonin were used simultaneously compared with EGF + bFGF or compared with melatonin alone. In addition, the present result suggested the synergistic effect occurred of melatonin and growth factors on the activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. This study exhibited that melatonin could act as a trophic factor, increasing proliferation in precursor cells mediated through the melatonin receptor coupled to ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. Understanding the mechanism by which melatonin regulates precursor cells may conduct to the development of novel strategies for neurodegenerative disease therapy. PMID:28275319

  9. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Palmar, Jim; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2 = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10−4). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake. PMID:27579182

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María José; Palmar, Jim; Bautista, Jordan; Ramos, Eduardo; Cabrera, Mayela; Pachano, Freddy; Rojas, Joselyn

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ (2) = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10(-4)). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  12. Risk factors for falls in older Korean adults: the 2011 Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jin; Kim, Sun A; Kim, Nu Ri; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Yun, Yong-Woon; Shin, Min-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 16.9% in males and 24.3% in females [Corrected]. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.

  13. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions. PMID:28356633

  14. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.

  15. Predictive Factors for Pressure Ulcers in an Older Adult Population Hospitalized for Hip Fractures: A Prognostic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Older adult patients with fragility hip fractures constitute a population at high risk for complications, in particular pressure ulcers. The aim was to evaluate the incidence of pressure ulcers and potential predictive factors. Methods and Findings A prospective multicentric prognostic cohort study in orthopedic wards in three Italian public hospitals. Participants were all consecutive patients 65 years of age or older diagnosed with a fragility hip fracture. Outcomes were incidence of pressure ulcers. The exposure variables were grouped into three macro areas in order to facilitate reading: “intrinsic” variables, “extrinsic” variables and variables linked to the organization of patient care. One thousand eighty-three older adult patients with fragility hip fractures were enrolled from October 1st, 2013 to January 31st, 2015, and pressure ulcers developed in 22.7%. At multivariate analysis, the following were found to be risk factors: age> 80 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; p = 0.015), the length of time a urinary catheter was used (OR 1.013; p<0.001), the length of time pain was present (OR 1.008; p = 0.008), the absence of side rails on the bed (OR 1.668; p = 0.026) and the use of a foam position valve (OR 1.025; p<0.001). Instead, the protective factors were the presence of a caregiver for at least half a day daily (OR 0.994; p = 0.012) and the number of positionings during the postoperative period (OR 0.897; p = 0.008). Conclusions The study allowed the identification of the patients most at risk for developing pressure ulcers, and the construction of a pragmatic predictive model using significant risk or protective factors in order to reduce the number of pressure ulcers. PMID:28068425

  16. Neonatal Colon Insult Alters Growth Factor Expression and TRPA1 Responses in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Julie A.; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Malin, Sacha A.; Davis, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation or pain during neonatal development can result in long-term structural and functional alterations of nociceptive pathways, ultimately altering pain perception in adulthood. We have developed a mouse model of neonatal colon irritation (NCI) to investigate the plasticity of pain processing within the viscerosensory system. Mouse pups received an intracolonic administration of 2% mustard oil (MO) on postnatal days 8 and 10. Distal colons were processed at subsequent timepoints for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and growth factor expression. Adult mice were assessed for visceral hypersensitivity by measuring the visceromotor response during colorectal distension. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult mice were retrogradely labeled from the distal colon and calcium imaging was used to measure transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) responses to acute application of capsaicin and MO, respectively. Despite the absence of inflammation (as indicated by MPO activity), neonatal exposure to intracolonic MO transiently maintained a higher expression level of growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA). Adult NCI mice displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity, as well as increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, compared to control mice. The percentage of TRPA1-expressing colon afferents was significantly increased in NCI mice, however they displayed no increase in the percentage of TRPV1-immunopositive or capsaicin-sensitive colon DRG neurons. These results suggest that early neonatal colon injury results in a long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity, possibly driven by an early increase in growth factor expression and maintained by permanent changes in TRPA1 function. PMID:20850221

  17. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  18. A factor analysis model for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kustra, Rafal; Shioda, Romy; Zhu, Mu

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression array data are used to predict biological functions of uncharacterized genes by comparing their expression profiles to those of characterized genes. While biologically plausible, this is both statistically and computationally challenging. Typical approaches are computationally expensive and ignore correlations among expression profiles and functional categories. Results We propose a factor analysis model (FAM) for functional genomics and give a two-step algorithm, using genome-wide expression data for yeast and a subset of Gene-Ontology Biological Process functional annotations. We show that the predictive performance of our method is comparable to the current best approach while our total computation time was faster by a factor of 4000. We discuss the unique challenges in performance evaluation of algorithms used for genome-wide functions genomics. Finally, we discuss extensions to our method that can incorporate the inherent correlation structure of the functional categories to further improve predictive performance. Conclusion Our factor analysis model is a computationally efficient technique for functional genomics and provides a clear and unified statistical framework with potential for incorporating important gene ontology information to improve predictions. PMID:16630343

  19. The essential role of GATA transcription factors in adult murine prostate

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lijuan; Feng, Qin; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fen; Lydon, John P.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li; Mitsiades, Nicholas; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are essential in mammalian cell lineage determination and have a critical role in cancer development. In cultured prostate cancer cells, GATA2 coordinates with androgen receptor (AR) to regulate gene transcription. In the murine prostate, among six GATA members, GATA2 and GATA3 are expressed. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that both GATA factors predominantly localize in the nuclei of luminal epithelial cells. The pioneer factor FoxA1 is exclusively detected in the luminal cells, whereas AR is detected in both luminal and basal cells. Using genetic engineering, we generated prostate-specific GATA2 and GATA3 knockout (KO) mice. Ablation of single GATA gene had marginal effect on prostate morphology and AR target gene expression, likely due to their genetic compensation. Double KO mice exhibited PIN III to IV lesions, but decreased prostate to body weight ratio, altered AR target gene expression, and expansion of p63-positive basal cells. However, deletion of GATA2 and GATA3 did not reduce the mRNA or protein levels of AR or FoxA1, indicating that GATA factors are not required for AR or FoxA1 expression in adult prostate. Surprisingly, GATA2 and GATA3 exhibit minimal expression in the ventral prostatic (VP) lobe. In contrast, FoxA1 and AR expression levels in VP are at least as high as those in anterior prostatic (AP) and dorsal-lateral prostatic (DLP) lobes. Together, our results indicate that GATA2 and GATA3 are essential for adult murine prostate function and in vivo AR signaling, and the lack of the GATA factor expression in the VP suggests a fundamental difference between VP and other prostatic lobes. PMID:27374105

  20. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-19

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  1. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  2. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  3. Replication of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition with a Canadian sample.

    PubMed

    Saklofske, D H; Hildebrand, D K; Gorsuch, R L

    2000-12-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) were conducted on a stratified sample of Canadian adults (n = 718). As was previously demonstrated for the children's version of this scale, the factor model of the American standardization sample was replicated across this Canadian national sample. Results of the factor analyses confirmed the presence of the 4 WAIS-III factors: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing Speed.

  4. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial…

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  6. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  7. Emotional abuse in childhood is a differential factor for the development of depression in adults.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila Maria Severi; Von Werne Baes, Cristiane; Tofoli, Sandra Marcia de Carvalho; Juruena, Mario Francisco

    2014-11-01

    We evaluate the association between subtypes of early life stress (ELS; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and psychiatric disorders in adults. The sample was composed of 81 adult psychiatric patients treated at the Day Hospital Unit in Brazil. The patients were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview according to diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The presence of ELS was confirmed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which investigates abuse and neglect subtypes. The patients were also evaluated for the severity of psychiatric symptoms through self-report questionnaires. A total of 71.6% of the patients experienced some type of severe ELS compared with 28.4% of the patients without ELS. Of these, 55.5% reported having experienced emotional abuse; 48.1%, physical neglect; 45.7%, emotional neglect; 39.5%, physical abuse; and 27.2%, sexual abuse. Our data showed that, among the ELS subtypes, emotional abuse was positively associated with psychopathology in adults, particularly with mood disorders (p < 0.05). The patients with a history of emotional abuse had higher severity scores in all symptoms, such as depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, anxiety, and impulsivity. These data demonstrate the impact of ELS, especially in cases of emotional abuse, as a trigger for psychiatric disorders and indicate that the severity of ELS is associated with severity of psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess the importance of emotional abuse as a risk factor of severe psychopathology in adults.

  8. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L; Frisby, Craig L

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) parameterization of the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) model to demonstrate validation of profile pattern hypotheses derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS). Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is an exploratory method for identifying major profiles in a multi-subtest test battery. Major profile patterns are represented as dimensions extracted from a MDS analysis. PAMS represents an individual observed score as a linear combination of dimensions where the dimensions are the most typical profile patterns present in a population. While the PAMS approach was initially developed for exploratory purposes, its results can later be confirmed in a different sample by CFA. Since CFA is often used to verify results from an exploratory factor analysis, the present paper makes the connection between a factor model and the PAMS model, and then illustrates CFA with a simulated example (that was generated by the PAMS model) and at the same time with a real example. The real example demonstrates confirmation of PAMS exploratory results by using a different sample. Fit indexes can be used to indicate whether the CFA reparameterization as a confirmatory approach works for the PAMS exploratory results.

  10. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    and R2Adj – PRESS Statistic – Mallows C(p) A linear regression model that includes all predictors investigated may not be the best model in terms of...as the Adjusted Coefficient of Determination, R2Adj, the PRESS statistic, and Mallows C(p) value. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis...equations with highest R2 using R2Adj, PRESS, and Mallows C(p) • Evaluation – Cumbersome as number of X’s increase 10 X’s = (210-1) = 1,023 Regression

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

  12. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental factors more work-related and a subdivision of personal factors. For data extraction the method known as qualitative metasummary was used and the manifest frequency effect size (MFES) for each category in the ICF was calculated. Results From 33 included studies 318 factors have been extracted and classified in the ICF. In the classification the frequency of occurrences and the consistency in direction (i.e., hindering or facilitating) have been made visible. The ICF categories with the highest MFES were mental functions with factors like feelings and emotions about dyslexia; activities like reading or writing/spelling; participation with factors like acquiring and keeping a job; social relationships at work where the attitudes and support of the employer and co-workers are important; working conditions with factors like the availability of assistive technology and accommodations on the job; and personal factors like self-disclosure and coping strategies. Conclusions In the context of work DD affects nearly all domains of functioning, mostly in a negative way. Within each domain the impact of DD increases over the course of life. To overcome that negative influence, many forms of adaptation, compensation, or coping are mentioned. Also notable is the lack of positive attitudes toward DD of the participants with DD—with the exception of the attitudes of teachers with DD—as well as on the part of colleagues, supervisors, and employers. PMID:24460949

  13. Bi-factor analyses of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Crane, Paul K.; Dams-O’Connor, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telephone cognitive batteries are useful for large-scale screening and epidemiological studies, but their brevity and lack of content depth may cause psychometric limitations that hinder their utility. OBJECTIVE The current study addressed some of these limitations by rescaling the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT; Tun & Lachman, 2006) using modern psychometric methods. METHODS Archival data were obtained from a national sample of 4,212 28-84-year-old volunteers in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (Ryff et al., 2007) Cognitive Project (Ryff & Lachman, 2007). We fit a bi-factor model to a combination of item-level, subscale-level, and scale-level data. RESULTS The best fitting model contained a general factor and secondary factors capturing test-specific method effects or residual correlations for Number Series, Red/Green Test, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Factor scores generated from this model were compared with conventional BTACT scores. Important score differences (i.e., >0.3 standard deviation units) were found in 28% of the sample. The bi-factor scores demonstrated slightly superior validity than conventional BTACT scores when judged against a number of clinical and demographic criterion variables. CONCLUSIONS Modern psychometric approaches to scoring the BTACT have the benefit of linear scaling and a modest criterion validity advantage. PMID:23535786

  14. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  15. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  16. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  17. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash

  18. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  19. Risk Factors, Protective Factors, Vulnerability, and Resilience: A Framework for Understanding and Supporting the Adult Transitions of Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are identified, including building resilience through support at the…

  20. Factors that influence emotional disturbance in adults living in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2012-04-01

    Living in poverty conditions implies exposure to severe circumstances of social disadvantage, associated with greater propensity to contract illnesses. A negative correlation has consistently been observed between health and poverty. The chronic exposure to stress affects people's well-being through the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression. The suffering of these symptoms for a long time period may be considered as part of a more general syndrome of emotional disturbance, in detriment to a person's mental health. The objective of this study is to identify psychological factors that influence emotional disturbance, measured as symptoms of anxiety and depression, in adults living in poverty conditions in Mexico's central region. A total of 913 adults, 65.2% female, were surveyed. The mean age of the participants was 43.71 (±12.58) years and the mean number of years of schooling was 4.04 (±3.36). Variables corresponding to personal characteristics were measured. The results indicate that the most important risk factor for depression is anxiety and vice versa. Additionally, gender, negative self-esteem, lack of adequate strategies for confronting and resolving difficulties, and lack of self-regulation predicted depression, whereas stress, lack of self-regulation, and coping style predicted anxiety. These variables were better predictors than optimism, locus of control, sense of humor or religiosity.

  1. Developmental protective and risk factors in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Barone, Lavinia

    2003-03-01

    Mental representations and attachment in a sample of adults with Borderline Personality Disorder were assessed using the George, Kaplan and Main (1985) Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 nonclinical and 40 with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: free/autonomous subjects (F) represented only 7%, dismissing classifications (Ds) reached about 20%, entangled/preoccupied (E) 23% and unresolved with traumatic experiences (U) 50%. The two samples differed in their attachment patterns distribution by two (secure vs. insecure status), three (F, Ds and E) and four-way (F, Ds, E and U) categories comparisons. In order to identify more specific protective or risk factors of BPD, 25 one-way ANOVAs with clinical status as variable (clinical vs. nonclinical) were conducted on each scale of the coding system of the interview. Results support the hypothesis that some developmental relational experiences seem to constitute pivotal risk factors underlying this disorder. Results demonstrated potential benefits in using AAI scales in addition to the traditional categories. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.

  2. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-07-02

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  3. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  5. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Yu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm3) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans. PMID:28168046

  6. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yuan; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhu, Haohao; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV) and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW) (P < 0.05), with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83 ± 32.42 mm(3)) was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD), which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41-50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion. PMID:22985407

  8. Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in young adults: a mediation analysis of body composition.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Nieto, José Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Miota-Ibarra, José; Ortiz-Galeano, Ignacio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-12

    High blood pressure levels are among the most important cardiovascular disease risk factors and are influenced by physical fitness and body composition. However, the degree to which obesity may attenuate or modify the beneficial effects of physical fitness on blood pressure levels in young adults is uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze whether body composition is a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood pressure levels in young adults. This work was a cross-sectional study involving first-year college students (n=386) at the University Campus of Cuenca (Spain). We measured weight, height, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (by densitometry), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and CRF levels (by a 20 m shuttle run test). Partial correlation coefficients were estimated to examine the relationships among adiposity variables, CRF and blood pressure variables, controlling for age and sex. ANCOVA models were conducted to explore differences in blood pressure levels across adiposity and CRF categories. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used for the simple mediation analysis. The indirect effect and Sobel test were significant (P<0.001), confirming that all body composition variables mediate between CRF and all of the included blood pressure variables. All body composition variables acted as mediators between CRF and blood pressure. These results highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy body composition to prevent hypertension in young adults.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 12 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.177.

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of embryonic and adult stem cells with extended and limited differentiation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Montoya, Fernando; Kidder, Benjamin L; Pauwelyn, Karen A; Chase, Lucas G; Luttun, Aernout; Crabbe, Annelies; Geraerts, Martine; Sharov, Alexei A; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru SH; Hu, Wei-Shou; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, several populations of postnatal stem cells, such as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), have been described that have broader differentiation ability than classical adult stem cells. Here we compare the transcriptome of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), MAPCs, and lineage-restricted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to determine their relationship. Results Applying principal component analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and k-means clustering algorithms to the gene-expression data, we identified a unique gene-expression profile for MAPCs. Apart from the ESC-specific transcription factor Oct4 and other ESC transcripts, some of them associated with maintaining ESC pluripotency, MAPCs also express transcripts characteristic of early endoderm and mesoderm. MAPCs do not, however, express Nanog or Sox2, two other key transcription factors involved in maintaining ESC properties. This unique molecular signature was seen irrespective of the microarray platform used and was very similar for both mouse and rat MAPCs. As MSC-like cells isolated under MAPC conditions are virtually identical to MSCs, and MSCs cultured in MAPC conditions do not upregulate MAPC-expressed transcripts, the MAPC signature is cell-type specific and not merely the result of differing culture conditions. Conclusion Multivariate analysis techniques clustered stem cells on the basis of their expressed gene profile, and the genes determining this clustering reflected the stem cells' differentiation potential in vitro. This comparative transcriptome analysis should significantly aid the isolation and culture of MAPCs and MAPC-like cells, and form the basis for studies to gain insights into genes that confer on these cells their greater developmental potency. PMID:17683608

  10. Individual and community resilience factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and questioning youth and adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Antebi, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends' support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults.

  11. Resistance Training Alters the Proportion of Skeletal Muscle Fibers but Not Brain Neurotrophic Factors in Young Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, José; Ferreira, Diórginis José S.; Gomes Costa, Gizelle L.; Matos, Rhowena Jane B.; Toscano, Ana E.; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antonio-Santos, J, Ferreira, DJS, Gomes Costa, GL, Matos, RJB, Toscano, AE, Manhães-de-Castro, R, and Leandro, CG. Resistance training alters the proportion of skeletal muscle fibers but not brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3531–3538, 2016—Resistance training (RT) is related to improved muscular strength and power output. Different programs of RT for rats have been developed, but peripheral and central response has not been evaluated directly in the same animal. To test the hypothesis that RT induces central and peripheral adaptations, this study evaluated the effects of a RT on the performance of a weekly maximum overload test, fiber-type typology, and brain neurotrophic factors in young adult rats. Thirty-one male Wistar rats (65 ± 5 days) were divided in 2 groups: nontrained (NT, n = 13) and trained (T, n = 18). Trained group was submitted to a program of RT ladder climbing, gradually added mass, 5 days per week during 8 weeks at 80% of individual maximum overload. This test was weekly performed to adjust the individual load throughout the weeks for both groups. After 48 hours from the last session of exercise, soleus and extensor digital longus (EDL) muscles were removed for myofibrillar ATPase staining analysis. Spinal cord, motor cortex, and cerebellum were removed for RT-PCR analysis of BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression. In EDL muscle, T animals showed an increase in the proportion of type IIb fibers and a reduction of type IIa fibers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 gene expression was reduced in the cerebellum of T animals (NT: 1.025 ± 0.12; T: 0.57 ± 0.11). Our data showed that 8 weeks of RT were enough to increase maximum overload capacity and the proportion of glycolytic muscle fibers, but there were no associations with the expression of growth neurotrophic factors. PMID:27870699

  12. The influence of various factors on the performance of repetition tests in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Jeong, Jin Ok; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-01

    A variety of internal and external factors influence speech perception performance following cochlear implantation (CI) in adult deaf patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speech perception performance during repetition testing according to various factors and to identify the predictive factors associated with postoperative speech perception. The performances on speech perception under audio-only conditions were examined over time in 61 adult patients with CI. Mono- and bi-syllable and sentence repetition testing, using both the Korean version of the Central Institute for the Deaf (K-CID) and the K-Western Aphasia Battery test (K-WAB), were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. To elucidate the effect that the etiology of deafness has on postoperative outcome, patients were divided into the following four groups: Prelingual hearing loss (HL) (n = 9), Meningitis (n = 6), Progressive HL (n = 31) and Sudden HL groups (n = 15). Moreover, the duration of HL and deafness was defined as follows: (1) "age of deafness onset: AoD", (2) "number of years between the onset of profound deafness and CI: DoD" and (3) "percentage of the patient's life with moderate-to-profound hearing loss before CI: PoL". DoD and PoL were significantly different between the four groups. Although AoD appeared to be associated with performance on the sentence repetition test before standardizing for education level and age (P = 0.015), there was no association after adjusting for these factors (P = 0.719). Only PoL showed a good correlation with performance on repetition testing after CI after adjusting for AoD and DoD. However, DoD was associated with speech perception performance on the sentence repetition test only. In addition, speech perception performance results in the Progressive and Sudden HL groups were improved over the Prelingual HL and Meningitis groups. The Meningitis group showed the poorest speech perception performance among postlingually

  13. Risk factors for aggressive recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in adults and juveniles.

    PubMed

    Omland, Turid; Akre, Harriet; Lie, Kathrine A; Jebsen, Peter; Sandvik, Leiv; Brøndbo, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    In this cohort study we examined whether gender, age at onset, observation time or human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype are risk factors for an aggressive clinical course in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP). Clinical data from patient records comprised gender, age at onset, date of first endolaryngeal procedure with biopsy, date of last follow-up, total number of endolaryngeal procedures, and complications during the observation period. Disease was defined as juvenile (JoRRP) or adult onset (AoRRP) according to whether the disease was acquired before or after the age of 18. Aggressive disease was defined as distal spread, tracheostomy, four surgical operations annually or >10 surgeries in total. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. HPV genotyping was performed by quantitative PCR assay identifying 15 HPV genotypes. The study included 224 patients. The majority were males (141/174 in AoRRPs and 31/50 in JoRRPs; p = 0.005). The median follow-up from initial diagnosis was 12.0 years (IQR 3.7-32.9) for JoRRPs and 4.0 years (IQR 0.8-11.7) for AoRRPs. The disease was more aggressive in juveniles than adults (p<0.001), a difference that disappeared after 10 years' observation. JoRRPs with aggressive disease were younger at onset (mean difference 4.6 years, 95%CI [2.4, 6.8], p = 0.009). HPV6 or -11 was present in all HPV-positive papillomas. HPV11 was more prevalent in aggressive disease, and HPV6 in non-aggressive disease (p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that only age at onset (OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.88], p = 0.003) was associated with aggressive disease in juveniles, while HPV11 (OR = 3.74, 95% CI [1.40, 9.97], p = 0.008) and observation time >10 years (OR = 13.41, 95% CI [5.46, 32.99[, p<001) were risk factors in adults. In conclusion, the only significant risk factor for developing aggressive disease in JoRRPs was age at onset, but both HPV11 and observation time >10 years were risk factors for an aggressive

  14. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  15. Factors associated with the feeding practices of the adult population of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Veruska Prado; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; de Moura, Erly Catarina

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the factors associated with adult feeding practices in Goiânia, the capital of the state of Goiás, in the Midwestern region of Brazil, by means of telephone interviews with 2,002 adults (> 18 years old). Information about demographic aspects, lifestyle, nutritional status, and food consumption was collected, leading to a sum of healthy food choices. It was observed that men and women have an average of two healthy food choices and low frequency of fruit intake (5.4% of men; 8.5% of women), as well as the consumption of legumes and vegetables (18.1% of men; 22.6% of women). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the mean healthy food choice among men increases with age and physical practice, and among women, with paid work. The prevalence of unhealthy food choices associated with other risk behaviors favors the development of chronic diseases. Multi-strategy and intersectorial actions are necessary to overcome this situation.

  16. Clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors among Korean adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin; Choi, Hui Ran

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clustering pattern of four major lifestyle risk factors—smoking, heavy drinking, poor diet, and physical inactivity—among people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. There were 2,469 adults with metabolic syndrome aged 30 years or older available with the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset. We calculated the ratio of the observed to expected (O/E) prevalence for the 16 different combinations and the prevalence odds ratios (POR) of four lifestyle risk factors. The four lifestyle risk factors tended to cluster in specific multiple combinations. Smoking and heavy drinking was clustered (POR: 1.86 for male, 4.46 for female), heavy drinking and poor diet were clustered (POR: 1.38 for male, 1.74 for female), and smoking and physical inactivity were also clustered (POR: 1.48 for male). Those who were male, younger, low-educated and living alone were much more likely to have a higher number of lifestyle risk factors. Some helpful implications can be drawn from the knowledge on clustering pattern of lifestyle risk factors for more effective intervention program targeting metabolic syndrome. PMID:28350828

  17. Exploring sex differences in autistic traits: A factor analytic study of adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander

    2016-11-02

    Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype consistently in autistic men and women. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form in a large sample of autistic adults. It also systematically explored specific sex differences at the item level, to determine whether the scale assesses the autism phenotype equivalently across males and females. Factor analyses were conducted among 265 males and 285 females. A two-factor structure consisting of a social behaviour and numbers and patterns factor was consistent across groups, indicating that the latent autism phenotype is similar among both autistic men and women. Subtle differences were observed on two social behaviour item thresholds of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form, with women reporting scores more in line with the scores expected in autism on these items than men. However, these differences were not substantial. This study showed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form detects autistic traits equivalently in males and females and is not biased towards the male autism phenotype.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Adults in California, the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kesheng; Bailey, Beth A.; Stevens, Marc A.; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Little attention has been given to differences in obesity risk factors by racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we examined differences in risk factors for obesity among Whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans among 42,935 adults (24.8% obese). Estimates were weighted to ensure an unbiased representation of the Californian population. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the differences in risk factors for obesity. Large ethnic disparities were found in obesity prevalence: Whites (22.0%), Latinos (33.6%), African Americans (36.1%), and Asians (9.8%). Differences in risk factors for obesity were also observed: Whites (gender, age, physical activity, smoking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Latinos (age, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Asians (age, binge drinking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), and African Americans (gender, physical activity, smoking, binge drinking, and diabetes medicine intake). Females were more likely to be obese among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.94), but less likely among Whites (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.74–0.87). Race/ethnicity should be considered in developing obesity prevention strategies. PMID:28352473

  19. Cells from the adult corneal stroma can be reprogrammed to a neuron-like cell using exogenous growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Carol Ann Chang, Chuan-Yuan; Fraser, Cameron J.; Nelidova, Dasha E.; Chen, Jing A.; Lim, Angela; Brebner, Alex; McGhee, Jennifer; Sherwin, Trevor; Green, Colin R.

    2014-03-10

    Cells thought to be stem cells isolated from the cornea of the eye have been shown to exhibit neurogenic potential. We set out to uncover the identity and location of these cells within the cornea and to elucidate their neuronal protein and gene expression profile during the process of switching to a neuron-like cell. Here we report that every cell of the adult human and rat corneal stroma is capable of differentiating into a neuron-like cell when treated with neurogenic differentiation specifying growth factors. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating neurogenesis and mature neuronal structure and function was increased. The switch from a corneal stromal cell to a neuron-like cell was also shown to occur in vivo in intact corneas of living rats. Our results clearly indicate that lineage specifying growth factors can affect changes in the protein and gene expression profiles of adult cells, suggesting that possibly many adult cell populations can be made to switch into another type of mature cell by simply modifying the growth factor environment. - Highlights: • Adult corneal stromal cells can differentiated into neuron-like cells. • Neuronal specification of the adult stromal cell population is stochastic. • Neuronal specification in an adult cell population can be brought about by growth factors.

  20. Personal Factors and Perceived Barriers to Participation in Leisure Activities for Young and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Ullan, Ana M.; Martinez, Magdalena M.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities has been identified as a factor that favors inclusion in the community and it also contributes to a better quality of life. This study analyzed the influence of certain personal characteristics and environmental factors in the participation in leisure activities of youngsters and adults with developmental…

  1. A Multidimensional Approach to Understanding Under-Eating in Homebound Older Adults: The Importance of Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between medical, functional, economic, oral health, social, religious, and psychological factors and under-eating in homebound older adults. The focus of the study was on identifying potentially modifiable factors amenable to social and behavioral interventions. Design and Methods: A…

  2. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Adults of the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    França, Sérgio Lobato; Lima, Sandra Souza; Vieira, José Ricardo Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) plays a key role in the origin of cardiovascular diseases. Studies on the MS in Brazil are recent, and its epidemiology in more isolated regions such as the Amazon is still unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS and associated factors in adults of the Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted in 2012-2013. It is a cross-sectional population-based study, involving 787 adults randomly selected from the urban area of four cities in the state of Pará, in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements, laboratory examination, and were questioned about their lifestyle. MS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria, using the multiple logistic regression to investigate the potential association of risk factors with the presence of MS. The overall prevalence of MS was 34.1% (95% CI = 30.8-37.4), increasing linearly with the increasing body mass index and age. From 40-49 years of age, MS was observed in about half of the women (46.0%), while men only experienced a high prevalence in the fifth decade of life (43.3%). The low HDL-c (64.4%) and abdominal obesity (58.9%) were higher in women (p < 0.001), while for men, high blood pressure was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Individuals aged 40-59 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35 [95% CI = 2.30-4.90]), ≥ 60 years old (OR = 5.80 [3.63-9.27]), overweight (OR = 4.17 [2.77-6.29]), and obese (OR = 8.82 [5.56-13.98]) were more likely to have MS. The study population experienced high cardiometabolic risk, requiring government efforts to control MS and related risk factors, especially obesity.

  4. Environmental factors associated with primary care access among urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Gallo, William T; Fahs, Marianne C

    2012-09-01

    Disparities in primary care access and quality impede optimal chronic illness prevention and management for older adults. Although research has shown associations between neighborhood attributes and health, little is known about how these factors - in particular, the primary care infrastructure - inform older adults' primary care use. Using geographic data on primary care physician supply and surveys from 1260 senior center attendees in New York City, we examined factors that facilitate and hinder primary care use for individuals living in service areas with different supply levels. Supply quartiles varied in primary care use (visit within the past 12 months), racial and socio-economic composition, and perceived neighborhood safety and social cohesion. Primary care use did not differ significantly after controlling for compositional factors. Individuals who used a community clinic or hospital outpatient department for most of their care were less likely to have had a primary care visit than those who used a private doctor's office. Stratified multivariate models showed that within the lowest-supply quartile, public transit users had a higher odds of primary care use than non-transit users. Moreover, a higher score on the perceived neighborhood social cohesion scale was associated with a higher odds of primary care use. Within the second-lowest quartile, nonwhites had a lower odds of primary care use compared to whites. Different patterns of disadvantage in primary care access exist that may be associated with - but not fully explained by - local primary care supply. In lower-supply areas, racial disparities and inadequate primary care infrastructure hinder access to care. However, accessibility and elder-friendliness of public transit, as well as efforts to improve social cohesion and support, may facilitate primary care access for individuals living in low-supply areas.

  5. Therapy-relevant factors in adult ADHD from a cognitive behavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Adult individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been suffering from this neurobiological and highly heritable disorder chronically since childhood. Resulting from their longstanding neuropsychological impairments, such as attentional problems, emotional instability, and disinhibition, they are familiar to a multiplicity of negative life outcomes and underachievement. Furthermore, a large part of this population suffers from psychiatric comorbidity. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on therapy-relevant factors such as the individual's self-esteem, self-efficacy, development of core beliefs/schemas, and coping strategies. Based on negative beliefs about the self, individuals confronted with difficult situations develop maladaptive coping strategies, for instance avoidance and procrastination. These strategies lead to maintenance and reinforcement of maladaptive beliefs, and as such they acquit themselves as schema-confirming. Captured in this vicious cycle, the individual sees her negative view of the self confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate these interactive factors that influence the aforementioned cycle in order to emphasize the cognitive behavioural interventions tailored to those factors on the basis of latest research. Furthermore, the authors want to attract notice to the resources people with ADHD are said to have, namely creativity and resilience. These postulated resources could be therapy-relevant by creating positive beliefs about the self, hence improving coping skills and breaking the vicious circle of negative appraisal. Taking into account personal resources and their fostering may be an important fundament for the treatment plan of adult ADHD. Information on the current state of research and theoretical approaches concerning the below-mentioned key words was gathered through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus, and PubMed databases.

  6. Anxiety, Stress-Related Factors, and Blood Pressure in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; De Pasquale Ceratti, Stefano; Fiz-Pérez, Javier; Mucci, Federico; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a long-term medical condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) in the arterial vessels. Although HT initially is an asymptomatic condition, it chronically evolves into a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases that, in turn, represent crucial causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. HT is a complex disorder that is estimated to affect more than a quarter of the world’s adult population. It is classified on the basis of both its pathophysiology (primary and secondary HT) and on the resting BP values (elevated systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure). It originates from a complicated interaction of genes and several environmental risk factors including aging, smoking, lack of exercise, overweight and obesity, elevated salt intake, stress, depression, and anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders, affecting millions of people each year and impairing every aspect of everyday life, both of them characterized by affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and neurovegetative symptoms. Moreover, work-related stress has been considered as an important risk factor for HT and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although different authors have investigated and suggested possible relations between HT, stress, anxiety, and depression during the last decades, a full understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms has not been satisfactorily achieved, especially in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anxiety and work-related stress in the development of HT amongst young health care profession students and the possible related consequences of early CVDs. PMID:27840615

  7. Genetic factors in evolution of sleep length--a longitudinal twin study in Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Genetic factors affect many aspects of sleep, such as sleep length. We investigated the contribution of genetic factors to stability and change of sleep length among adults over a 15-year period. In this representative follow-up study we used the Finnish Twin Cohort as the study population. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 1975 (response rate 89%, 11,041 twin pairs; age ≥18 years), 1981 (84%, 9323; ≥24 years) and 1990 (77%, 4507; 33-60 years). Sleep was categorized as short (<7 h), average or long (>8 h). Pairwise similarity in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was examined at each survey by age group and sex. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects. The proportion of variance in sleep length at one point in time that was accounted for by genetic effects was very stable over the study period, being 0.31 in 1975, 0.32 in 1981 and 0.30 in 1990. Longitudinal genetic modelling indicated that the correlations of genetic effects between the three measurement points were high: 0.85 between 1975 and 1981; 0.93 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.76 between 1975 and 1990. Despite a high contribution of environmental effects, their correlations over time were modest: 0.31 between 1975 and 1981; 0.33 between 1981 and 1990; and 0.18 between 1975 and 1990. In conclusion, genetic factors have a modest but stable effect on the evolution of sleep length over a long time span in adults. Multiple measures are a more robust basis for genetic analyses than a single cross-sectional measure.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Adults of the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) plays a key role in the origin of cardiovascular diseases. Studies on the MS in Brazil are recent, and its epidemiology in more isolated regions such as the Amazon is still unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS and associated factors in adults of the Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted in 2012–2013. It is a cross-sectional population-based study, involving 787 adults randomly selected from the urban area of four cities in the state of Pará, in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements, laboratory examination, and were questioned about their lifestyle. MS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria, using the multiple logistic regression to investigate the potential association of risk factors with the presence of MS. The overall prevalence of MS was 34.1% (95% CI = 30.8–37.4), increasing linearly with the increasing body mass index and age. From 40–49 years of age, MS was observed in about half of the women (46.0%), while men only experienced a high prevalence in the fifth decade of life (43.3%). The low HDL-c (64.4%) and abdominal obesity (58.9%) were higher in women (p < 0.001), while for men, high blood pressure was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Individuals aged 40–59 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35 [95% CI = 2.30–4.90]), ≥ 60 years old (OR = 5.80 [3.63–9.27]), overweight (OR = 4.17 [2.77–6.29]), and obese (OR = 8.82 [5.56–13.98]) were more likely to have MS. The study population experienced high cardiometabolic risk, requiring government efforts to control MS and related risk factors, especially obesity. PMID:27936021

  9. Investigating the neurobiology of music: brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in the hippocampus of young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Fiore, Marco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that music might be able to improve mood state in people affected by psychiatric disorders, ameliorate cognitive deficits in people with dementia and increase motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Robust experimental evidence explaining the central effects of music, however, is missing. This study was designed to investigate the effect of music on brain neurotrophin production and behavior in the mouse. We exposed young adult mice to music with a slow rhythm (6 h/day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 db) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, mice were tested for passive avoidance learning and then killed for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in selected brain regions. We found that music-exposed mice showed increased BDNF, but not nerve growth factor in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that music exposure significantly enhanced learning performance, as measured by the passive avoidance test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music can modulate the activity of the hippocampus by influencing BDNF production. Our findings also suggest that music exposure might be of help in several central nervous system pathologies.

  10. Prevalence of 'being at risk of malnutrition' and associated factors in adult patients receiving nursing care at home in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Bart; Franck MPsych, Erik; Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Weyler, Joost; Ysebaert, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is a known problem in hospitals and nursing homes. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of being at risk of malnutrition in community living adults receiving homecare nursing and to determine factors independently associated with this risk of malnutrition. Furthermore, it also aimed to describe aspects of current nutritional nursing care. Patients (n = 100) are screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool to evaluate their risk of malnutrition. A patient survey was used to analyse associated factors. In this population, 29% are at risk for malnutrition. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'loss of appetite' proved the most important factor. A survey for nurses (n = 61) revealed low awareness, poor knowledge, poor communication between stakeholders and a moderate approach of malnutrition. These findings should encourage homecare nurses to use a recommended screening tool for malnutrition and to actively observe and report loss of appetite to initiate the prescription of individual tailored interventions. Belgian homecare nurses' management does not yet fully comply with international recommendations. Additional training in nutritional nursing care and screening methods for malnutrition is needed. Systematic screening should be further developed and evaluated in this at-risk population.

  11. Gifted Adults: A Systematic Review and Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Bishop, James

    2015-01-01

    What happens when a gifted child grows up? Despite a slew of provocative book titles regarding gifted adults in the mainstream media, and the inclusion of the notion of giftedness among adults in the definition of giftedness proposed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell, there is a limited amount of research that has examined the gifted…

  12. Using Concept Maps to Engage Adult Learners in Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of learning theories can help adult educators become more effective practitioners and meet the needs of the learners they serve. Adult educators who understand how individuals learn can be better prepared to use effective strategies during the learning process. This article addresses the use of concept maps as a strategy to engage…

  13. Analysis on leisure patterns of the pre-elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study is to analyze how leisure activities affect the near elders' preparation for successful and productive aging. To achieve the purpose of the study, this study was conducted in 2012 and the data was collected by using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in the great city area (6 places), metropolitan area (7 places), medium-sized urban area (6 places), and rural area (6 places). Out of the total number of 1,000 copies of questionnaire distributed to pre-elders (Baby-boomers from 55 yr to 64 yr), 978 were collected and used for data analysis. According to the result, the more time, frequency and intensity in leisure and recreational participation, the higher the satisfaction level and the happiness level in their life. It means that leisure and recreational activities play an important role for their life. In other words, for pre-elders, leisure activities can be regarded as the important element for preparation of their old age. Therefore, the leisure and recreation for pre-elderly adults should not be recognized as a tool for improving the economic productivity but for reinforcing the recovery resilience.

  14. Qualitative analysis of young adult ENDS users' expectations and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite extensive research into the determinants of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) uptake, few studies have examined the psychosocial benefits ENDS users seek and experience. Using a consumer ritual framework, we explored how ENDS users recreated or replaced smoking practices, and considered implications for smoking cessation. Design In-depth interviews; data analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 16 young adult ENDS users (age M=21.4, SD=1.9; 44% female). Results Participants reported using different ENDS to achieve varying outcomes. Some used ‘cigalikes’ to recreate a physically and visually similar experience to smoking; they privileged device appearance over nicotine delivery. In contrast, others used personally crafted mods to develop new rituals that differentiated them from smokers and showcased their technical expertise. Irrespective of the device they used, several former smokers and dual users of cigarettes and ENDS experienced strong nostalgia for smoking attributes, particularly the elemental appeal of fire and the finiteness of a cigarette. Non-smoking participants used ENDS to maintain social connections with their peers. Conclusions Participants used ENDS to construct rituals that recreated or replaced smoking attributes, and that varied in the emphasis given to device appearance, nicotine delivery, and social performance. Identifying how ENDS users create new rituals and the components they privilege within these could help promote full transition from smoking to ENDS and identify those at greatest risk of dual use or relapse to cigarette smoking. PMID:28270392

  15. Factors influencing Internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Anderberg, Peter; Sköldunger, Anders; Wahlberg, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Berglund, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption; a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-care solutions. Older adults' Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. The sample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated with age, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living. Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts. Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well as living with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid the exclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  17. Sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582

  18. Associations of parental age with health and social factors in adult offspring. Methodological pitfalls and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Tynelius, Per; van den Berg, Gerard; Davey Smith, George; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-03-27

    Parental age is increasing rapidly in many countries. Analysis of this potentially important influence on offspring well-being is hampered by strong secular trends and socioeconomic patterning and by a shortage of follow-up data for adult offspring. We used Swedish national data on up to 3,653,938 offspring to consider the associations of parental age with a suite of outcomes in adult offspring, comparing the results from an array of statistical methods for optimal causal inference. The offspring of older mothers had higher BMI, blood pressure, height, intelligence, non-cognitive ability and socioeconomic position. They were less likely to smoke or to be left-handed. Associations with paternal age were strongly, but not completely, attenuated by adjustment for maternal age. Estimates from the commonly-used sibling comparison method were driven primarily by a pathway mediated by offspring date of birth when outcomes showed strong secular trends. These results suggest that the intra-uterine and early life environments provided by older mothers may be detrimental to offspring cardiovascular health, but that their greater life experience and social position may bring intellectual and social advantages to their offspring. The analysis of parental age presents particular challenges, and further methodological developments are needed.

  19. Associations of parental age with health and social factors in adult offspring. Methodological pitfalls and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Tynelius, Per; van den Berg, Gerard; Davey Smith, George; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Parental age is increasing rapidly in many countries. Analysis of this potentially important influence on offspring well-being is hampered by strong secular trends and socioeconomic patterning and by a shortage of follow-up data for adult offspring. We used Swedish national data on up to 3,653,938 offspring to consider the associations of parental age with a suite of outcomes in adult offspring, comparing the results from an array of statistical methods for optimal causal inference. The offspring of older mothers had higher BMI, blood pressure, height, intelligence, non-cognitive ability and socioeconomic position. They were less likely to smoke or to be left-handed. Associations with paternal age were strongly, but not completely, attenuated by adjustment for maternal age. Estimates from the commonly-used sibling comparison method were driven primarily by a pathway mediated by offspring date of birth when outcomes showed strong secular trends. These results suggest that the intra-uterine and early life environments provided by older mothers may be detrimental to offspring cardiovascular health, but that their greater life experience and social position may bring intellectual and social advantages to their offspring. The analysis of parental age presents particular challenges, and further methodological developments are needed. PMID:28345590

  20. A path analysis of reading comprehension for adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Mellard, Daryl F; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L

    2010-01-01

    Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading abilities. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions.

  1. Physiological Factors Analysis in Unpressurized Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrao, Luis; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Amateur and sports flight is an activity with growing numbers worldwide. However, the main cause of flight incidents and accidents is increasingly pilot error, for a number of reasons. Fatigue, sleep issues and hypoxia, among many others, are some that can be avoided, or, at least, mitigated. This article describes the analysis of psychological and physiological parameters during flight in unpressurized aircraft cabins. It relates cerebral oximetry and heart rate with altitude, as well as with flight phase. The study of those parameters might give clues on which variations represent a warning sign to the pilot, thus preventing incidents and accidents due to human factors. Results show that both cerebral oximetry and heart rate change along the flight and altitude in the alert pilot. The impaired pilot might not reveal these variations and, if this is detected, he can be warned in time.

  2. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  3. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p < 0.0001) and less likely to stop the quid chewing habit. Females, those over 40 years old, Indians and a history of smoking was found to significantly increase the likelihood of developing a quid chewing habit (p < 0.0001). However, those who had stopped smoking were found to be significantly more likely to promote stopping the habit (p = 0.0064). Cessation was also more likely to be seen among those who chewed less than 5 quids per day (p < 0.05) and less likely to be seen among those who included areca nut and tobacco in their quid (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Factors that influence

  4. [Prognostic factors of adult medulloblastomas: A review of the literature and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Riffaud, L; Hénaux, P-L

    2016-02-01

    Adult medulloblastoma is a rare disease. Characteristics which are different from those of the pediatric population have been reported in recent years: a more frequent localization in the cerebellar hemispheres, higher proportion of the desmoplastic subtype, lower incidence of metastatic spread and delayed recurrences. It is probable that these differences are a consequence of specific cytogenetic and molecular characteristics distinguishing the two populations. A number of prognostic factors have been described in the adult population such as age, gender, histopathology, residual disease after surgery, M stage. However, the increased presence of activating mutations in the Sonic Hedgehog cell pathway, and to a lesser degree in the Wingless pathway, may explain the clinical discrepancies. Also, differences in the cytogenetic profile such as the loss of 10q and gain of 17q seem to play a critical role in the prognosis of these patients. It is obvious that knowledge of oncogene amplifications and cytogenetic markers is the key to the future management of medulloblastomas. Molecular inhibitors targeting cell signaling pathways that are activated in medulloblastoma will play an increasing role in future trials.

  5. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults. NHANES 2001-2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) scores, and CVRF in adults aged ≥19 y (n = 18,988; 51% men, 50% white, 21% African American, 25% Hispanic American, 4% other). HEI-2005 scores were calculated by using one 24-h dietary recall collected from the participants. Weight and adiposity, blood pressure, and CVRF were measured. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the linear relationship of CVRF and HEI-2005 scores by using appropriate covariates accounting for sample weights and the complex sample design of NHANES. OR were calculated for HEI quartiles and CVRF. BMI (P < 0.0001), waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0002), C-reactive protein (P = 0.0016), total cholesterol (P = 0.0006), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0039), and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.0035) were inversely associated with HEI-2005. HDL cholesterol significantly (P = 0.0048) increased across HEI-2005 quartiles. Compared with the lowest HEI-2005 quartile, individuals with the highest diet quality (HEI-2005 quartile 4) were less likely to be overweight or obese (34%) or have elevated WC (35%), elevated blood pressure (26%), metabolic syndrome (35%), and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (21%). Data suggest that diet quality is inversely associated with several CVRF.

  6. A consideration of cognitive factors in the learning and education of older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Prem S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the unique cognitive and intellectual factors that influence the learning and education of older adults. With this objective in mind, the paper reviews the empirical literature on patterns of intellectual and cognitive aging, and ends by discussing the implications and applications of these patterns for the practical and effective education of our elderly citizenry. When we consider the aging of intellectual abilities we are concerned with studying the development of fluid, crystallized and practical intelligence and variations in these abilities from adulthood into advanced old age. We are also concerned with looking at changes in cognitive functions such as attention, memory, information retrieval and tolerance for interference in learning capacity. Much recent work has been successful in showing that intellectual and cognitive decline in old age is not necessarily irreversible. While many elderly persons are very able learners, are highly self-directed, and have ample educational and intellectual resources available, others may benefit from assistance or suggestions about how to compensate for some of the cognitive declines in old age. With this objective the implications are discussed for educators and practitioners who must formulate cognitive training programs for older adults.

  7. [Physical activity during commuting by adults and elderly in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marina Cordeiro; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Dilélio, Alitéia; Piccini, Roberto Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Evidence in the literature shows that physical activity associated with commuting (routine coming and going) can have a positive impact on health. The current study describes physical activity during commuting and some associated factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 12,402 adults and 6,624 elderly in 100 municipalities (counties) from 23 States of Brazil. The outcome was based on the commuting section from the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Prevalence of insufficient physical activity during commuting (< 150 minutes per week) was 66.6% in adults and 73.9% in the elderly. Among the elderly, the very old showed 25 times higher odds of being insufficiently active as compared to younger elders. Individuals with self-reported "white" skin color were less active in commuting. The findings show that prevalence of physical activity in commuting in Brazil is low, and that encouraging physically active commuting can be an effective strategy for increasing levels of physical activity and improving health.

  8. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  9. Self-reported Prevalence and Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in the Albanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Mone, Iris; Harizi, Ilda; Babameto, Adriana; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. Methods: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years. All participants reported on the presence of at least one chronic condition, which in the analysis was dichotomized into “yes” vs. “no”. Information on socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, employment status, residence) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of NCDs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population-based sample of Albanian adults was 2864/12554=22.8%. Upon multivariable adjustment for all covariates, positive correlates of chronic conditions were older age (OR=6.0, 95%CI=5.3-6.8), female gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.4), residence in coastal areas of Albania (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), unemployment (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.6-2.0), low education (OR=1.6, OR=1.3-1.9) and current smoking (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.5). Conversely, there was an inverse association with poverty (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.7-1.0). Conclusions: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs and its determinants in transitional Albania. These baseline data may be useful for assessment of future NCD trends in Albania and cross-comparisons with the neighboring countries. PMID:27594748

  10. [Factors associated with being overweight among adults using low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Ísis Eloah; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Borges, Angélica Marques; Filgueiras, Jullyane Hott

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this article is to assess the nutritional status of users of low-budget restaurants and soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte and to identify factors associated with being overweight. It involved a cross-sectional analytical study conducted among adults of both sexes in low-budget restaurants and soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Being overweight was the dependent variable and was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2. This was correlated with socio-demographic variables and the level of physical activity. The data were obtained directly through weight and height measurement and a semi-structured questionnaire. The study involved 1334 individuals, the majority being male. The prevalence of being overweight was 42.9% among the men and 45.8% among the women. The following factors were positively associated with being overweight: being older for both sexes; having a partner for the women; taking less physical exercise and higher socioeconomic level for the men. Detection of factors associated with being overweight reveals that there is a need to implement an effective systematic program of dietary and nutritional education in order to prevent and remedy this condition, so that low-budget restaurants fulfill their objective.

  11. Myocardial factor revisited: The importance of myocardial fibrosis in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Craig S; Burchill, Luke J

    2015-06-15

    Pioneers in congenital heart surgery observed that exercise capacity did not return to normal levels despite successful surgical repair, leading some to cite a "myocardial factor" playing a role. They conjectured that residual alterations in myocardial function would be significant for patients' long-term outlook. In fulfillment of their early observations, today's adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population shows well-recognized features of heart failure, even among patients without clear residual anatomic or hemodynamic abnormalities, demonstrating the vital role of the myocardium in their morbidity and mortality. Whereas the 'myocardial factor' was an elusive concept in the early history of congenital heart care, we now have imaging techniques to detect and quantify one such factor--myocardial fibrosis. Understanding the importance of myocardial fibrosis as a final common pathway in a variety of congenital lesions provides a framework for both the study and treatment of clinical heart failure in this context. While typical heart failure pharmacology should reduce or attenuate fibrogenesis, efforts to show meaningful improvements with standard pharmacotherapy in ACHD repeatedly fall short. This paper considers the importance of myocardial fibrosis and function, the current body of evidence for myocardial fibrosis in ACHD, and its implications for research and treatment.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2017-03-31

    We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled patients with dental implants who attended regular check-ups as part of a periodontal maintenance program during the period from October 2012 through September 2013. Patients with implants with at least 3 years of loading time were included in the study. The condition of peri-implant tissue was examined and classified into the following categories: healthy, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis. Patients were also evaluated for implant risk factors. A total of 267 patients (110 men, 157 women; mean age: 62.5 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed. The prevalence of patient-based peri-implant mucositis was 33.3% (n = 89), and the prevalence of peri-implantitis was 9.7% (n = 26). Poor oral hygiene and a history of periodontitis were strong risk factors for peri-implant disease. The present prevalences were lower than those previously reported. The quality of periodontal therapy before and after implant installation and patient compliance and motivation, as indicated by plaque control level, appear to be important in maintaining peri-implant tissue health.

  13. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in childhood as predictors of adult mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood sociodemographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors are often assumed to affect adult health and longevity. These relationships were prospectively tested by using the 7-decade Terman Life Cycle Study of Children With High Ability (n = 1285). METHODS: Parental socioeconomic status, childhood health, objective childhood stressors (e.g., death or divorce of parents), and childhood personality were considered as potential predictors in hazard regression analyses of longevity through 1991. RESULTS: Parental divorce during childhood predicted decreased longevity, with sex controlled. Other potential social predictors failed to show significant associations with longevity. Three dimensions of childhood personality--conscientiousness, lack of cheerfulness, and permanency of mood (males only)--predicted increased longevity. The effects of parental divorce and childhood personality were largely independent and did not account for any of the gender difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A small number of childhood factors significantly predicted mortality across the life span in this sample. Further research should focus on how these psychosocial factors influence longevity. PMID:7661231

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of vocal fold vibrations between children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Patel, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Aim of the study is to quantify differences in spatiotemporal features of vibratory motion in typically developing pre-pubertal children and adults with use of high speed digital imaging. Study Design Prospective case-control study. Methods Vocal fold oscillations of 31 children and 35 adults were analysed. Endoscopic high-speed imaging was performed during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Quantitative technique of Phonovibrogram was used to compute spatiotemporal features. Spatial features are represented by opening and closing angles along the anterior and posterior parts of the vocal folds, as well as by left-right symmetry ratio. Temporal features are represented by the cycle-to-cycle variability of the spatial features. Group differences (adult females, adult males, and children) were statistically investigated. Results Statistical differences were more pronounced in the temporal behavior compared to the spatial behavior. Children demonstrated greater cycle-to-cycle variability in oscillations compared to adults. Most differences between children and adults were found for temporal characteristics along the anterior parts during closing phase. The spatiotemporal features differed more between children and males than between children and females. Both adults and children showed equally high left-right symmetry. Conclusions Results suggest a more unstable phonation in children than in adults yielding increased perturbation in periodicity. Children demonstrated longer phase delay in the anterior/posterior and medio-lateral parts during the opening phase compared to adults. The data presented may provide the bases for differentiating normal vibratory characteristics from the disordered in the pediatric population and eventually assist in aiding the clinical utility of high speed imaging. PMID:22965771

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, S; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2015-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to select 544 participants. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and biochemical parameters were analysed. Response rate was 95.3%. Of them, 224 (43.8%) were male. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.3- 19.9); in males 19.6% (95% CI: 14.6-25.4) and in females 13.9% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5). Of the diabetics, 27.4% were previously undiagnosed. In the final multivariable model, participants with family history of diabetes were 3.5 times (p<0.001) more likely and those with high waist hip ratio were 2 times (p=0.009) more likely to develop diabetes mellitus.

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Factor 2 Signaling Provokes Adverse Cardiac Remodeling in the Adult Mammalian Heart

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, Vijay G.; Evans, Sarah; Topkara, Veli K.; Diwan, Abhinav; Burchfield, Jana; Gao, Feng; Dong, Jianwen; Tzeng, Huei-Ping; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Barger, Philip M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily ligands that provoke a dilated cardiac phenotype signal through a common scaffolding protein termed TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2); however, virtually nothing is known with regard to TRAF2 signaling in the adult mammalian heart. Methods and Results We generated multiple founder lines of mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of TRAF2 and characterized the phenotype of mice with higher expression levels of TRAF2 (MHC-TRAF2HC). MHC-TRAF2HC transgenic mice developed a time-dependent increase in cardiac hypertrophy, LV dilation and adverse LV remodeling, and a significant decrease in LV +dP/dt and −dP/dt when compared to littermate (LM) controls (p < 0.05 compared to LM). During the early phases of LV remodeling there was a significant increase in total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that corresponded with a decrease in total myocardial fibrillar collagen content. As the MHC-TRAF2HC mice aged, there was a significant decrease in total MMP activity accompanied by an increase in total fibrillar collagen content and an increase in myocardial tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels. There was a significant increase in NF-κB activation at 4 – 12 weeks and JNK activation at 4 weeks in the MHCs TRAF2HC mice. Transciptional profiling revealed that > 95% of the hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy-related genes that were significantly upregulated genes in the MHC-TRAF2HC hearts contained κB elements in their promoters. Conclusions These results show for the first time that targeted overexpression of TRAF2 is sufficient to mediate adverse cardiac remodeling in the heart. PMID:23493088

  17. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors and Major Cardiac Events Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Gregory T.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Chen, Yan; Kawashima, Toana; Yasui, Yutaka; Leisenring, Wendy; Stovall, Marilyn; Chow, Eric J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Mertens, Ann C.; Border, William; Durand, Jean-Bernard; Robison, Leslie L.; Meacham, Lillian R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative contribution of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors on the development of major cardiac events in aging adult survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Among 10,724 5-year survivors (median age, 33.7 years) and 3,159 siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity was determined, along with the incidence and severity of major cardiac events such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular disease, and arrhythmia. On longitudinal follow-up, rate ratios (RRs) of subsequent cardiac events associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiotoxic therapy were assessed in multivariable Poisson regression models. Results Among survivors, the cumulative incidence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular disease, and arrhythmia by 45 years of age was 5.3%, 4.8%, 1.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. Two or more cardiovascular risk factors were reported by 10.3% of survivors and 7.9% of siblings. The risk for each cardiac event increased with increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (all Ptrend < .001). Hypertension significantly increased risk for coronary artery disease (RR, 6.1), heart failure (RR, 19.4), valvular disease (RR, 13.6), and arrhythmia (RR, 6.0; all P values < .01). The combined effect of chest-directed radiotherapy plus hypertension resulted in potentiation of risk for each of the major cardiac events beyond that anticipated on the basis of an additive expectation. Hypertension was independently associated with risk of cardiac death (RR, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.2 to 9.7). Conclusion Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, potentiate therapy-associated risk for major cardiac events in this population and should be the focus of future interventional studies. PMID:24002505

  19. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  20. Structure‐function integrity of the adult hippocampus depends on the transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R.; Baumann, L.; Fischer, J.; Seigfried, F. A.; De Bruyckere, E.; Liu, P.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.; Schwegler, H.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the only two brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Throughout life, cells of the neuronal stem cell niche undergo proliferation, differentiation and integration into the hippocampal neural circuitry. Ongoing adult neurogenesis is a prerequisite for the maintenance of adult hippocampal functionality. Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed by postmitotic granule cells in the developing as well as adult dentate gyrus. We previously showed a critical role of Bcl11b for hippocampal development. Whether Bcl11b is also required for adult hippocampal functions has not been investigated. Using a tetracycline‐dependent inducible mouse model under the control of the forebrain‐specific CaMKIIα promoter, we show here that the adult expression of Bcl11b is essential for survival, differentiation and functional integration of adult‐born granule cell neurons. In addition, Bcl11b is required for survival of pre‐existing mature neurons. Consequently, loss of Bcl11b expression selectively in the adult hippocampus results in impaired spatial working memory. Together, our data uncover for the first time a specific role of Bcl11b in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and function. PMID:26915960

  1. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  2. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P < 0.05). The participants were more likely to retain their incisors (especially their canines) for their entire lifetimes than do so for their molars. From the incisors to the second premolars, they had more mandibular teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P < 0.0001). Finally, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth

  3. Factors Associated with Tooth Loss in Older Adults in Rural Colorado.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Scarbro, Sharon; Bryant, Lucinda L; Puma, Jini

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are associated with tooth loss in older adults living in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado, which is a rural and large geographical area (roughly the size of Connecticut) that has a large population age 60 years or older. Data used in this manuscript were collected as a part of the SLV Community Health Survey. The analyzed sample included 308 adults over the age of 65 years who completed the survey. Basic descriptive statistics and a series of step-wise binary logistic regression analyses were conducted; the dependent variable was the number of permanent teeth removed because of tooth decay or gum disease. Fifty-two percent of the participants were male, Hispanic participants made up 40 % of the sample and 76 % of the participants had at least a high school education. Tooth loss was significantly associated with older age (OR = 1.09; p = 0.02), lower income (OR = 0.01; p = 0.00), less than high school education (OR = 0.32; p = 0.01), being Hispanic (OR = 2.15; p = 0.05), self-reported fair-poor health status (OR 2.94; p = 0.02), consumption of one or more than one sweet beverage per day (OR = 4.52; p = 0.00), no dental insurance (OR = 4.70; p = 0.01) and length of time since last dental visit (OR = 0.21; p = 0.01). The findings of the present study suggest possible causes for tooth loss in rural adults and underscore the need for in-depth research to study the overall oral health of rural older adults living in SLV.

  4. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  5. Utility of Childhood Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Predicting Adult Diabetes and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Kieltyka, Lyn; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines the usefulness of childhood glucose homeostasis variables (glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance index [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance {HOMA-IR}]) in predicting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This retrospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 1,058), pre-diabetic (n = 37), and type 2 diabetic (n = 25) adults aged 19–39 years who were followed on average for 17 years since childhood. RESULTS At least 50% of the individuals who ranked highest (top quintile) in childhood for glucose homeostasis variables maintained their high rank by being above the 60th percentile in adulthood. In a multivariate model, the best predictors of adulthood glucose homeostasis variables were the change in BMI Z score from childhood to adulthood and childhood BMI Z score, followed by the corresponding childhood levels of glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Further, children in the top decile versus the rest for insulin and HOMA-IR were 2.85 and 2.55 times, respectively, more likely to develop pre-diabetes; children in the top decile versus the rest for glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were 3.28, 5.54, and 5.84 times, respectively, more likely to develop diabetes, independent of change in BMI Z score, baseline BMI Z score, and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. In addition, children with adverse levels (top quintile versus the rest) of glucose homeostasis variables displayed significantly higher prevalences of, among others, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Adverse levels of glucose homeostasis variables in childhood not only persist into adulthood but also predict adult pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and relate to cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:20009096

  6. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. Materials and Methods The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Results The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. Conclusion While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations. PMID:28120563

  7. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05), after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status). Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns) and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns), but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and

  8. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrao; Bottino, Cássio MC

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS) much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Methods We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Results The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was −1.83 (standard deviation 4.51). Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82). Conclusion The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of the primary caregiver significantly increases the probability of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Longitudinal comparison of the CAMCOG and use of the IQCODE appear to enrich the analysis of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Further studies involving larger samples are needed in order to corroborate and expand upon our findings, which can have implications for the clinical management of older adults with DS. PMID

  9. Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA). However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban, semi-urban or rural) and older adults' walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, relationships between several physical environmental factors and walking and cycling and possible moderating effects of area of residence, age and gender were studied. Methods Data from 48,879 Flemish older adults collected in 2004-2010 through peer research were analyzed. Walking, cycling and environmental perceptions were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The Study Service of the Flemish Government provided objective data on municipal characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied. Results Urban participants were more likely to walk daily for transportation compared to rural (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67) and semi-urban participants (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.54). Urban participants were less likely to cycle daily for transportation compared to semi-urban participants (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.92). Area of residence was unrelated to weekly recreational walking/cycling. Perceived short distances to services (ORs ranging from 1.04 to 1.19) and satisfaction with public transport (ORs ranging from 1.07 to 1.13) were significantly positively related to all walking/cycling behaviors. Feelings of unsafety was negatively related to walking for transportation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95) and recreational walking/cycling (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.97). In females, it was also negatively related to cycling for transportation (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90, 0.98). Conclusions Urban residents were more likely to walk for transportation daily compared to semi-urban and rural residents. Daily cycling for transportation was less prevalent

  10. Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, José; Navarro, Luís; Ancillo, Gema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Methods Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. Key Results A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. Conclusions The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of

  11. Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population.

    PubMed

    Conner, Alex C; Kissling, Christian; Hodges, Edward; Hünnerkopf, Regina; Clement, R Marc; Dudley, Edward; Freitag, Christine M; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; Thome, Johannes

    2008-12-05

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely under-reported but nevertheless common condition with a clear heritable component. Several genes have been proposed to play a role in the childhood onset of this neurodevelopmental disorder; however, association studies of persistence of ADHD into adulthood have rarely been performed. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be involved in several aspects of neuronal development and neural plasticity in adults. They have also been linked, particularly through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interaction with dopamine transport, to the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study compares the genotypes of six different single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes within the neurotrophin system and their possible association with adult ADHD score in 143 high-risk male subjects referred to a forensic psychiatric unit. The genes included NTF3, NTRK2 (TrkB), NTRK3 (TrkC), BDNF, and p75(NTR). While none of the SNPs showed significant association with ADHD symptoms, one polymorphism within the exon of NTF3 (rs6332) showed a trend toward an association between the A-allele and increased scores using both the retrospective childhood analysis Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) (P = 0.05) and the adult ADHD assessment Wender-Reimherr interview (P = 0.03). This SNP is a silent mutation which might be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional risk variant for ADHD. As the association was only suggestive, however, this finding needs replication in a larger study with higher power.

  12. Factors determining tooth extraction anxiety and fear in adult dental patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Astramskaitė, I; Poškevičius, L; Juodžbalys, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review previous studies and to identify reliable factors determining anxiety in adult patients undergoing tooth extraction procedures. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and Wiley Online Library databases covering the period January 2005 to May 2015. Sequential screening was performed at the title/abstract and full-text level. The review included all human prospective and retrospective follow-up studies and clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series that demonstrated at least one factor determining tooth extraction anxiety and/or fear and used specific scales for measurement. The search identified 16 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Factors related to tooth extraction in patients were assessed: propensity to anxiety (P<0.05), pain experience or expectations (P<0.05), level of disturbance during the procedure (P<0.001), difficulty of the procedure (P=0.034), marital status (P=0.003), social class (P=0.012), and type of local anaesthesia (P=0.008). Using a video as the method of providing information (P<0.05) and having had a previous negative dental experience (P<0.05) led to an increase in patient anxiety level. Due to disagreements between studies, further investigations into the other factors are required to clarify the results. However, the absence of a single and appropriate scale that includes both the patient's evaluation and that of the doctor, hinders the rating of patient anxiety.

  13. Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and measured body mass index (BMI) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Further, structural equations models (SEM) were fit to test pathway explaining SES disparities in BMI through MDD and lifestyle factors. Recent prevalence of MDD was lower among young US men than women (6.4% vs 9.2%) although their prevalence of obesity was similar (21.2% vs 22.7%). Among women, MDD was associated with higher BMI and inversely associated with PA, but not among men. MDD was specifically associated with increased risk of morbid obesity (BMI≥40) among women (OR: 2.88 (1.32, 6.30)). Using SEM, a main pathway linking SES to BMI among women was that linking SES → food insecurity → MDD → PA → BMI. A main pathway linking MDD to BMI in both genders was that going through PA rather than overall dietary quality. Gender and ethnic differences existed underlying how MDD, SES and lifestyle factors were associated with adiposity. Future prospective studies are needed to examine potential mechanisms using physiological markers of depression, lifestyle and obesity. PMID:19853306

  14. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  15. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  16. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Arts and Cultural Institutions: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, Kathy; Jayme, Bruno de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Using a content analysis approach, this article shares the results of scholarly adult education study on museum and library adult education and learning as represented in peer-reviewed publications over the past 60 years. Findings show a paucity of studies in general, but particularly around libraries. The majority of publications on libraries…

  17. Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

  18. 10 Years of "Adult Learning": Content Analysis of an Academic Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Robbins, Stacey E.; Bixby, John

    2017-01-01

    Academic publications provide insights into a discipline's history, knowledge base, and research norms, and thus analyzing publication activity provides learning about the field of study. To learn more about the field of adult and continuing education, this study used content analysis to examine 10 years of "Adult Learning" from 2006…

  19. Multiple factor analysis with continuous and dichotomous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanoon, Thanoon Y.; Adnan, Robiah; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, continuous and dichotomous variables are used in multiple factor analysis method. When all variables within the same group are continuous, we use principal component analysis method in factor analysis, if all variables within the same group are dichotomous we use multiple correspondence analysis method in factor analysis. Statistical analyses, which involve Eigen roots, Eigen vectors, multiple factor loadings, correlation coefficient RV, contribution table, are discussed. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a lung cancer data consists of four groups "group of personal variables", "group of therapeutic variables", "group of nutritional variables", "group of genetic variables". Analysis are done by using XLSTAT program.

  20. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  1. Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic parameters and alcohol consumption profiles.

    PubMed

    Gex-Fabry, M; Raymond, L; Jeanneret, O

    1988-09-01

    A dietary survey of 939 Swiss adults, randomly selected from the population of Geneva and its surrounding communities, was performed according to the history method. A factor analysis, using average weekly intakes for 33 food variables, reveals three principal components of the diet: satiating capacity, healthfulness and culinary complexity. These characteristics, together with the energy content of the diet, were analysed for differences according to sex, age, relative weight index, birthplace, marital status and occupation. All of these sociodemographic variables influence some dimension of dietary habits. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with satiating, protein rich diets, but energy intake from foods does not significantly differ between various groups of abstainers and drinkers. Although the energy contribution of alcoholic beverages is globally additive, we suggest that cultural and societal norms may modulate the relationship of alcohol and diet.

  2. Behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E; Hassmén, P; Welvaert, M; Pumpa, K L

    2017-04-01

    Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016. This meta-analysis shows that behavioural treatment interventions have a significant positive effect on session attendance (percentage) and physical activity (total min/week) in adults with obesity (M = 17.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.77, 24.50), z =5.0337, P < 0.0001 and M = 105.98 (95% CI = 58.64, 153.32), z =4.3878, P < 0.0001, respectively). This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials provides evidence that behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. These strategies should be routinely incorporated into lifestyle intervention, obesity management and weight loss programmes with the aim of improving engagement and adherence. If adherence were improved, treatment effectiveness, health outcomes and the ultimate burden of chronic disease could also be improved.

  3. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  4. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people.

  5. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  6. Factors associated with job and personal satisfaction in adult Brazilian intensivists

    PubMed Central

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; de Azevedo, Luciano César Pontes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate job and personal satisfaction rates in physicians who work in adult intensive care units and to identify the factors associated with satisfaction. Methods A cross-sectional study performed with physicians who participated in two intensive medicine online discussion groups. A questionnaire designed to assess the physician's sociodemographic profile and job was available for both groups for 3 months. At the end of the questionnaire, the participants addressed their degrees of job and personal satisfaction using a Likert scale in which 1 represented "very dissatisfied" and 5 represented "very satisfied". The association between sociodemographic and job characteristics with job and personal satisfaction was evaluated. Variables independently associated with satisfaction were identified using a logistic regression model. Results The questionnaire was answered by 250 physicians, of which 137 (54.8%) declared they were satisfied with their jobs and 34 (13.5%) were very satisfied. None of the evaluated characteristics were independently associated with job satisfaction. Regarding personal satisfaction, 136 (54.4%) physicians reported being satisfied, and 48 (19.9%) reported being very satisfied. Job satisfaction (OR = 7.21; 95%CI 3.21 - 16.20) and working in a university hospital (OR = 3.24; 95%CI 1.29 - 8.15) were factors independently associated with the personal satisfaction of the participants. Conclusion The participant physicians reported job and personal satisfaction with their work in intensive care. Job satisfaction and working in a university hospital were independently associated with greater personal satisfaction. PMID:27410405

  7. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05-46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34-34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers.

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers. PMID:26949546

  9. The Contribution of Social Factors to Undereating in Older Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Bailey, F. Amos; Carroll, William R.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Magnuson, J. Scott; Saif, M. Wasif; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake is common in cancer patients and is associated with poor outcomes. Social factors may contribute to inadequate nutrient intake, although they have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate social factors that may contribute to undereating in older adults with cancer. Participants included 30 patients, 17 women and 13 men, aged 70–99 years, who were diagnosed with pancreatic, colon, breast, lymphoma, skin, and head and neck cancers. Both participants and caregivers interpreted weight loss as a positive health outcome of cancer. Furthermore, some patients who had lost weight worked to keep the weight off by going on special diets. Patients and caregivers imbued certain foods with health-promoting qualities without corroborating scientific evidence. Cancer- and treatment-related alterations in self-identity due to changes in their bodies, in taste, and in the manner in which they must eat caused cancer patients to experience frustration and embarrassment, which led to reduced nutritional intake. Despite their compromised nutritional status, patients did not discuss food and eating habits with their physicians. Behaviors and attitudes of patients and caregivers may lead to negative changes in eating behaviors beyond the cancer itself or its treatment or sequelae. Many of these behaviors are potentially modifiable with appropriate education, communication, and intervention. PMID:19831160

  10. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Undernutrition among Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gezahegn, Edmialem; Edris, Melkie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Undernutrition and major depressive disorder are frequently co-occurring. Patients with impaired mental health are strongly vulnerable to the risks of having involuntary weight loss or deficiency of essential nutrients. However, there is no study which assesses undernutrition among major depressive patients in Ethiopia. Method. A total of 422 clients were included in the study. Structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used for collecting the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with undernutrition. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Results. The prevalence of undernutrition was 31.4% [95% CI: 27.2–36.0]. Being in a rural residence [AOR = 1.84, 95% CI (1.18–2.85)], taking multiple medication [AOR = 1.77, 95% CI (1.03–3.05)], taking prescribed diet [AOR = 1.90, 95% CI (1.06–3.41)], and current use of alcohol [AOR = 2.96, 95% CI (1.34–6.55)] were factors significantly associated with undernutrition among depressive patients. Conclusion. The prevalence of undernutrition among adults with major depressive disorder was found to be higher than the general population. Appropriate nutritional education and nutritional assessment are recommended during the course of major depressive disorder. PMID:27990420

  11. Trauma-related symptoms in Sri Lankan adult survivors after the tsunami: pretraumatic and peritraumatic factors.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charini D; Kremer, Peter J; Clarke, Valerie; Lewis, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has addressed factors associated with psychological distress following disasters among non-Western populations. The 2004 tsunami affected 1.7 million people across South Asia and Africa, with considerable variations in trauma-related outcomes. Pretraumatic and peritraumatic conditions associated with trauma-related symptoms in 305 Sri Lankan adult survivors (28% male, aged 18-83 years; mean = 39.9 years; standard deviation = 15.3), clinically assessed 1 month posttsunami, were evaluated retrospectively. Outcome measures were total scores on 11 trauma-related symptoms. Multivariate linear regression analyses tested for associations between pretraumatic and peritraumatic conditions and symptom scores, with peritraumatic conditions adjusted for pretraumatic variables. Pretraumatic conditions of female gender, employment, prior health and social issues, and substance use and peritraumatic conditions of loss of family, witnessing the tsunami, or suffering an injury were associated with trauma-related symptoms. The findings facilitate understanding cultural contexts that define risk factors associated with trauma-related symptoms in Sri Lankans, which are critical for developing culturally appropriate interventions.

  12. Influence of demographic factors on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in adult uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Reynolds, K L; Rutzky, L P; Kahan, B D

    1989-03-01

    The causes of variability in cyclosporine (CS) clearance (CL) are mostly unknown. The pharmacokinetics of CS were studied in 30 adult uremic patients after single intravenous and oral doses by analyzing serial concentrations in serum by radioimmunoassay (SR) and in whole blood by radioimmunoassay (WR) and high pressure liquid chromatography (WH). Bioavailability (F) and CL were calculated by noncompartmental models and were significantly different depending upon the assay method except for FSR = FWR: FSR = 43.2 +/- 21.7%; FWR = 43.5 +/- 18.5%; FWH = 36.4 +/- 17.3%; CLSR = 849 +/- 363 ml/min; CLWR = 380 +/- 156 ml/min; CLWH = 559 +/- 174 ml/min. The age of the patients and parameters describing body size such as weight, surface area and percent of ideal weight were not correlated with CL. The height of the patients correlated with CLWH but not CLSR or CLWR. Parameters responsible for CS binding in blood such as cholesterol, triglyceride, hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit did not explain variability in CL. Of the factors indicative of liver function alanine transaminase activity but not aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity nor total bilirubin concentration in serum was correlated with CL. F was not correlated with any of the demographic factors except for alanine transaminase. None of the significant correlations explained enough of the variability to afford a reliable prediction of CL or F.

  13. Acoustic and articulatory analysis of French vowels produced by congenitally blind adults and sighted adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Toupin, Corinne; Baum, Shari R; Drouin, Serge; Aubin, Jérôme; Tiede, Mark

    2013-10-01

    In a previous paper [Ménard et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 1406-1414 (2009)], it was demonstrated that, despite enhanced auditory discrimination abilities for synthesized vowels, blind adult French speakers produced vowels that were closer together in the acoustic space than those produced by sighted adult French speakers, suggesting finer control of speech production in the sighted speakers. The goal of the present study is to further investigate the articulatory effects of visual deprivation on vowels produced by 11 blind and 11 sighted adult French speakers. Synchronous ultrasound, acoustic, and video recordings of the participants articulating the ten French oral vowels were made. Results show that sighted speakers produce vowels that are spaced significantly farther apart in the acoustic vowel space than blind speakers. Furthermore, blind speakers use smaller differences in lip protrusion but larger differences in tongue position and shape than their sighted peers to produce rounding and place of articulation contrasts. Trade-offs between lip and tongue positions were examined. Results are discussed in the light of the perception-for-action control theory.

  14. [Haemophilus influenzae purulent meningitis in adults: looking for a predisposing factor].

    PubMed

    Boukadida, Jalel; Hannachi, Neila

    2002-05-01

    We bring back an adult case of purulent meningitis to Haemophilus influenzae. We insist on the particular aspects of the host of this meningitis type at the adult. These aspects must be searched every time that Haemophilus influenzae is isolated in cerebrospinal fluid in adult's meningitis.

  15. Implementing E-Learning Components with Adult English Language Learners: Vital Factors and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Chlup, Dominique T.

    2007-01-01

    The growing use of both computers and the Internet in adult English language classrooms has widespread implications for English language programs. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in adult literacy education. Specifically, this paper is interested in the case of adult English language instruction, also commonly…

  16. FABIA: factor analysis for bicluster acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hochreiter, Sepp; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Heusel, Martin; Mayr, Andreas; Mitterecker, Andreas; Kasim, Adetayo; Khamiakova, Tatsiana; Van Sanden, Suzy; Lin, Dan; Talloen, Willem; Bijnens, Luc; Göhlmann, Hinrich W. H.; Shkedy, Ziv; Clevert, Djork-Arné

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Biclustering of transcriptomic data groups genes and samples simultaneously. It is emerging as a standard tool for extracting knowledge from gene expression measurements. We propose a novel generative approach for biclustering called ‘FABIA: Factor Analysis for Bicluster Acquisition’. FABIA is based on a multiplicative model, which accounts for linear dependencies between gene expression and conditions, and also captures heavy-tailed distributions as observed in real-world transcriptomic data. The generative framework allows to utilize well-founded model selection methods and to apply Bayesian techniques. Results: On 100 simulated datasets with known true, artificially implanted biclusters, FABIA clearly outperformed all 11 competitors. On these datasets, FABIA was able to separate spurious biclusters from true biclusters by ranking biclusters according to their information content. FABIA was tested on three microarray datasets with known subclusters, where it was two times the best and once the second best method among the compared biclustering approaches. Availability: FABIA is available as an R package on Bioconductor (http://www.bioconductor.org). All datasets, results and software are available at http://www.bioinf.jku.at/software/fabia/fabia.html Contact: hochreit@bioinf.jku.at Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20418340

  17. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, R; Lafontaine, P; Edwards, A C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The following risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered: elevated total plasma cholesterol (greater than 5.2 mmol/L), regular current cigarette smoking (one or more daily), elevated diastolic or systolic blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg), overweight (body mass index and lack of leisure-time physical activity [less than once a week in the last month]). Education and income adequacy were used as measures of socioeconomic status and mother tongue as a measure of cultural affiliation. RESULTS: For most of the risk factors examined, the prevalence of the risk factors was inversely related to socioeconomic status, but the relationship was stronger and more consistent for education than for income. The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of the risk factors was particularly strong for smoking and overweight, where a gradient was observed: 46% (standard error [SE] 1.4) of men and 42% (SE 4.3) of women who had not completed secondary school were regular smokers, but only 12% (SE 1.0) of men and 13% (SE 0.9) of women with a university degree were regular smokers. Thirty-nine percent (SE 1.4) of men and 19% (SE 3.8) of women who had not completed secondary school were overweight, compared with 26% (SE 2.6) of male and 19% of female university graduates. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol was highest in both men and women in the lowest socioeconomic category, particularly by level of education. INTERPRETATION

  18. Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: A Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary McPhail; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The 72-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) was factor analyzed for a group of 534 university freshmen and sophomore students. Seven factors emerged, which were labeled Initiative, Industry, Identity, Friendship, Dating, Goal Clarity, and Self-Confidence. Item's representing Erikson's factors, Trust and Autonomy, were dispersed across…

  19. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20-65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles.

  20. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655

  2. [Causes of Accidents and Risk Factors Among Adults During Recreational Sledging (Tobogganing): a Retrospective Study].

    PubMed

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Pocecco, Elena; Raas, Christoph; Brucker, Peter U; Greier, Klaus; Burtscher, Martin

    2017-03-07

    Background Recreational sledging (tobogganing) is a very popular winter sport in Alpine regions. Ascending and sledging down on the same track, however, might be associated with a certain risk of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gather data on the causes of accidents and potential risk factors during recreational sledging. Methods Adults indulging in recreational sledging were interviewed between March 2013 and March 2015 at six public sledging tracks in the environs of the city of Innsbruck (Tyrol, Austria) on demographics, skill level, sledging frequency, risk-taking behavior, use of protective gear, type of sledge used, previous sledging-related injuries, injured body parts and causes of accidents. Interviews were conducted on all days of the week, mainly in the afternoon and in the evening. Results A total of 3612 adults riding a sled (51.1 % males, 48.9 % females; mean age: 37.0 ± 14.4 years) participated in the present study. In total, 328 (9 %) participants reported a sledging-related injury. Injuries to lower extremities, arms, shoulder/back and head represented 41 %, 22 %, 11 %, and 10 %, respectively, of all sledging-related injuries. The most common causes of accidents were self-caused falls (35 %), collision with an object (23 %), and collision with another person (22 %). Sledging-related injuries in this study were associated with male sex, a higher sledging frequency, higher skill level, and risky behavior. In addition, those riding sledges who had suffered a previous injury were using more often a fast toboggan, wearing more often back protectors and wrist guards, had falls more often during sledging, and more often drank alcohol. Conclusion Based on these findings, we recommend that individuals should adapt their behavior according to track, view and weather conditions, take into consideration the crowd on the track, and abstain from alcohol.

  3. Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: Role of street layout and local destinations.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-03-01

    Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents.

  4. Bootstrap Standard Error Estimates in Dynamic Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic factor analysis summarizes changes in scores on a battery of manifest variables over repeated measurements in terms of a time series in a substantially smaller number of latent factors. Algebraic formulae for standard errors of parameter estimates are more difficult to obtain than in the usual intersubject factor analysis because of the…

  5. How Factor Analysis Can Be Used in Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Harry H.

    This is a methodological study that suggests a taxometric technique for objective classification of yeasts. It makes use of the minres method of factor analysis and groups strains of yeast according to their factor profiles. The similarities are judged in the higher-dimensional space determined by the factor analysis, but otherwise rely on the…

  6. Clinical usefulness of metabolic risk factors to identify young asymptomatic women adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guangming; Chen, Zhihao; Su, Weiwei; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interventions of cardiovascular disease should be implemented in early ages. But most studies were performed in middle aged or elderly adults because of the low prevalence in young, especially for women. We investigate the association between metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in young asymptomatic women adults, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. We performed a cross-sectional study of 950 Chinese young asymptomatic women adults (37.28 ± 5.16 years) who underwent a routine health screening examination. Triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homocysteine (HCY), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), uric acid, and CIMT were measured. Out of 950 subjects, 16 (1.7%) were detected with increased CIMT. Significant differences existed in the indicators including age, body mass index (BMI), TC, TG, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Although TG, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C were the significant indicators when adjusted for age only, age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT were the only independent relative indicators of increased CMIT that entered the multivariate model. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for a linear combination of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT was 0.809 (95% confidence interval = 0.712–0.906), superior to any of the variables taken alone (age, AUC = 0.707; FBG, AUC = 0.710; LDL-C/HDL-C, AUC = 0.695; GGT, AUC = 0.648). The combined assessment of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT contributes to an early detection for subclinical atherosclerosis, providing guidance to clinicians for women's early interventions of latent cardiovascular disease. Neither of the above four individual indicators is qualified alone. PMID:28296733

  7. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7%) as compared to females (5.8%). Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p < 0.0001), while cessation was least likely among Indians, current quid chewers and kretek users (p < 0.01). Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation. PMID:22429627

  9. Prolongation of Relaxation Time in Extraocular Muscles With Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Adult Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Krysta R.; Stevens, Shanlee M.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) would alter the contractile characteristics of rabbit extraocular muscle (EOM). Methods One week after injections of BDNF in adult rabbit superior rectus muscles, twitch properties were determined in treated and control muscles in vitro. Muscles were also examined for changes in mean cross-sectional areas, neuromuscular junction size, and percent of myofibers expressing specific myosin heavy chain isoforms, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCA) 1 and 2. Results Brain derived neurotrophic factor–treated muscles had prolonged relaxation times compared with control muscles. Time to 50% relaxation, time to 100% relaxation, and maximum rate of relaxation were increased by 24%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. No significant differences were seen in time to peak force, twitch force, or maximum rate of contraction. Brain derived neurotrophic factor treatment significantly increased mean cross-sectional areas of slow twitch and tonic myofibers, with increased areas ranging from 54% to 146%. Brain derived neurotrophic factor also resulted in an increased percentage of slow twitch myofibers in the orbital layers, ranging from 54% to 77%, and slow-tonic myofibers, ranging from 44% to 62%. No significant changes were seen SERCA1 or 2 expression or in neuromuscular junction size. Conclusions Short-term treatment with BDNF significantly prolonged the duration and rate of relaxation time and increased expression of both slow-twitch and slow-tonic myosin-expressing myofibers without changes in neuromuscular junctions or SERCA expression. The changes induced by BDNF treatment might have potential therapeutic value in dampening/reducing uncontrolled eye oscillations in nystagmus. PMID:27802489

  10. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  11. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed.

  12. Factor structure of the Arthritis-Related Health Belief instrument in ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Clement, Russell; Hooyman, Nancy; Cavalie, Katia; Ouslander, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of chronic pain in older people can be effective but attitudes and adherence to use of this treatment may differ by ethnicity. This study supports that a modified 14-item instrument based on the modified Health Belief Model-the arthritis-related health belief instrument (AHBI)-can be used across ethnically diverse older adults (i.e., European Americans, Hispanics, African Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the factor structure of the AHBI to eliminate items inappropriate for this population. Structural equation modeling tested expected relationships among four latent variables-severity, susceptibility, barriers, and benefits-across the four ethnic groups. Findings suggest that the modified 14-item AHBI (eliminating two items from the original AHBI) adequately described the four latent factors pertaining to use of nonpharmacological pain therapy in this sample. All items registered substantial loadings (.41-.95) on the hypothesized factors, operating similarly across the four ethnic groups. The modified 14-item AHBI may be useful in (a) assessing how individual perceptions influence access to nonpharmacological pain therapy among ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults, with the goal to develop and implement effective pain treatment for this population; and (b) measuring the likelihood of using nonpharmacological pain therapy by older adults. The modified 14-item AHBI can help health care providers to provide accurate pain assessment and examine domains that could affect use of nonpharmacological pain therapy by ethnically diverse older adults and guide practice with them by identifying barriers to use of such therapies and providing education to encourage their use.

  13. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  14. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Kapp, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828;…

  15. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  18. Super's Stages and the Four-Factor Structure of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory in an Australian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Roslyn M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined four-factor structure of Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI) in sample of 457 employed Australians. Findings support factorial validity of ACCI by showing its congruence with Super et al.'s (1957) hypothesized 4 stages and 12 substages of career development. Results also demonstrated substantial cross-cultural support for ACCI factor…

  19. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  20. Fear factors: cross validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Vines, Lauren; Petrie, Jenny

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted a cross-validation of specific phobia domains in a community-based sample of African American adults based on a previous model of phobia domains in a college student sample of African Americans. Subjects were 100 African American community-dwelling adults who completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II). Domains of fear were created using a similar procedure as the original, college sample of African American adults. A model including all of the phobia domains from the FSS-II was initially tested and resulted in poor model fit. Cross-validation was subsequently attempted through examining the original factor pattern of specific phobia domains from the college sample (Chapman, Kertz, Zurlage, & Woodruff-Borden, 2008). Data from the current, community based sample of African American adults provided poor fit to this model. The trimmed model for the current sample included the animal and social anxiety factors as in the original model. The natural environment-type specific phobia factor did not provide adequate fit for the community-based sample of African Americans. Results indicated that although different factor loading patterns of fear may exist among community-based African Americans as compared to African American college students, both animal and social fears are nearly identical in both groups, indicating a possible cultural homogeneity for phobias in African Americans. Potential explanations of these findings and future directions are discussed.

  1. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  2. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  3. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    PubMed

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  4. An Item Factor Analysis of the Mooney Problem Check List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; Deiker, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Explores the factor structure of the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) at the junior and senior high school level by undertaking a large obverse factor analysis of item responses in three adolescent criterion groups. (Author/DEP)

  5. PARTICIPATION OF ADULTS IN EDUCATION, A FORCE-FIELD ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, HARRY L.

    VARIOUS SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES RELATING TO MOTIVATION ARE POTENTIALLY USEFUL TOOLS FOR PREDICTING AND INFLUENCING ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION. MASLOW'S NEED HIERARCHY IS BASED ON FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS (SURVIVAL, SAFETY, AND BELONGING), WHICH ARE NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY EGO NEEDS (RECOGNITION OR STATUS, ACHIEVEMENT, AND…

  6. Beyond Fragments. Adults, Motivation and Higher Education. A Biographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    This book uses biographical, longitudinal, and reflexive methods to chronicle, analyze, and theorize about the personal and sociocultural dimensions of motivation in the biographies of adult learners. Following an introduction and explanation of research methods, chapter 3 examines the problem of stated reasons for learning and the arbitrariness…

  7. Parentification of Adult Children of Divorce: A Multidimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Gregory J.; Thirkield, Alison; Morrell, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Compared the responses of 381 late adolescent and young adult children of divorce and nondivorce on a new multidimensional measure of parentification assessing the extent and fairness of past and present family caregiving. Evidence that problematic forms of parentification in children of divorce continue into late adolescence and young adulthood…

  8. An Analysis of Adult Interaction Styles and Children's Incidental Imitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Robert W.; Morris, Edward K.

    This paper describes two experiments designed to determine whether traditional effects of adult nurturance on children's incidental imitation could be obtained using a within-subject design and a functional (rather than operational) definition of nurturance. Four preschool children served as subjects, with four others serving as cross-sex…

  9. An Analysis of How Multicultural Adult Orphans Achieve Economic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonee, Saundra W.

    2014-01-01

    Successful multicultural adult orphans who were not adopted pose an interesting challenge in their history, their physical, psychological, social emotional and personal identity development. One must understand their journey from orphanhood to adulthood and their current prominent status in life to build a contextualized personal story (Banks,…

  10. Full Information Item Factor Analysis of the FCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Traditional factor analytical methods, principal factors or principal components analysis, are inappropriate techniques for analyzing dichotomously scored responses to standardized tests or concept inventories because they lead to artifactual factors often referred to as ``difficulty factors.'' Full information item factor analysis (Bock, Gibbons and Muraki, 1988) based on Thurstone's multiple factor model and calculated using marginal maximum likelihood estimation, is an appropriate technique for such analyses. Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells and Swackhamer, 1992) data from 1582 university students completing an introductory physics course, was analyzed using the full information item factor analysis software TESTFACT v. 4. Analyzing the statistical significance of successive factors added to the model, using chi-squared statistics, led to a six factor model interpretable in terms of the conceptual dimensions of the FCI. )

  11. Lifestyle Risk Factors and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kamineni, Aruna; Carnethon, Mercedes; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David

    2010-01-01

    Background The combined impact of lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes mellitus later in life is not well established. The objective of this study was to determine how lifestyle factors, assessed in combination, relate to new-onset diabetes in a broad and relatively unselected population of older adults. Methods We prospectively examined associations of lifestyle factors, measured using repeated assessments later in life, with incident diabetes mellitus during a 10-year period (1989–1998) among 4883 men and women 65 years or older (mean [SD] age at baseline, 73[6] years) enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Low-risk lifestyle groups were defined by physical activity level (leisure-time activity and walking pace) above the median; dietary score (higher fiber intake and polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans-fat intake and lower mean glycemic index) in the top 2 quintiles; never smoked or former smoker more than 20 years ago or for fewer than 5 pack-years; alcohol use (predominantly light or moderate); body mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); and waist circumference of 88 cm for women or 92 cm for men. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes defined annually by new use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. We also evaluated fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose levels. Results During 34 539 person-years, 337 new cases of drug-treated diabetes mellitus occurred (9.8 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, and annual income, each lifestyle factor was independently associated with incident diabetes. Overall, the rate of incident diabetes was 35% lower (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59–0.71) for each 1 additional lifestyle factor in the low-risk group. Participants whose physical activity level and dietary, smoking, and alcohol habits were all in the low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of diabetes