Science.gov

Sample records for adults future research

  1. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Chronic Wound Repair and Healing in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolis, David; Horne, Frances McFarland; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25753048

  3. Chronic Wound Repair and Healing in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolish, David; McFarland Horne, Frances; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, JoAnne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic wounds is increased among older adults, and the impact of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. It is well established that wound healing slows with age. However, the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The impact of age and accompanying multi-morbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables, lack of standardization in data collection, and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this paper, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify key research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25486905

  4. Preparing for a healthy future today: Folic acid formative research with young Latina adults.

    PubMed

    Flores, Alina L; Prue, Christine E; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Young Latina adults require targeted health messages to meet the unique needs of this life stage. Folic acid messages for the prevention of neural tube defects that are effective for other women might not be relevant to this group. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and motivators to folic acid consumption for this population and develop educational materials and messages that address their needs. This article presents 3 phases of formative research that formed the basis for the development of Spanish-language print materials and radio advertisements aimed at promoting folic acid consumption among young Latina adults.

  5. Adult Education: Unesco Guidelines for Future Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents draft recommendations/guidelines for the future development of adult education approved in 1976 by a UNESCO-appointed special committee. Recommendations cover the definition of adult education; objectives and strategy; structure and content; methods, means, research, and evaluation; the relations between adult education, youth education,…

  6. Solid-organ transplantation in older adults: current status and future research.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, M; Bridges, N D; Clancy, C J; Dew, M A; Eldadah, B; Englesbe, M J; Flessner, M F; Frank, J C; Friedewald, J; Gill, J; Gries, C; Halter, J B; Hartmann, E L; Hazzard, W R; Horne, F M; Hosenpud, J; Jacobson, P; Kasiske, B L; Lake, J; Loomba, R; Malani, P N; Moore, T M; Murray, A; Nguyen, M-H; Powe, N R; Reese, P P; Reynolds, H; Samaniego, M D; Schmader, K E; Segev, D L; Shah, A S; Singer, L G; Sosa, J A; Stewart, Z A; Tan, J C; Williams, W W; Zaas, D W; High, K P

    2012-10-01

    An increasing number of patients older than 65 years are referred for and have access to organ transplantation, and an increasing number of older adults are donating organs. Although short-term outcomes are similar in older versus younger transplant recipients, older donor or recipient age is associated with inferior long-term outcomes. However, age is often a proxy for other factors that might predict poor outcomes more strongly and better identify patients at risk for adverse events. Approaches to transplantation in older adults vary across programs, but despite recent gains in access and the increased use of marginal organs, older patients remain less likely than other groups to receive a transplant, and those who do are highly selected. Moreover, few studies have addressed geriatric issues in transplant patient selection or management, or the implications on health span and disability when patients age to late life with a transplanted organ. This paper summarizes a recent trans-disciplinary workshop held by ASP, in collaboration with NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIDDK and AGS, to address issues related to kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplantation in older adults and to propose a research agenda in these areas. PMID:22958872

  7. Adult Undergraduates' Participation and Involvement: Future Directions for Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joe F.; Graham, Steven W.; Kasworm, Carol; Dirkx, John M.

    This symposium paper reviews the literature on adult students in higher education and offers a model of their collegiate experiences. The review is organized according to the following themes: adults' experiences in higher education, social and psychological concerns, the role of the classroom, adult cognition, the adult-world surroundings, and…

  8. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  9. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  10. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  11. Trends in Research on the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph G.; Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    1987-01-01

    Explores likely directions for the future of adult learning research. Describes three research areas that will serve as a foundation for future efforts: (1) the teaching-learning transaction, (2) participation, and (3) self-directed learning. (CH)

  12. Quantitative comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and music therapy research: a methodological best-practices analysis to guide future investigation for adult psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    While the music therapy profession is relatively young and small in size, it can treat a variety of clinical populations and has established a diverse research base. However, although the profession originated working with persons diagnosed with mental illnesses, there is a considerable lack of quantitative research concerning the effects of music therapy with this population. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have reported on this lack of evidence and the difficulty in conducting psychosocial research on their interventions (Choi, 1997; Silverman, 2003a). While published studies have provided suggestions for future research, no studies have provided detailed propositions for the methodology and design of meticulous high quality randomized controlled psychiatric music therapy research. How do other psychotherapies accomplish their databases and could the music therapy field borrow from their rigorous "methodological best practices" to strengthen its own literature base? Therefore, as the National Institutes of Mental Health state the treatment of choice for evidence-based psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), aspects of this psychotherapy's literature base were analyzed. The purpose of this literature analysis was to (a) analyze and identify components of high-quality quantitative CBT research for adult psychiatric consumers, (b) analyze and identify the variables and other elements of existing quantitative psychiatric music therapy research for adult consumers, and (c) compare the two data sets to identify the best methodological designs and variables for future quantitative music therapy research with the mental health population. A table analyzing randomized and thoroughly controlled studies involving the use of CBT for persons with severe mental illnesses is included to determine chief components of high-quality experimental research designs and implementation of quantitative clinical research. The table also shows the same analyzed

  13. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  14. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  15. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  16. Futures Planning--Adult Sibling Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2015-01-01

    A total of 15 adult siblings of people who have a learning disability were interviewed in relation to their future wishes and expectations of care giving. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse transcripts from the interviews where it was demonstrated that futures planning remains an area of difficulty for families of…

  17. Encouraging Teens To Adopt a Safe, Healthy Lifestyle: A Foundation for Improving Future Adult Behaviors. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    By envisioning adolescence as an ideal time to promote good physical health, it is possible to save lives and set in motion a lifetime of good health outcomes. To identify programs that promote health, this brief summarizes experimental studies of health-related behaviors, and reviews more than 230 research studies to identify factors associated…

  18. The Future of Adult Education in the Military

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeffrey; Van Der Werff, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    The future of adult education in the military is in many ways tied to the future of adult education. If adult educators limit their vision of what adult education is to adult learning principles, to facilitated learning, to adult basic education, and to training and education, they limit the potential of what they can do and how they do it. Adult…

  19. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  20. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  1. Future Skills. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Most of the occupations for which students need to be prepared have not yet been designed, however, it is acknowledged that the majority of employment will be in service related fields. According to the research, the jobs most people will perform will only exist for three to five years, therefore, training for a specific job is not what is…

  2. The Future of Research Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tim; De Waard, Anita; Herman, Ivan; Hovy, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11331 “The Future of Research Communication”. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers from these different disciplines, whose core research goal is changing the formats, standards, and means by which we communicate science. PMID:26317061

  3. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  4. Adult Literacy Research: Opportunities and Challenges. NCSALL Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John; Soricone, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This monograph looks first at opportunities provided by research in the adult literacy field and then identifies challenges to scientific research and suggests ways to address these challenges so that better evidence can be generated in the future. It has two goals that support the building of a stronger research base for the adult literacy…

  5. Acetylcholine: future research and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, E A; Platt, B; Riedel, G

    2011-08-10

    Ever since the initial description of chemical transmission in the early part of the 20th century and the identification of acetylcholine (ACh) as the first such transmitter, interests grew to define the multiple facets of its functions. This multitude is only partially covered here, but even in the areas preselected for this special issue, research on the cholinergic system is still thriving. Notwithstanding an impressive amount of knowledge that has been accumulated, partly triggered by the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD [1]), the different reviews in this issue not only summarise our current state of the art, they also highlight that this field has still large potential for future development. Taken from these reviews, we here pinpoint several topics fit for future attention.

  6. Diversity, Adult Education and the Future: A Tentative Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2005-01-01

    Diversity in its many guises is strongly championed in the adult education literature. To conceive a future for adult education that is not diverse and does not try to address the needs of diverse learners seems absurd. Yet, diversity is not a unitary concept, having many definitions and paradoxical effects. Questions arise about its future in a…

  7. Older adults have greater difficulty imagining future rather than atemporal experiences.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Peter G; Bailey, Phoebe E; Henry, Julie D; Phillips, Louise H; Gaskin, Shae; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Episodic future thinking refers to mentally traveling forward in time to preexperience an event, and emerging research suggests that this is more difficult for older adults. The current study was designed to better understand the effect of aging on separate component processes of age differences in episodic future thinking. Young (n = 24) and older (n = 25) adults were asked to construct a) atemporal scenarios, b) future scenarios, and c) a narrative that involved navigation. Each of these conditions assesses the capacity to construct and describe a scene, but only the future scenario requires a subjective sense of self in time (autonoetic consciousness). The composite measure of performance showed that relative to young adults, older adults have substantially reduced capacity for all three types of construction, suggesting that age-related difficulty imagining future episodic events may reflect a more general cognitive decline with age. In addition, older adults were worse at imagining future experiences than atemporal experiences, indicating limited capacity for autonoetic consciousness. Further, this difference between imagining atemporal and future experiences was not as evident among younger adults. These deficits in episodic future thinking have implications for the daily lives of older adults in terms of anticipating and planning for the future.

  8. Unlock a Brighter Future. Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    This guide, which is intended for adults in the United Kingdom, contains information about the educational and employment opportunities available to them. The following topics are discussed in the guide's 11 sections: assessing one's own learning skills and identifying available learning opportunities; locating sources of educational and career…

  9. Adult Learners: Key to the Nation's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Higher Education and the Adult Learner, Columbia, MD.

    For reasons of National interest embedded in the economic, political, and social determinants of the quality of life, the fostering of learning by adults is an immediate and compelling National need that requires a lucid and forthright statement of National policy and immediate attention by the Nation's colleges and universities. To meet this…

  10. Anticipating Their Future: Adolescent Values for the Future Predict Adult Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Warren, Michael; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent future values--beliefs about what will matter to them in the future--may shape their adult behavior. Utilizing a national longitudinal British sample, this study examined whether adolescent future values in six domains (i.e., family responsibility, full-time job, personal responsibility, autonomy, civic responsibility, and hedonistic…

  11. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  12. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  13. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  14. Research Training--Present & Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

  15. Seeding Literacy: Adult Educators Research Their Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Janelle; Searle, Jean

    This publication presents five reports that represent research conducted by adult educators. "Supporting Adult Educators in Researching Their Practice" (Janelle Davis, Jean Searle) presents results of four action research projects related to developing literacies for disadvantaged groups or groups with special needs. "Towards Mutual Benefits:…

  16. Predicting Future Trends in Adult Fitness Using the Delphi Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William F.; Jarman, Boyd O.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the future of adult fitness from the perspective of experts. The Delphi Technique was used as a measurement tool. Findings revealed that the experts most relied on increased awareness of health and fitness among the elderly as a significant predictor variable. (Author/CB)

  17. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  18. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  19. Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative Inquiry: Meaning…

  20. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  1. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  2. Recommendations for future research in hypersonic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocheltree, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop is presented. It describes the process followed to obtain a group consensus on the main technical recommendations for each of the five technical sessions of the Workshop and presents the general conclusions and recommendations for future research agreed upon by the workshop participants.

  3. Adult Sexual Offenders: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert; Franey, Kristina Crumpton; Falconer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Sex offender research is still in its infancy, but our knowledge about adult sex offenders has increased in the last several decades. However, public interest in the issues of assessment, treatment, and recidivism with respect to risk and safety has increased substantially during this time. This article provides an introduction to the significant…

  4. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  5. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters. PMID:19567918

  6. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  7. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners. PMID:20179305

  8. Surveying Landscapes in Adult ESOL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Research in the field of adult ESOL internationally is both spasmodic and fragmentary. The papers in this special issue therefore constitute a major contribution to the field by providing new insights into ESOL research from the perspective of current pedagogical practices in the British context. In this paper, I provide a response to this…

  9. NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

    1987-01-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

  10. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  11. Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2015-03-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in early 2009 as the implementation of Goal 1.4 of its just-issued strategic plan. In keeping with the NIMH mission, to "transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research," RDoC was explicitly conceived as a research-related initiative. The statement of the relevant goal in the strategic plan reads: "Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures." Due to the novel approach that RDoC takes to conceptualizing and studying mental disorders, it has received widespread attention, well beyond the borders of the immediate research community. This review discusses the rationale for the experimental framework that RDoC has adopted, and its implications for the nosology of mental disorders in the future.

  12. Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

  13. Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2015-03-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in early 2009 as the implementation of Goal 1.4 of its just-issued strategic plan. In keeping with the NIMH mission, to "transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research," RDoC was explicitly conceived as a research-related initiative. The statement of the relevant goal in the strategic plan reads: "Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures." Due to the novel approach that RDoC takes to conceptualizing and studying mental disorders, it has received widespread attention, well beyond the borders of the immediate research community. This review discusses the rationale for the experimental framework that RDoC has adopted, and its implications for the nosology of mental disorders in the future. PMID:25987867

  14. Methodological Suspicions in the Future Study of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    Science plays an extremely important role in predicting the future of social phenomena, including pedagogy and andragogy. Research in these areas must be based on an interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, systemic, and structural approach that is based on the assumption that upbringing and education are specific phenomena in which human…

  15. Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

  16. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  17. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research

    PubMed Central

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  18. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David Martin

    2008-05-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have towards future persons.

  19. Applying futures' research to nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Gayle, M E

    1987-09-01

    You, as individuals and as professionals, cannot be expected to solve all the problems of this decade and those projected for the future that I have discussed with you today, but you must accept the challenge to help bring individuals and society to a more holistic approach to a quality of life for all its members. The messages have gone out to children, youth, and adults that a young, thin, and beautiful image is all that is appropriate. Within the context of these messages individuals are confused and overwhelmed by their own inabilities to "be all that they can be." There are mixed messages in the media concerning drugs that are bad and drugs that are good, food that is bad and food that is good, and the connections to the environment. Your role and mine in this future will be to enter into partnerships with all policy-making and administrative agencies and with private sector groups, to work together and to share our many resources, experiences, and creative minds in moving healthy minds and bodies into the 21st century. Choices, Challenges, and Change--a time for new heroes. Who is yours? Mine is Pogo, who said, "I am faced with insurmountable opportunities." PMID:3624729

  20. Applying futures' research to nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Gayle, M E

    1987-09-01

    You, as individuals and as professionals, cannot be expected to solve all the problems of this decade and those projected for the future that I have discussed with you today, but you must accept the challenge to help bring individuals and society to a more holistic approach to a quality of life for all its members. The messages have gone out to children, youth, and adults that a young, thin, and beautiful image is all that is appropriate. Within the context of these messages individuals are confused and overwhelmed by their own inabilities to "be all that they can be." There are mixed messages in the media concerning drugs that are bad and drugs that are good, food that is bad and food that is good, and the connections to the environment. Your role and mine in this future will be to enter into partnerships with all policy-making and administrative agencies and with private sector groups, to work together and to share our many resources, experiences, and creative minds in moving healthy minds and bodies into the 21st century. Choices, Challenges, and Change--a time for new heroes. Who is yours? Mine is Pogo, who said, "I am faced with insurmountable opportunities."

  1. Qualitative Research: A Tool To Help Future Special Educators See beyond the Labels of Their Future Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szepkouski, Grace Mest; Dunn, Manina Urgolo

    Two projects in the teacher education program at Seton Hall University gave assignments involving basic qualitative research methods as applied to a focused goal of interaction between future teachers and their students. The first project focused on life in community residential programs for adults with developmental disabilities, and the second…

  2. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  3. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  4. Research Areas in Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Röbken, Heinke; Ehrenspeck-Kolasa, Yvonne; von Ossietzky, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This study builds upon a Delphi study carried out by Zawacki-Richter (2009) which posited a validated classification of research areas in the special area of distance education. We now replicate the study for the broader field of adult and continuing education (ACE). The aims of this paper are: firstly, to develop a categorisation of research…

  5. Clinical Assessment Research with Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Rue, Asenath; Markee, Taryn

    1995-01-01

    Methodological issues in geropsychological assessment research are discussed and illustrated through recent investigations. Cross-sectional studies are needed to extend and diversify age norms, and short-term longitudinal studies should be planned to assess the predictive validity of test outcomes and diagnostic profiles of older adults. (SLD)

  6. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  7. Social Change and Adult Education Research--Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.

    This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education Research…

  8. Future research on foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2002-12-01

    The recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina, Europe, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Uruguay have brought to world attention the devastating effects of the disease in a naïve population and the social and economic costs of control and eradication. The fact that much still remains unknown about the natural history of FMD virus came as a surprise to some. This paper attempts to identify where research should be directed in order to be better prepared in the future.

  9. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  10. Supporting Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Lessons from Six Decades of International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    Research focusing on the intervention and support of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has grown exponentially but this increase research has not been mirrored for adults with ASD. With the aims of informing intervention planning, improving quality of life, and areas for future research, 18 peer-reviewed research articles reporting the…

  11. Future treatment needs in children, adults and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Holst, D; Schuller, A; Grytten, J

    1997-02-01

    Future treatment needs for dental services are discussed in the perspective of the objective which the services are meant to fulfill. These are, broadly speaking, equal distribution of services and economic efficiency. Within the Nordic countries, the emphasis has been on equity, perhaps less on efficiency. Equity of utilization is best understood as being a situation where patients with equal needs for oral health care receive equal treatment, in terms of both the volume and the quality of the services. The justification for arguing that equality of utilization is the appropriate measure is mainly based on the externality argument: health-care consumption by one person may be the source of utility to another person. According to that view there are two beneficiaries of dental care: the patient who is sick, and the rest of society who care for the sick patient and who derive utility from seeing the patient become healthy. The public dental services for children in the Nordic countries are organized according to the principle of equity of utilization. Equity of access is best understood as being a situation where people with equal needs have equal opportunity to use dental services. It is a supply-side phenomenon; equal access is achieved when patients with the same needs face the same costs of dental-care consumption in terms of both time and money. The oral health situation among children, adults and the elderly is exemplified by national service data and recent studies.

  12. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  13. Functional Literacy in Older Adults: Proactive Approaches to Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    Two separate research projects were undertaken in Georgia and Texas to examine the current and future needs of older adults for functional literacy and to analyze the involvement of adult basic education (ABE) programs to better serve those needs. The projects involved literature reviews; mail-out surveys; and one-on-one interviews with senior…

  14. Is the Future for Adult Education Green? Opportunities in Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    1989-01-01

    The nature of adult education may suit it for a partnership role in the Green movement--people concerned about the environment. Because Greens are ideologically diverse and generally well educated, adult educators' best opportunity may be in fostering awareness of ways in which environmentalists learn, as adults. (SK)

  15. How Adult Literacy Practitioners Use Research. Occasional Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Chen, Chia-Yin; Taylor, Lyndsay

    Staff members of a state literary resource center surveyed their practitioner clients to determine how they viewed research and the kinds of uses they made of it. Mail surveys were sent to all of the 404 adult education and English as a second language program directors in the state, and followup telephone interviews were conducted with 16 of the…

  16. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  17. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  18. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  19. Research is the Future, the Future is…….

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Professor Lenney has established the Paediatric Respiratory Department at the Royal Stoke University Hospital as a centre recognised for high quality research. A broad portfolio of clinical and laboratory based research is in progress. Four research areas are discussed that are likely to contribute to the continued academic output from the unit. These are the use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for the detection of biomarkers associated with pulmonary pathogens, the measurement of lung clearance index in preschool children, structured light plethysmography in children and the use of oral prednisolone for asthma exacerbations in children. PMID:26527356

  20. Reflections on Involvement with Six UNESCO International Conferences on Adult Education and Suggestions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's reflections on involvement with six UNESCO international conferences on adult education. As adult educators continue to look forward with enthusiasm to the future of adult and continuing education in an increasingly international society, the author argues that they need to continually remember that the mission…

  1. Open Education 2030: Planning the Future of Adult Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina; Punie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning and open education have become key elements on the European Agenda. This paper presents the first results of a foresight activity that aims to contribute to an understanding of how "Opening up Education" can improve adult learning in Europe in the future. It argues that to open up adult learning two main challenges must be…

  2. Translational research of adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Gen

    2015-11-26

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches.

  3. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  4. Neurosciences research in space: future directions.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Wolfe, J W

    1991-01-01

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-95), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  5. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  6. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  7. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; et al

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  8. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  9. Research in a Scenario of Change: Why Research Institutions Should Begin To Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Martha A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses emerging ideas about the future of federal research and development activities as they relate to the future of industry and especially to institutions of higher learning. Discusses energy research today, a future perspective, the future of the research community, and challenges. Highlights the future orientation of the Office of Energy…

  10. Research and Investigation in Adult Education: 1976 Annual Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A., Ed.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography includes 787 items of research or investigation in adult education, mostly dated from 1973-75. They cover information sources; philosophy, policies, general objectives; legislation; finance costs; studies and planning--state, regional, and national; history; adult education as a field of study; adult education research;…

  11. Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruidenier, John R.; MacArthur, Charles A.; Wrigley, Heide S.

    2010-01-01

    The Adult Literacy Research Working Group (ALRWG), a panel of experts on adult reading research and practice, was established by the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) in collaboration with the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL). It was part of the Institute's efforts to provide educators, parents and others…

  12. Research with Children: The Same or Different from Research with Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Explores seven methodological issues illustrating aspects of the research process posing dilemmas for adult researchers working with children. Argues that research with children differs from that with adults primarily because of adult perceptions of children and children's marginalized position in adult society. Details advantages and…

  13. The Future of Educational Research in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Carole J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This issue of the "Professions Education Research Notes" is devoted to the theme of "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions." Four articles have been extracted from the issue to form this document: "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions," by Carole J. Bland, introduces the other articles and describes, as context for…

  14. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  15. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Halter, Jeffrey B; Musi, Nicolas; McFarland Horne, Frances; Crandall, Jill P; Goldberg, Andrew; Harkless, Lawrence; Hazzard, William R; Huang, Elbert S; Kirkman, M Sue; Plutzky, Jorge; Schmader, Kenneth E; Zieman, Susan; High, Kevin P

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes increases with age, driven in part by an absolute increase in incidence among adults aged 65 years and older. Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, and age strongly predicts cardiovascular complications. Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play some role in the mechanisms underlying aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications of diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in risk for diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, because of the heterogeneity of the older population, a lack of understanding of the biology of aging, and inadequate study of the effects of treatments on traditional complications and geriatric conditions associated with diabetes, no consensus exists on the optimal interventions for older diabetic adults. The Association of Specialty Professors, along with the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the American Diabetes Association, held a workshop, summarized in this Perspective, to discuss current knowledge regarding diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older adults, identify gaps, and propose questions to guide future research.

  16. A Future for Adult Educators in Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…

  17. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  18. Past, Present, and Future of Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the greatest cause of death and severe disability in young adults; its incidence is increasing in the elderly and in the developing world. Outcome from severe TBI has improved dramatically as a result of advancements in trauma systems and supportive critical care, however we remain without a therapeutic which acts directly to attenuate brain injury. Recognition of secondary injury and its molecular mediators has raised hopes for such targeted treatments. Unfortunately, over 30 late-phase clinical trials investigating promising agents have failed to translate a therapeutic for clinical use. Numerous explanations for this failure have been postulated and are reviewed here. With this historical context we review ongoing research and anticipated future trends which are armed with lessons from past trials, new scientific advances, as well as improved research infrastructure and funding. There is great hope that these new efforts will finally lead to an effective therapeutic for TBI as well as better clinical management strategies. PMID:27637391

  19. Educational Generations and the Futures of Adult Education: A Nordic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antikainen, Ari; Kauppila, Juha

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of life stories of Finnish adults identified three cohorts with distinct life/education experiences (born pre-1935, 1936-55, post-1955). Core experiences were summarized as narratives of national culture and economic structural change. Three future scenarios for adult education were developed: formal rationality and bureaucracy, material…

  20. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  1. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  2. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  3. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  4. Research Universities and the Future of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  5. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  6. The future of oral contraceptives: research priorities.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, W O

    1996-04-01

    The author believes that currently-marketed oral contraceptives are among the most safe and effective methods of fertility control. The data on oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction are consistent with a protective, death-sparing role for third-generation oral contraceptives. Moreover, the benefit-risk profile of second-generation pills is evaluated and approved by national and international regulatory bodies. Researchers, however, should still keep working to try to provide women with the best possible contraceptive methods. Specifically, the search for safer oral contraceptives should continue, clinical research should address unanswered questions about better oral contraceptive fits for women with distinctive clinical requirements, more research is needed into the benefits of oral contraceptive use, epidemiologists and biostatisticians must develop and improve methods which permit disentangling the effect from bias in observational research, and World Health Organization and Transnational European Project data on oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction need to be meta-analyzed.

  7. Future of Venus Research and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L.; Limaye, S.; Nakamura, M.; Wilson, C.; Zasova, L.

    2014-04-01

    A great deal is known about Venus from the Venera, Pioneer-Venus, Magellan, and Venus Express missions. However, many significant questions remain regarding the origin, evolution and current geologic and atmospheric processes. Much can be learned from theoretical modeling of the planetary interior and atmospheric circulation, as well as from laboratory spectroscopic studies. However, to answer many of the outstanding questions, new space flight missions are needed. Multiple international space agencies are considering Venus as a possible destination for future exploration. Collaborative international participation provides a viable path to further understanding of Earth's sister planet and her role in the formation of our solar system.

  8. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  9. Guiding future research on terrestrial ecosystem disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With North American ecosystems responsible for drawing hundreds of teragrams of carbon from the atmosphere each year, the tenuous balance of the terrestrial carbon budget can be upset for decades by disturbances such as fires, storms, disease outbreaks, insect infestations, and logging. Research cataloging the effects of such disturbances on regional carbon cycling tends to be sporadic or of limited scope. Most research has focused on forests but is less extensive for other important ecosystems such as grasslands or permafrost peatlands.

  10. Future Selves and Aging: Older Adults' Memory Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L.; Viverito, Kristen M.

    2006-01-01

    Thoughts about the self in the future, called possible selves, are an important component of the current identity of individuals. This study specifically focused on possible selves in the domain of memory and cognition. Both older and younger groups spontaneously reported possible selves in the cognitive domain, e.g., "learning a new skill," but…

  11. Future Time, Death Anxiety, and Life Purpose among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Herbert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Retirement community residents (n=58) completed Rappaport Time Line, Death Anxiety Scale, and Purpose-in-Life Test. Life purpose and death anxiety were found to be negatively correlated, life purpose was found to correlate positively with projection of future time, and death anxiety was positively correlated with temporal density in the present.…

  12. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  13. Future human bone research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

    1998-01-01

    Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

  14. The future of naval ocean science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

  15. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  16. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  17. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  18. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  20. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  1. The Capacity to Consent to Research among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an assessment tool for research consent competence in older participants. A four-item instrument was developed to assess the capacity of the older adults to consent to research. Data were obtained from 203 nursing home residents from two facilities and 201 community-dwelling older adults in a…

  2. Honoring Our Roots and Branches...Our History and Future. Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (19th, Madison, Wisconsin, September 27-29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 44 presentations in these categories: distance education and evaluation; community issues and research; multicultural issues and research; teaching and learning; research methods; and organizational development. The papers are "Philosophical Foundations of Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning" (Alfred); "Adult…

  3. Acupuncture and Depth: Future Direction for Acupuncture Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research. PMID:25114707

  4. Future directions in ADHD etiology research.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children's development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge.

  5. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  6. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  7. Symposium melds past and future polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Leonard

    An international symposium, Perspectives of Modern Polar Research, was convened in Bad Durkeim, Germany to celebrate the 175th anniversary of the birth of Georg von Neumayer, the noted polar explorer and facilitator of German and international polar science. Neumayer, who lived from 1826 to 1909, began his career as a seaman in the merchant marine. Through his skill in geophysics and meteorology, he rose to become the founder and director of the Flagstaff Observatory in Melbourne, Australia, hydrographer to the German Navy, and director of the Hamburg Oceanic Observatory. He was instrumental in organizing the first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1882-1883.

  8. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

  9. Use of Adult Stem Cells for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Current Status and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Baugé, Catherine; Boumédiene, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. So, in recent years, researchers and surgeons have been working hard to elaborate cartilage repair interventions for patients who suffer from cartilage damage. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or hypertrophic cartilage. In the next years, the development of new strategies using adult stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium and/or culture in low oxygen tension should improve the quality of neoformed cartilage. Through these solutions, some of the latest technologies start to bring very promising results in repairing cartilage from traumatic injury or chondropathies. This review discusses the current knowledge about the use of adult stem cells in the context of cartilage tissue engineering and presents clinical trials in progress, as well as in the future, especially in the field of bioprinting stem cells. PMID:26246809

  10. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2016-10-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  11. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  12. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  13. Diet and cancer: future etiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, A; Dorgan, J; Swanson, C; Potischman, N

    1995-01-01

    In light of several credible diet and cancer hypotheses, we suggest strategies for advancing our understanding in this area. Two conceptual approaches can be taken in defining dietary exposure: the decompositional approach focuses on specific nutrients and other chemical constituents of food, whereas the integrative approach emphasizes the action of whole foods or food patterns (cuisines). Diet-cancer hypotheses can be organized according to this conceptual framework. We review four types of scientific investigation available to us for advancing the diet and cancer field: metabolic (clinical nutrition) studies; animal studies; observational epidemiologic investigations; and clinical trials. Each of these designs has its strengths and limitations. Observational epidemiologic studies and trials have the particular advantage of examining explicit cancer end points in humans. Results from metabolic and animal research, however, can complement the findings from epidemiologic studies and trials. Finally, we briefly review strategies for evaluating promising hypotheses linking diet to cancers of the large bowel, lung, breast, and prostate. PMID:8741779

  14. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  15. Outpatient Psychotherapy for Adults with Mental Retardation and Concomitant Psychopathology: Research and Clinical Imperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Christine M.; Nezu, Arthur M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning effective outpatient psychotherapy alternatives for adults with mental retardation. Focuses on psychodynamic, behavioral, and group psychotherapy approaches for those with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychological difficulties. Offers research agenda for future directions and includes model of clinical…

  16. Stylistics in Teacher Training: Research Programs and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Ana Clara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyse and systematize the conceptual and empirical bases of the available literature on research approaches, objects of study, and future prospects in the field of stylistics, in order to encourage best practice in teacher training. Three research approaches are presented: the empiricist-behaviorist approach, the…

  17. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  18. Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

  19. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  20. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  1. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  2. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  3. Research toward an artifical diet for adult Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research progress is reported on an artificial diet for adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The primary objective was to develop a system for screening antimicrobial peptides and other potential toxic proteins for activity against adults. The base diet was a...

  4. Research and Investigation in Adult Education: 1970 Annual Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrow, Roger, Ed.; Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.

    Embracing 750 items on adult education research and investigation (mostly dated 1969 or 1970), this annotated bibliography covers adult learning characteristics, program planning and administration, learning environments, instructional methods, curriculum materials and instructional devices, personnel and staffing; education of specific clientele…

  5. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  6. Abridged Description Listing for Adult and Continuing Education Research Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Publications Program in Continuing Education.

    This publication contains descriptions of 53 research collections in adult and continuing education housed at Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York) Collection strengths have been identified as the history of adult education as a profession, field, and practice; literacy; and civic education. Each collection is described, and the number of boxes…

  7. Research Paradigms in Adult Education: Philosophical Differences and Complementary Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. R.

    To reduce the confusion existing in adult education as to the merits of various research paradigms, two philosophies of science (logical positivism and phenomenology) were juxtaposed. Their relationship to three common methodologies (empiricism, ethnomethodology, and grounded theory) of adult education were explored. It was concluded that…

  8. Adult Learners in a Research University: Negotiating Undergraduate Student Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    2010-01-01

    Adult undergraduate student identities at research extensive universities were uniquely coconstructed, shaped by this selective and competitive youth-oriented cultural context. Drawing upon social constructivist theory, this study explored this coconstruction through positional and relational adult student identities. Positional identities were…

  9. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  10. Mutual Accountability and Adult Literacy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Knopff, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Accountability plays a key role in the field of adult literacy. Indeed, practitioners often juggle multiple accountabilities--to funders, taxpayers, learners, boards of directors, the community, and their profession. These may be in tension with each other, as when teachers' accountability to learners conflicts with their accountability to deliver…

  11. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in

  12. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  13. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  14. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  15. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  16. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  17. A Deeper Shade of Green: The Future of Green Jobs and Environmental Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The body of literature on adult learning and education for and about the environment has grown over the decades since 1970, the year of the first Earth Day. However, more than 40 years later, the question must be posed: "Are we really making the momentous progress that is essential for an ecosustainable future?" At least a partial answer may lie…

  18. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  19. Into the Future: Adult Professional Groups and the 21st Century Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Museum programs for working adults in their workplace groups are an interesting and important recent development. These programs have the potential to contribute significantly to the future health of museums. This article shows that these programs link to and build on three important trends in museums--customized experiences, deep engagement, and…

  20. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  2. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  3. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  4. Research in paediatric neuropsychology--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews of the research literature in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and acquired brain injury reveal a remarkably consistent historical transition through three phases, here termed structural, theoretical and dynamic neuropsychology. Of course, any attempt to summarize such a complex and rich history using a simplistic heuristic will inevitably fail to capture the wide diversity of the research effort. Nevertheless, it is argued that looking at three distinct phases in the history of research helps to organize the field and points to possible future directions for applied research. Using examples from an eclectic range of disorders including childhood obsessive compulsive disorder, congenital hemiplegia and disorders implicating mutation of neurodevelopmental control genes, the implications for future efforts in paediatric neurorehabilitation are considered. PMID:14744672

  5. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. Monitoring the Future. NIH Publication No. 10-7586

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research…

  6. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-40, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2001 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 2000 as these respondents have progressed from college into adulthood. In order for this…

  7. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000. Volume II: College Students and Young Adults Ages 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2000 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1999 as these respondents have progressed into adulthood. In order for this volume to stand…

  8. Participatory Action Research with Older Adults: Key Principles in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…

  9. Educational Needs Research and Mobilising Strategies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerbecker, Carl L.; Hake, Barry

    Research knowledge and reflections about efforts to mobilize participation have been developed in the Netherlands. Research into educational motivations has suggested nine independent motivations among adult learners that can be grouped into three general categories: intrinsic, extrinsic, and conditional educational motivations. An attempt has…

  10. Why Adults Use the Public Library: A Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Maurice P.

    This book discusses the motivations that cause adults to go to the public library. It is grouped into eight sections concerning: (1) the research methodology and results used to determine four motivators that were good predictors of library use; (2) the development of library research; (3) several characteristics of library users in terms of…

  11. Motivating and Enabling Adult Learners to Develop Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Adult learners undertaking a coursework masters are understandably nervous about undertaking research projects. However if done well, such projects represent a way to encourage the quantity and quality of practitioner research, which is important in all management disciplines, not only the emerging discipline of coaching. This paper offers an…

  12. What Is "Research" in Adult Education? Issues in Methodological Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David C.

    The range of methodological choices appropriate to adult education research is surveyed in this study. The most central consideration is the conflict between emphases on quantitative techniques and various approaches to researchable areas which are not grounded in positivistic/empirical designs. Skills, talents, defects, and ideologies reflected…

  13. Learners' Engagement in Adult Literacy Education. A NCSALL Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal; Tomkins, Jessica; Medina, Patsy; Riccioni, Regina; Deng, Weiling

    2006-01-01

    This research brief highlights findings from a qualitative study of the contextual factors that shape engagement in adult literacy education. Engagement is mental effort focused on learning and is a precondition to learning progress. Some researchers focus on engagement as a cognitive, or mental, process closely related to such things as…

  14. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  15. An Agenda for the Future of Research in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariz, George

    2016-01-01

    Research in honors has become a priority for the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC), and the phrase presents the honors community with an interesting ambiguity about the appropriate focus for future studies. Potential topics might include the progress of honors students in comparison to their non-honors cohorts; the criteria for selecting…

  16. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Roadmap for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigators from the NINDS and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in March 2015, which joined basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in various aspects of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), in order to assess the current state of TSC research and to set future goals. PMID:27617567

  17. Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The field of education is a vital component of today's society, enriching and facilitating the attainment of new knowledge. Progress continues to be achieved in this area as new methods are envisioned that increase education's value. "Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research" brings together diverse perspectives that…

  18. The Use of Computer-Communication Systems in Futures Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasniowski, Ryszard

    1983-01-01

    Factors impeding communication during the performance of futures research include lack of a common body of theory, lack of common terminology, organizational barriers, inadequate access to data, and spatial separation of data. Computer communication systems can help overcome some of these problems and facilitate techniques as Delphi polling.…

  19. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  20. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  1. Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted With Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2009-01-01

    Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descriptive and intervention research focusing exclusively on the homebound older population in which the authors have collaborated. Therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict may occur because of methodological issues related to the recruitment of participants, the “homebound” status of participants, and the home setting as the interview site. Particular care is required on the part of the researcher to address these ethical issues. This may be accomplished especially through clear communication during the informed consent process with participants and in scientific communication with colleagues. PMID:16581879

  2. Registered Nurse Care Coordination: Creating a Preferred Future for Older Adults with Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jean; Minaudo, Judith

    2015-09-30

    The concept of care coordination is often touted as the preferred way to streamline care for complex patients. Care coordination is even more popular with the mention of it in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and with new Medicare payment models. The purpose of this article is to define care coordination, briefly describe trends for older adults and care coordination, and explore roles for registered nurses. We describe elder-appropriate models of care coordination useful for older adults with multimorbidity. A brief exemplar provides an example of evidence-based care coordination services provided by a nursing and social work team, a model supported by recent literature. As a result of this discussion, readers will become informed about possibilities for the future of care delivery and the future of professional nursing practice.

  3. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  4. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  5. Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Stroke.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities on adults with stroke. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

  6. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  7. Back to the Future: Past and Future Era-Based Schematic Support and Associative Memory for Prices in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Alan D.; McGillivray, Shannon; Worden, Kendell M.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults typically display various associative memory deficits, but these deficits can be reduced when conditions allow for the use of prior knowledge or schematic support. To determine how era-specific schematic support and future simulation might influence associative memory, we examined how younger and older adults remember prices from the past as well as the future. Younger and older adults were asked to imagine the past or future, and then studied items and prices from approximately 40 years ago (market value prices from the 1970s) or 40 years in the future. In Experiment 1, all items were common items (e.g., movie ticket, coffee) and the associated prices reflected the era in question, whereas in Experiment 2, some item-price pairs were specific to the time period (e.g., typewriter, robot maid), to test different degrees of schematic support. After studying the pairs, participants were shown each item and asked to recall the associated price. In both experiments, older adults showed similar performance as younger adults in the past condition for the common items, whereas age-related differences were greater in the future condition and for the era-specific items. The findings suggest that in order for schematic support to be effective, recent (and not simply remote) experience is needed in order to enhance memory. Thus, whereas older adults can benefit from “turning back the clock,” younger adults better remember future-oriented information compared with older adults, outlining age-related similarities and differences in associative memory and the efficient use of past and future-based schematic support. PMID:24128073

  8. [Current status and future prospect of uveitis research in China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Peizeng

    2015-10-01

    Uveitis, as one of the major cause of blindness worldwide, seriously harms patients' vision and quality of life. The social and economic burden caused by uveitis cannot be ignored. Remarkable achievements in basic and clinical uveitis research were gained after decades of unremitting efforts by Chinese ophthalmologists. A number of original results and breakthroughs were achieved in researches on Behcet's disease, VKH syndrome and other important types of disease that lead to blindness. We are integrating the power of the Chinese Ocular Immunology Association, conducting multi-center collaborative research, and establishing the uveitis sample bank of Chinese. We need to train more uveitis specialists in the future, establish diagnostic and treatment practices of different types of uveitis, accelerate the research on main diseases which lead to blindness, further enhance the overall level of uveitis study, and enhance China's research position in international uveitis.

  9. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  10. Geriatric assessment with management in cancer care: Current evidence and potential mechanisms for future research

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Allison; Allore, Heather; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Mohile, Supriya G.; Williams, Grant R.; Chapman, Andrew; Extermann, Martine; Olin, Rebecca L.; Targia, Valerie; Mackenzie, Amy; Holmes, Holly M.; Hurria, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with cancer represent a complex patient population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended to evaluate the medical and supportive care needs of this group. “GA with management” is a term encompassing the resultant medical decisions and interventions implemented in response to vulnerabilities identified on GA. In older, non-cancer patients, GA with management has been shown to improve a variety of outcomes, such as reducing functional decline and health care utilization. However, the role of GA with management in the older adult with cancer is less well established. Rigorous clinical trials of GA with management are necessary to develop an evidence base and support its use in the routine oncology care of older adults. At the recent U-13 conference, “Design and Implementation of Intervention Studies to Improve or Maintain Quality of Survivorship in Older and/or Frail Adults with Cancer,” a session was dedicated to developing research priorities in GA with management. Here we summarize identified knowledge gaps in GA with management studies for older patients with cancer and propose areas for future research. PMID:27197915

  11. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  12. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Gary S; Gunsalus, Kearney T W; MacKellar, Drew C; Mazzilli, Sarah A; Pai, Vaibhav P; Goodwin, Patricia R; Walsh, Erica M; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D; Krukenberg, Kristin A; Polka, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 (nd) and 3 (rd), 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers' synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  13. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  14. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  15. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  16. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, P.J.; Hall, F.G. )

    1992-11-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale. 59 refs.

  17. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  18. Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y.; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet—a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005—but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

  19. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  20. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  2. Sexual Functioning Morbidity Among Cancer Survivors: Current Status and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    The current article reviews available data and considers methodologic issues for future research in which sexual functioning among adult cancer patients is an endpoint variable. Circumstances that may cause sexual disruption for any cancer patient are suggested, including mood disturbance, changed health status, somatization, and reprioritization of life concerns. Data on the incidence and magnitude of sexual functioning morbidity following the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at major organ sites, including breast, genital, colon, rectum, and bladder, are reviewed. Finally, strategies for continuing descriptive study of the sexual problems of cancer patients are suggested. Such data are necessary to eventually target preventive or therapeutic resources to patients in greatest need. PMID:3978569

  3. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  4. Learners, Tutors and Power in Adult Literacies Research in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn; Maclachlan, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the discourses of power in adult literacy and numeracy (ALN) teaching and learning that were highlighted through the processes of accessing and gaining the views of ALN learners for a research project on the quality of learning and teaching. It details the problems encountered in gaining access to this group of learners and…

  5. Degree Research in Adult Education in Canada, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Comp.; Yadao, Fausto, Jr., Comp.

    The second annual review of Canadian degree research on adult education, this work describes ten master's and doctoral studies completed in 1969, and 22 others still in progress. The degree and institution are noted for each, followed by the date of acceptance or estimated completion, statement of the problem or objective, methods used, findings…

  6. 1969 Review of Research on College-Adult Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliesmer, Emery P.

    A total of 180 reports found relevant fo r the annual review of research on college-adult reading was treated under five major headings. Studies that dealt with trends, origin and development of programs, descriptions of specific programs, and the evaluation of the improvement of program participants were classified under the heading of programs.…

  7. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  8. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  9. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management.

  10. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology.

  11. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  12. Parkinson's disease and primate research: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, E A C; Aziz, T Z

    2006-01-01

    Scientific research involving non‐human primates has contributed towards many advances in medicine and surgery. This review discusses its role in the progress made towards our understanding of Parkinson's disease and its treatment. Established medical treatments like dopamine agonists continue to need primate models to assess their efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. The recently developed treatment of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus required validation in primates before entering the clinic. Controversies surrounding future treatments such as gene therapy show the need for properly evaluated preclinical research using appropriate animal models before progression to clinical trials. Research on primates has played—and continues to play—a crucial part in deepening our understanding of Parkinson's disease, improving current therapies, and developing new treatments that are both safe and effective. In animal research, the “three Rs” of humane technique—reduction, refinement, and replacement—should be adhered to. PMID:16679465

  13. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  14. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Coller, Barry S.; DiMichele, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  15. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  16. Haematology research in India: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-06-01

    Haematology research in India is relatively recent in origin. However the pioneers in the field not only did exemplary work when compared to advanced western countries, they also made it a point to develop centres of excellence and human resources for future of haematology work in this country. In this brief overview an effort has been made to give a taste of quality and expanse of haematology research in this country. This review does not claim to have described every bit of haematology research in this country. Our pioneers worked under extremely difficult and trying circumstances on a subject which was limited to funding available from Indian Council of Medical Research. Now the times have changed, several funding agencies in the country are able to provide substantial fund for research. Modern state of the art basic research institutions are tying up with medical colleges for good quality research and the seeds which our pioneers had planted have grown into a mighty tree. It would not be an exaggeration to say we are on the threshold of the golden era of haematology research in this country.

  17. Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

  18. Clinical Research Priorities in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotts, Timothy; Khairy, Paul; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; John, Anitha S.; Valente, Anne Marie; Zaidi, Ali N.; Cook, Stephen C.; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Ting, Jennifer Grando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J.; Verstappen, Amy; Kay, Joseph; Earing, Michael; Franklin, Wayne; Kogon, Brian; Broberg, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) clinicians are hampered by the paucity of data to inform clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to identify priorities for clinical research in ACHD. Methods A list of 45 research questions was developed by the Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology (AARCC), compiled into a survey, and administered to ACHD providers. Patient input was sought via the Adult Congenital Heart Association at community meetings and online forums. The 25 top questions were sent to ACHD providers worldwide via an online survey. Each question was ranked based on perceived priority and weighted based on time spent in ACHD care. The top 10 topics identified are presented and discussed. Results The final online survey yielded 139 responses. Top priority questions related to tetralogy of Fallot (timing of pulmonary valve replacement and criteria for primary prevention ICDs), patients with systemic right ventricles (determining the optimal echocardiographic techniques for measuring right ventricular function, and indications for tricuspid valve replacement and primary prevention ICDs), and single ventricle/Fontan patients (role of pulmonary vasodilators, optimal anticoagulation, medical therapy for preservation of ventricular function, treatment for protein losing enteropathy). In addition, establishing criteria to refer ACHD patients for cardiac transplantation was deemed a priority. Conclusions The ACHD field is in need of prospective research to address fundamental clinical questions. It is hoped that this methodical consultation process will inform researchers and funding organizations about clinical research topics deemed to be of high priority. PMID:24411207

  19. Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Iddo, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

  20. Some ideas on the emerging future of developmental research.

    PubMed

    Kloep, Marion; Hendry, Leo B

    2014-12-01

    We are somewhat critical of the concept of emerging adulthood as a new developmental stage in modern industrial societies, and prefer the idea of systemic mechanisms and processes as the forces and factors that influence the transitions and transformations of human change across the life course. For this reason, we are pleased to see this volume is entirely dedicated to the life-phase of emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries, suggesting that researchers are not convinced that the characteristics of emerging adulthood would be the same for young people from different cultures. While we are very positive towards this series of articles showing that emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries has similarities, and, yet differences to other cultures, and appreciate the diverse findings of these research projects, we would want to suggest some new and more radical strategies for future developmental research. Concretely, a move away from age-bound, stage models towards a more dynamic and systemic approach to lifespan research, simply because we cannot ignore both the past and the future, whilst contemplating the present.

  1. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remes, Pirkko, Ed.; And Others

    The 13 papers in this yearbook discuss 4 broad subject areas: questions of competence, evaluating quality, professional cultures, and learning and trends in adult education. The following papers are included: "Human Resource Development (HRD) Practitioners Analyzing Their Work"(Tuija Valkeavaara); "Life Competence in a World of Change" (Margaretha…

  2. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  3. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  4. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  5. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  6. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products.

  7. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  8. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  9. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  10. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma.

  11. Biosafety: future priorities for research in health care.

    PubMed

    Doblhoff-Dier, O; Collins, C H

    2001-02-13

    Currently the public interest in biosafety issues has focussed on the discussions surrounding the use of genetically modified organisms, very specifically on the use of transgenic plants in agriculture. Although many of the questions raised in connection with genetically modified organisms are of legitimate scientific interest, attention should be drawn back to a number of other more classical biosafety research areas, namely the problem of control of new and reemerging infectious diseases, the need for new vaccines, control of transport and routes of dissemination, biosafety information exchange and networking, where research results are dearly needed. In the area of modern biotechnology new applications such as gene therapy and transgenic animals will be on the list of future priorities for biosafety related activities and research.

  12. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  13. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  14. Nutrition education intervention with community-dwelling older adults: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Beverly P

    2014-08-01

    This study critically reviewed empirical literature examining nutrition education intervention studies with community-dwelling older adults over the period 2003-2012 to: (1) determine the number, (2) evaluate the research designs, and (3) report the study outcomes. A search of online databases yielded 74 studies six of which met our criteria. The studies reported favorable intervention outcomes. Because of the number, variability in the types, designs, measures, scope, educational and behavioral strategies, results can only inform future studies and encourage scholars to use strong evaluation design. We recommend the utilization of an ecological conceptual model when conducting nutrition interventions studies and discussed implications in terms of research and practice. PMID:24368631

  15. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  16. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  17. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  18. Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0.

  19. Geomagnetically induced currents: Present knowledge and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Boteler, D.H. )

    1994-01-01

    The knowledge base regarding the production of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems is briefly reviewed. The relationship between electric and magnetic fields for a layered earth is derived and used to calculate the electric fields produced in Quebec during the March 13, 1989, magnetic disturbance. Factors influencing the distribution of GIC throughout a system are also examined. The transfer functions of the earth and of power systems vary with frequency and so the relation between GIC and magnetic field variations is most appropriately examined in the frequency domain. Data collection requirements to allow this in future research are discussed.

  20. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  1. [Research on mangrove soil microorganisms: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Xia; Zheng, Tian-Ling; Tian, Yun

    2006-10-01

    Special Mangrove soil niches possesses valuable microbial resources. Unfortunately, up to the present, so far there is very little knowledge on the mangrove soil microbial communities. It mainly due to the limitations of research methods. Cultureindependent approaches based on 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA gene analysis open the window to study microbial diversity in mangrove soil. The progress had achieved about studying on mangrove soil microbial species diversity, metabolic diversity and treating environmental pollutions was summarized in the paper. In addition, the bright future of mangrove soil microorganisms was described.

  2. 75 FR 80853 - Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology AGENCY: National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research... ``Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

  3. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk.

  4. Research planning for the future of psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Regier, D A; Kuhl, E A; Narrow, W E; Kupfer, D J

    2012-10-01

    More than 10 years prior to the anticipated 2013 publication of DSM-5, processes were set in motion to assess the research and clinical issues that would best inform future diagnostic classification of mental disorders. These efforts intended to identify the clinical and research needs within various populations, examine the current state of the science to determine the empirical evidence for improving criteria within and across disorders, and stimulate research in areas that could potentially provide evidence for change. In the second phase of the revision process, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) recently completed the 5-year international series of 13 diagnostic conferences convened by APA/APIRE in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under a cooperative grant funded by the NIH. From these conferences, the DSM-5 Task Force and Work Groups have developed plans for potential revisions for DSM-5, including the incorporation of dimensional approaches within and across diagnostic groups to clarify heterogeneity, improve diagnostic validity, and enhance clinical case conceptualization. Use of dimensions for measurement-based care has been shown to be feasible in psychiatric and primary care settings and may inform monitoring of disorder threshold, severity, and treatment outcomes. The integration of dimensions with diagnostic categories represents an exciting and potentially transformative approach for DSM-5 to simultaneously address DSM-IV's clinical short-comings and create novel pathways for research in neurobiology, genetics, and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:21676595

  5. Rapid Response Teams: Policy Implications and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Stolldorf, Deonni

    2008-07-01

    Health care organizations are continually challenged with improving the safety of and the quality of care delivered to patients. Research studies often bring to the forefront interventions that health care organizations may choose to institute in an effort to provide evidence-based, quality care. Rapid response teams are one such intervention. Rapid response teams were introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as part of their "100,000 Lives" Campaign. Rapid response teams are one initiative health care organizations can implement in an effort to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. This article uses Donabedian's model of structure, process, and outcomes to discuss the United States health care systems, rapid response teams, and the outcomes of rapid response teams. National and organizational policy implications associated with rapid response teams are discussed and recommendations made for future research.

  6. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research.

  7. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested.

  8. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

  9. Recruitment to Adult Education in the Nordic Countries--Research and Outreaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    This paper presents a review of the research in adult education recruitment and an overview of current outreach activities in adult education in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The author identifies three general trends of research in adult education: (1) studies aimed at describing participants in adult education; (2) studies aimed at…

  10. [Seroepidemiologic research on the antipoliomyelitic immunity in adult unvaccinated subjects].

    PubMed

    Trivello, R; Moschen, M E; Romano, M; Gasparini, V

    1975-01-01

    The Authors carried out a serological research on the polimyelitis viruses in 727 adult subjects who had not been vaccinated orally. The results of the titration of the neutralizing antibodies showed that the situation of immunity with respect to poliomyelitis is still satisfactory. However, the difficulty of making an exact estimation of the duration of the state of immunity to poliomyelitis, and the persistent, though reduced, circulation of wild polioviruses are such that a continuous epidemiological control is advisable.

  11. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  12. Trends and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia, 1992-2022.

    PubMed

    Al-Quwaidhi, A J; Pearce, M S; Critchley, J A; Sobngwi, E; O'Flaherty, M

    2014-10-20

    The prevalence of obesity among adults in Saudi Arabia increased from 22% in 1990-1993 to 36% in 2005, and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity are needed by health policy-makers. In a secondary analysis of published data, a number of assumptions were applied to estimate the trends and projections in the age-and sex-specific prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia over the period 1992-2022. Five studies conducted between 1989 and 2005 were eligible for inclusion, using body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) to define obesity. The overall prevalence of obesity was projected to increase from around 12% in 1992 to 41% by 2022 in men, and from 21% to 78% in women. Women had much higher projected prevalence than men, particularly in the age groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years. Effective national strategies are needed to reduce or halt the projected rise in obesity prevalence.

  13. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  14. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  15. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  16. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  17. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  18. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  19. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  1. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  2. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  3. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  4. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  5. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Norms of Adult Research Participants as a Basis for Outreach Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…

  6. You'll change more than I will: Adults' predictions about their own and others' future preferences.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Kopp, Leia; Davidson, Patrick S R; Taler, Vanessa; Atance, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that adults underestimate the extent to which their preferences will change over time. We sought to determine whether such mispredictions are the result of a difficulty imagining that one's own current and future preferences may differ or whether it also characterizes our predictions about the future preferences of others. We used a perspective-taking task in which we asked young people how much they liked stereotypically young-person items (e.g., Top 40 music, adventure vacations) and stereotypically old-person items (e.g., jazz, playing bridge) now, and how much they would like them in the distant future (i.e., when they are 70 years old). Participants also made these same predictions for a generic same-age, same-sex peer. In a third condition, participants predicted how much a generic older (i.e., age 70) same-sex adult would like items from both categories today. Participants predicted less change between their own current and future preferences than between the current and future preferences of a peer. However, participants estimated that, compared to a current older adult today, their peer would like stereotypically young items more in the future and stereotypically old items less. The fact that peers' distant-future estimated preferences were different from the ones they made for "current" older adults suggests that even though underestimation of change of preferences over time is attenuated when thinking about others, a bias still exists. PMID:26211536

  7. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  8. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  9. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  10. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  11. [Thirdhand smoke: current research status and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Hang, Bo; Cheng, Senping; Xia, Yankai; Mao, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is defined as residual tobacco components that remain on indoor surfaces after tobacco has been smoked, such as walls furniture, and dust particles, which are re-emitted into the air. THS also includes secondary pollutants generated from the reaction of surface residual smoke compounds with reactive indoor air pollutants. THS is a new hidden health hazard, with infants and children being most at risk of higher exposure. This article summarized the aging process of secondhand smoke and the mechanism of generation of THS; reviewed the current status of research on THS regarding its chemical constituents, physical and chemical properties, biological toxicity, as well as degree of pollution in China and other countries; and finally provided the perspectives on the future study of THS.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well.

  13. Plant root research: the past, the present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function and structure. We have organized the papers into three topic categories: (1) root ecology, interactions with microbes, root architecture and the rhizosphere; (2) experimental root biology, root structure and physiology; and (3) applications of new technology to study root biology. Finally, we will speculate on root research for the future. PMID:22966495

  14. A bright future for bioluminescent imaging in viral research

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stewart M; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of animal models of viral disease. BLI enables real-time in vivo study of viral infection, host immune response and the efficacy of intervention strategies. Substrate dependent light emitting luciferase enzyme when incorporated into a virus as a reporter gene enables detection of bioluminescence from infected cells using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera systems. Advantages of BLI include low background, real-time tracking of infection in the same animal and reduction in the requirement for larger animal numbers. Transgenic luciferase-tagged mice enable the use of pre-existing nontagged viruses in BLI studies. Continued development in luciferase reporter genes, substrates, transgenic animals and imaging systems will greatly enhance future BLI strategies in viral research. PMID:26413138

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  16. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  17. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  18. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed. PMID:24313252

  19. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R

    2003-01-01

    Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940

  20. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.

  1. The future of infant speech perception research: Gotta wear shades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walley, Amanda C.

    2002-05-01

    The future of infant speech perception research is very bright in large part because of the legacy left to us by Peter W. Jusczyk. I will selectively review a number of studies, many of them conducted by Peter and his colleagues, that I consider to be especially interesting and/or provocative and that have helped to advance our understanding of the development of speech perception. For example, in two fairly recent studies, 4.5 to 6-month-old infants were shown to display some incipient spoken word recognition ability [D. R. Mandel et al., Psychol. Sci. 6, 314-317 (1995); R. Tincoff and P. W. Jusczyk, ibid. 10, 172-175 (1999)]. In effect, these studies have smashed the sound-meaning barrier that was, according to traditional estimates, placed somewhere between 9 and 13 months of age and have important implications for current developmental theory. This work is also illustrative of one trend apparent in recent research, namely, to accord greater attention to infants' perception of ecologically-relevant stimuli and/or their perception of speech stimuli in ecologically-relevant contexts. Still, there is much to be learned about spoken word recognition beyond infancy and before adulthood if we are to arrive at a complete picture of this core aspect of spoken language processing.

  2. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  3. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gary C.; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Sommers, Earl; Look, John O.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Validation Project provided the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of the original Axis I and II. In addition, Axis I of the RDC/TMD was revised with estimates of reliability and validity. These findings are reported in previous papers. Further revisions for Axis I and II are presented for consideration by the TMD research and clinical communities. Potential Axis I revisions include addressing concerns with orofacial pain differential diagnosis and changes in nomenclature in an attempt to provide improved consistency with other musculoskeletal diagnostic systems. In addition, expansion of the RDC/TMD to include the less common TMD conditions and disorders would make it more comprehensive and clinically useful. The original standards for diagnostic sensitivity (≤0.70) and specificity (≤0.95) should be reconsidered to reflect changes in the field since the RDC/TMD was published in 1992. Pertaining to Axis II, current recommendations for all chronic pain conditions include standardized instruments and expansion of the domains assessed. In addition there is need for improved clinical efficiency of Axis II instruments and exploring methods to better integrate Axis I and II in clinical settings. To that end, this paper recommends an international symposium to provide future direction. PMID:20213033

  4. Chapter 9 prehospital tourniquets: review, recommendations, and future research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    The tourniquet is a simple device that has been used since the Middle Ages. Although different variations have been designed throughout its history, the simplicity of design has remained. The history of tourniquets follows two distinct paths--the operating room and the prehospital setting. From the earliest recorded history, tourniquets have been used for surgical procedures which were originally to amputate war-ravaged limbs and then to create a bloodless field for routine limb surgery. This history has continued uninterrupted since the early 1900s with continued research to foster advances in knowledge. The history of tourniquets in the prehospital setting, however, has not progressed as smoothly. The debate regarding the use of a tourniquet to save a life from excessive limb hemorrhage began in the 1600s, and continues to this day. This chapter will explore the prehospital use of tourniquets, which may shed some light on where this debate originated. The current state of the knowledge regarding tourniquets will then be discussed with a focus on prehospital use, using the operating room literature when needed to fill knowledge gaps. The chapter will conclude with recommendations for prehospital tourniquet use and some areas for future research. Tourniquets are used for operative procedures within accepted clinical guidelines throughout the world as the standard of care. Current science supports a similar stance for the use of prehospital tourniquets within clinical guidelines.

  5. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  6. Chapter 9 prehospital tourniquets: review, recommendations, and future research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    The tourniquet is a simple device that has been used since the Middle Ages. Although different variations have been designed throughout its history, the simplicity of design has remained. The history of tourniquets follows two distinct paths--the operating room and the prehospital setting. From the earliest recorded history, tourniquets have been used for surgical procedures which were originally to amputate war-ravaged limbs and then to create a bloodless field for routine limb surgery. This history has continued uninterrupted since the early 1900s with continued research to foster advances in knowledge. The history of tourniquets in the prehospital setting, however, has not progressed as smoothly. The debate regarding the use of a tourniquet to save a life from excessive limb hemorrhage began in the 1600s, and continues to this day. This chapter will explore the prehospital use of tourniquets, which may shed some light on where this debate originated. The current state of the knowledge regarding tourniquets will then be discussed with a focus on prehospital use, using the operating room literature when needed to fill knowledge gaps. The chapter will conclude with recommendations for prehospital tourniquet use and some areas for future research. Tourniquets are used for operative procedures within accepted clinical guidelines throughout the world as the standard of care. Current science supports a similar stance for the use of prehospital tourniquets within clinical guidelines. PMID:25222543

  7. Sports concussion assessment and management: future research directions.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, major progress has been achieved toward advancing the translational science of sport-related concussion (SRC), paving the way for evidence-based guidelines for injury diagnosis, evaluation and management. Several key empirical questions on the basic and clinical science of SRC, however, remain unanswered. The aim of this summary article is to highlight gaps in the existing science of SRC and to propose a platform for the next generation of SRC research. The article is framed around addressing two key questions that have major significance to protecting the health and safety of athletes affected by SRC, including: (a) Who is at risk of slow recovery or poor outcome after SRC, and why? (b) How does one modify the risks of slow recovery and poor outcome after SRC? Another aim of this article is to stimulate thought among researchers who will carry the science of SRC into the future, including neuropsychology leaders in the field. Implications for the broader science of traumatic brain injury are also discussed.

  8. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  9. Future developments in brain-machine interface research.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition.

  10. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  11. RESEARCH STUDIES WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION, MOUNTAIN-PLAINS REGION, 1945-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURRICHTER, ARTHUR; JENSEN, GLENN

    THIS COMPILATION OF ABSTRACTS OF ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED IN NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, NEVADA, UTAH, IDAHO, WYOMING, AND COLORADO COVERS COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ADULT EDUCATION, PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT PROGRAMS (MAINLY SECONDARY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION), VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING (INCLUDING INDUSTRIAL INSERVICE TRAINING), ADULT…

  12. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

  13. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  14. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  15. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

  16. Entangled ethnography: imagining a future for young adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Faye; Rapp, Rayna

    2013-12-01

    Our article draws on one aspect of our multi-sited long-term ethnographic research in New York City on cultural innovation and Learning Disabilities (LD). We focus on our efforts to help create two innovative transition programs that also became sites for our study when we discovered that young adults with disabilities were too often "transitioning to nowhere" as they left high school. Because of our stakes in this process as parents of children with learning disabilities as well as anthropologists, we have come to think of our method as entangled ethnography, bringing the insights of both insider and outsider perspectives into productive dialog, tailoring a longstanding approach in critical anthropology to research demedicalizing the experience of disability.

  17. The care of adults with congenital heart disease across the globe: Current assessment and future perspective: A position statement from the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD).

    PubMed

    Webb, Gary; Mulder, Barbara J; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Daniels, Curt J; Elizari, Maria Amalia; Hong, Gu; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Michael J; Marelli, Ariane J; O'Donnell, Clare P; Oechslin, Erwin N; Pearson, Dorothy D; Pieper, Els P G; Saxena, Anita; Schwerzmann, Markus; Stout, Karen K; Warnes, Carole A; Khairy, Paul

    2015-09-15

    The number of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased markedly over the past few decades as a result of astounding successes in pediatric cardiac care. Nevertheless, it is now well understood that CHD is not cured but palliated, such that life-long expert care is required to optimize outcomes. All countries in the world that experience improved survival in CHD must face new challenges inherent to the emergence of a growing and aging CHD population with changing needs and medical and psychosocial issues. Founded in 1992, the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD) is the leading global organization of professionals dedicated to pursuing excellence in the care of adults with CHD worldwide. Recognizing the unique and varied issues involved in caring for adults with CHD, ISACHD established a task force to assess the current status of care for adults with CHD across the globe, highlight major challenges and priorities, and provide future direction. The writing committee consisted of experts from North America, South America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, and Oceania. The committee was divided into subgroups to review key aspects of adult CHD (ACHD) care. Regional representatives were tasked with investigating and reporting on relevant local issues as accurately as possible, within the constraints of available data. The resulting ISACHD position statement addresses changing patterns of worldwide epidemiology, models of care and organization of care, education and training, and the global research landscape in ACHD.

  18. A review of social host policies focused on underage drinking parties: suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Francisco, Vincent T; Sparks, Michael; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be a public health concern, partially due to the ease in which adolescents obtain alcohol and consume it in private locations. States and municipalities have implemented strategies to counteract this, including adopting public policies called social host policies, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Traditionally, these laws have held adults accountable for furnishing alcohol to underage drinkers. However, states and communities are using another policy, also called social host, to deter underage drinking parties where easy access to alcohol and high-risk use occurs. These innovative laws hold individuals who control the property accountable for underage drinking that occurs there, regardless of alcohol source. We conducted a critical analysis of social host policies focused on hosting underage drinking parties and constructed a conceptual model to understand their targeted factors. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  19. Research Participation Among Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549

  20. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Expectations About Future Long-Term Care Needs Among Adults 40 to 65 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Shippee, Tetyana P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether and how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults between 40 and 65 years of age differ from heterosexual adults in long-term care (LTC) expectations. Methods. Our data were derived from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. We used ordered logistic regression to compare the odds of expected future use of LTC among LGB (n = 297) and heterosexual (n = 13 120) adults. We also used logistic regression models to assess the odds of expecting to use specific sources of care. All models controlled for key socioeconomic characteristics. Results. Although LGB adults had greater expectations of needing LTC in the future than their heterosexual counterparts, that association was largely explained by sociodemographic and health differences. After control for these differentials, LGB adults were less likely to expect care from family and more likely to expect to use institutional care in old age. Conclusions. LGB adults may rely more heavily than heterosexual adults on formal systems of care. As the older population continues to diversify, nursing homes and assisted living facilities should work to ensure safety and culturally sensitive best practices for older LGB groups. PMID:26378822

  1. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. PMID:25150681

  2. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  3. Defining Rural Community(ies): Future Considerations for Informal and Nonformal Adult Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The study and practice of adult education takes place in many forms and contexts, so much so that it is sometimes asked, "What isn't adult education?" For the purposes of this chapter, informal and nonformal adult education include just about any endeavor adults undertake to learn and work together outside formal classroom, workplace, or…

  4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  5. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  6. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  7. Killing Me Softly—Future Challenges in Apoptosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Brühl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

    2014-01-01

    The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features. PMID:24595238

  8. Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

  9. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990’s by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research. PMID:19794815

  10. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  11. Research Report on the Use and Effectiveness of Accommodations for Adults with Disabilities in Adult Education Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Warren J.

    This research report presents the findings of a survey of adult education centers that was designed to determine the types of accommodations used for adult learners with disabilities and to measure the effectiveness of the accommodations. The report describes a framework for designing strategies to support a learner's performance. In the Ecology…

  12. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  13. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE GOALS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Mark B.; Kapustin, Anton N.; Schwarz, John Henry; Carroll, Sean; Ooguri, Hirosi; Gukov, Sergei; Preskill, John; Hitlin, David G.; Porter, Frank C.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Newman, Harvey B.; Spiropulu, Maria; Golwala, Sunil; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-08-26

    of activity include: CDMS II data analysis, contributions to SuperCDMS Soudan operations and analysis, R&D towards SuperCDMS SNOLAB, development of a novel screener for radiocontamination (the BetaCage), and development of new WIMP detector concepts. Ren-Yuan Zhu leads the HEP crystal laboratory for the advanced detector R&D effort. The crystal lab is involved in development of novel scintillating crystals and has proposed several crystal based detector concepts for future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers. Its current research effort is concentrated on development of fast crystal scintillators with good radiation hardness and low cost. II) THEORETICAL PHYSICS The main theme of Sergei Gukov's current research is the relation between the geometry of quantum group invariants and their categorification, on the one hand, and the physics of supersymmetric gauge theory and string theory, on the other. Anton Kapustin's research spans a variety of topics in non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). His main areas of interest are supersymmetric gauge theories, non-perturbative dualities in QFT, disorder operators, Topological Quantum Field Theory, and non-relativistic QFT. He is also interested in the foundations and possible generalizations of Quantum Mechanics. Hirosi Ooguri's current research has two main components. One is to find exact results in Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory. Another is to explore applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence. He also plans to continue his project with Caltech postdoctoral fellows on BPS spectra of supersymmetric gauge theories in diverse dimensions. John Preskill works on quantum information science. This field may lead to important future technologies, and also lead to new understanding of issues in fundamental physics John Schwarz has been exploring a number of topics in superstring theory/M-theory, supersymmetric gauge theory, and their AdS/CFT relationships. Much of the motivation for these

  14. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  15. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  16. The Contribution of Graduate Student Research Published in "The Journal of Adult Education/Adult Education Quarterly," 1969-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Adrian; And Others

    A study determined the extent to which graduate students have contributed to the body of adult education knowledge through published research. It described content of graduate research articles and identified graduate programs, faculty who supported its production, and levels of graduate study involved in research publication. The study also…

  17. Sirtuins in dermatology: applications for future research and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Serravallo, Melissa; Jagdeo, Jared; Glick, Sharon A; Siegel, Daniel M; Brody, Neil I

    2013-05-01

    Sirtuins are a family of seven proteins in humans (SIRT1-SIRT7) that are involved in multiple cellular processes relevant to dermatology. The role of sirtuins in other organ systems is established. However, the importance of these proteins in dermatology is less defined. Recently, sirtuins gained international attention because of their role as "longevity proteins" that may extend and enhance human life. Sirtuins function in the cell via histone deacetylase and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase enzymatic activity that target histone and non-histone substrates, including transcription regulators, tumor suppressors, structural proteins, DNA repair proteins, cell signaling proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes. Sirtuins are involved in cellular pathways related to skin structure and function, including aging, ultraviolet-induced photoaging, inflammation, epigenetics, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle, DNA repair and proliferation. This review highlights sirtuin-related cellular pathways, therapeutics and pharmacological targets in atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular disorders, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic and keloid scars, cutaneous infections, and non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Also discussed is the role of sirtuins in the following genodermatoses: ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, Rubenstein-Taybi, Werner syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The pathophysiology of these inherited diseases is not well understood, and sirtuin-related processes represent potential therapeutic targets for diseases lacking suitable alternative treatments. The goal of this review is to bring attention to the dermatology community, physicians, and scientists, the importance of sirtuins in dermatology and provide a foundation and impetus for future discussion, research and pharmacologic discovery.

  18. Health literacy and adolescents: a framework and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Manganello, Jennifer A

    2008-10-01

    Health literacy is an important issue in public health today, especially as patients are taking a greater role in obtaining information about their health. Health literacy is commonly defined as 'the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. While there is a large body of literature concerning health literacy and adults, few studies have focused on adolescents. Adolescents may have less interaction with the health care system and lower health care costs than adults, but they are increasingly involved with their health care, especially those with chronic illness. They are frequent users of mass media and other technology to access health information and are a target group for many health-related educational interventions. Adolescents are also at a crucial stage of development, learning skills they will carry with them into adulthood. The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of issues justifying the importance of studying health literacy as it relates to adolescents and to provide a framework and suggestions for future research. PMID:18024979

  19. In Quest of Walter Smith: The Past, Present, and Future Impact of Visual Art in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Meredith Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Walter Smith is a relatively unknown historical figure in the art world, but he is essential to defining adult education's past. present. and future in the area of visual art. His artistic endeavors in America sparked facets of the way art education is practiced today. However, along the way we have lost the tenets of social change which he sought…

  20. Lobby is Not a Four-Letter Word: The Future of Adult Education Depends on Your Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Gene C.; Waugaman, Dorothy O.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the most effective methods of lobbying: personal visits to the legislator's office, telephone calls, letters, contacts by other legislators, testifying at hearings, and telegrams. Less effective means are contact at social affairs, media, and petitions. The importance of lobbying to the future of adult education is discussed. (CT)

  1. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond one year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of “health disparity population,” which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125

  2. Adult-child incest: a review of research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vander Mey, B J; Neff, R L

    1982-01-01

    Although of long-standing theoretical interest in the social sciences, it is only in recent years that researchers and the helping professions have begun to address the reality of incest as a social problem. This paper reviews the literature which addresses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Twenty-six independent empirical studies are examined. Related treatment and theoretical literature is also discussed. The following are highlighted: problems of definition; current reporting statistics; obstacles to reporting; incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics and circumstances of the incest family; short- and long-term effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. Finally, attention is directed to methodological problems--small samples, convenience samples, measurement issues, proper evaluation designs for treatment programs, etc.--which very few of the published studies adequately address. Suggestions are made.

  3. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy: Description, Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, Michaela A.

    2009-01-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a cognitive behavioural treatment initially developed for adult women with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of chronic suicidal behaviour (Linehan, 1993a; 1993b). DBT was the first treatment for BPD to demonstrate its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (Linehan ,…

  4. Making the Case--Adult Education & Literacy: Key to America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy, New York, NY.

    This publication is comprised of case statements of 14 attendees at an invitational meeting at the Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy and other adult educators. Offered as an advocacy tool for the field, these case statements represent short statements making the case for adult education and literacy; are the products of national leaders…

  5. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  6. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  7. Research in Young Adult Literature: Four Recent Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of young adult literature in light of contemporary literary theories; family relationships in selected young adult novels by Cynthia Vogt and Sue Ellen Bridgers; teaching young adult literature, moral inquiry, and the personal journey toward meaning; and using recorded books in a high school classroom. (RS)

  8. Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Graham, Mark J.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  9. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: an agenda for future research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Graham, Mark J; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  10. Major unsolved points in adult neurogenesis: doors open on a translational future?

    PubMed Central

    Peretto, Paolo; Bonfanti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In spite of many data gathered during the last two decades on adult neurogenesis (AN) it is evident that such knowledge is not sufficient for granting translational outcomes in brain repair, especially if the ultimate goal is to promote cell replacement. Alternative strategies aimed at fostering AN physiological functions (restorative approaches) are still undefined. By asking the question whether AN research field has to be considered as a dead end in the context of brain repair, here we review some unresolved issues: multifaceted evolutionary constraints in mammals, stem/progenitor cell type/availability and tissue permissivity, impact on other brain functions, interplay with other forms of plasticity, and relevance in humans. We suggest that full understanding of AN biology is an essential step for its possible exploitation in brain repair, and that further fundamental, multidisciplinary research is required to reach translational outcomes. Scientist's attitude and their communication skills are also important. To avoid overestimation of AN reparative potential in a translational perspective, more distant goals of cell replacement should be kept clearly distinct from restorative approaches involving AN functional plasticity. PMID:24966812

  11. From comparative effectiveness research to patient-centered outcomes research: policy history and future directions.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Laura P; Rich, Eugene C

    2012-07-01

    Containing growth in health care expenditures is considered to be essential to improving both the long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and the future affordability of health care in the US. As health care expenditures have increased, so too have concerns about the quality of health care. Better information on the clinical effectiveness of alternative treatments and other interventions is needed to improve the quality of care and restrain growth in expenditures. This article explains the key role played by the federal government in defining the context and process of comparative effectiveness research as well as its funding. Subsequently, the article explores the mission, priorities, and research agenda of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which is an independent, nonprofit corporation established in 2010 by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. PMID:22746239

  12. From comparative effectiveness research to patient-centered outcomes research: policy history and future directions.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Laura P; Rich, Eugene C

    2012-07-01

    Containing growth in health care expenditures is considered to be essential to improving both the long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and the future affordability of health care in the US. As health care expenditures have increased, so too have concerns about the quality of health care. Better information on the clinical effectiveness of alternative treatments and other interventions is needed to improve the quality of care and restrain growth in expenditures. This article explains the key role played by the federal government in defining the context and process of comparative effectiveness research as well as its funding. Subsequently, the article explores the mission, priorities, and research agenda of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which is an independent, nonprofit corporation established in 2010 by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  13. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  14. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  15. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  16. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  17. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  18. Critical Research and the Future of Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    This commentary argues for a specific conception of research, what the author and others call "critical research." The author asserts that critical research can help educators to identify quality teaching in literacy classrooms even as it helps to refine (or even redefine) their notions of curricula, pedagogy, literacy, and achievement. Here, the…

  19. A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

  20. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  1. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  2. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  3. Implementing TQM in Education: Current Efforts and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motwani, Jaideep

    1995-01-01

    A literature review classified four streams on total quality management (TQM) in education: (1) definition and measurement; (2) normative studies; (3) conceptual models; and (4) implementation and assessment. Phases of TQM implementation were identified: awareness and commitment, planning, program implementation, and evaluation; future directions…

  4. Energy and the Future: Research Priorities and National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an account of alternatives for solving energy shortage problems in future years. A national policy is needed. More concerted effort should be made to develop technologies for conversion of energy from conventional and non-conventional resources so that energy is cheaper, available for use and without environmental hazards. (PS)

  5. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Future of Cable TV Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This group of four papers considers the future of the cable television industry, and in particular, examines the impact of recent court and regulatory decisions in this field. The papers presented are: (1) "The First Amendment, Cable TV, and the Must-Carry Rule: Moving towards a Cost-Benefit Analysis" (John R. Woodbury, Federal Trade Commission);…

  6. Lexical Processing and Organization in Bilingual First Language Acquisition: Guiding Future Research

    PubMed Central

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between two languages in the early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. PMID:26866430

  7. Transition care: future directions in education, health policy, and outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Niraj; O'Hare, Kitty; Antonelli, Richard C; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    All youth must transition from pediatric to adult-centered medical care. This process is especially difficult for youth with special health care needs. Many youth do not receive the age-appropriate medical care they need and are at risk during this vulnerable time. Previous research has identified barriers that may prevent effective transition, and protocols have been developed to improve the process. Health outcomes related to successful transition have yet to be fully defined. Health care transition can also be influenced by education of providers, but there are gaps in medical education at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Current changes in federal health policy allow improved health care coverage, provide some new financial incentives, and test new structures for transitional care, including the evolution of accountable care organizations (ACO). Future work must test how these systems changes will affect quality of care. Finally, transition protocols exist in various medical subspecialties; however, national survey results show no improvement in transition readiness, and there are no consistent measures of what constitutes transition success. In order to advance the field of transition, research must be done to integrate transition curricula at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels; to provide advance financial incentives and pilot the ACO model in centers providing care to youth during transition; to define outcome measures of importance to transition; and to study the effectiveness of current transition tools on improving these outcomes.

  8. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    PubMed

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.

  10. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    PubMed

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees. PMID:24720464

  11. Breadwinner and caregiver: a cross-sectional analysis of children's and emerging adults' visions of their future family roles.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Megan; Coyle, Emily F

    2011-06-01

    Participants were 150 school-age boys and girls, 58 high school students, and 145 university students drawn from communities in the Southeastern United States. In this cross-sectional study, family role attitudes and expectations were examined across development. Parental work traditionality (occupational prestige and traditionality, and employed hours) predicted daughters' social role attitudes and plans for future family roles, such that daughters' envisioned families resembled that of their parents. Sons' and daughters' own attitudes about adult family roles predicted their plans to work or stay home with their future children; however, mothers' work traditionality predicted daughters' future plans over and above daughters' own attitudes. The only exception to this was in the case of university daughters, where university women's attitudes about social roles fully mediated this relationship. It may be that, as young women approach adulthood and the formation of families, they adjust their vision of their future self to match more closely their own attitudes about the caregiving role.

  12. Effects of Consideration of Future Consequences and Temporal Framing on Acceptance of the HPV Vaccine Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jarim; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    This study examines how individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) and temporal framing (i.e., present- vs. future-oriented message) interact to influence the persuasive outcomes of a health message promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young adults. Results of an experiment (N = 416) showed a significant interaction effect of CFC and temporal framing on persuasion. The nature of the interaction suggested that individuals with high CFC generally were more persuaded by the present-oriented messages, compared to the future-oriented messages. On the other hand, those with low CFC responded similarly to the present- and future-oriented messages. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26799968

  13. Educational Action Research to Achieve the Essential Competencies of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapenieks, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the conformity of the educational action research (EAR) process for the improvement of selected competencies that will be necessary in the near future for each active and responsible person. The most requested competencies in the near and midterm future are determined in accordance with near future structural requirements of…

  14. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  15. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  16. Women's Health Research: Road Map to the Future.

    PubMed

    Geller, Stacie; Pomeroy, Claire; Thomas, Patricia A

    2013-09-01

    For more than 20 years, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) has promoted the NIH's research agenda on women's health and sex and gender issues. Important biological and behavioral differences between women and men influence health and well-being, affecting normal function as well as the manifestations, epidemiology, and response to treatment of many illnesses. This special issue is dedicated to reaching across the globe to increase awareness of the importance of women's health research and to stimulate consideration of sex and gender differences in research at institutions around the world.

  17. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  18. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  19. Learning from the Past, Organizing for the Future: Adult and Community Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion; Tobias, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses key events in the history of adult and community education in Aotearoa New Zealand. It draws on historical sources to examine the role of grassroots community activism and local and national networking in upholding a broad vision of adult and community-based education, in the face of a hostile policy climate. The authors…

  20. Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

    This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

  1. Future Planning Resource Guide for Families and Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Illinois. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joe; Lopez, Erick; DeBrine, Elizabeth; Factor, Alan; Heller, Tamar; Ennis, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This updated guide helps families navigate the maze of adult services and supports for individuals with developmental disabilities. It responds to families' need for a centralized source of information that describes adult services and how to access them. Content includes an overview of the service system and information on legal and financial…

  2. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  3. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-05

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

  4. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  5. Literacy and Research: Past, Present and Future. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    The importance of research in literacy is that it provides some routes to greater efficiency in literacy provision. Research from the past shows how important reading and writing have been over the centuries. Literacy was often invested with social and moral power as well, and religious literacy was the predominant form of reading and writing from…

  6. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

  7. Constructing a Roadmap for Future Universal Screening Research beyond Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Volpe, Robert J.; Livanis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the literature on universal screening in education is devoted to academic screeners. However, research clearly indicates that other aspects of student functioning are closely associated with outcomes inside and outside of school. As a result, there are gaps in the current literature that call for additional research extending…

  8. Rater Cognition Research: Some Possible Directions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myford, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several decades, researchers have studied many and varied aspects of rater cognition. Those interested in pursuing basic research have focused on gaining an understanding of raters' thought processes as they score different types of performances and products, striving to understand how raters' mental representations and the cognitive…

  9. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings.

  10. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline—Alzheimer's disease and other dementias—hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  11. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: a hypothesis for future research.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri M; Wong, Patrick C M

    2013-12-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline-Alzheimer's disease and other dementias-hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  12. National Adult Student Priorities Report. Research Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Serving the needs of adult learners in today's economic environment is becoming a greater priority for colleges and universities. Student satisfaction is considered a core element for higher education institutions serving traditional-age students. More colleges and universities are expanding this assessment activity to adult students as well. As…

  13. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  14. Classroom Dynamics in Adult Literacy Education. NCSALL Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal; Medina, Patsy

    The effects of adult literacy classroom dynamics on the content and structure of instruction, learning processes, and classroom behavior were examined in a study during which 20 adult literacy classes in 8 states were observed and the teachers of those classrooms were interviewed. Key findings were as follows: (1) most classroom instruction…

  15. Mass Communication Research in Canada: Television and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eugene D.

    This paper contains partial data from an investigation of adults and television conducted for the Canadian Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. The first section of the paper offers a discussion of the viewing behaviors of adult Canadians derived from interview data, while the second section examines the "mean world…

  16. What Is Specific about Research in Adult Numeracy and Mathematics Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana

    2006-01-01

    After decades of neglect, adult numeracy and mathematics education are coming to be recognised as worthy of serious research but the area is beset by conceptual difficulties. Adult numeracy and mathematics may at last be "on the educational research map", but where exactly are they on the map? This article explores the question of what…

  17. Including Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Research: Scientists' Perceptions of Risks and Protections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.; Nelms, Sandra L.; Parker, Michael R.; Kimmel, Ali; Keys, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Social and cognitive characteristics of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) place them at risk for inappropriate inclusion in or exclusion from research participation. As we grapple with how to include adults with ID in research in order to secure their right to contribute to scientific advancements and be positioned to derive benefit from…

  18. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  19. Using Action Research to Develop a Course in Statistical Inference for Workplace-Based Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Sharleen

    2014-01-01

    Many adults who need an understanding of statistical concepts have limited mathematical skills. They need a teaching approach that includes as little mathematical context as possible. Iterative participatory qualitative research (action research) was used to develop a statistical literacy course for adult learners informed by teaching in…

  20. Perspectives on Adults Learning Mathematics: Research and Practice. Mathematics Education Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana, Ed.; O'Donoghue, John, Ed.; FitzSimons, Gail E., Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers that are designed to situate research and practice in adults learning mathematics within the wider field of lifelong learning and lifelong education. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Diana Coben, Gail E. FitzSimons, John O'Donoghue); "Review of Research on Adults Learning Mathematics" (Diana Coben);…

  1. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  2. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-07-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.

  3. Can We Escape the Program? Inventing Possible-Impossible Futures in/for Australian Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This essay brings together two lines of inquiry. Firstly, I revisit research on futures in education conducted during the 1980s and re-examine some of the propositions and principles that this research generated about "the future" as an object of inquiry in education. Secondly, I argue that the language of complexity invites us to rethink…

  4. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  5. The future of intersite networking. [Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Copies of viewgraphs and summaries of three discussion groups are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to identify strategies for meeting the computer networking needs to the scientists under the Office of Energy Research. (WRF)

  6. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  7. Future treatment and research directions in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Whether or not they will have their lives dramatically extended in the next few decades, it is clear that people are living longer, healthier, and more active lives. The two peak incidences of distal radius fractures will remain within the pediatric and geriatric age groups, with the latter experiencing a substantial increase in the coming years. This article attempts to project future developments with regard to epidemiology, risk and prevention, fracture assessment, and treatment of distal radius fractures, and the ever increasing concern for the economic impact of this prevalent injury.

  8. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  9. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  10. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  11. Social Change, the Future of the Community College, and the Future of Community College Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.

    Focusing on the social forces acting upon community colleges, this paper reviews possible modes of response by the colleges, focusing specifically on the role of institutional research. The first section presents an overview of the social forces affecting community colleges, discussing the 16% increase in two-year college enrollments in the…

  12. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages. PMID:22612344

  13. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  14. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  15. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  16. Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research…

  17. Psychotherapy training: Suggestions for core ingredients and future research.

    PubMed

    Boswell, James F; Castonguay, Louis G

    2007-12-01

    Despite our considerable depth and breadth of empirical knowledge on psychotherapy process and outcome, research on psychotherapy training is somewhat lacking. We would argue, however, that the scientist-practitioner model should not only guide practice, but also the way our field approaches training. In this paper we outline our perspective on the crucial elements of psychotherapy training based on available evidence, theory, and clinical experience, focusing specifically on the structure, key components, and important skills to be learned in a successful training program. In addition, we derive specific research directions based on the crucial elements of our proposed training perspective, and offer general considerations for research on training, including method and measurement issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  19. Surrogate consent for research involving adults with impaired decision making: Survey of Institutional Review Board practices

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Michelle Ng; Winkel, Gary; Rhodes, Rosamond; Richardson, Lynne D.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Most critically ill adults have impaired decision-making capacity and are unable to consent to research. Yet, little is known about how Institutional Review Boards interpret the Common Rule’s call for safeguards in research involving incapacitated adults. We aimed to examine Institutional Review Board practices on surrogate consent and other safeguards to protect incapacitated adults in research. Design, Settings, and Participants A cross-sectional survey of 104 Institutional Review Boards from a random sample of U.S. institutions engaged in adult human subject research (response rate, 68%) in 2007 and 2008. Interventions None. Measurements Institutional Review Board acceptance of surrogate consent, research risks, and other safeguards in research involving incapacitated adults. Main Results Institutional Review Boards reported that, in the previous year, they sometimes (49%), frequently (33%), or very frequently (2%) reviewed studies involving patients in the intensive care unit. Six Institutional Review Boards (6%) do not accept surrogate consent for research from any persons, and 22% of Institutional Review Boards accept only an authorized proxy, spouse, or parent as surrogates, excluding adult children and other family. Institutional Review Boards vary in their limits on research risks in studies involving incapacitated adults: 15% disallow any research regardless of risk in studies without direct benefit, whereas 39% allow only minimal risks. When there was potential benefit, fewer Institutional Review Boards limit the risk at minimal (11%; p < .001). Even in populations at high risk for impaired decision making, many Institutional Review Boards rarely or never required procedures to determine capacity (13%–21%). Institutional Review Boards also varied in their use of independent monitors, research proxies, and advanced research directives. Conclusions Much variability exists in Institutional Review Board surrogate consent practices and limits

  20. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  1. Helio-informatics: Preparing for the Future of Heliophysics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Cheung, M. C.; Derosa, M. L.; Seguin, R.; Kobashi, A.; Title, A.

    2007-12-01

    The rapidly growing data volumes for space-bourne and ground-based observatories for the Sun and heliosphere will soon make it impractical, costly, and effectively impossible for researchers to download and locally inspect substantial portions of the data archives. By the end of 2008, for example, the Solar Dynamics Observatory will downlink over 2TB/day of compressed data; such a large volume would readily saturate internet connections to the archive site if it were exported to a handful of researchers around the world. We envision a revolution in research methodology towards a mode in which researchers run autonomous event- finding algorithms at a primary data archive in order to preselect relatively small subsets of the data that can subsequently be inspected and analyzed in detail at a researcher's home institution. Teams from the SDO, Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE missions are developing the infrastructure that is needed to make this into a useful research tool: we are defining standardized event attributes compatible with the Virtual Observatory and EGSO concepts and developing a knowledge base supported by a web-based tool for compound queries based on the contents of solar and heliospheric observations. More information on our plans, target dates, and contact information can be found at the URL below. The Helio-informatics project is being developed with support from the HINODE /SOT (NNM07AA01C), SDO/AIA (NNG04EA00C), STEREO/SECCHI (N00173-02-C-2035), and TRACE (NAS5-38099) science investigations. informatics/hpkb/

  2. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, Eric K; Fulton, Anna L; Beebe, David J

    2014-03-13

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  3. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, Eric K.; Fulton, Anna L.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  4. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  5. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  6. The future of osteoporosis treatment - a research update.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by a progressive loss of bone mass and microarchitecture which leads to increased fracture risk. Some of the drugs available to date have shown reductions in vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. However, in the ageing population of industrialised countries, still more fractures happen today than are avoided, which highlights the large medical need for new treatment options, models, and strategies. Recent insights into bone biology, have led to a better understanding of bone cell functions and crosstalk between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes at the molecular level. In the future, the armamentarium against osteoporotic fractures will likely be enriched by (1.) new bone anabolic substances such as antibodies directed against the endogenous inhibitors of bone formation sclerostin and dickkopf-1, PTH and PTHrp analogues, and possibly calcilytics; (2.) new inhibitors of bone resorption such as cathepsin K inhibitors which may suppress osteoclast function without impairing osteoclast viability and thus maintain bone formation by preserving the osteoclast-osteoblast crosstalk, and denosumab, an already widely available antibody against RANKL which inhibits osteoclast formation, function, and survival; and (3.) new therapeutic strategies based on an extended understanding of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis which may include sequential therapies with two or more bone active substances aimed at optimising the management of bone capital acquired during adolescence and maintained during adulthood in terms of both quantity and quality. Finally, one of the future challenges will be to identify those patients and patient populations expected to benefit the most from a given drug therapy or regimen. The WHO fracture risk assessment tool FRAX® and improved access to bone mineral density measurements by DXA will play a key role in this regard.

  7. Future challenges for nuclear data research in fission (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    I describe some high priority research areas in nuclear fission, where applications in nuclear reactor technologies and in modeling criticality in general are demanding higher accuracies in our databases. We focus on fission cross sections, fission neutron spectra, and fission product data.

  8. Scholars Worry Conflicts over Data Could Hamstring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The recent high-profile data-confidentiality fights in Arizona and Los Angeles have researchers worried that access to educators may become a difficult path. In the course of a decadelong federal lawsuit over English-language-learner programs in Arizona, lawyers for state schools chief Tom Horne subpoenaed the raw data from three studies…

  9. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  10. Exploring the Future of Lifelong Learning: Advocacy, Research and Footprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This reflective think-tank contribution begins by comparing advocacy and research as distinct modalities of professional and social action. In practice they frequently elide and merge into one another. While alliance and complementarity between the two modalities is constructive for shaping policy and practice, it poses risks when governments and…

  11. Research on Future Skill Demands: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Over the past five years, business and education groups have issued a series of reports indicating that the skill demands of work are rising, due to rapid technological change and increasing global competition. Researchers have begun to study changing workplace skill demands. Some economists have found that technological change is…

  12. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  13. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  14. Research gaps in psoriasis: opportunities for future studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caitriona; Korman, Neil J; Gelfand, Joel M; Lim, Henry W; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gottlieb, Alice B; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Leonardi, Craig L; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made to further elucidate the complex pathogenesis of psoriasis, facilitating the development of a new armamentarium of more effective, targeted therapies. Despite these important advances, substantial deficits remain in our understanding of psoriasis and its treatment, necessitating further research in many areas. In the sixth section of the American Academy of Dermatology Psoriasis Guidelines of Care, gaps in research and care were identified. We discuss the most important gaps in research that currently exist and make suggestions for studies that should be performed to address these deficits. These encompass both basic science and clinical research studies, including large, prospective epidemiologic studies to determine the true prevalence and natural history of psoriasis; further molecular studies in patients with psoriatic and psoriatic arthritis to understand the function of psoriasis susceptibility genes and to identify novel therapeutic targets; studies to examine the role of environmental factors in the development of psoriasis; further investigation of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease; studies that examine the role of adjunctive therapies such as psychological interventions in appropriate patient groups; and finally, studies to identify biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response to optimize patient therapy. PMID:24126079

  15. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  16. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  17. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  18. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  19. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  20. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  1. The Future of Sociological Research: Measurement Errors and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blalock, H. M.

    The report deals with the relationship between measurement and data analysis procedures in sociological research. The author finds that too many measured variables exist in both theory and measurement assumptions. Since these procedures are interrelated, improvements in either or both areas are necessary. Presented are three sections: (1) specific…

  2. Computer Skills Acquisition: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A review of past research on training employees for computer-mediated work leads to the development of theory and propositions concerning the relationship between different variables, such as: (1) individual factors; (2) task and person-computer interface; (3) characteristics of training design for the acquisition of computer skills; and (4) the…

  3. Research on Community Bands: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature was to synthesize findings of studies investigating community bands. This review of literature centers on research that has been conducted on community bands in status studies, historical/cultural studies, pedagogical studies, health and wellness studies, and intergenerational studies. The last section of…

  4. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  5. Research gaps in psoriasis: opportunities for future studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caitriona; Korman, Neil J; Gelfand, Joel M; Lim, Henry W; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gottlieb, Alice B; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Leonardi, Craig L; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made to further elucidate the complex pathogenesis of psoriasis, facilitating the development of a new armamentarium of more effective, targeted therapies. Despite these important advances, substantial deficits remain in our understanding of psoriasis and its treatment, necessitating further research in many areas. In the sixth section of the American Academy of Dermatology Psoriasis Guidelines of Care, gaps in research and care were identified. We discuss the most important gaps in research that currently exist and make suggestions for studies that should be performed to address these deficits. These encompass both basic science and clinical research studies, including large, prospective epidemiologic studies to determine the true prevalence and natural history of psoriasis; further molecular studies in patients with psoriatic and psoriatic arthritis to understand the function of psoriasis susceptibility genes and to identify novel therapeutic targets; studies to examine the role of environmental factors in the development of psoriasis; further investigation of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease; studies that examine the role of adjunctive therapies such as psychological interventions in appropriate patient groups; and finally, studies to identify biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response to optimize patient therapy.

  6. Helio-informatics: Preparing For The Future Of Heliophysics Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Cheung, M. C.; Title, A. M.; Delouille, V.; Hochedez, J.; Berghmans, D.

    2007-05-01

    The rapidly growing data volumes for space- and ground-based observatories for Sun and heliosphere will soon make it impractical, costly, and perhaps effectively impossible for researchers to download and locally inspect substantial portions of the data archives. By the end of 2008, for example, the Solar Dynamics Observatory will downlink over 2TB/day of compressed data; such a large volume would readily saturate internet connections to the archive site if it were exported to a handful of researchers around the world. We envision a revolution in research methodology towards a mode in which researchers run autonomous event-finding algorithms at a primary data archive in order to pre-select relatively small subsets of the data that can subsequently be inspected and analyzed in detail at a researcher's home institution. Teams from the SDO, Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE missions are developing the infrastructure that is needed to make this into a useful research tool: we are (1) defining standardized event attributes compatible with the Virtual Observatory and EGSO concepts, (2) developing a knowledge base supported by a web-based tool for compound queries based on the contents of solar and heliospheric observations, and (3) assembling a group of researchers who are interested in helping us develop a prototype system while beta-testing it in real scientific studies. We invite you to contact us (a) if you have feature-finding algorithms that you would like to see applied to existing data archives, (b) if you would like to contribute expertise in developing the knowledge-base system, or (c) if you would like to participate in the testing of the system for scientific use. More information on our plans, target dates, and contact information can be found at http://www.lmsal.com/helio-informatics/hpkb/. The helio-informatics project is being developed with support from the HINODE/SOT (NNM07AA01C), SDO/AIA (NNG04EA00C), STEREO/SECCHI (N00173-02-C-2035), and TRACE (NAS5

  7. Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirements: Current Concepts and Future Research12

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Martin J.; Fu, Xueyan; Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the US Food and Nutrition Board concluded that there were insufficient data with which to establish a RDA for vitamin K, in large part because of a lack of robust endpoints that reflected adequacy of intake. Knowledge of the relative bioavailability of multiple vitamin K forms was also poor. Since then, stable isotope methodologies have been applied to the assessment of the bioavailability of the major dietary form of vitamin K in its free state and when incorporated into a plant matrix. There is a need for stable isotope studies with enhanced sensitivity to expand knowledge of the bioavailability, absorption, disposition, and metabolism of different molecular forms of vitamin K. Another area for future research stems from evidence that common polymorphisms or haplotypes in certain key genes implicated in vitamin K metabolism might affect nutritional requirements. Thus far, much of this evidence is indirect via effects on warfarin dose requirements. In terms of clinical endpoints, vitamin K deficiency in early infancy continues to be a leading cause of intracranial bleeding even in developed countries and the reasons for its higher prevalence in certain Asian countries has not been solved. There is universal consensus for the need for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns, but the effectiveness of any vitamin K prophylactic regimen needs to be based on sound nutritional principles. In contrast, there is still a lack of suitable biomarkers or clinical endpoints that can be used to determine vitamin K requirements among adults. PMID:22516726

  8. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  9. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  10. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  11. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  12. Future options for (economically) sustainable research in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Romay, Eduardo; Ferrer, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    The relentless increase in healthcare costs and the global economic crisis require us to rethink the way research is done. The heterogeneity of patients is a major challenge in designing and coordinating high-quality studies about sepsis. Studies on new treatments and devices, such as polymyxin B hemoperfusion, must be optimized not only for potential benefits for a specific population (i.e. efficacy), but also for their eventual implementation in real-world situations (i.e. effectiveness) and for economic costs (i.e. efficiency). In this regard, theragnosis and newer statistical tools could help us obtain useful information from real-life observational data. In this review, we discuss the basic components required for sustainable research in polymyxin B hemoperfusion. PMID:24457491

  13. Sleep Apnea Research in Animals. Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Swati; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Jun, Jonathan C

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that describes recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Animal models have been pivotal to the understanding of OSA pathogenesis, consequences, and treatment. In this review, we highlight the history of OSA research in animals and include the discovery of animals with spontaneous OSA, the induction of OSA in animals, and the emulation of OSA using exposures to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation.

  14. The Heffter Research Institute: past and hopeful future.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David E

    2014-01-01

    This essay describes the founding of the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 and its development up to the present. The Institute is the only scientific research organization dedicated to scientific research into the medical value of psychedelics, and it has particularly focused on the use of psilocybin. The first clinical treatment study was of the value of psilocybin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Next was a UCLA study of psilocybin to treat end-of-life distress in end-stage cancer patients. While that study was ongoing, a trial was started at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) to study the efficacy of psilocybin in treating anxiety and depression resulting from a cancer diagnosis. Following the successful completion of the UCLA project, a larger study was started at New York University, which is near completion. A pilot study of the value of psilocybin in treating alcoholism at the University of New Mexico also is nearing completion, with a larger two-site study being planned. Other studies underway involve the use of psilocybin in a smoking cessation program and a study of the effects of psilocybin in long-term meditators, both at JHU. The institute is now planning for a Phase 3 clinical trial of psilocybin to treat distress in end-stage cancer patients. PMID:24830182

  15. Indian Ocean Research Data: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Glover, David; Wiebe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Open access to well-documented data is essential to enable improved understanding of the key processes and their complex interactions in the Indian Ocean. For decades, marine ecosystem data have been collected by expeditions conducting research in this fascinating region. The data from many of the projects including the International Indian Ocean Expedition of the 1960s, the US Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Expedition of the 1990s, and several more recent projects have been contributed by the original investigators to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). BCO-DMO is funded by the US National Science Foundation to work with marine scientists to improve access to research data and ensure long term preservation of the data that comprise an important part of a research program's legacy. The data are freely available from the Web-accessible BCO-DMO system that supports data discovery, access, display, user-customizable export, and download. The authors will provide an overview of the BCO-DMO data system including examples of the range of data types and an introduction to system capabilities.

  16. [Clinical research on malaria: what for the future?].

    PubMed

    Cot, M

    2005-06-01

    Malaria still remains one of the main public health problems in the world. In spite of early and numerous clinical trials, the situation seems to have been worsening in the last ten years. Malaria clinical research involves several levels: Several meta-analyses have been performed on this topic (in particular, the Cochrane Database Library has published studies on malaria prevention during pregnancy, management of clinical malaria attacks, vaccine trials or impregnated bed net trials). All these studies show the uneven quality of trials (only 10% to 50% can be kept in the analysis for methodological reasons), which seldom lead to similar conclusions. Besides, as resistances of both parasites and vectors to drugs or insecticides are regularly increasing, trials have to be repeated and new molecules have to be found and evaluated. Finally, practical application of such interventions may be difficult, due to the heterogeneity of epidemiological situations and the poverty of target populations. Various initiatives aiming to develop malaria clinical research have recently been launched. Donators are public or international (Global Fund, Roll Back Malaria Initiative, NIH, EDCTP programme), as well as private (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). These substantial funds should enhance the research of new antimalarial drugs and large-scale, adequately designed trials. However, to make sure these trials really benefit to populations exposed to the disease, ethical principles should be co-elaborated with developing countries, within collaborative networks between laboratories from industrialized and developing countries.

  17. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  18. Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial and eukaryotic plant pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells to promote pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems are known to inject many of these effectors into plant cells. More recently, oomycete pathogens have been shown to possess a large family of effectors containing the RXLR motif, and many effectors are also being discovered in fungal pathogens. Although effector activities are largely unknown, at least a subset suppress plant immunity. A plethora of new plant pathogen genomes that will soon be available thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies will allow the identification of many more effectors. This article summarizes the key approaches used to identify plant pathogen effectors, many of which will continue to be useful for future effector discovery. Thus, it can be viewed as a ‘roadmap’ for effector and effector target identification. Because effectors can be used as tools to elucidate components of innate immunity, advances in our understanding of effectors and their targets should lead to improvements in agriculture. PMID:19849786

  19. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  20. Antioxidative peptides: trends and perspectives for future research.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A C; Andrade, J C; Silva, F M; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Duarte, A C; Gomes, A M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to dietary antioxidants, especially polyphenols. Several peptides derived from protein molecules have also been found to show antioxidant capacity along with other biological properties and thus there is an increasing interest in these compounds as health promoters. This review summarizes and discusses the main sources of antioxidative peptides with focus on food-derived peptides (animal, plant and marine sources), methods of preparation, antioxidant capacity evaluation as well as their proposed mechanisms of action. A discussion of the potential health effects and comments on the different applications for these antioxidants and their potential research interest are also subject of this review. PMID:23834185

  1. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Certa, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  2. Measuring the Burden—Current and Future Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a significant impact on health and well-being, from the beneficial aspects of moderate drinking to the detrimental effects of alcoholism. The broad implications of alcohol use on public health have been addressed through a wide range of epidemiological and clinical studies, many of which are described in this issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. Where chronic disease is involved, alcohol use can be a risk factor that not only affects the onset of various chronic diseases but also exacerbates the ongoing extent and severity of those diseases. Lifestyle choices and genetic influences also contribute to, or help to alleviate, that risk. PMID:24881334

  3. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  4. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  5. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  6. SMART Designs in Cancer Research: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Kelley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer affects millions of people worldwide each year. Patients require sequences of treatment based on their response to previous treatments to combat cancer and fight metastases. Physicians provide treatment based on clinical characteristics, changing over time. Guidelines for these individualized sequences of treatments are known as dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) where the initial treatment and subsequent modifications depend on the response to previous treatments, disease progression and other patient characteristics or behaviors. To provide evidence-based DTRs, the Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) has emerged over the past few decades. Purpose To examine and learn from past SMARTs investigating cancer treatment options, to discuss potential limitations preventing the widespread use of SMARTs in cancer research, and to describe courses of action to increase the implementation of SMARTs and collaboration between statisticians and clinicians. Conclusions There have been SMARTs investigating treatment questions in areas of cancer, but the novelty and perceived complexity has limited its use. By building bridges between statisticians and clinicians, clarifying research objectives, and furthering methods work, there should be in an increase in SMARTs addressing relevant cancer treatment questions. Within any area of cancer, SMARTs develop DTRs that can guide treatment decisions over the disease history and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24733671

  7. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  8. Disaggregated data and beyond: future queries in cancer control research.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Bao; Chawla, Neetu; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2014-11-01

    The goal of health equity requires the collection and reporting of disaggregated data in underrepresented populations such as Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) communities. A recent Department of Health and Human Services report outlines the necessity for disaggregated data, which would offer communities, providers, and planners better tools to address health problems. In a recent collaboration, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and several registries published a series of articles tracking cancer incidence data on AA and NHOPI communities using data from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The findings indicate a need for concentrated focus and planning for the next stages of cancer prevention and control for AA and NHOPI subpopulations. In this article, we provide (i) the context for the perpetuation of the model minority myth as well as historical and sociocultural factors that have shaped health and disease for AA and NHOPI subgroups; (ii) potential strategies for research and public health policy for AA and NHOPI groups using subpopulation-based approaches while addressing challenges and limitations; and (iii) a portfolio analysis of currently funded projects within the NCI/DCCPS to identify gaps and areas of potential research. PMID:25368401

  9. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  10. Social Working Memory: Neurocognitive Networks and Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Navigating the social world requires the ability to maintain and manipulate information about people’s beliefs, traits, and mental states. We characterize this capacity as social working memory (SWM). To date, very little research has explored this phenomenon, in part because of the assumption that general working memory systems would support working memory for social information. Various lines of research, however, suggest that social cognitive processing relies on a neurocognitive network (i.e., the “mentalizing network”) that is functionally distinct from, and considered antagonistic with, the canonical working memory network. Here, we review evidence suggesting that demanding social cognition requires SWM and that both the mentalizing and canonical working memory neurocognitive networks support SWM. The neural data run counter to the common finding of parametric decreases in mentalizing regions as a function of working memory demand and suggest that the mentalizing network can support demanding cognition, when it is demanding social cognition. Implications for individual differences in social cognition and pathologies of social cognition are discussed. PMID:23267340

  11. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  12. Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  14. [Rett syndrome: the state of research, and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-11-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by normal early psychomotor development followed by the loss of psychomotor and acquired purposeful hand skills and the onset of stereotyped movement of the hands and gait disturbance. The causative gene was discovered, and the disease was found to be caused by a mutation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. However, in many ways this clinically peculiar condition remains a mystery. I review the current status of clinical and basic research on RTT including data on the neurophysiology of the disease, neurotransmitter involvement, neuroimaging and neuropathology findings, molecular biology, animal models, regenerative medicine including ES cells and iPS cells, and other interventions and therapeutic trials.

  15. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Some thoughts on future directions in margin research

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Looking through the abstracts of presentations for this symposium, the authors see a science in transition. The quarter century since plate tectonic theory provided geoscience with a guiding framework in which to carry forward research into global tectonic phenomenon has witnessed a flourishing of research into the structure and evolution of continental margins. Margin evolution can now be placed firmly within this theoretical construct, thereby providing one of the key elaborations of the original theory that has given it its strength and value. What, then, is the next stage Are they in a period of normal science characterized by the detailed verification of an established paradigm, or can they hope for a really new direction Two approaches seem to present themselves. One is to focus attention on anomalies-things that don't quite fit or are not very easily covered by the present paradigm. Volcanic passive margins don't fit very well within the simple kinematic statement of plate tectonics, nor do eustasy and its effect on sedimentary sequences. While study of these square pegs in the round hole of plate theory may not bring them to a new paradigm, they might well provide significant modifications to the current wisdom. Perhaps a more fruitful approach is to propose that they are at a point in the development of other science at which the era of verification of the plate tectonic paradigm is sufficiently mature (perhaps even at its end) that the proper direction now is to establish a rigorous physical basis for the phenomena that are kinematically described by plate theory. The objective should be to created a higher order theory and thereby illuminate these known phenomena. Numerical and analytical modeling of deformational processes, magma generation, and migration are making leading contributions to this endeavor.

  17. Research, Teaching, Learning: Making Connections in the Education of Adults. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults (28th, Exeter, England, July 6-8, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Roseanne, Ed.

    This document contains 43 papers presented at a conference on research in teaching adults at the University of Exeter, England, in 1998. Among the papers are the following: "Reconstructing Academic Practice: Research and Teaching in a University School of Adult Education" (David Boud); "Re-searching Adult Education Practice: Paradoxes and…

  18. The Past, Present and Future for the Early Childhood Education Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    This paper reviews past research in the area of early childhood education, points out current realities, and suggests future possibilities for investigation. Description of past research draws on the yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Education and such sources as the "Handbook of Research in Early Childhood Education," edited by…

  19. The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Murray

    2003-01-01

    Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

  20. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  1. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  2. Adolescents' Changing Future Expectations Predict the Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…

  3. Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowood, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…

  4. The past, present and future tasks of Hungarian dendrological research.

    PubMed

    Bartha, D

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian dendrological research (research of living woody plants) has more than 200 years old history; the first general work by János Keresztély Grossinger was published in 1797. Further basic works in our time yet are: Forest Botany by Lajos Fekete and Sándor Mágócsy-Dietz (1896); and the chorological work, Distribution of trees and shrubs of sylvicultural importance in the region of Hungarian State by Lajos Fekete and Tibor Blattny (1913). A few dendrologists and many botanists have helped to get better knowledge of Hungarian dendroflora. From the point of view of taxonomy, chorology and habitat - which are interested by field botanists - it can be said that knowledge is fairly heterogeneous. There are sufficient information about most of the rare (protected/endangered) woody plants (an about 50 species) and the important adventives, above all invasive trees and shrubs (an about 10 species). From these two groups beyond there are only few taxa which can be said thoroughly worked up and known (e.g. Castanea sativa, Cornus mas, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp.). List of the dendrotaxa, hardly known in the above-mentioned point of view is rich in species that are important for forestry or horticulture (e.g. Alnus glutinosa, Acer spp., Betula pendula, Corylusavellana and most of Salix spp.), supplemented with other species (e.g. Clematis vitalba, Colutea arborescens, Lonicera xylosteum, Padus avium, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, Viburnum spp.).Followings can be asked from our field botanists: i) look for a specialist in cases of critical dendrotaxa; ii) a circumspect identification is necessary - especially in the case of leaves - by right of great number of samples from the adequate part of shoot; iii) keep in view frequent hybridization (e.g. in the case of Betula, Crataegus, Pyrus, Tilia), and frequent appearance of hybrids (e.g. Betula × rhombifolia, Cerasus × eminens, Salix × rubens); iv) appearance of interim forms are usually typical in the cases of

  5. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  7. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B.-M.; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  8. Why is Neuroimmunopharmacology crucial for the future of addiction research?

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-01-01

    A major development in drug addiction research in recent years has been the discovery that immune signaling within the central nervous system contributes significantly to mesolimbic dopamine reward signaling induced by drugs of abuse, and hence is involved in the presentation of reward behaviors. Additionally, in the case of opioids, these hypotheses have advanced through to the discovery of the novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 as the necessary triggering event that engages this reward facilitating central immune signaling. Thus, the hypothesis of major proinflammatory contributions to drug abuse was born. This review will examine these key discoveries, but also address several key lingering questions of how central immune signaling is able to contribute in this fashion to the pharmacodynamics of drugs of abuse. It is hoped that by combining the collective wisdom of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology, into Neuroimmunopharmacology, we may more fully understanding the neuronal and immune complexities of how drugs of abuse, such as opioids, create their rewarding and addiction states. Such discoveries will point us in the direction such that one day soon we might successfully intervene to successfully treat drug addiction. PMID:23764149

  9. CRYRING@ESR: present status and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Danared, H.; Engström, M.; Enders, W.; Fedotova, S.; Franzke, B.; Heinz, A.; Herfurth, F.; Källberg, A.; Kester, O.; Litvinov, Y.; Steck, M.; Reistad, D.; Simonsson, A.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Stöhlker, T.; Vorobjev, G.; the CRYRING@ESR working Group

    2015-11-01

    The former storage ring CRYRING has been shipped from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm to Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR. At its new location downstream of ESR all ion species presently accessible in ESR can be transferred to CRYRING, in which ions with rigidities between 1.44 and 0.054 Tm can be stored. The original Swedish layout has been modified by reconfiguring the sequence of straight sections and by slightly increasing the circumference to ESR/2. Ions can be injected from ESR or from an independent 300 keV/u RFQ test injector. The instrumentation of the ring includes an RF drift tube system for acceleration and deceleration (1 T s-1, with a possibility for an upgrade to 7 T s-1), electron cooling, a free experimental section, and both fast and slow extraction of ions. We report on the present progress of this project, give a prospective timeline, and summarize the new research which will be enabled by this project. First beam for commissioning of the storage ring is expected for 2015, final bakeout to restore ultrahigh vacuum conditions in 2016 and ion beams injected through ESR in ˜2017.

  10. Future directions in alcoholism research. Genomics and gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P J; Lipsky, R H

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol affects the process by which genes direct the synthesis of proteins (i.e., expression). Therefore, patterns of gene expression in the presence of alcohol can help scientists identify the specific molecular sites of alcohol's actions within the brain. New technologies can detect and quantify changes in the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously by scanning microscopic gene arrays applied to glass or silicon chips an inch or so square. However, genes whose activity is altered in the presence of alcohol may either be contributing to alcoholism development or may be reacting to alcohol's presence. This question can be researched by observing the effects of manipulating the level of specific gene products. One way to accomplish this end is by means of viruses that have been engineered to express a specific gene in infected cells. This technique has been applied successfully in studying addictive behaviors. It is suggested that patterns of gene expression may become a diagnostic tool, with different disease states being characterized by distinct expression profiles.

  11. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  12. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  13. REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ON LITERACY AND ADULT EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARQUARDT, WILLIAM F.

    A REVIEW OF RESEARCH CATEGORIZES LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AS FOLLOWS--(1) GENERAL REPORTS OF THE NUMBERS AND OCCUPATIONAL TYPES OF ILLITERATES IN EACH COUNTRY--(2) REPORTS OF THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IN PROMOTING LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC…

  14. Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…

  15. Moving towards Participatory Adult Education: Involving Family Literacy Students in Meaningful Leadership Experiences. Research Brief #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson; Prins, Esther; Drayton, Brendaly; Gungor, Ramazan; Gnanadass, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Although adult educators espouse values such as inclusion and ownership, adult learners seldom play a substantive role in programmatic decision making. This collaborative research project explored family literacy participants' experiences in their program's parent advisory council (PAC). The study shows that involvement in the PAC enhanced program…

  16. The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

    Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

  17. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  18. Annual Adult Education Research Conference. Proceedings (20th, Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 4-6, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Papers from numerous research areas in the adult education field are presented. The proceedings contain thirty-five papers, five symposia, one alternate symposium, and eighteen alternate papers. Among the papers included are "A Comparison of Approaches to Measuring Outcomes in Adult Basic Education,""A Critical Analysis of Hill's 'Cognitive Style…

  19. Pennsylvania Adult and Continuing Education Research Conference Proceedings (Monroeville, Pennsylvania, October 8, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Gary J., Ed.; Ferro, Trenton R., Ed.

    This document contains 5 invited papers, 11 refereed papers, and 3 symposium papers from an adult and continuing education research conference. The invited papers are: "Community and Adult Education: A Conceptual Framework for Theory and Practice" (Gary J. Dean); "Understanding the Control of Learning within Grassroots Initiatives" (Joyce S.…

  20. Involving Older Adults as Co-Researchers in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Carolyn; Hantman, Shira; Ben-Oz, Miriam; Criden, Wendy; Anghel, Roxana; Ramon, Shula

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of older adults as co-researchers to the evaluation of a gerontological social work course. The evaluation was conducted at an Israeli college as part of a collaborative project with a United Kingdom university. Here, we follow the older adults who are service users through their transition to the role of…

  1. Characteristics and Trends of Published Adult Hip Research over the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoon, Pil Whan; Park, Moon Seok; Kim, Hee Joong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We designed this study to demonstrate recent trends in the proportion of adult hip research in orthopedics, to identify countries leading the adult hip research, and to evaluate the relationship between the economic power of the countries and their contributions. Materials and Methods Studies published in seven select orthopedic journals were retrieved from PubMed. Among them, we determined the number of adult hip studies. The countries-of-origin of adult hip studies, and the economic power of the countries were investigated. Results A total of 7218 orthopedic publications and 1993 (27.6%) addressed adult hip research were identified. Adult hip studies increased from 313 (23.7%) in 2000 to 555 (27.9%) in 2011. Twenty-five countries accounted for 97.6% of the total number of adult hip studies, and gross domestic product correlated with publication volume (Spearman's rho, 0.723; p=0.000). Conclusion Researchers from a limited number of developed countries have published their studies in the adult hip discipline. PMID:25510756

  2. Applying Research in Reading Instruction for Adults: First Steps for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This book is a resource for adult education teachers who want to build and strengthen adults' reading skills. It aims first to build background knowledge about reading and scientifically based reading instruction, but the focus is in applying the research on modeling thinking, planning, and problem solving in the context of fictional adult…

  3. What's New in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for acute myeloid leukemia What’s new in acute myeloid leukemia research and treatment? Researchers ... benefit from current treatments. Researchers are studying many new chemo drugs for use in AML, including: Sapacitabine, ...

  4. "Ames Research Center: Linking our Origins to our Future"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Our research traces a path from interstellar materials to inhabited worlds and beyond. We examine how protoplanetary disks evolve and form terrestrial planets, the evolutionary paths of habitable planets, and how external factors (e.g., orbital eccentricity) and internal factors (atmospheric circulation) affect habitability. We trace, spectroscopically and chemically, the evolution of organic molecules from the interstellar medium onto habitable bodies. We examine how membranes might form under prebiotic planetary conditions. We evolve proteins capable of sustaining early metabolism, such as synthesis of biopolymers and transport of ions across membranes. We estimate the frequency of finding a functional prebiotic protein that formed spontaneously. We characterize the formation of diagnostic microbial biosignatures in rock-hosted ecosystems in ophiolite springs as an analog for subsurface life within our solar system, and photosynthetic microbial mats as biota that could be detected on extrasolar planets. We develop quantitative models that simulate energy relationships, biogeochemical cycling, trace gas exchange, and biodiversity. We examine the effects of climate variability on a vegetation-rich biosphere over intermediate time scales, using South American ecosystems as a model. We address natural transport of life beyond its planet of origin, such as on a meteorite, where survivors must withstand radiation, desiccation, and time in transit. We fly organisms and ecosystems in low Earth orbit to test their resistance to space. The Ames E&PO program disseminates these themes to national- and international-scale audiences through partnerships with the California Academy of Sciences, Yellow stone National Park, New York Hall of Science, and several K-14 educational organizations.

  5. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  6. Behavior-Analytic Research on Dementia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…

  7. Research-Based Model for Adult Consumer-Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN.

    This model is designed to be used as a guide by all teachers and designers of adult vocational consumer and homemaking courses who usually function as program planners. Chapter 1 contains an operational definition, the rationale, and description of intended users. Chapter 2 presents the model description with an overview and discussion of the…

  8. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  9. Advances and Remaining Challenges in Adult Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education…

  10. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)

  11. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  12. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  13. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  14. Practice in Reading Values: Reflections on Adult Literacy Teaching. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia, Ed.

    These 15 papers cover a wide range of topics and perspectives on the work of Adult Literacy and Basic Education (ALBE) practitioners in Victoria, Australia, in the contemporary ideological and political context. A preface (John Wilson) and introduction (Delia Bradshaw) begin the anthology. The papers are as follows: "...A Critical-Transformative…

  15. Research in Adult and Continuing Education: Master of Adult and Continuing Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman. Coll. of Education.

    The document presents an annotated bibliography of Master's degree theses in Adult and Continuing Education, Washington State University, 1974-76. Abstracts for the following 12 theses are presented: (1) Agrarian Reform in Chile: A Case Study; (2) An Analysis of the Activities and the Needs of the Senior Citizens in Garfield, Washington and the…

  16. Adult Education and the Disadvantaged Older Adult: An Analytical Review of the Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisel, Marsel A.

    1980-01-01

    Participation in educational activities brings disadvantaged older adults relief from conditions that aggravate their situation, and is instrumental in preventing intellectual decline, increasing self-confidence and enhancing the quality of life. Increased participation occurs when programs involve instrumental learning and take place in community…

  17. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  18. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  19. Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Jan; Hedenus, Fredrik; Rydhmer, Lotta; Stenström, Maria; Vrede, Katarina; Westin, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers.

  20. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158