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Sample records for adults including pregnant

  1. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  2. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  3. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  4. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  5. [Effects of pregnancy and lifestyles including food intake on bone density of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, K; Ikeda, J

    1998-01-01

    Bone densities measured by ultrasound at the calcaneus, and urinary hydroxyproline (H.P) and calcium (Ca) concentrations adjusted for creatinine (Cre) were measured in 79 pregnant women, aged 20 to 38 years, at 5-40 weeks of gestation. Stiffness calculated from the combined value of speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation was used as an index of bone density. The relationships between Stiffness and period of gestation, urinary H.P/Cre and Ca/Cre, and such lifestyles as current and past food intake frequency, physical activity and history of participating in sports obtained by questionnaire were examined using stepwise multiple regression analysis, including age and weight as independent variables. 1) The means of Stiffness in women with the gestation period of more than 20 weeks (primipara 79.6, multipara 83.4) are a little lower than those of non-pregnant and healthy women within the same age range. 2) Period of gestation showed a significant negative correlation to Stiffness. Significant positive correlations were found between urinary H.P/Cre and period of gestation. These results suggest that bone resorption increases with stage of gestation and causes bone loss in pregnant women. 3) Significant relationships with Stiffness was found only in frequency of cow's milk intake before pregnancy among various lifestyle factors. Stiffness of the subjects who took cow's milk every day before pregnancy was significantly higher than those who took less than 2-3 times per week or none. This result indicates that cow's milk and dairy products intake before pregnancy may be important for bone mineral maintenance during pregnancy.

  6. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  7. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  13. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  17. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  18. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  19. Including Educationally Deprived Adults in the Planning of Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilsley, Paul J.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores the various constraints on student involvement in the process of planning adult literacy programs. It examines the cultural traits of illiteracy and the traits of continuing education professionals in order to find the limits of their effectiveness. (Author/CT)

  20. Breastfeeding Intentions Among Pregnant Adolescents and Young Adults and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Hansen, Nathan; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of breastfeeding remain disproportionately low among young mothers in the United States. Although breastfeeding behavior may be most directly related to breastfeeding intention, little is known about breastfeeding intentions among young women who are expecting a baby. Subjects and Methods Pregnant adolescents and young adults (14–21 years old) and their male partners were recruited for participation. Females were asked if they intended to breastfeed, and their partners were asked if they wanted their partners to breastfeed; participants indicated reasons for their responses. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between breastfeeding intentions and sociodemographic characteristics, relationship characteristics, and partner's intention to breastfeed. Results Approximately 73% of females reported intending to breastfeed, and 80% of males reported wanting his partner to breastfeed, most commonly because it is “healthier for the baby” and “a more natural way to feed the baby.” Sociodemographic and relationship characteristics explained a small amount of variance of breastfeeding intention (15% and 4% among females, respectively, and 8% and 4% among males, respectively). Partner intention explained an additional 23% and 24% of the variance in individual intention for females and males, respectively. Females who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) from their current partner had lower odds of intending to breastfeed (odds ratio=0.37; 95% confidence interval=0.16, 0.84). Race/ethnicity modified associations among both genders. Conclusions These findings emphasize the importance of dyadic approaches and suggest strategies for improving breastfeeding intentions and behavior among young couples expecting a baby. These results are also among the first to document the relationship between IPV and breastfeeding intentions among young women. PMID:23611330

  1. A Mentor Manual: For Adults Who Work with Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfer, Frederick H.; Englund, Susan; Lennhoff, Claudia; Rhodes, Jean

    Intended for adults working with expectant and new teen mothers, this guide provides techniques and strategies for helping the teen mother develop skills needed to achieve parenting and life goals. The first half of the guide explores the relationship between the adult mentor and teen parent, and steps toward problem solving and positive change.…

  2. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  3. Pica associated with iron deficiency or depletion: clinical and laboratory correlates in 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many descriptions of the association of pica with iron deficiency in adults, but there are few reports in which observations available at diagnosis of iron deficiency were analyzed using multivariable techniques to identify significant predictors of pica. We sought to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of pica in adults with iron deficiency or depletion using univariable and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses. Methods We reviewed charts of 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients (ages ≥18 y) who required treatment with intravenous iron dextran. We tabulated their sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, symptoms and causes of iron deficiency or depletion, serum iron and complete blood count measures, and other conditions at diagnosis before intravenous iron dextran was administered. We excluded patients with serum creatinine >133 μmol/L or disorders that could affect erythrocyte or iron measures. Iron deficiency was defined as both SF <45 pmol/L and TS <10%. Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <112 pmol/L. We performed univariable comparisons and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses to identify significant correlates of pica. Results There were 230 women (184 white, 46 black; ages 19-91 y) and 32 men (31 white, 1 black; ages 24-81 y). 118 patients (45.0%) reported pica; of these, 87.3% reported ice pica (pagophagia). In univariable analyses, patients with pica had lower mean age, black race/ethnicity, and higher prevalences of cardiopulmonary and epithelial manifestations. The prevalence of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, did not differ significantly between patients with and without pica reports. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were lower and mean red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count were higher in patients with pica. Thrombocytosis occurred only in women and was more prevalent in those with pica (20.4% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.0050). Mean total iron

  4. Including Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Research: Scientists' Perceptions of Risks and Protections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.; Nelms, Sandra L.; Parker, Michael R.; Kimmel, Ali; Keys, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Social and cognitive characteristics of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) place them at risk for inappropriate inclusion in or exclusion from research participation. As we grapple with how to include adults with ID in research in order to secure their right to contribute to scientific advancements and be positioned to derive benefit from…

  5. Adult Education Literacy Instruction. Appendix: Tables of Studies Included in the Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Included here are two appendixes to "Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research." Appendix A, "Adult Studies," contains: (1) Assessment Profiles; (2) Alphabetics; (3) Fluency; (4) Vocabulary; and (5) Comprehension. Appendix B, "Adolescent Studies," contains: (1) Alphabetics; (2) Fluency; (3) Vocabulary; and (4) Comprehension.…

  6. [Nutrition of pregnant women: consequences for fetal growth and adult diseases].

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Ayoubi, J-M; Picone, O

    2015-01-01

    The developmental origins of human adult disease are thought to be secondary to a perturbation of the embryonic or fetal development, which leads to metabolic disorders such as diabetes or hypertension at adulthood. Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition, repeated glucocorticosteroids administered to the mother, or placental dysfunction are the most frequently considered causal factors. Therefore, it is necessary that the pediatrician is aware of these phenomena, as this knowledge may contribute to the prevention of adult diseases. Little is known yet, however, on the pathophysiological or epigenetic mechanisms that lead to theses observations, and more studies are needed both in humans and animal models. PMID:25440770

  7. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; P<0.001), and unintended pregnancy (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07-7.86; P=0.03). Results indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  8. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  9. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  10. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in a pregnant woman diagnosed as a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 carrier.

    PubMed

    Fuchi, Naoki; Miura, Kiyonori; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), which is difficult to cure. In Japan, a nationwide HTLV-1 screening test in pregnant women has been recommended since 2011. A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed as being an HTLV-1 carrier in her previous pregnancy. During the current pregnancy, she had persistent fever and cough. Although she had treatment with antibiotics, peripheral white blood cell count remained high, with an abnormal lymphocyte count. Given that she was an HTLV-1 carrier, she was diagnosed with unfavorable chronic ATL (aggressive ATL) at 12 weeks gestation. After pregnancy termination, her ATL status became favorable chronic ATL (indolent ATL). Therefore, watchful waiting was performed until disease progression. This is the first case report of chronic ATL in early pregnancy, in a woman already diagnosed as an HTLV-1 carrier on screening test. PMID:26663442

  11. Multidisciplinary management including periodontics, orthodontics, implants, and prosthetics for an adult.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Teresa; Neves, Manuel; Alves, Célia

    2012-08-01

    This article describes the complex dental treatment of an adult patient with multiple missing teeth, mild chronic periodontitis, and a malocclusion with a cant of the occlusal plane. After periodontal treatment, titanium implants and a miniscrew were placed to correct the occlusal plane canting with orthodontic treatment. Prosthodontic treatment was completed by using osseointegrated implants to replace the missing teeth. PMID:22858334

  12. A simple technique for maintaining Stimulium adults, including onchocerciasis vectors, under artificial conditions.

    PubMed

    Raybould, J N; Mhiddin, H K

    1974-01-01

    The maintenance of Simulium adults in the laboratory is necessary for many experimental investigations and is a prerequisite to laboratory colonization. A simple technique for this purpose is described in which each fly is kept separately in a hole bored in a block of expanded polystyrene.

  13. Chelonitoxism in Andaman and Nicobar Island: A report on mass poisoning including a death of an adult.

    PubMed

    Singh, S S; Biswas, Ashok Kumar; Shirley, P; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-08-01

    Chelonitoxism is a type of seafood poisoning which usually occurs due to consumption of certain marine turtle flesh. As the pharmacology or chemistry of the toxin is still unknown, antidote or treatment to chelonitoxism is unavailable. The symptoms can vary from common gastro-intestinal symptoms to neurological manifestations and even death. This case report of community poisoning following consumption of turtle meat includes the death of an adult male (56 yrs.) being reported for the first time in the Great Nicobar Island, Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands, India in August 2012. The patient encountered common gastrointestinal symptoms after one day of ingestion of green turtle flesh and later, he developed neurological symptoms and did not respond to symptomatic treatment and expired after four days after the consumption. However, out of 30 villagers who took the same food, six others developed symptoms and recovered within a period of 3-7 days while two pets (a dog and a cat) died within 24 hours as they were fed with the same food. In spite of several existing wildlife protection acts, catching a turtle and making them a source of food-celebration is quite common in coastal areas of the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal which includes A&N Islands. A proper monitoring and follow-up of the food-borne diseases along with a wide range of explorative health education protocol should be implemented especially for the people who are not reachable via media to avoid such incidents in future. PMID:27103071

  14. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  15. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  16. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  17. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an “asylum seeker” or “refugee” from the Middle East. Results In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16–84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified

  18. A Select Bibliography of Adult Education in Great Britain; Including Works Published to the End of the Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas, Ed.

    The emphasis in the selectively annotated bibliography is primarily on nonvocational adult education. The 1,756 entries are grouped into four large categories, with subdivisions: general (bibliographies, yearbooks and directories, encyclopedias, and periodicals); social and educational background (general works, history of education, and mass…

  19. The pregnant dental patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Medha

    2012-01-01

    When dealing with a pregnant patient, the dental practitioner should keep in mind the various physiological changes that occur in the pregnant female and the potential effects on the fetus in using various types of local anesthesia. This article reviews the current considerations in the use of local anesthesia in the pregnant dental patient, and the safety of local anesthetics, their dosage, and any adverse effect on mother and fetus. It also discusses various dental procedures and the trimester during which they can be performed. Lastly, this article talks about the complications that can occur with a pregnant dental patient in the dental chair.

  20. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  1. Bilateral dacryocystoceles in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kristin E; Yang, Elizabeth; Echegoyen, Julio; Yoon, Steven J; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, for the first time, bilateral, sequential large dacryocystoceles during pregnancy and review the literature for this presentation. A 26-year-old, 15-week pregnant woman presented with OD epiphora, diplopia, and pain in the setting of an inferomedial orbital mass. Surgical exploration and histopathology were consistent with a dacryocystocele, and a dacryocystorhinostomy was curative. She returned at 34-week gestation, with an identical presentation on the left side. Review of the literature reveals that dacryocystoceles occasionally present in adults; however, bilateral involvement may be unusual. Bilateral dacryocystoceles have not been previously reported in a pregnant woman.

  2. Distribution of Methylene Blue after Injection into the Epidural Space of Anaesthetized Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Xavier; García, Felix; Ferrer, Rosa Isabel; Santos, Laura; Aguilar, Adrià; Andaluz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of different volumes of methylene blue solution injected into the epidural space in anaesthetized pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, to evaluate its cranial distribution and to compare between them. Fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant sheep were included in the study. Sheep were anaesthetized and received 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mL/kg of a lumbosacral epidural solution containing 0.12% methylene blue in 0.9% saline. Thirty minutes after the epidural injection, the ewes were euthanized. The extension of the dye within the epidural space was measured, and the correlation between the volume of the dye injected and the number of stained vertebrae was evaluated. The cranial migration of the dye between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep was also compared. The results show that the volume of methylene blue injected epidurally into pregnant and non-pregnant sheep correlated directly with its cephalic distribution into the epidural space; and a volume of 0.1 mL/kg or 0.2 mL/kg stained up to the first lumbar segment in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, respectively. Also, the results suggest that the volume of drugs administered into the epidural space of pregnant sheep should be half the volume that would be used in non-pregnant sheep. PMID:24709655

  3. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  4. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test.

  5. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test. PMID:26450840

  6. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... animals presents risk of trauma to the abdomen. INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pregnant women who develop travelers’ diarrhea or other ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  7. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  8. 1: Infections in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-03-01

    Some infections are more serious in pregnant than non-pregnant women because of the potential for vertical transmission to the fetus or infant (eg, varicella, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis). Pre-pregnancy or routine antenatal screening for presence of, or susceptibility to, some of these infections and appropriate management can prevent adverse fetal or perinatal outcomes; screening should include rubella IgG, hepatitis B surface antigen, serological tests for syphilis and HIV antibody. If certain other vertically transmissible infections are suspected because of a positive antenatal test result, confirmatory tests for maternal and, if indicated, fetal infection are essential before intervention is considered (eg, cytomegalovirus infection). For some vertically transmissible infections that are not readily preventable, appropriate management of maternal infection can reduce fetal damage (eg, toxoplasmosis). PMID:11999241

  9. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and aftercare for paediatric and adult niche indications including pain: international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Rawicki, B; Sheean, G; Fung, V S C; Goldsmith, S; Morgan, C; Novak, I

    2010-08-01

    Evidence is emerging for the use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) for niche indications including pain independent of spasticity. Pain indications such as chronic nociceptive back pain, piriformis syndrome, chronic myofascial pain, pelvic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, facial pain and neuropathic pain are outlined in this paper. Of these, class I evidence is available for the treatment of chronic nociceptive low back pain, piriformis syndrome, myofascial pain, facial pain, neuropathic pain and plantar fasciitis. Peri-operative use of BoNT-A is emerging, with indications including planning for surgery and facilitating surgery, as well as healing and improving analgesia post-operatively. Evidence is limited, although there are some reports that clinicians are successfully using BoNT-A peri-operatively. There is class I evidence showing pre-operative use of BoNT-A has a beneficial effect on outcomes following adductor-release surgery. The use of BoNT for treatment of tremor, other than neck tremor in the setting of cervical dystonia, including evidence for upper limb tremor, cranial tremor and non-dystonic neck tremor is reviewed. The evidence is variable at this stage, and further study is required to develop definitive recommendations for the clinical utility of BoNT-A for these indications.

  10. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and aftercare for paediatric and adult niche indications including pain: international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Rawicki, B; Sheean, G; Fung, V S C; Goldsmith, S; Morgan, C; Novak, I

    2010-08-01

    Evidence is emerging for the use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) for niche indications including pain independent of spasticity. Pain indications such as chronic nociceptive back pain, piriformis syndrome, chronic myofascial pain, pelvic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, facial pain and neuropathic pain are outlined in this paper. Of these, class I evidence is available for the treatment of chronic nociceptive low back pain, piriformis syndrome, myofascial pain, facial pain, neuropathic pain and plantar fasciitis. Peri-operative use of BoNT-A is emerging, with indications including planning for surgery and facilitating surgery, as well as healing and improving analgesia post-operatively. Evidence is limited, although there are some reports that clinicians are successfully using BoNT-A peri-operatively. There is class I evidence showing pre-operative use of BoNT-A has a beneficial effect on outcomes following adductor-release surgery. The use of BoNT for treatment of tremor, other than neck tremor in the setting of cervical dystonia, including evidence for upper limb tremor, cranial tremor and non-dystonic neck tremor is reviewed. The evidence is variable at this stage, and further study is required to develop definitive recommendations for the clinical utility of BoNT-A for these indications. PMID:20633183

  11. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  12. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  13. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. Spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ramos Ibarra, M L; Martínez-González, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ontiveros-Lira, D; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

    2001-07-25

    In our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the MNE diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. Here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. The number of spontaneous MNE that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and normochromatic. This is our third report on spontaneous MNE in different species. We obtained 189 peripheral blood samples of mammals, birds and reptiles. From 12 species we obtained only one sample, and 16 were reported previously, but now the size of the sample has been increased. The species with the highest spontaneous MNE were the Vietnamese potbelly pig (with the highest MNE number), Bengal tiger, capuchin monkey, puma, ferret, owl, hedgehog, squirrel monkey, pig and white-tailed deer. These species could be used as monitors for genotoxic events.

  15. Differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. Spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ramos Ibarra, M L; Martínez-González, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ontiveros-Lira, D; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

    2001-07-25

    In our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the MNE diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. Here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. The number of spontaneous MNE that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and normochromatic. This is our third report on spontaneous MNE in different species. We obtained 189 peripheral blood samples of mammals, birds and reptiles. From 12 species we obtained only one sample, and 16 were reported previously, but now the size of the sample has been increased. The species with the highest spontaneous MNE were the Vietnamese potbelly pig (with the highest MNE number), Bengal tiger, capuchin monkey, puma, ferret, owl, hedgehog, squirrel monkey, pig and white-tailed deer. These species could be used as monitors for genotoxic events. PMID:11423355

  16. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant. PMID:17005297

  17. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27239992

  18. Health-related quality of life: expanding a conceptual framework to include older adults who receive long-term services and supports.

    PubMed

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M; Hirschman, Karen B; Bowles, Kathryn H; Foust, Janice B; Naylor, Mary D

    2013-04-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL) concept that encompasses aspects of QOL that affect health such as function, physical, and emotional health. Examining existing theoretical constructs and indicators of HRQoL among LTSS recipients led us to posit a revised conceptual framework for studying HRQoL among LTSS recipients. We adapted the Wilson and Cleary HRQoL model by expanding function to specifically include cognition, adding behavior and LTSS environmental characteristics in order to create a more robust HRQoL conceptual framework for older adults receiving LTSS. This refined conceptual model allows for the measurement of a mix of structural, process, and outcome measures. Continued development of a multidimensional conceptual framework with specific HRQoL measures that account for the unique characteristics of older adults receiving LTSS will contribute significantly to LTSS research, policy, and planning efforts.

  19. [Tracheal paraganglioma in pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Krogdahl, Annelise Solveig; Godballe, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Paraganglioma with tracheal location is a rare tumor. Twelve cases with involvement of the trachea have been reported in English literature, including six cases of solely tracheal paragangliomas. We present a case of a paraganglioma confined to the tracheal wall in a 33-year-old pregnant woman. The tumor was locally resected. Follow-up 17 months later showed no evidence of relapse. Based on the literature, we found that the most common symptoms are respiratory impairment and haemoptysis. None of the cases showed malignant behaviour. PMID:20594539

  20. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing. PMID:22951028

  1. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing.

  2. Fetal Programming of Adult Disease: Implications for Prenatal Care

    EPA Science Inventory

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult ...

  3. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E; Weyant, Robert J; Shaffer, John R; Crout, Richard J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Beach, Scott R; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G; Brown, Linda J; Strotmeyer, Stephen J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  4. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  5. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  6. NICOTINE METABOLISM IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Tutka, Piotr; Dempsey, Delia A.; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L.; Kroetz, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking remains a major public health concern during pregnancy and is associated with numerous adverse effects. Recently the clearance of nicotine (NIC) and cotinine (COT) was shown to be substantially increased in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls. The present study investigated the usefulness of the rabbit for studying the molecular basis for the observed changes in NIC and COT disposition during pregnancy. NIC was largely metabolized to COT in rabbit liver microsomes (approximately 50% of total metabolism) with significant amounts of nicotine-N’-oxide and nornicotine also being detected. The conversion of NIC to COT was also detected in rabbit placental and fetal liver microsomes albeit at only a fraction of the rate in adult rabbit liver microsomes. The major products of COT metabolism in rabbit liver microsomes were 5’-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N’-oxide and norcotinine. Differences between human and rabbit liver were most apparent for COT, with the major human metabolite 3’-hydroxycotinine, being formed at only low levels in rabbit liver microsomes. Pregnancy had no effect on the metabolism of NIC or on the expression of CYP2A6 immunoreactive proteins in rabbit liver microsomes. These studies provide a complete quantitative assessment of NIC metabolism in rabbit liver microsomes and suggest that the rabbit may not be an appropriate animal model to study the effects of pregnancy on NIC and COT metabolism. However, a molecular understanding of these effects is essential for prediction of the pharmacological and toxicological consequences of smoking during pregnancy. PMID:18686186

  7. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  8. [Non-pregnant women's nutrition and its impact in life quality].

    PubMed

    Casanueva, E

    1999-03-01

    Emphasis is made in the nutrition aspects related to women at reproductive age that are not pregnant or lactating and that includes the variations that happen throughout the menstrual cycle, fluctuations in energy expenditure, body composition and mood. Nutrition role in some premenstrual syndrome alterations as premenstrual stress (serotonin, magnesium, calcium and vitamin E), anemia, gynecological cancers (antioxidants, alcohol, folic acid, lipids, fiber and phytosterols) and osteoporosis (exercise and diet) are also described, as well as the impact on nutrition of the use of contraceptive methods (hormonal and intrauterine devices). Practical recommendations directed toward the evaluation and management of the main nutrition needs of adult women are included.

  9. Everyday life memory deficits in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problems with memory. Sixty-one pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women completed a series of memory tests which included field and laboratory measures of prospective memory. Three standardized questionnaires were used to assess subjective aspects of memory. The influence of cortisol, depressed mood, anxiety, physical symptoms, sleep/fatigue, and busyness on pregnancy-related deficits was also examined. The findings revealed objective pregnancy-related deficits on two of the field measures of prospective memory. Pregnancy-related subjective deficits were also detected on all of the questionnaires. In contrast, no objective pregnancy-related deficits were found on the laboratory measures of memory. Increased physical symptoms accounted for one of the objective deficits in memory, while depressed mood and physical symptoms accounted for two of the subjective memory deficits. Collectively, these findings suggest that pregnant women experience everyday life problems with memory that are not readily detected in the laboratory environment. The predominant use of laboratory tests may explain the myriad of previous failures to detect objective deficits in pregnant women's memory.

  10. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Methods Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Results Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P < 0.05), endothelial/pericyte and luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p < 0.05), apoptotic cell numbers on day 19 (p < 0.05) and the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF on day 14 and 19, respectively (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P < 0.05) and the proliferative activity of endothelial/pericytes cells on day 14 (p <0.05), as well as the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 on day 19 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Hypothyroidism reduces the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2in the corpus luteum of pregnant rats, contrary to what is observed in hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period. PMID:25298361

  11. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  12. Transient pancytopenia preceding adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal abnormalities including the Philadelphia chromosome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YUN; DING, LUYIN; LI, XIAN; WANG, WEIQIN; ZHANG, XIAOHONG

    2015-01-01

    A preleukaemic phase, typified by transient pancytopenia, is a rare occurrence that usually affects children and adolescents. The present study reports the case of a 50-year-old woman with transient pancytopenia, which manifested as a fever, cough and severe anemia. Three weeks following treatment of pancytopenia with antibiotics, red blood cell and platelet transfusion, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and human γ globulin, the condition of the patient was improved. However, 3 weeks following discharge from hospital, the patient was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with complex chromosomal abnormalities, including Philadelphia chromosome and P190 breakpoint cluster region-ABL. Complete remission was achieved following one course of combination chemotherapy. In conclusion, adult ALL with pancytopenia as a preceding symptom is rare, difficult to diagnose early and easily misdiagnosed. In addition, the pathogenesis of ALL and the precipitating factors underlying this disease require further investigation. PMID:26788209

  13. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it. PMID:12314921

  14. The effectiveness of including support people in a cognitive behavioural weight loss maintenance programme for obese adults: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Rieger, E; Treasure, J; Swinbourne, J; Adam, B; Manns, C; Caterson, I

    2014-04-01

    The well-documented finding that obese adults have a high likelihood of weight regain following participation in behavioural weight loss programmes highlights the importance of developing more effective approaches for weight loss maintenance. One promising approach is to improve the quality of social support for effective weight control available to an obese individual by including support people in behavioural weight loss programmes. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effectiveness of training support people to assist obese adults in their weight management. The study entails a two-arm randomized controlled trial in which obese participants take part in a 1-year (26-session) cognitive behaviour therapy group weight management programme, including motivational interviewing strategies (CBT-MI). In one arm, participants receive CBT-MI alone, while in the second arm (CBT-MI-SP), participants also have a support person who attends 10 group sessions designed to teach effective skills for supporting an individual in healthy weight control. More specifically, support people will be trained in skills that aim to promote self-motivation for weight management. Assessments of anthropometric, medical, behavioural, motivational, psychological and social functioning take place at pre-treatment, post-treatment and a 1-year follow-up. By helping obese participants to increase and sustain their motivation and skills for weight control both during treatment and in the crucial period after treatment cessation through the ongoing input of support people, the CBT-MI-SP approach of the current study has the potential to effectively help patients to achieve sustained weight loss while minimizing the patient's need for ongoing, intensive weight control treatment with its attendant costs. PMID:25826731

  15. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  16. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  17. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  18. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  19. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  20. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  1. [The pregnant adolescent].

    PubMed

    Grenon-Plante, D

    1982-03-01

    According to the Canadian Association of Family Planning 85% of adolescents are unprotected at their 1st intercourse, and 16% become pregnant; only 20% of those having a regular sex life use contraception. Women below 20 contributed to 17% of births in 1976 in Canada; in the same year 41.5% of all new mothers were unmarried, and only 27.5% of new fathers accepted responsibility for their paternity. These figures give an idea of the extent of the problem of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, a problem shared by all Western countries. The adolescent mother is too young to know what she wants, not to mention to accept responsibility for the caring of an infant. Risk of maternal mortality is twice as great among teenage mothers, and so is risk of infant death, mostly due to prematurity. Nurses can play a very important role in helping adolescent mothers, and they must never project their moral values on their young patients.

  2. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  3. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  4. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  5. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Does Social Support Predict Pregnant Mothers’ Information Seeking Behaviors on an Educational Website?

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, JP; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women’s information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Methods Participants were pregnant women (N= 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Results Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR= 1.95, 95%CI [1.26–3.03]), FAQs (OR= 1.64 [1.00–2.67]), and blogs (OR=1.88 [1.24–2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR= 1.19 [1.00–1.42]). Conclusions While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content. PMID:24671467

  8. Does social support predict pregnant mothers' information seeking behaviors on an educational website?

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, J P; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-11-01

    We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women's information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Participants were pregnant women (N = 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR 1.95, 95 % CI [1.26-3.03]), FAQs (OR 1.64 [1.00-2.67]), and blogs (OR 1.88 [1.24-2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR 1.19 [1.00-1.42]). While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content. PMID:24671467

  9. Does social support predict pregnant mothers' information seeking behaviors on an educational website?

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, J P; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-11-01

    We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women's information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Participants were pregnant women (N = 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR 1.95, 95 % CI [1.26-3.03]), FAQs (OR 1.64 [1.00-2.67]), and blogs (OR 1.88 [1.24-2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR 1.19 [1.00-1.42]). While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content.

  10. Investigations of Crashes Involving Pregnant Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Case reports of 16 crashes involving pregnant occupants are presented that illustrate the main conclusions of a crash-investigation program that includes 42 crashes investigated to date. Some unusual cases that are exceptions to the overall trends are also described. The study indicates a strong association between adverse fetal outcome and both crash severity and maternal injury. Proper restraint use, with and without airbag deployment, generally leads to acceptable fetal outcomes in lower severity crashes, while it does not affect fetal outcome in high-severity crashes. Compared to properly restrained pregnant occupants, improperly restrained occupants have a higher risk of adverse fetal outcome in lower severity crashes, which comprise the majority of all motor-vehicle collisions. PMID:11558095

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  12. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  14. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  15. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  16. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  17. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  18. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05).

  19. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. Methods/design The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will

  20. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  1. Quit4baby: Results From a Pilot Test of a Mobile Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) programs have been shown to be effective in helping adult smokers quit smoking. This study describes the results of a pilot test of Quit4baby, a smoking cessation text messaging program for pregnant smokers that was adapted from Text2quit. Objective The study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby for women currently enrolled in Text4baby, a perinatal health text messaging program. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in Text4baby and who were current smokers or had quit within the last 4 weeks (n=20) were enrolled in Quit4baby. Those under the age of 18, not pregnant, not current smokers, those using nicotine replacement therapy, and those not interested in participating were ineligible. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks postenrollment. Results Most participants responded to the program favorably. Highly rated aspects included the content of the program, skills taught within the program, and encouragement and social support provided by the program. Participants reported that the program was helpful in quitting, that the program gave good ideas on quitting, and that they would recommend the program to a friend. Suggestions for improvement included increasing the message dose and making the quitpal more interactive. Conclusions This pilot test provides support for the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby. Future studies are needed to assess whether Quit4baby is effective for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:25650765

  2. Serum silicon concentrations in pregnant women and newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Anderson, Simon H C; Lakasing, Lorin; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-12-14

    Earlier studies in animals have suggested an essential role for Si in connective tissues, but such works have not been replicated per se. Nonetheless, a study conducted in 2000 has reported that Si may be essential during pregnancy for the growing fetus, since serum Si concentrations in infants were approximately 300 % higher than those in older children and adults and serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were approximately 300 % lower than those in age-matched non-pregnant controls. To reproduce these potentially important findings, in the present study, serum Si concentrations were measured in fourteen pregnant women (15-24 weeks of gestation) and compared with those of seventeen non-pregnant, non-lactating female controls. Serum Si concentrations were also measured in fourteen full-term mothers at the time of delivery and in the umbilical cord (UC) vein and artery where possible. Fasting serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were not significantly different from those of the female controls and showed little change with advancing gestation (r 0·2). Mean serum Si concentrations in the UC vein samples were 52 % higher, while those in the UC artery samples were 235 % higher than those in the maternal forearm vein samples, although data were widely spread and differences were not significant. Mean maternal forearm vein Si concentrations at delivery were 50 % lower than those of pregnant women and female controls, but, again, these were not significant. Overall, we note that there are significant analytical challenges in comparing baseline Si levels between different groups; notwithstanding, our findings cannot confirm a reduction in fasting serum Si levels during pregnancy, but, equally, we cannot rule out higher serum Si levels in newborns than in their mothers, and further work is required. PMID:23702224

  3. [Adverse drug reactions in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Cabou, Cendrine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2007-01-01

    A Prospective pharmacovigilance survey of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in pregnant women was performed in collaboration with gynaecologists and obstetricians of Midi-Pyrenees area (south west of france). The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse drug reactions in pregnant women. The incidence of ADRs in pregnant women was low: 0.3%. Moreover, a retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted to characterize ADRs in pregnant women. Reports of ADRs collected in the Midi-Pyrenees pharmacovigilance centre from 1982 to 2002 were used: type of ADRs, drugs involved and potential risk factors were compared for pregnant women and for age-matched non pregnant women. Forty seven and 94 reports of ADRs were collected in pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Anaphylactic reactions were only observed in pregnant women (3 cases, p = 0.04). We observed 1 ADR related stillbirth (due to anaphylactic reaction) in pregnant women. Drugs for gynaecological and cardiovascular systems were more frequently involved in ADRs in pregnant women than in controls. ADRs mainly occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of ADRs is very low in pregnant women. However, one must pay attention on the risk of anaphylactic reactions in pregnant women. PMID:18206108

  4. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... get pregnant. Long-term health problems, such as asthma or diabetes, should be stable before you get pregnant. If you are obese, your provider will recommend losing weight before pregnancy. Doing so will reduce your risk of complications ...

  5. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give ...

  6. CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160052.html CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women Any sex partner, male ... News) -- U.S. health officials on Monday updated their Zika virus guidelines, saying that pregnant women could contract ...

  7. Medical considerations for the pregnant traveler.

    PubMed

    Bia, F J

    1992-06-01

    The care of pregnant travelers requires clinical information and skills that are derived from many disciplines. Issues to be considered include the safety of both mother and fetus during commercial air travel, vigorous exercise, scuba diving, and even high-altitude trekking. Immunizations require a balanced approach to the risk of disease versus the risks of vaccine complications. Safe or treated water sources are of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary exposure to antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents during pregnancy. Malaria prophylaxis is made even more difficult by an increasingly widespread resistance of Plasmodium species to chloroquine.

  8. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  9. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  10. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  11. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections...

  12. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections...

  13. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women.

  14. [Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. Income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. Thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. Their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. There was a clear preference for "junk food". The women were limited to a monotonous diet. It is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs.

  15. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  16. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  17. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  19. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  20. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed.

  1. Undocumented pregnant women: what does the literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Munro, Kimberly; Jarvis, Catherine; Munoz, Marie; D'Souza, Vinita; Graves, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    The present literature review was conducted to determine what information has been published on the topic of undocumented pregnant migrants. Scientific databases and gray literature sources were searched for articles published between January 1967 and September 2010. Eighty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. A final sample of 23 articles was included in the review. Existing evidence suggests that pregnant undocumented migrants living in Western societies tend to be younger, unmarried, and more likely to be employed in the domestic sector than documented migrants and permanent residents. They have less access to prenatal care and consult later in pregnancy than controls. Findings concerning delivery and birth outcomes are conflicting and subject to several biases. Little has been published on programs to address the needs of undocumented pregnant women living in Western countries. More research on the particular health and social issues faced by these women is needed.

  2. Improving Nutrition in Pregnant Adolescents: Recommendations for Clinical Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy represents an ideal time for health promotion activities. Many women, including adolescents, are interested and willing to change health behaviors to improve the chance that they will deliver a healthy infant. This paper focuses on improving nutrition in pregnant adolescents. Seven recommendations are presented to help achieve this goal: 1) Focus on foods, not nutrients; 2) individualize and work within the pregnant adolescent's current eating habits; 3) consider the context of family and peer groups; 4) reward efforts; 5) make it easy; 6) focus on weight gain patterns for optimal birth outcomes; and 7) refer to a dietician, as needed. Use of these recommendations comprehensively addresses adolescent developmental needs to improve nutrition during pregnancy. These recommendations are not meant to be all-inclusive; rather, they are meant to serve as a guide for clinical management of nutrition for pregnant adolescents. PMID:17273337

  3. Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus female-pregnant fish species

    PubMed Central

    Avise, John C.; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2010-01-01

    We construct a verbal and graphical theory (the “fecundity-limitation hypothesis”) about how constraints on the brooding space for embryos probably truncate individual fecundity in male-pregnant and female-pregnant species in ways that should differentially influence selection pressures for multiple mating by males or by females. We then review the empirical literature on genetically deduced rates of multiple mating by the embryo-brooding parent in various fish species with three alternative categories of pregnancy: internal gestation by males, internal gestation by females, and external gestation (in nests) by males. Multiple mating by the brooding gender was common in all three forms of pregnancy. However, rates of multiple mating as well as mate numbers for the pregnant parent averaged higher in species with external as compared with internal male pregnancy, and also for dams in female-pregnant species versus sires in male-pregnant species. These outcomes are all consistent with the theory that different types of pregnancy have predictable consequences for a parent's brood space, its effective fecundity, its opportunities and rewards for producing half-sib clutches, and thereby its exposure to selection pressures for seeking multiple mates. Overall, we try to fit these fecundity-limitation phenomena into a broader conceptual framework for mating-system evolution that also includes anisogamy, sexual-selection gradients, parental investment, and other selective factors that can influence the relative proclivities of males versus females to seek multiple sexual partners. PMID:20956296

  4. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed.

  5. Need for population specific validation of a portable metabolic testing system: a case of sedentary pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, SeonAe; Ronis, David L; Antonakos, Cathy L; Roberts, Katherine; Hayashi, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available portable metabolic systems have been validated with samples of young, healthy, and well-fit subjects, but use of these systems with a special population, such as healthy but sedentary pregnant women, requires a unique set of considerations. These include a woman's limited testing time necessary for fetal safety, relatively low oxygen consumption, and the unique physiology of pregnancy (woman, the placenta, and the fetus). The purpose of this study was to validate a portable metabolic testing system (VO2000) with healthy sedentary pregnant women. A total of 9 sedentary pregnant women who averaged 30 years of age (SD=3), 93 kg (SD=19) weight, 163 cm (SD=7) height, and at 19 weeks' gestation (SD=5) volunteered to participate. Submaximum fitness tests using the Cornell protocol were conducted once with two systems (VO2000 and CPX/D, a reference) simultaneously, and then subsequently twice with one system (VO2000). The VO2000 consistently overestimated VO2 measurement, compared to the same manufacturer's reference system, by 4.4 +/- 3.6 (SD) ml/kg/min, and when VO2000 was used twice, the mean difference was statistically significant (1.0 +/- 1.8 [SD] ml/kg/min; t(45) = 3.9, p < .001). The results of the study show that although VO2000 is an established and validated portable metabolic system for measurement on adult males and females who are relatively well fit, this portable system consistently overestimates VO2 readings for pregnant women compared to standard full-size system. Measurements, when repeated, were not consistent.

  6. Pediatric obstetrical ethics: Medical decision-making by, with, and for pregnant early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy in an early adolescent carries with it specific ethical considerations, in some ways different from pregnancy in an adult and from medical care of a non-pregnant adolescent. Obstetrical ethics emphasizes the right of the patient to autonomy and bodily integrity, including the right to refuse medical intervention. Pediatric ethics recognizes the right of parents, within limits, to make medical decisions for their children, and the right of a child to receive medical or surgical interventions likely to be of benefit to her, sometimes over her own objections. As the child gets older, and particularly during the years of adolescence, there is also a recognition of the right to an increasingly prominent role in decisions about her own healthcare. Pediatric obstetrical ethics, referring to ethical decisions made by, with, and for pregnant early adolescents, represents the intersection of these different cultures. Principles and approaches from both obstetrical and pediatric ethics, as well as a unified understanding of rights, obligations, and practical considerations, will be needed.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    PubMed Central

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  9. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    PubMed

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:26466183

  10. Online Medicine for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services. PMID:25132848

  11. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  12. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  13. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  14. The Pregnant Adolescent: Counseling Issues in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and discusses key counseling issues surrounding pregnant younger teens (under age 15). Urges sex education programs for young teens be established. Suggests other strategies which include involving the girl's sexual partner in counseling and increasing community awareness and involvement. (JAC)

  15. The Pregnant Public School Student: Legal Implications for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Robert D.

    This study had two purposes. The primary purpose was to determine the current legal status of pregnant students in the public schools in the fifty states in 1972. The secondary purpose was to examine implications of the findings for administrators faced with this student problem. The design of the study included a combination of the following…

  16. Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

    2014-09-01

    Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS-IGF2-H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS-IGF2-H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS-IGF2-H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  18. Symptom control in the pregnant cancer patient.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, M K; LeGrand, S B; Walsh, D

    2000-12-01

    While much attention has been devoted to cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy in the pregnant cancer patient, the drugs used for management of symptoms and complications related to cancer during pregnancy have been overlooked. There is substantial overlap between the symptoms of cancer and cancer management and the symptoms related to pregnancy. The mainstay of symptom management is drug therapy and the potential for a drug to be embryotoxic or teratogenic depends on when it is given. In general, drugs not proven safe in pregnancy should be withheld, especially during the first trimester. The few drugs that have been proven to be teratogenic are alcohol, thalidomide, the folic acid antagonists (which includes methotrexate), diethylstilbestrol, and the vitamin A isomers, but there is a good deal of uncertainty about many other therapeutic agents. Placental transport of drugs from mother to fetus must be taken into consideration from the fifth week of gestation to parturition. Although the first trimester is the time of most organ development in the fetus, the brain continues to develop throughout pregnancy and may be damaged later in pregnancy, resulting in diminished intelligence or behavioral problems. This review will focus on the treatment of the most common symptoms of cancer in a pregnant patient and the potential for fetal damage. PMID:11130478

  19. Pregnant and imprisoned in the United States.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    This article is excerpted from a report by Amnesty International, entitled "Not Part of My Sentence": Violations of the Human Rights of Women in Custody, March 1999. The article describes violations of the human rights of pregnant women and mothers who are incarcerated in prisons and jails in the United States. Many of the practices employed are not in compliance with international standards and are also prohibited by federal and state laws in the United States. In 1997-1998, more than 2200 pregnant women were imprisoned and more than 1300 babies were born in prisons. In at least 40 states, babies are taken from their imprisoned mothers almost immediately after birth or at discharge from the hospital. International standards restrict the use of restraints to limited situations. Restraints are used as a matter of course in the United States, including on women in labor or immediately after birth, who may be taken to a hospital in handcuffs and chained by a leg to the bed. Amnesty International calls for governments and authorities to take urgent action that will ensure that the laws, regulations, policies, and practices for which they are responsible rigorously conform to international standards and respect the human rights of women deprived of their liberty.

  20. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  1. RISK FACTORS OF THYROID PATHOLOGY FORMATION IN OUTPATIENT PREGNANT POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Morchiladze, N; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D; Gagua, T

    2016-06-01

    Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology. Study of risk factors was performed by initial interviewing and specialized questionnaire recording process (so-called two-stage model of interviewing). Characteristics of diet, sleep, physical activity, including harmful habits, socio-economic and hereditary factors were studied; quantitative indices of risk for each component were calculated: odds ratio (OR) and attributable risk (AR), taking into account 95% confidence interval (CI). The Pearson's criterion χ2 with respective P value and the calculator developed by International Society of Evidence-based Medicine were used to obtain the final results. Statistically significant risk factors for development of thyroid pathology were identified, which included: Thyroid gland diseases and hereditary history of diabetes mellitus; low economic income, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy dietary habits. Despite of the difficulty of assessment of causative relationship between above mentioned components, their strong correlation should be taken into account when defining the strategy of preventive measures, moreover the most part of identified risk factors are manageable. PMID:27441534

  2. Determinants of nutrient adequacy for lactating and pregnant mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R H

    1984-12-01

    This study used data from a rural area of Bangladesh to examine the nutrient adequacy of the diets of pregnant and lactating women. Of the 106 women 15-45 years of age in the survey population, 30 were lactating and 25 were pregnant. Average caloric requirements and safe levels of protein intake were estimated for each member of the households studied to determine whether a person cunsumed more, less, or equal to his or her average requirement. Women who were neither pregnant nor lactating were significantly more likely to be meeting their calorie and protein requirements than those who were pregnant or lactating. That is, pregnancy and/or lactation status exerts a depressing effect on the nutrient adequacy ratio of an adult woman. The nutrient adequacy ratios were lowest for pregnant or lactating women, followed by those for women who were both pregnant and lactating. In addition, the observed to expected consumption of calories and protein was significantly lower among lactating and/or pregnant women than among other women. Economic position, measured in terms of per capita expenditure on food/day, was the most important factor affecting the nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women. These findings have serious implications for child health in Bangladesh since the lactation performance of poorly nourished women is likely to be inadequate. There is a need for income-generating programs for the rural poor to enable them to increase their expenditures on food. Also needed are educational programs to raise the awareness of rural people concerning the higher nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women.

  3. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  4. Battered and pregnant: a prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Helton, A S; McFarlane, J; Anderson, E T

    1987-01-01

    We interviewed 290 pregnant women randomly selected from public and private prenatal clinics, 80 per cent of whom were at least five months pregnant (ages 18-43, 42 per cent Latino, 22 per cent Black). Twenty-four women reported physical battering during this pregnancy (44 reported physical battering before the current pregnancy). Eight of the 24 pregnant women had sought medical treatment for injuries sustained; none reported having been assessed by prenatal care providers for abuse. PMID:3631370

  5. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pregnant Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Thase, Michael E.; Sammel, Mary; Epperson, C. Neill

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pregnant women with major depressive disorder (MDD) report that psychotherapy is a more acceptable treatment than pharmacotherapy. However, although results of several studies suggest that psychotherapy is an effective treatment for pregnant women, logistical barriers—including cost and traveling for weekly visits—can limit real-world utility. We hypothesized that computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) would be both acceptable and would significantly decrease depressive symptoms in pregnant women with MDD. Methods: As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, we treated 10 pregnant women with MDD using a standardized CCBT protocol. Results: The pilot results were very promising, with 80% of participants showing treatment response and 60% showing remission after only eight sessions of CCBT. Conclusion: A larger, randomized controlled trial of CCBT in pregnant women with MDD is warranted. PMID:25268672

  6. A new threat to pregnant women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D

    1987-01-01

    Courts and legislatures are increasingly being called upon to restrict the autonomy of pregnant women by requiring them to behave in ways that others determine are best for the fetuses they carry. The state should not attempt to transform pregnant women into ideal baby-making machines. Pregnant women make decisions about their behavior in the context of the rest of their lives, with all the attendant complexities and pressures. Our interest in helping future children by improving prenatal care would best be furthered by helping pregnant women to make informed, less constrained choices, not by punishing women or depriving them of choices altogether.

  7. Low-protein diets reduce PKAalpha expression in islets from pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Ferreira, Fabiano; de Barros Reis, Marise Auxiliadora; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effect of protein restriction on insulin secretion and the expression of protein kinase (PK)Aalpha and PKCalpha in islets from control and pregnant rats. Adult control nonpregnant (CN) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein nonpregnant (LPN) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 d. In the presence of 2.8 and 8.3 mmol glucose/L, insulin secretion by islets of CP rats was higher than that by islets of CN rats. Compared with the CN groups, insulin secretion by islets of LPN rats was lower with 8.3 but not with 2.8 mmol glucose/L. The insulin secretion by islets of LPP rats was higher than by LPN rats at both glucose concentrations. IBMX (1 mmol/L), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, increased insulin secretion by islets from pregnant rats, and this effect was greater in islets of CP rats than in LPP rats. Forskolin (0.01-100 micromol/L), a stimulator of adenylyl cyclase, increased insulin secretion only in islets of CN and CP rats, with a higher 50% effective concentration in islets of CP rats compared with CN rats. The insulin secretion induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a stimulator of PKC) was higher in islets of LPN and LPP rats than in the respective controls, especially at 8.3 mmol glucose/L. PKAalpha, but not PKCalpha, expression was lower in islets of rats fed low protein than in the controls, regardless of the physiological status of the rats. All endocrine cells of the islets, including beta-cells, expressed the PKAalpha isoform. The cytoplasmic distribution of this enzyme in beta-cells was not modified by pregnancy and/or protein restriction. In conclusion, our results indicate that the response of islets from rats fed low protein during pregnancy is similar to that of control rats, at least for physiologic glucose concentration. However, the decreased response to IBMX and forskolin indicates decreased production and/or sensitivity to cAMP; this

  8. Experimental infection of pregnant Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) with border disease virus subtype 4.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Pulido, Coralie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Gibert, Philippe; Velarde, Roser; Thiéry, Richard; Marco, Ignasi; Dubois, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) causes high mortality in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) on the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees Mountains. We investigated the pathology induced by BDV in pregnant chamois via experimental infection. Three females were inoculated during the second third of pregnancy with a BDV-4 subgroup strain isolated from a wild Pyrenean chamois during an acute epizootic. A fourth pregnant chamois and one nonpregnant ewe were kept as negative controls. Animals were monitored to assess clinical signs, hematology, viremia, and serology. Postmortem examinations included necropsy, histopathology, and quantification of viral RNA in organs. Pregnancy was unsuccessful in all inoculated animals. One died 24 days postinoculation (dpi) without showing any precursory clinical signs. The second animal had profuse diarrhea from 13 dpi to its death at 51 dpi. The third aborted at 46 dpi and was euthanized at 51 dpi. All animals were viremic from 4 dpi until death. Neutralizing antibodies against BDV-4 were detected from 12 dpi. Necropsies showed generalized lymphadenomegaly, associated in one case with disseminated petechial hemorrhages in the digestive tract. Seventy-eight of 79 organs from inoculated adults and their fetuses had detectable viral RNA. The main histologic lesions in adults were mild lymphohistiocytic encephalitis associated with moderate or moderately severe lymphoid depletion. Control animals remained negative for virus (in blood and organs), antibody, and lesions upon postmortem examination. BDV infection during pregnancy in Pyrenean chamois causes severe disease leading to abortion, then death. Despite 100% fetal death following inoculation, viral RNA was recovered from all organs of infected fetuses, suggesting that persistently infected offspring could be born. Our results may help explain the reported decrease in chamois populations in several areas and suggest that great care must be taken when interpreting infection status

  9. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  10. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results. PMID:27509660

  11. Prevalence of prescription medication use among non-pregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy.

  12. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in (mothers, neonates) were found to be (60.2%, 48.9%) and (1.1%, 2.5%) respectively. Calcium deficiency (<8.5 mg/dL) was present in 33.5% of mothers and 25% of neonates. There was a weak correlation between maternal serum and cord blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  14. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  15. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this review are i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Methods Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as “child abuse,” “posttraumatic stress,” “pregnancy” and “postpartum”. Results Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean±SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p<0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p<0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p<0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p<0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Conclusions Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  18. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  19. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  20. Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

  1. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  2. Treatment of Opioid Dependent Pregnant Women: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941

  3. A review of venomous animal bites and stings in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky Lee

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of Medline and PubMed articles on venomous animal bites and stings during pregnancy reported in English literature from 1966 to 2002. Eighty-five venomous snakebites were reported in pregnant women. Although there are frequent anecdotal reports of scorpion stings in pregnant women, few case reports are documented. Other venomous animal bites or stings to pregnant women that have been reported include spiders, jellyfish, and insects, and these are described. Adverse reproductive and teratogenic effects of venoms on gravid animals are also briefly reviewed. Although uncommon, venomous bites and stings during pregnancy may have significant adverse effects on the fetus and the mother.

  4. Effects of supplemental feeding on intake by kid, yearling, and adult Angora goats on rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E

    1994-03-01

    Sixty female Angoras, including 20 each of kids (9 mo), pregnant yearlings (21 mo), and pregnant adults (2.5 to 4 yr), were used to determine the effects of supplemental feed and level of supplemental digestible DM (DDM) on voluntary intake on rangeland. Treatments included negative control (NC: no supplemental feed) and supplements to provide equal CP (3 g/kg of BW.75) and either 4.8, 9.8, or 19.8 g/kg of BW.75 of DDM per day. Forage intake (FI), gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL), mean particulate turnover, mean particulate whole-tract residence time, fecal output, and forage DM digestibility (FDMD) were measured in all goats using a pulse-dose marker technique when the yearling and adult goats were in late pregnancy. Forage intake increased (quadratic regression, P = .01) at the low level of feeding, but both FI and FDMD decreased in a quadratic pattern in the pregnant goats as DDM feeding level increased. Total DDM intake reached a maximum at the medium supplementation level. Stimulative, additive, and substitutive effects on forage intake were observed as feeding level increased. Yearling goats had lower FILL and intake than kids and adults (metabolic BW basis), which may explain problems associated with reproduction in young goats.

  5. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  6. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended. PMID:21244660

  7. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  8. Reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant obese.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ann

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing; in the UK, almost 20% of pregnant women have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m(2). Obese mothers have increased risks of pregnancy complications including miscarriage, congenital anomaly, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia, induction of labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic and surgical complications, post-partum haemorrhage, infection and venous thromboembolism. Complications tend to be greater in those with the highest BMIs. In recent triennia, obesity (27-29%) was over-represented in maternal mortality figures. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality include calculating BMI at booking visit to identify obese mothers and plan their antenatal care and delivery. This should include nutritional and lifestyle advice, screening for gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism risk assessment, antenatal anaesthetic review if BMI is ≥ 40 kg/m(2), ensuring availability of robust theatre tables and other equipment and involving senior doctors, especially in the labour ward. Afterwards, continuing weight reduction should be encouraged to reduce future pregnancy and health risks.

  9. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.

  10. Comparing the glucose kinetics of adolescent girls and adult women during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal energy demands are met mostly from oxidation of maternally supplied glucose. In pregnant adults this increased glucose requirement is met by an increase in gluconeogenesis. It is not known, however, whether, like their adult counterparts, pregnant adolescent girls can increase gluconeogenesis ...

  11. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  12. Trauma Management of the Pregnant Patient.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Amie; Dantoni, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Trauma continues to be a leading cause of nonobstetric maternal and fetal mortality worldwide. Caring for the pregnant trauma patient requires a systematic and multidisciplinary approach. It is important to understand the anatomic and physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy. Accepted trauma guidelines for imaging and interventions should generally not be deviated from just because a patient is pregnant. Focus should be placed on injury prevention and education of at risk patients to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with traumatic injuries in pregnant patients.

  13. Collaborative care management for a pregnant woman with an ostomy.

    PubMed

    Aukamp, Virginia; Sredl, Darlene

    2004-02-01

    Pregnant women with an ostomy face many challenges during the prenatal period. Although these challenges may be present, pregnancy in the ostomate is presented as a continuum of health and wellness in this article. Collaborative care professionals, especially nurses and midwives, are often the most accessible professional sources for health care information, but current research and information on this topic is sparse. Ostomy-related problems that may occur during pregnancy, include: intestinal obstruction, peristomal hernia, pouching problems, including the effect of nausea and vomiting on pouch hydration, stomal retraction, stenosis, or laceration, and stomal prolapse. Three types of ostomies are discussed: continent ileostomies, urostomies and colostomies. A description of the normal characteristic appearance of each is also included. Collaborative care from pre-conception through the post partum period is described with emphasis on teaching self-help techniques such as: special nutritional considerations, how to recognize potential problems, and how to fit and adapt appliances to the changing body form of the patient as the pregnancy progresses. Phenomenologic information about the pregnant ostomate's perceptions about her pregnancy experience is also presented. Psycho-prophylaxis methods of complementary therapy alternatives alleviating nausea and vomiting within pregnancy, as well as the pain of childbirth are also presented. Although nursing/midwifery management of a pregnant ostomy patient is a challenge, those challenges are surmountable and outcomes resemble those found in the general population.

  14. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  15. Pyelonephritis (acute) in non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyelonephritis is usually caused by ascent of bacteria (most often Escherichia coli) from the bladder, and is more likely in people with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities. The prognosis is good if pyelonephritis is treated appropriately, but complications include renal abscess, renal impairment, and septic shock. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antibiotic treatments for acute pyelonephritis in non-pregnant women with uncomplicated infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found four studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (intravenous), antibiotics (oral), and antibiotics (switch therapy). PMID:25373019

  16. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  17. Pregnant stewardess--should she fly?

    PubMed

    Scholten, P

    1976-01-01

    There is much pressure on the airlines to allow stewardesses to fly while pregnant. Some of them want to fly in quite advanced stages of pregnancy. This paper offers a survey of the problem, the hazards that may occur and some guidelines for the physician. The author outlines the normal changes to be expected with advancing pregnancy and those factors that could have an adverse effect on a pregnant stewardess and her fetus, such as hypoxia, trauma, abortion, the hazards of travel, and flying itself. Certain legal problems of unemployment and medical disability also are discussed. Travel alone offers no real danger to the pregnant stewardess in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, because of the changing mechanics of her size, posture, and increasing unsteadiness, it would be wisest to require a pregnant stewardess to cease flying at 13 weeks, with an absolute prohibition of flying after the 20th week.

  18. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  19. A 30-year-old pregnant patient with massive haemoptysis and influenza A: Atypical presentation of a common pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Philippe; Weber, Florence

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented at 19 weeks of gestation with symptoms of sore throat, rhinorrhea and haemoptysis that progressed to massive haemoptysis. Her medical history included asthma and a history of smoking prior to pregnancy. Investigations revealed no obvious cause of bleeding. Right lower lobe lobectomy was performed, given the suspicion of a lesion within the intermediate bronchus. The patient developed adult respiratory distress syndrome around 36 h postoperatively. Polymerase chain reaction testing on bronchoalveolar lavage samples was positive for influenza A. Therapy with oseltamivir was initiated. She was discharged two weeks later. This is a rare case of a severe complication from seasonal interpandemic influenza during pregnancy, which underscores the importance of immunization for pregnant women.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, S; Yadav, K; Goswami, D; Das, NG; Baruah, I; Singh, L

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy. PMID:23113116

  1. Psychosocial aspects of pregnant women living with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant woman is exposed to a number of stress factors that can affect the pregnancy, maternal health and well-being of the foetus. Among these are the biological, social/environmental and psychological factors. The biological factors include medical condition of the pregnant woman, most notable is the gestational diabetes. The increased glucose levels can cause detrimental effect on the foetus and also cause maternal distress. This factor becomes more complicated if the woman is exposed to environmental stressors. The result is evident in the form of complications during pregnancy and psychological effects like depression and anxiety. Appropriate steps are important to address these issues in order to maintain the mother and prospective child\\'s well-being. PMID:27582167

  2. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    PubMed

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use.

  3. Humoral immune response and hematologic evaluation of pregnant Jersey cows after vaccination with Anaplasma centrale.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, R D; Toro Benítez, M; Niccita, G; Moreno, J; Puzzar, S; Morales, J

    2003-07-30

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the safety of an Anaplasma centrale vaccine in pregnant pure bred Jersey cows selected from a herd located at Miranda State, Venezuela. Ten cows of 3-5 months of gestation were chosen and previous vaccination all cows were tested for Anaplasma antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), so only seronegative cows were included in the group, and for blood parameters, rectal temperature, and pregnancy. Selected cows were vaccinated intramuscularly with 1ml of an A. centrale live vaccine which had 10(8) A. centrale per ml. Over the next 2 months cows were checked weekly for hematological parameters and Anaplasma antibodies, and then for the next 2 months these evaluations were performed monthly. Among the values monitored were: A. centrale parasitemia, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white blood cells (WBCs) (neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts). Levels of Anaplasma antibodies were measured by IFA. Anaplasma were observed for the first time in blood films of two vaccinated cows at 14 days post-vaccination (PV), 6 out of 10 cows were A. centrale positive at 30 days PV, and all cows were A. centrale positive at 42 days PV. A. centrale often showed low parasitemia, 1-3%. Anaplasma antibodies were detected at day 14 PV in all vaccinated cows with a mean group titre of 360 (range: 80-1280). All vaccinated cows showed few changes in their hematologic parameters or in rectal temperature, and all gave birth to healthy calves. In conclusion, adult pregnant cows were safely vaccinated with this live A. centrale vaccine, which may help to develop a cross-protective immunity against field strains of A. marginale.

  4. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    PubMed

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

  5. An anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model and specific absorption rates for pregnant-woman exposure to electromagnetic plane waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Togashi, Toshihiro; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Watanabe, Soichi

    2007-11-01

    The numerical dosimetry of pregnant women is an important issue in electromagnetic-field safety. However, an anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model for electromagnetic dosimetry has not been developed. Therefore, we have developed a high-resolution whole-body model of pregnant women. A new fetus model including inherent tissues of pregnant women was constructed on the basis of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging data of a 26-week-pregnant woman. The whole-body pregnant-woman model was developed by combining the fetus model and a nonpregnant-woman model that was developed previously. The developed model consists of about 7 million cubical voxels of 2 mm size and is segmented into 56 tissues and organs. This pregnant-woman model is the first completely anatomically realistic voxel model that includes a realistic fetus model and enables a numerical simulation of electromagnetic dosimetry up to the gigahertz band. In this paper, we also present the basic specific absorption rate characteristics of the pregnant-woman model exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz.

  6. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    PubMed

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, P<.0001), and had more unplanned pregnancies compared to 122 pregnant nonusers (84.2% vs. 54.3%, P<.05). MDMA users were also more likely to be single (57.0% vs. 18.3%, P<.001), and to be White (82.2% vs. 56.0%, P<.05). Comparably more MDMA users smoked cigarettes (53.8% vs. 19.7%, P<.0001), drank alcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, P<.0001), and had significantly more episodes of binge drinking during pregnancy (mean 2.12 vs. 0.05, P<.001). Illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, ketamine, gamma-hydroxy butyrate, and psilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of

  7. Olfactory and Gustatory Sensory Changes to Tobacco Smoke in Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pletsch, Pamela K.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Park, Jeongok; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lyna, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Models of smoking behavior change include addiction, social, and behavioral concepts. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of two biologic factors, olfactory and gustatory responses to tobacco smoke, as potentially powerful contributors to smoking behavior change among pregnant women. Data were obtained from 209 pregnant smokers. The majority of women reported olfactory (62%) and gustatory (53%) aversions to tobacco. Aversions first appeared during the first trimester of pregnancy. Women who experienced olfactory aversions were more likely also to experience gustatory aversions. Olfactory aversions were associated with women smoking less. Aversions to tobacco smoke are common among pregnant smokers, are associated with women smoking less, and could help explain pregnant women’s smoking patterns. PMID:18161772

  8. Associations between serum levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants and environmental and behavioral factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Wolkin, Amy; Stapleton, Heather M.; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are flame retardants that were previously used in upholstery, fabrics, and household appliances. PBDEs have been linked to adverse health outcomes, including neurotoxicity, thyroid hormone dysregulation, endocrine disruption, and poor semen quality. Because PBDEs pass into placental circulation, maternal exposures can approximate fetal exposures. Objectives Our objectives were to determine if diet and specific human behaviors were significantly associated with PBDE exposures in a cohort of pregnant women. Methods Women between the 34th and 38th week of pregnancy were given a questionnaire about behavioral, environmental, and dietary factors and asked to provide blood samples. Serum PBDE levels were measured using GS-MS and lipid adjusted. An adjusted ordinary least squares regression model was run to identify potential associations between behaviors and serum PBDE levels. Results Serum concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153 were found above the limit of detection in at least 50% of study participants and used in our models. Associations with serum PBDEs were observed with self-reported hand-to-mouth behaviors, including biting nails and licking fingers. Serum BDE levels of 47, 99, 153, and total PBDEs were also significantly higher in those individuals owning a large screen TV compared to those who did not. Serum PBDE levels were comparable to levels reported in the general population. Conclusions Hand-to-mouth behaviors may influence serum PBDE concentrations in adults. Household electronics such as large-screen TV’s appear to serve as a significant source of PBDEs in pregnant women. Together, hand-to-mouth behaviors and TV ownership may serve as a route of exposure to PBDEs in adults. PMID:22760441

  9. Representation of Women and Pregnant Women in HIV Research: A Limited Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Westreich, Daniel; Rosenberg, Molly; Schwartz, Sheree; Swamy, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings. Objective To characterize representation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in HIV-related research conducted in general populations. Data Sources All HIV-related articles published in fifteen journals from January to March of 2011. We selected the top five journals by 2010 impact factor, in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Study Eligibility Criteria HIV-related studies reporting original research on questions applicable to both men and women of reproductive age were considered; studies were excluded if they did not include individual-level patient data. Study appraisal and synthesis methods. Articles were doubly reviewed and abstracted; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. We recorded proportion of female study participants, whether pregnant women were included or excluded, and other key factors. Results In total, 2014 articles were published during this period. After screening, 259 articles were included as original HIV-related research reporting individual-level data; of these, 226 were determined to be articles relevant to both men and women of reproductive age. In these articles, women were adequately represented within geographic region. The vast majority of published articles, 183/226 (81%), did not mention pregnancy (or related issues); still fewer included pregnant women (n=33), reported numbers of pregnant women (n=19), or analyzed using pregnancy status (n=9). Limitations Data were missing for some key variables, including pregnancy. The time period over which published works were evaluated was relatively short. Conclusions and implications of key findings. The under-reporting and inattention to pregnancy in the HIV literature may reduce policy-makers’ ability to set evidence-based policy around HIV/AIDS care

  10. Fetal programming of adult disease: implications for prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christopher; Rogers, John M; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult health disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, can be markedly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures (ie, developmental programming). Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, as well as adverse effects on pulmonary, renal, and cerebral function. Conversely, exposure to maternal obesity or high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. In addition, fetal exposure to select chemicals (eg, phytoestrogens) or environmental pollutants (eg, tobacco smoke) may affect the predisposition to adult disease. Animal models have confirmed human epidemiologic findings and provided insight into putative programming mechanisms, including altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications (ie, control of gene expression without modification of DNA sequence). Prenatal care is transitioning to incorporate goals of optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health to prevent or reduce adult-onset diseases. Guidelines regarding optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of low- and high-fetal-weight pregnancies, use of maternal glucocorticoids, and newborn feeding strategies, among others, have yet to fully integrate long-term consequences on adult health.

  11. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    PubMed

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  12. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables. PMID:27277362

  13. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Sandager, Puk; Gregersen, Hans; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. Method Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. Results The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67–422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4–15 kPa) for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). Conclusion This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix. PMID:24603859

  14. Values and beliefs about consequences related to smoking among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Näsman, P; Ortendahl, M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a model based on the product of value and belief, called expected utility (EU), on the addictive behaviour of smoking. A total of 40 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women over a period of 2 weeks performed judgements on values and beliefs about consequences related to smoking for the conditions of continuing and stopping smoking. There were no differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the EU of smoking. Differences in expected utility between the conditions of continuing and stopping smoking were larger for health consequences compared with psychological and social consequences and consequences related to pregnancy. Expected utility gives a good description of judgements over time. Values as well as beliefs related to health consequences should be stressed in smoking cessation programmes, especially among pregnant women.

  15. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Staples, J Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R; Callaghan, William M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-22

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

  16. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  17. Surveillance of Chagas disease in pregnant women in Madrid, Spain, from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Flores-Chavez, M D; Merino, F J; Garcia-Bujalance, S; Martin-Rabadan, P; Merino, P; Garcia-Bermejo, I; Delgado, A; Cuadros, J

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important modes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in areas where it is not endemic is vertical transmission: from mother to child. The objective of this report is to assess the efficacy of different programmes of serological screening to monitor infection with T. cruzi in pregnant Latin American women living in Madrid (Spain). To achieve this, a retrospective study was undertaken from January 2008 to December 2010 in seven hospitals in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Serological screening programmes were classified in two main strategies: a selective one (pregnant women from Bolivia) and a universal one (pregnant women from Latin America). A total of 3,839 pregnant women were tested and the overall prevalence was 3.96%. The rate of congenital transmission was 2.6%. The current monitoring programmes have variable coverage ranging between 26% (selective screening) and 100% (universal screening). Monitoring of pregnant women from Latin America only reaches full coverage if universal screening of pregnant women is carried out at any moment of pregnancy, including at delivery. A common national regulation is necessary in order to ensure homogenous implementation of screening. PMID:21958533

  18. Artemether-Lumefantrine Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Response Are Minimally Altered in Pregnant Ugandan Women Treated for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nyunt, Myaing M.; Nguyen, Vy K.; Kajubi, Richard; Huang, Liusheng; Ssebuliba, Joshua; Kiconco, Sylvia; Mwima, Moses W.; Achan, Jane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Artemether-lumefantrine is a first-line regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Previous studies have reported changes in the pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes following treatment with artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant adults; however, the results are inconclusive. We conducted a study in rural Uganda to compare the pharmacokinetics of artemether-lumefantrine and the treatment responses between 30 pregnant women and 30 nonpregnant adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All participants were uninfected with HIV, treated with a six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine, and monitored clinically for 42 days. The pharmacokinetics of artemether, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were evaluated for 21 days following treatment. We found no significant differences in the overall pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, or lumefantrine in a direct comparison of pregnant women to nonpregnant adults, except for a statistically significant but small difference in the terminal elimination half-lives of both dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine. There were seven PCR-confirmed reinfections (5 pregnant and 2 nonpregnant participants). The observation of a shorter terminal half-life for lumefantrine may have contributed to a higher frequency of reinfection or a shorter posttreatment prophylactic period in pregnant women than in nonpregnant adults. While the comparable overall pharmacokinetic exposure is reassuring, studies are needed to further optimize antimalarial efficacy in pregnant women, particularly in high-transmission settings and because of emerging drug resistance. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01717885.) PMID:26666942

  19. Gestational thrombocytopenia among pregnant Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    Olayemi, Edeghonghon; Akuffo, Frederick William

    2012-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a common problem during pregnancy that is not frequently detected and as a result is often inappropriately managed. The obvious concern with thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is the risk of significant bleeding at the time of delivery. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopenia in pregnant women reporting for ante-natal care at a Ghanaian primary health care centre. Methods Platelet count was evaluated in 300 blood samples from pregnant women and 100 non pregnant female blood donors. The platelet counts were performed using Sysmex KX-21N automated hematology analyzer. The study design was cross sectional. Proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the Chi square, Odds ratio was also calculated Results The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this study was 15.3% compared with 4% in controls. This was statistically significant with a P value of 0.003. Odds ratio was 4.31 (95% CI: 1.52-12.04). Most cases of thrombocytopenia were mild (76%), only 4% of the women with thrombocytopenia had severe thrombocytopenia. Conclusion The frequency of thrombocytopenia in this study was higher than that reported from more developed parts of the world. This may be due to undetected malaria infection in our patients. Pregnant women should be routinely screened for thrombocytopenia. Those found to be thrombocytopenic should have both thick and thin blood films done to exclude the presence of malaria parasites. PMID:22891092

  20. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Result: Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the

  1. Detection of Quiescent Infections with Multiple Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs), Including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within Lymphoid Lung Nodules or Lung and Spleen Tissue Samples from Five Asymptomatic Adult African Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Jian-Chao; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Long, Simon Y.; Latimer, Erin M.; Nofs, Sally A.; Bronson, Ellen; Casares, Miguel; Fouraker, Michael D.; Pearson, Virginia R.; Richman, Laura K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT More than 80 cases of lethal hemorrhagic disease associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) have been identified in young Asian elephants worldwide. Diagnostic PCR tests detected six types of EEHV in blood of elephants with acute disease, although EEHV1A is the predominant pathogenic type. Previously, the presence of herpesvirus virions within benign lung and skin nodules from healthy African elephants led to suggestions that African elephants may be the source of EEHV disease in Asian elephants. Here, we used direct PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect EEHV genomes in necropsy tissue from five healthy adult African elephants. Two large lung nodules collected from culled wild South African elephants contained high levels of either EEHV3 alone or both EEHV2 and EEHV3. Similarly, a euthanized U.S. elephant proved to harbor multiple EEHV types distributed nonuniformly across four small lung nodules, including high levels of EEHV6, lower levels of EEHV3 and EEHV2, and a new GC-rich branch type, EEHV7. Several of the same EEHV types were also detected in random lung and spleen samples from two other elephants. Sanger PCR DNA sequence data comprising 100 kb were obtained from a total of 15 different strains identified, with (except for a few hypervariable genes) the EEHV2, EEHV3, and EEHV6 strains all being closely related to known genotypes from cases of acute disease, whereas the seven loci (4.0 kb) obtained from EEHV7 averaged 18% divergence from their nearest relative, EEHV3. Overall, we conclude that these four EEHV species, but probably not EEHV1, occur commonly as quiescent infections in African elephants. IMPORTANCE Acute hemorrhagic disease characterized by high-level viremia due to infection by members of the Proboscivirus genus threatens the future breeding success of endangered Asian elephants worldwide. Although the genomes of six EEHV types from acute cases have been partially or fully characterized, lethal disease predominantly

  2. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings.

  3. Challenges in Interventional Radiology: The Pregnant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice K.; Wang, Weiping; Newman, James S.; Bayona-Molano, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    A pregnant patient presenting to interventional radiology (IR) has a different set of needs from any other patient requiring a procedure. Often, the patient's care can be in direct conflict with the growth and development of the fetus, whether it be optimal fluoroscopic imaging, adequate sedation of the mother, or the timing of the needed procedure. Despite the additional risks and complexities associated with pregnancy, IR procedures can be performed safely for the pregnant patient with knowledge of the special and general needs of the pregnant patient, use of acceptable medications and procedures likely to be encountered during pregnancy, in addition to strategies to protect the patient and her fetus from the hazards of radiation. PMID:24436567

  4. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  5. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  6. Toxicity study of oxfendazole in pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W

    1982-08-21

    The safety of oxfendazole when administered to pregnant sows was assessed. Thirty-six pregnant sows were dosed orally on repeated occasions at dose rates of 4.5 mg/kg bodyweight and 13.5 mg/kg during the critical period of embryo organogenesis and implantation. Twelve sows were observed as untreated controls. Oxfendazole was administered as 6.48 per cent medicated pellets. Records were kept of the reproductive performance of all 48 sows. There were no obviously drug-related clinical signs of toxicity in the sows after treatment with oxfendazole, neither were drug-related anatomical or behavioural abnormalities detected in the newborn pigs.

  7. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p < 0.01). In line with the 2010 NICE guidelines, Stop Smoking in Pregnancy and following Childbirth, one in five SSSP identified pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

  8. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  9. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    PubMed

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-04

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

  10. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    PubMed

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-01

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website. PMID

  11. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth.

  12. What do Pregnant Women Know About the Healthy Eating Guidelines for Pregnancy? A Web-Based Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amelia; Belski, Regina; Radcliffe, Jessica; Newton, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Objectives This study explored nutrition knowledge of pregnant women, and how it correlated with participant characteristics, their main sources of information and changes to their diet since becoming pregnant. Methods Pregnant women residing in Australia accessing pregnancy forums on the internet were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire on general nutrition and pregnancy-specific nutrition guidelines. Results Of the 165 eligible questionnaire responses, 114 were complete and included in the analysis. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge was associated with education (r s = 0.21, p < 0.05) and income (r s = 0.21, p < 0.05). Only 2 % of pregnant women achieved nutrition knowledge scores over 80 %. Few women received nutrition advice during their pregnancy, of which most were advised by their doctor. Dietary changes adopted since becoming pregnant included consuming more fruit, vegetables, dairy and high fibre foods. Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women in this study had limited knowledge of the dietary guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy. Furthermore, nutrition counselling in maternity care appears to be infrequent. One approach to optimising maternal diets and subsequently preventing adverse health outcomes is to enhance their knowledge of the pregnancy nutrition guidelines through the provision of nutritional counselling. Furthermore, research exploring the access and use of nutrition resources, and nutrition advice provided to pregnant women is recommended to understand how knowledge impacts on dietary behaviour.

  13. What do Pregnant Women Know About the Healthy Eating Guidelines for Pregnancy? A Web-Based Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amelia; Belski, Regina; Radcliffe, Jessica; Newton, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Objectives This study explored nutrition knowledge of pregnant women, and how it correlated with participant characteristics, their main sources of information and changes to their diet since becoming pregnant. Methods Pregnant women residing in Australia accessing pregnancy forums on the internet were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire on general nutrition and pregnancy-specific nutrition guidelines. Results Of the 165 eligible questionnaire responses, 114 were complete and included in the analysis. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge was associated with education (r s = 0.21, p < 0.05) and income (r s = 0.21, p < 0.05). Only 2 % of pregnant women achieved nutrition knowledge scores over 80 %. Few women received nutrition advice during their pregnancy, of which most were advised by their doctor. Dietary changes adopted since becoming pregnant included consuming more fruit, vegetables, dairy and high fibre foods. Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women in this study had limited knowledge of the dietary guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy. Furthermore, nutrition counselling in maternity care appears to be infrequent. One approach to optimising maternal diets and subsequently preventing adverse health outcomes is to enhance their knowledge of the pregnancy nutrition guidelines through the provision of nutritional counselling. Furthermore, research exploring the access and use of nutrition resources, and nutrition advice provided to pregnant women is recommended to understand how knowledge impacts on dietary behaviour. PMID:27395383

  14. Cluster Sampling with Referral to Improve the Efficiency of Estimating Unmet Needs among Pregnant and Postpartum Women after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Results Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Conclusion and Discussion Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. PMID:22365134

  15. Caring for Pets When You're Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant? Pregnant women need to be careful of toxoplasmosis when handling their cat. This is an infection ... cats may have been. You also can get toxoplasmosis from eating undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb or ...

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  17. Update: New Rights for Pregnant Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides that pregnant women may claim any disability and medical benefits extended to other employees for non-job-related disabilities. The author examines the legislation and prior court decisions, noting the distinction between pregnancy benefits and sex discrimination. (MF)

  18. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  19. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  20. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  1. Missed Opportunities: Poor Linkage into Ongoing Care for HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Balira, Rebecca; Ross, David A.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mabey, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Global coverage of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services reached 53% in 2009. However the number of pregnant women who test positive for HIV in antenatal clinics and who link into long-term HIV care is not known in many resource-poor countries. We measured the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza city, Tanzania, who completed the cascade of care from antenatal HIV diagnosis to assessment and engagement in care in adult HIV clinics. Methods Thirty antenatal and maternity ward health workers were interviewed about PMTCT activities. Nine antenatal HIV education sessions were observed. A prospective cohort of 403 HIV-positive women was enrolled by specially-trained clinicians and nurses on admission to delivery and followed for four months post-partum. Information was collected on referral and attendance at adult HIV clinics, eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and reasons for lack of attendance. Results Overall, 70% of PMTCT health workers referred HIV-positive pregnant women to the HIV clinic for assessment and care. Antenatal HIV education sessions did not cover on-going care for HIV-infected women. Of 310 cohort participants tested in pregnancy, 51% had received an HIV clinic referral pre-delivery. Only 32% of 244 women followed to four months post-partum had attended an HIV clinic and been assessed for HAART eligibility. Non-attendance for HIV care was independently associated with fewer antenatal visits, poor PMTCT prophylaxis compliance, non-disclosure of HIV status, and non-Sukuma ethnicity. Conclusion Most women identified as HIV-positive during pregnancy were not assessed for HAART eligibility during pregnancy or in the first four months post-partum. Initiating HAART at the antenatal clinic, improved counselling and linkages to care between PMTCT and adult HIV treatment services and reducing stigma surrounding disclosure of HIV results would benefit on-going care of HIV-positive pregnant women. PMID

  2. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  3. Enhanced resistance against Listeria monocytogenes at an early phase of primary infection in pregnant mice: activation of macrophages during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Y; Mitsuyama, M; Sano, M; Nakano, H; Nomoto, K

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the pregnancy-induced changes in macrophage activity which are important in the expression of host defense against infections. Several macrophage functions were examined by using Listeria monocytogenes. In pregnant mice, prolonged survival and enhanced in vivo elimination of bacteria were observed in the early phase of primary infection. Functions of peritoneal macrophages, including in vitro phagocytosis intracellular killing, glucose consumption, generation of superoxide anion, and intracellular beta-glucuronidase activity were shown to be enhanced in pregnant mice. These findings indicate that pregnancy enhances macrophage functions qualitatively. Possible mechanisms for this enhancement and the significance of macrophage activation for pregnant hosts are discussed. PMID:3011673

  4. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed. PMID:25190332

  5. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  6. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed.

  7. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  8. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  9. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  10. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  11. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  12. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  14. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  15. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2015-01-01

    ethnicity, and beliefs varied according to maternal education. Including oral health education as a part of prenatal care may improve knowledge regarding the importance of oral health among vulnerable pregnant women, thereby improving their oral health and that of their children. Clinical Implications Including oral health education as a part of prenatal care should be considered. PMID:22041414

  16. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  17. [Effectiveness of body mass index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Pérez, Gladys; Azuaje-Sánchez, Arelis

    2005-03-01

    Our goal was to analyze the concordances and non-concordances of the nutritional classification in pregnant women and to evaluate their effectiveness when different BMI classification methodologies were applied. The study consisted of 314 adult healthy pregnant women in their first trimester, of socioeconomic status IV. In all of them, two nutritional classification criteria were applied: the integral nutritional diagnosis (IND) and different BMI reference values (Institute of Medicine, FAO/OMS, Frisancho, Bray, and Atalah). Kappa, concordance and nonconcordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The highest frequency of concordance between IND and the analyzed classification criteria in comparing four and three nutritional categories was Frisancho's with the following results 89.2%, Kappa = 0.81 in the first case, and 91.4, Kappa = 0.84 in the second case. In deficit, the Bray and Atalah classification criteria were the highest sensitivities. In excess, FAO/ OMS, Frisancho, and Bray had a high sensitivity (1 - 0.99). Frisancho, in addition, had a high specificity with respect to FAO/OMS and Bray. Frisancho's classification criteria are the best choice for diagnosing adult pregnant women's nutritional status during the first trimester within population groups with these characteristics. PMID:16187677

  18. Factors Associated with Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Ball, Sarah W.; Shifflett, Pat; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This observational study followed a cohort of pregnant women during the 2010–2011 influenza season to determine factors associated with vaccination. Methods: Participants were 1105 pregnant women who completed a survey assessing health beliefs related to vaccination upon enrollment and were then followed to determine vaccination status by the end of the 2010–2011 influenza season. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to explore factors associated with vaccination status and a factor analysis of survey items to identify health beliefs associated with vaccination. Results: Sixty-three percent (n=701) of the participants were vaccinated. In the univariate analyses, multiple factors were associated with vaccination status, including maternal age, race, marital status, educational level, and gravidity. Factor analysis identified two health belief factors associated with vaccination: participant's positive views (factor 1) and negative views (factor 2) of influenza vaccination. In a multivariate logistic regression model, factor 1 was associated with increased likelihood of vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72–2.78), whereas factor 2 was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR=0.36; 95% CI=0.28–0.46). After controlling for the two health belief factors in multivariate analyses, demographic factors significant in univariate analyses were no longer significant. Women who received a provider recommendation were about three times more likely to be vaccinated (aOR=3.14; 95% CI=1.99–4.96). Conclusion: Pregnant women's health beliefs about vaccination appear to be more important than demographic and maternal factors previously associated with vaccination status. Provider recommendation remains one of the most critical factors influencing vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:25874550

  19. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  20. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H.

    2015-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in

  1. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  2. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  3. Iron deficiency anaemia is still a major killer of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela; Baloch, Sarmad; Khaskheli, Fahad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of iron deficiency anaemia on the health and life of pregnant women. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit IV, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro from 1st June 2015 to 30th November 2015, for the period of 6 months. During this study period all the pregnant women from 13-40 weeks of pregnancy with iron deficiency anaemia having haemoglobin level less than 9 gram% were included, while the pregnant women with other medical disorders were excluded from the study. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 21. Result: Out of the 305 pregnant registered women with iron deficiency anaemia most women were young 170(55.73%) between 20-30 years, belonged to low socioeconomic group 254(83.27%), they were multiparous 104(34.09%), having very low haemoglobin level between 1-3 gram % in 54(17.70%) women and between 4-6gram% in162 (53.11%) women. These women were prone to high complications such as ante partum haemorrhage 49(16.06%), renal failure 48(15.73%), disseminated intravascular coagulation 54(17.70%) and 16(5.24%) women died. Conclusion: Iron deficiency anaemia is common in pregnant women with higher rates of complications. PMID:27375704

  4. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services.

  5. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  6. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Fazıl; Kılınç, Metin; Kıran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in eclamptic (P<0.001) and preeclamptic patients (P<0.001) compared to the healthy pregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were lower in both preeclamptic and eclamptic patients compared to healthy normotensive pregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  8. Promoting positive motherhood among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth: RCT intervention.

    PubMed

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Rouhe, Hanna; Halmesmäki, Erja; Toivanen, Riikka Maria; Tokola, Maiju Ilona; Saisto, Terhi

    2012-05-01

    This RCT intervention among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth sought to promote preparedness for childbirth and to enhance positive parenting. Pregnant women (n = 8,611) filled in a 'fear of childbirth' questionnaire. Nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth (n = 355) were randomized into intervention (n = 131; 41 refused) and control (n = 224) groups. They rated themselves on a preparedness scale in middle and late pregnancy, and on a motherhood scale three months after childbirth. The intervention included six psycho-education group sessions during pregnancy and one after childbirth. This intervention increased the mothers' preparedness for childbirth, which predicted an increase in positive motherhood. PMID:21963681

  9. Medical risk: implicating poor pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Handwerker, L

    1994-03-01

    Since 1987 the United States courts have increasingly relied on medical testimony to prosecute women labeled 'high risk' for failure to comply with medical advice when their fetuses or babies die. Drawing on fieldwork in a public prenatal clinic in Northern California, it is argued that risk does not represent scientific certainty. While the assessment and management of risk is not standardized or consistently applied in the clinic, health care providers and the legal system make decisions as if risk is unambiguous 'fact'. Consequently, labeling poor pregnant women 'high risk', implicitly and explicitly makes them accountable if they are unable to change their behavior as prescribed by health professionals. Through an examination of the dilemmas facing poor pregnant women seeking prenatal care, this paper suggests how attempts to prosecute women may discourage rather than encourage them to seek care. Overall, there is a need for understanding the complexities of risk and its usages in medical and legal settings.

  10. Garbhini Paricharya (Regimen for the pregnant woman).

    PubMed

    Koppikar, Vaidya S

    2008-07-01

    Ayurveda considers food to be the best source of nourishment as well as medication for the pregnant woman. The nine monthly diet is singularly unique to Ayurveda. It changes in accordance with the growth of the fetus in the womb and at the same time ensures health of the mother. One can find remnants of this dietics with midwives and older women, but a detailed and comprehensive diet plan is being practiced only by the vaidyas of the classical medical tradition. In this paper we are giving a broad expanse of the month wise diet, which can be modified according to the age, season, place, constitution and the digestive fire of the pregnant woman. PMID:22557296

  11. Drug therapy for the pregnant dental patient.

    PubMed

    Mendia, Jonathan; Cuddy, Michael A; Moore, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Providing needed dental treatment, managing oral infection, and controlling pain are essential functions of dentists for helping patients maintain overall health during pregnancy. Medications commonly required for dental care consist of local anesthetics and associated vasoconstrictors, centrally and peripherally acting analgesics, sedative and anxiolytic agents, and antibiotics. Therapeutic drugs routinely used in dental practice are selected because of their known safety and effectiveness. However, for a pregnant patient requiring dental care, the agents routinely prescribed should be reevaluated for potential risks to the mother and/or fetus. The decision to administer a specific drug requires that the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the drug therapy. This article reviews and updates the recommendations for using dental therapeutic agents, thereby enabling general practitioners to select the safest drugs when treating pregnant dental patients.

  12. Garbhini Paricharya (Regimen for the pregnant woman)

    PubMed Central

    Koppikar, Vaidya S

    2008-01-01

    Ayurveda considers food to be the best source of nourishment as well as medication for the pregnant woman. The nine monthly diet is singularly unique to Ayurveda. It changes in accordance with the growth of the fetus in the womb and at the same time ensures health of the mother. One can find remnants of this dietics with midwives and older women, but a detailed and comprehensive diet plan is being practiced only by the vaidyas of the classical medical tradition. In this paper we are giving a broad expanse of the month wise diet, which can be modified according to the age, season, place, constitution and the digestive fire of the pregnant woman. PMID:22557296

  13. How do I manage tick bites and Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Maraspin, Vera; Strle, Franc

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we present basic data pertinent to the current understanding of borrelial infection in pregnancy, and propose a rationale for the management of Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women. We advocate early detection of attached ticks and their prompt removal. We do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in pregnant women but support the 'wait and watch' strategy, including early treatment with antibiotics if signs/symptoms of the disease arise. We encourage the approach that antibiotic treatment of pregnant patients is restricted to those having a reliable clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and propose intravenous antibiotic treatment with penicillin, or preferably ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 14 days, not only for patients with early disseminated disease but also for those with solitary erythema migrans. PMID:19367103

  14. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-09

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities.

  15. More than interpreters needed: the specialized care of the immigrant pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Verónica Maria; Eckardt, Melody Joy

    2014-08-01

    The immigrant pregnant woman faces unique challenges. This article provides an overview of these challenges and interventions to maximize health outcomes for the immigrant pregnant woman. A patient's immigrant status may impact her social stability and access to health care. Lack of familiarity with western health care, health financing, and the English language can create significant barriers. In addition, providers must remember to evaluate the immigrant pregnant woman for underlying health conditions that may be present including infectious diseases endemic to their country of origin and chronic diseases or cervical center as yet unidentified because of lack of previous health care screening. Female genital modification found in some immigrant populations can be associated with poorer obstetric outcomes and should be documented and addressed. Finally, some immigrant populations have a high incidence of past severe trauma and need additional psychiatric evaluation and support.

  16. Development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women: WHO MALVAC meeting report.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Clara; Moorthy, Vasee S; Reed, Zarifah; Bardají, Azucena; Alonso, Pedro; Brown, Graham V

    2011-09-01

    The major public health consequences of malaria in pregnancy have long been acknowledged. However, further information is still required for development and implementation of a malaria vaccine specifically directed to prevent malaria in pregnant women and improve maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. The WHO Malaria Vaccine Advisory Committee (MALVAC) provides guidance to the WHO on strategic priorities and research needs for development of vaccines to prevent malaria. Here we summarize the discussions and conclusions of a MALVAC scientific forum meeting on considerations in the development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women. This report includes brief summaries of what is known, and major knowledge gaps in disease burden estimation, pathogenesis and immunity, and the challenges with current preventive strategies for malaria in pregnancy. We conclude with the formulation of a conceptual framework for research and development for vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women.

  17. Treatment of hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformation in pregnant patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuedong; Liu, Fei; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate hematuria in pregnant patients caused by renal arteriovenous malformation and to evaluate the efficacy of superselective renal angiography and embolization used for treatment of renal arteriovenous malformation. Two cases of hematuria in pregnant patients caused by renal arteriovenous malformation were enrolled. Case 1 was a 28-year-old woman with repeatedly intermittent hematuria at week 7 during gestation. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman with repeatedly intermittent hematuria at week 8 during gestation. B ultrasound and CT were performed to detect hydronephrosis. Renal arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed by selective angiography. Both the patients were treated with embolization. The 2 cases were successfully embolized with different materials including gelfoam and coils. Both of the 2 patients were recovered well and discharged successful after the operation. In conclusion, superselective renal angiography and embolization are effective methods for diagnosis and treatment of renal arteriovenous malformation in pregnant patients. PMID:25932278

  18. Impact of diethylhexyl phthalate on gene expression and development of mammary glands of pregnant mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Liu, Jing-Cai; Zhao, Yong; Lai, Fang-Nong; Yang, Fan; Ge, Wei; Dou, Cheng-Li; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Hong

    2015-10-01

    The widely used diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a known endocrine disruptor that causes persistent alterations in the structure and function of female reproductive system, including ovaries, uterus and oviducts. To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of DEHP on the development of mammary glands, we investigated the cell cycle, growth, proliferation and gene expression of mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that the mammary gland cells of pregnant mice treated with DEHP for 0.5-3.5 days post-coitum had increased proliferation, growth rate and number of cells in the G2/S phase. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes was significantly altered after short time and low-dose DEHP treatment of mammary gland cells in vivo and in vitro. These findings showed adverse effects of DEHP on mammary gland cells in pregnant mice. PMID:26170149

  19. [Cesarean Section Under Combined Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia for a Pregnant Woman with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Hyoda, Akira; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-12-01

    We report the successful anesthetic management of a pregnant woman with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis who underwent cesarean section. A 35 year-old pregnant woman with PBC was diagnosed with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Emergent cesarean section was scheduled. AST and ALT were elevated and she complained of itching due to PBC. Hydrocortisone 50 mg was intravenously administered. Spinal anesthesia was initiated with 2.4 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride and 10 µg fentanyl at L3-4; sensory loss (T2) was confirmed. Morphine was not included in spinal anesthesia to avoid worsening of the itching. Epidural anesthesia at T12-L1 was performed for postoperative pain control. Surgery proceeded uneventfully and postoperative pain control was satisfactory. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was beneficial for the perioperative management of a pregnant woman with PBC and autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:26790326

  20. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.

  1. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  2. APN plan improves outcome for pregnant patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Annette; Frederick, Andrea; Chirkoff, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses work in many roles to support delivery of safe patient care. Eighty-five percent of children born with congenital heart disease (CHD) live to adulthood. The pregnant adult with CHD presents challenges for nursing across many care-delivery systems. Progression of care delivery across these systems requires innovative planning and organization. This article describes the plan developed by advanced practice nurses in a CHD clinic and in inpatient coronary care and obstetric units to support a pregnant patient with CHD. The plan focused on collaboration and communication among interdisciplinary teams. The goal was to address multidisciplinary communication, leadership, and staff education. The result was a successful high-risk delivery with organized education and patient care across systems. PMID:22543487

  3. Anti S enigma in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2014-04-01

    Among the antibodies of the MNS blood group system, anti S antibody is generally IgG antibody reacting at 37 °C. It is rarely implicated in hemolytic transfusion reaction; however, it can lead to potentially severe transfusion reactions. Anti S is also capable of causing mild to severe fatal hemolytic disease of newborn. We report a case of anti S antibody in a pregnant patient with complicated falciparum malaria.

  4. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  5. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  6. Self-Reported Side Effects and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women under Option B+: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cois, Annibale; Remien, Robert H.; Mellins, Claude A.; McIntyre, James A.; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J.; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. Methods We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy. In analysis, SE were considered in terms of their overall frequency, by systems category, and by latent classes. Results Overall 97% of women reported experiencing at least one SE after ART initiation, with 48% experiencing more than five SE. Gastrointestinal, central nervous system, systemic and skin SE were reported by 81%, 85%, 79% and 31% of women, respectively, with considerable overlap across groups. At least one missed dose was reported by 32% of women. In multivariable models, ART non-adherence was associated with systemic SE compared to other systems categories, and measures of the overall burden of SE experienced were most strongly associated with missed ART doses. Conclusion These data demonstrate very high levels of SE in pregnant women initiating EFV-based ART and a strong association between SE burden and ART adherence. ART regimens with reduced SE profiles may enhance adherence, and as countries expand universal ART for all adult patients, counseling must include preparation for ART SE. PMID:27760126

  7. Relaxin and drinking in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, D J; Wilson, B C; Summerlee, A J

    2001-01-01

    Work reported in this chapter describes the potential role of relaxin in resetting cardiovascular thresholds in pregnant rats. Relaxin, a polypeptide produced primarily by the ovary in pregnant animals in many species, is also produced in the brain. Exogenous administration of relaxin into the brain causes a profound drinking response which is negated by pretreatment with a specific monoclonal antibody to rat relaxin when the antibody is injected into the brain. Neutralizing the action of endogenous brain relaxin in pregnant rats also blocks the normal increase in drinking that is observed in rats at night during the second half of pregnancy. Relaxin acts through the forebrain angiotensin system at the level of the subfornical organ (an important interface between the blood, the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid) as blockade of the angiotensin II receptor action negates several central actions of relaxin. Expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in the subfornical organ increases in parallel with the increase in circulating relaxin seen in the second half of pregnancy. Neutralizing the effects of endogenous brain relaxin, using central injections of the monoclonal antibody, blocks this increase in the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in subfornical organ. These data imply that relaxin in the brain may act to affect central cardiovascular thresholds in rats and this may be important for the normal physiology of pregnancy.

  8. [Social psychological studies of pregnant adolescents].

    PubMed

    Porozhanova, V; Boiadzhieva, M

    1995-01-01

    Extramarital pregnancies among adolescent girl is not only an obstetrical, but also a socio-psychological problem. By use of special methods (questionnaires, a scala for gravity of psycho-social stress. Eysenck's [correction of Isenk's] test and self score diagnostic test), 63 adolescent pregnant girls were studied aged 13-16, of which 33 delivered and 30 terminated their pregnancies at will. Almost half of the girls were gypsies with little or no education and relatively healthy live style. In 70% of the cases family climate was saturated with conflicts. 48% of the pregnant girls accepted their pregnancy calmly, in 79% of the cases it was decided, 87% of the girls expected to marry the father of their children, and in 30% the children were left for adoption. 33% of the patient were victims of rape and had negative relationship towards their pregnancy. In 41% the pregnant women exhibited introversion and in 38%--extroversion and in those who delivered the ratio was almost the same In this same group moderate to intense stress was almost the rule, while among those who terminate their pregnancies light stress was observed. Neurotic tendencies among those who delivered was also observed, likely due to the reaction towards the process of difficult adaptation to the fact of the extramarital delivery. In the studied group we didn't observe extreme cases of social disadaptation reached crises of the pregnancy, abortion or delivery PMID:8743835

  9. Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C

    1982-01-01

    Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test. In all cases detailed histories were obtained and patients were examined for clinical signs of syphilis. The TPHA test result was reactive in 12.5% of antenatal patients and in 42% of women who aborted in the later half of pregnancy. Among 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital, 30 had reactive results to the TPHA test; of these two were stillborn and four had signs of congenital syphilis at birth. Thus, syphilis appears to affect adversely an appreciably high number of pregnant women in Zambia. For this reason a special campaign to screen adequately and treat pregnant women and neonates is needed. PMID:6756542

  10. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  11. Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

  12. Development of a Program to Reduce Dropout Rates of Pregnant and Parenting Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a program to reduce the dropout rate for pregnant and parenting teens at York Vocational-Technical School (Pennsylvania) for the second semester of 1985-86. One successful feature was a "caring class" providing information about pregnancy, childcare, nutrition, and other subjects. The program retained most of its enrollees. Includes 1…

  13. The Pregnant Teen-Ager: A Medical, Educational, and Social Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Howard J.

    Concerned with teen-aged pregnancy, the text includes discussions of premarital pregnancy, the pregnant teen as a member of the poor, as nonwhite, and as a teen-ager, obstetrical concepts, pregnancy results, factors which influence medical prognosis, and solutions to minimize medical risk. Additional areas of concern are a research review and a…

  14. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  15. Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

    2008-01-01

    Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

  16. Pathways to Postsecondary Education for Pregnant and Parenting Teens. Working Paper #C418

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Cynthia B.

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on pathways to postsecondary education (PSE), including high school completion, for pregnant and parenting teens. Although birth rates among teens have declined in the United States over the last 20 years, one in seven adolescent females (14.4 percent) is expected to give birth before age 20 with females of color (24 percent of…

  17. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  18. Ceftaroline desensitization procedure in a pregnant patient with multiple drug allergies.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Sokol, Caroline L; Balekian, Diana S; Weil, Ana A; Varughese, Christy A; Shenoy, Erica S; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    Validated skin testing is lacking for many drugs, including ceftaroline. The cross-reactivity between ceftaroline and other β-lactam antibiotics is unknown. We report a case of a pregnant patient with cystic fibrosis and multiple drug allergies who required ceftaroline for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and underwent an uncomplicated empiric desensitization procedure.

  19. Ceftaroline Desensitization Procedure in a Pregnant Patient With Multiple Drug Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlen, James L.; Blumenthal, Kimberly G.; Sokol, Caroline L.; Balekian, Diana S.; Weil, Ana A.; Varughese, Christy A.; Shenoy, Erica S.; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    Validated skin testing is lacking for many drugs, including ceftaroline. The cross-reactivity between ceftaroline and other β-lactam antibiotics is unknown. We report a case of a pregnant patient with cystic fibrosis and multiple drug allergies who required ceftaroline for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and underwent an uncomplicated empiric desensitization procedure. PMID:26034776

  20. Reparation by Proxy: Experiences of Working with Pregnant Teenagers and Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes brief work with pregnant teenagers, adolescent mothers, their infants and their wider families, a group who would not ordinarily seek treatment in child and adolescent mental health services. The work takes place in a community context in London and includes a home visiting service for young people unable to attend…

  1. GRADS--A Program That Works for Pregnant Teens and Adolescent Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Judy

    GRADS (Graduation, Reality, and Dual Role Skills) is a vocational home economics in-school, secondary program for pregnant students and/or young parents. Curriculum for the program, designed to keep students in school until graduation, includes positive prenatal and postnatal care; child development and parenting education; and goal setting toward…

  2. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    PubMed

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  3. Candida albicans and non-albicans species as etiological agent of vaginitis in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Babic, Mirela; Hukic, Mirsada

    2010-02-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy), and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%), as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%). The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans ( test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%). The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 %) and C. krusei (3,2%), and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,2%). The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%), and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%) , in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida colonisation. Our

  4. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  5. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  6. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  7. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  8. Genotype comparison of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum clones from pregnant and non-pregnant populations in North-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Placental malaria is the predominant pathology secondary to malaria in pregnancy, causing substantial maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in tropical areas. While it is clear that placental parasites are phenotypically different from those in the peripheral circulation, it is not known whether unique genotypes are associated specifically with placental infection or perhaps more generally with pregnancy. In this study, genetic analysis was performed on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from peripheral and placental blood in pregnant women living in North-west Colombia, and compared with parasites causing acute malaria in non-pregnant populations. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at delivery with malaria infection confirmed by real-time PCR in peripheral or placental blood were included, as well as 50 pregnant women in antenatal care and 80 men or non-pregnant women with acute malaria confirmed by a positive thick smear for P. vivax or P. falciparum. Five molecular markers per species were genotyped by nested PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Genetic diversity and the fixation index FST per species and study group were calculated and compared. Results Almost all infections at delivery were asymptomatic with significantly lower levels of infection compared with the groups with acute malaria. Expected heterozygosity for P. vivax molecular markers ranged from 0.765 to 0.928 and for P. falciparum markers ranged from 0.331 to 0.604. For P. vivax infections, the genetic diversity was similar amongst the four study groups and the fixation index from each pairwise comparison failed to show significant genetic differentiation. For P. falciparum, no genetic differentiation was observed between placental and peripheral parasites from the same woman at delivery, but the parasites isolated at delivery showed significant genetic differentiation compared with parasites isolated from subjects with acute malaria. Conclusions In

  9. Elevated frequencies of micronuclei in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in their newborns.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Monika; Ferenc, Tomasz; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Nowakowska, Dorota; Łopaczyńska, Dobrosława; Wilczyński, Jan

    2014-03-15

    Pregestational diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) affects about 1% of the obstetric population. In diabetes, persistent hyperglycemia can be a source of DNA damage via overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test, we measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) per 1000 binucleated (BN) cells in pregnant women (mothers) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in their newborns. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from 17 pregnant women with T1DM and cord-blood lymphocytes from their 17 newborns. The control group included 40 pregnant women (mothers) without diabetes mellitus (DM) and their 40 newborns. In the group of pregnant women with T1DM, the mean number of MN per 1000 BN cells was 2.35 (±1.07), significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the control group of pregnant women (0.86±0.90). The frequency value in the group of newborns of T1DM mothers was 1.42 (±0.60), significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the corresponding control group (0.67±0.79). The value in the group of mothers with T1DM was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in their newborns. Comparing mothers without DM with their newborns, no significant frequency differences were observed. No significant correlations were observed between MN frequencies in mothers with T1DM and either the frequencies in their newborns, the duration of diabetes, or HbA1C levels. Our results indicate that T1DM is accompanied by increased frequencies of MN in pregnant women and their newborns.

  10. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  11. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  12. [FEATURES MORPHOLOGICAL PICTURE FACIES ORAL LIQUID IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Iakovets, O V

    2015-01-01

    The features of morphological picture facies oral fluid of pregnant women with intact periodontal inflammatory diseases periodontal tissues. Results of the study were compared with the clinical picture. The features of morphological picture of the oral liquid with a healthy non-pregnant and periodontal inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. Revealed signs of inflammation markers in oral fluid facies in inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. PMID:27089718

  13. [Prescribed and unprescribed drug use among pregnant patients attended by the Unified Health System in Santa Rosa (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Brum, Lucimar Filot da Silva; Pereira, Patricia; Felicetti, Lilian Leticia; da Silveira, Renata Dischke

    2011-05-01

    In order to ascertain the use of prescribed and unprescribed drugs among pregnant patients of the Unified Health System (SUS), a descriptive study comprised of a sample of pregnant women was carried out in the city of Santa Rosa, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by means of structured interviews and consultation of patient records of pregnant women in the prenatal period. The prevalence of drug use was 90%, corresponding to an average of 4.1 drugs per pregnant woman, of which 83.6% were prescribed and 16.4% were self-medicated. Of this total, 17.5% of the drugs were included in fetal risk category C. The use of drugs during pregnancy is frequent and the majority of the pregnant women used one or more prescribed and unprescribed drugs during pregnancy. These data suggest the need for preventive measures to promote rational drug use during pregnancy. PMID:21655716

  14. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  15. In Utero Caffeine Exposure Induces Transgenerational Effects on the Adult Heart

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Poulsen, Ryan R.; Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Each year millions of pregnant woman are exposed to caffeine, which acts to antagonize adenosine action. The long-term consequences of this exposure on the developing fetus are largely unknown, although in animal models we have found adverse effects on cardiac function. To assess if these effects are transmitted transgenerationally, we exposed pregnant mice to caffeine equivalent to 2–4 cups of coffee at two embryonic stages. Embryos (F1 generation) exposed to caffeine early from embryonic (E) day 6.5–9.5 developed a phenotype similar to dilated cardiomyopathy by 1 year of age. Embryos exposed to caffeine later (E10.5–13.5) were not affected. We next examined the F2 generation and F3 generation of mice exposed to caffeine from E10.5–13.5, as this coincides with germ cell development. These F2 generation adult mice developed a cardiac phenotype similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The F3 generation exhibited morphological changes in adult hearts, including increased mass. This report shows that in utero caffeine exposure has long-term effects into adulthood and that prenatal caffeine exposure can exert adverse transgenerational effects on adult cardiac function. PMID:27677355

  16. Liberal Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Timo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses providers of and the concept of liberal adult education in Finland. Providers include (1) folk high schools, (2) adult education centers, (3) voluntary popular organizations, (4) public libraries, (5) evening schools, (6) cooperative groups formed of universities and other adult education providers, (7) summer universities, and (8)…

  17. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  18. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  19. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  20. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kell antigen is highly immunogenic and is the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and maternal alloimmunization, which causes severe anaemia in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and ethnic variation of the Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods Kell antigen status of 150 pregnant women aged 18-45 years and mean age 27.19 ±4.69 years attending antenatal clinic in UDUTH Sokoto Nigeria was determined using the conventional tube method and anti-Kell reagents (Lorne Laboratories, UK). Results Among the 150 subjects studied, 3 (2.0%) of subjects were positive and 147 (98.0) were negative for K antigen. Of the 150 pregnant subjects; 32 (21.3%) were primigravidae while 118 (78.7%) were multigravidae. Kell phenotype was more prevalent among primigravidae (3.1%) compared to multigravidae (1.7%) women. The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p = 0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ≥ 96.8% among all the ethnic groups. Conclusion Our observed prevalence of Kell phenotype is consistent with previous studies among Blacks and Asians but significantly lower than values observed in previous studies among Caucasians. We recommend that all pregnant women should be screened for the presence clinically significant red cell antigens including Kell antigen on their first antenatal visit. Kell negative red cell should be routinely provided for all pregnant women and women with child bearing potential to reduce the risk of Kell-associated HDFN. There is need to introduce routine screening of pregnant women for clinically significant red cell antibodies to facilitate the effective management of HDFN as well as prevent HTR. There is also need

  1. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  2. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  3. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  4. Pregnant journeys in group analytic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamic complexities that are triggered when a group member becomes pregnant. Through clinical illustrations taken from a weekly analytical group, the developmental processes and resonances found in such groups are discussed, alongside the technical challenges they pose on the leader. The scant literature on this topic and how it impacts on the therapeutic space is reviewed from individual and group analytic literature. This paper then extends the figuration of groups as types of metaphorical maternal container (Foulkes, 1964). In particular, this view is developed using the concept of primary maternal preoccupation (Winnicott, 1956) and simultaneously challenged with that of enclaves (O'Shaughnessy, 1992).

  5. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  6. Pregnant Mothers’ Perceptions of how Intimate Partner Violence affects Their Unborn Children

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Rahman, Damali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perceptions of pregnant women on the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) as it affects maternal and fetal health. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting Individual interviews conducted within three urban obstetric and gynecologic clinics Participants Our sample included a subset of eight pregnant women experiencing IPV during the current pregnancy. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included qualitative data from 13 women. Methods We analyzed in-depth individual interview transcripts in which participants discussed how they perceived IPV to affect their health as well as the health of their unborn children. Constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology were used in analysis. Results Three themes emerged to illustrate mothers’ perceptions of how IPV influenced maternal and fetal outcomes: protection, fetal awareness, and fetal well-being. Conclusions This analysis provides important insights into concerns that pregnant women experiencing IPV shared about maternal attachment and fetal well-being. Health care providers can use these findings to better assess the physical and psychological concerns of pregnant women experiencing IPV. Further research is needed to better understand how IPV contributes to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly from a biological perspective. PMID:25651808

  7. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure. PMID:26867368

  8. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  9. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy & Breastfeeding You are here Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are ...

  10. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  11. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  12. TRPV3 expression and vasodilator function in isolated uterine radial arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy V; Kanagarajah, Arjna; Toemoe, Sianne; Bertrand, Paul P; Grayson, T Hilton; Britton, Fiona C; Leader, Leo; Senadheera, Sevvandi; Sandow, Shaun L

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-3 ion channels (TRPV3) in uterine radial arteries isolated from non-pregnant and twenty-day pregnant rats. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested TRPV3 is primarily localized to the smooth muscle in arteries from both non-pregnant and pregnant rats. IHC using C' targeted antibody, and qPCR of TRPV3 mRNA, suggested pregnancy increased arterial TRPV3 expression. The TRPV3 activator carvacrol caused endothelium-independent dilation of phenylephrine-constricted radial arteries, with no difference between vessels from non-pregnant and pregnant animals. Carvacrol-induced dilation was reduced by the TRPV3-blockers isopentenyl pyrophosphate and ruthenium red, but not by the TRPA1 or TRPV4 inhibitors HC-030031 or HC-067047, respectively. In radial arteries from non-pregnant rats only, inhibition of NOS and sGC, or PKG, enhanced carvacrol-mediated vasodilation. Carvacrol-induced dilation of arteries from both non-pregnant and pregnant rats was prevented by the IKCa blocker TRAM-34. TRPV3 caused an endothelium-independent, IKCa-mediated dilation of the uterine radial artery. NO-PKG-mediated modulation of TRPV3 activity is lost in pregnancy, but this did not alter the response to carvacrol.

  13. Identifying and helping battered pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Parker, B; McFarlane, J

    1991-01-01

    This article highlights strategies in identifying and helping battered pregnant women. Studies report that 40-60% of battered women were abused during pregnancy inflicted in the form of blows to the abdomen, injuries to the breasts and genitals, and sexual assault. Because battering during pregnancy has been a prevalent occurrence, assessment during prenatal visits is most critical. This paper outlines several assessment approaches in dealing with battered pregnant women in specific circumstances, giving important consideration to her safety due to the potential risk of homicide. A Danger Assessment tool is utilized in assessing for potential homicide. Intervening with victims of abuse is difficult. The role of the nurse is to assist in the development of problem-solving and decision-making skills while the woman is still in extreme confusion or feeling of conflicting loyalties. Routine assessment for physical and sexual abuse during the prenatal period is recommended in order to prevent further abuse thus promoting maternal-child well being. PMID:2056861

  14. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population.

  15. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population. PMID:26295413

  16. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  17. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  18. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  19. Pregnant? Drugs and Alcohol Can Hurt Your Unborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…

  20. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  1. Reassigning the Identity of the Pregnant and Parenting Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    Learning about students' literacy practices at a school for pregnant and parenting teens is a tool for educators and scholars in rethinking the identity of the pregnant and parenting student. Though this population of students has been historically marginalized in U.S. school settings, programs such as the one described here have the potential to…

  2. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  3. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  4. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among pregnant women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). There were no associations found between being infected in pregnancy and anaemia. PMID:26288929

  6. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  7. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  8. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  9. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  10. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  11. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  12. Role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal motility in pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana Fernandes; Americo, Madileine Francely; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe Freitas; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Miranda, Jose Ricardo Arruda

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To correlate gastric contractility, gastrointestinal transit, and hormone levels in non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant rats using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Female rats (n = 23) were randomly divided into (1) non-pregnant, (contractility, n = 6; transit, n = 6); and (2) pregnant (contractility, n = 5; transit, n = 6). In each estrous cycle phase or at 0, 7, 14, and 20 d after the confirmation of pregnancy, gastrointestinal transit was recorded by AC biosusceptometry (ACB), and gastric contractility was recorded by ACB and electromyography. After each recording, blood samples were obtained for progesterone and estradiol determination. RESULTS: In the estrous cycle, despite fluctuations of sex hormone levels, no significant changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed. Days 7 and 14 of pregnancy were characterized by significant changes in the frequency of contractions (3.90 ± 0.42 cpm and 3.60 ± 0.36 cpm vs 4.33 ± 0.25 cpm) and gastric emptying (168 ± 17 min and 165 ± 15 min vs 113 ± 15 min) compared with day 0. On these same days, progesterone levels significantly increased compared with control (54.23 ± 15.14 ng/mL and 129.96 ± 30.52 ng/mL vs 13.25 ± 6.31 ng/mL). On day 14, we observed the highest level of progesterone and the lowest level of estradiol compared with day 0 (44.3 ± 15.18 pg/mL vs 24.96 ± 5.96 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was unaffected by the estrous cycle. In our data, high progesterone and low estradiol levels can be associated with decreased contraction frequency and slow gastric emptying. PMID:27433089

  13. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  14. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% fr...

  15. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and

  16. Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  17. Peripheral plasma levels of progesterone in pregnant goats and in pregnant goats treated with prostaglandin F2a.

    PubMed

    Bosu, W T; Serna Garibay, J A; Barker, C A

    1979-02-01

    Prostaglandin or prostaglandin analogues have been shown to be luteolytic in the pregnant goat. In this study the temporal changes in the plasma concentrations of progesterone during pregnancy and after administration of PGF2a to pregnant goats are described. PGF2a administration to pregnant goats at 30 and 65 days after breeding induced abortion within 34 to 75 hours. These abortions were accompanied by estrus and profuse muco-hemorrhagic discharges. When PGF2a was administered to pregnant goats 140 or 142 days after breeding, premature parturition occurred within 42 to 76 hours. Live kids were delivered in all cases. The plasma levels of progesterone in all pregnant goats showed dramatic decreases within 24 hours after the prostaglandin injections and continued to decrease gradually until abortions or premature parturition. Thereafter, the progesterone levels remained low for several days. PMID:16725398

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  20. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  1. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Igbinosa, Irogue; Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Pillai, Satish K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Villanueva, Julie M; Newsome, Kim; Fischer, Marc; Gupta, Priya M; Powers, Ann M; Lampe, Margaret; Hills, Susan; Arnold, Kathryn E; Rose, Laura E; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Beard, Charles B; Muñoz, Jorge L; Rao, Carol Y; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated <2 weeks after symptom onset should receive serum and urine Zika virus rRT-PCR testing. Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated 2-12 weeks after symptom onset should first receive a Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR testing should be performed. Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic

  2. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Igbinosa, Irogue; Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Pillai, Satish K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Villanueva, Julie M; Newsome, Kim; Fischer, Marc; Gupta, Priya M; Powers, Ann M; Lampe, Margaret; Hills, Susan; Arnold, Kathryn E; Rose, Laura E; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Beard, Charles B; Muñoz, Jorge L; Rao, Carol Y; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-07-25

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated <2 weeks after symptom onset should receive serum and urine Zika virus rRT-PCR testing. Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated 2-12 weeks after symptom onset should first receive a Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR testing should be performed. Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic

  3. [Effects of cold on triiodothyronine metabolism in the pregnant rat].

    PubMed

    Blanco, M R; Cageao, L; Rivera, O E; Belmonte, N; Zaninovich, A A

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen Wistar rats were studied in the last week of pregnancy. Another group of 6 nonpregnant animals served as control. Eight pregnant and 6 control ratas were kept in the cold room at 4 degrees C for 4 days, while 8 pregnant rats remained at 22 degrees C. After blocking the thyroid gland with potassium perchlorate to prevent iodine reutilization, a dose of 4 microCi of 125I-T3 was injected i.p. Thereafter, animals were placed in individual metabolic cages for separate 24 h collection of urine and feces. Heparinized blood samples were obtained at 4, 14, 24 and 28 h following tracer injection. Pregnant rats exposed to cold had a significant increase in T3 fractional turnover as compared to pregnants at 22 degrees C (p < 0.005) and to controls at 4 degrees C (p < 0.02). No changes were observed in space of distribution, serum concentration and body pool of T3. Degradation of this hormone, however, was significantly augmented (p < 0.05) in pregnants at 4 degrees C as compared to pregnants at 22 degrees C, although not when compared to controls at 4 degrees C. The urinary excretion of 125I was increased in pregnants in the cold (p <0.005) versus pregnants at 22 degrees C. The metabolic (p < 0.005), urinary (p < 0.001) and fecal (p < 0.05) clearances in pregnants at 4 degrees C were augmented with respect to the other two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

  5. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant women (n= 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p=0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p=0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r=0.731, p<0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p=0.008), but not in pregnant women (p=0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  6. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  7. [Educational Facilities for Pregnant School-Age Girls in Districts 3, 4, 12, 13, and 18. Project No. 1369. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.

    This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in pregnant baboons (Papio spp.).

    PubMed

    Shoulson, Rivka L; Stark, Raymond L; Garland, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Fluoxetine is used to treat a number of psychiatric conditions in humans and behavioral problems in animals. Its use in pregnancy must balance maternal benefit with potential risk to the fetus. Knowledge of adult and fetal drug disposition can assist clinicians in selecting therapy that minimizes adverse effects to the fetus. Nonhuman primate models are used frequently in drug dose-translation studies, and pregnancy in baboons has many similarities to human pregnancy. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic analysis of a series of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine administrations to pregnant baboons was performed. The mean maternal baboon steady-state clearance of fluoxetine (42 mL/min/kg) was considerably higher than that in humans. Norfluoxetine, the major active metabolite, had a higher metabolite-to-drug ratio (8.7) than that found in humans, particularly with oral dosing. These results are consistent with more extensive metabolism in baboons than in humans and leads to a higher clearance than would be expected from allometric scaling. Fetal-to-maternal fluoxetine and norfluoxetine ratios under steady-state conditions were similar to those in humans, with fetal concentrations of fluoxetine 42% and norfluoxetine 47% of maternal concentrations. The fetal clearance of fluoxetine (303 ± 176 mL/min) and norfluoxetine (450 mL/min) exceeded reported placental blood flow. Understanding these species-associated differences in metabolism is a prerequisite to extrapolating data between species. Nonetheless, nonhuman primates are likely to remain valuable models for pharmacokinetic studies during pregnancy, particularly those directed toward fetal neurodevelopmental effects. Our results also are applicable to determining appropriate dosing of nonhuman primates in clinical settings.

  9. Bone strontium in pregnant and lactating females from archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Blakely, R L

    1989-10-01

    Because plants and animals consume or absorb different amounts of strontium and calcium, anthropologists are able to use strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios from archaeologically recovered human bone to estimate the relative contributions of meat and plants to paleodiets. Often females exhibit higher Sr/Ca ratios than males, a fact usually attributed to lower meat intake among women. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments with laboratory animals show that pregnancy and lactation elevate maternal bone strontium and depress maternal bone calcium because 1) strontium is discriminated against in favor of calcium in the transport of ions to the placenta and mammary glands and 2) pregnancy and lactation facilitate absorption of alkaline earth metals from the gut. In this study, bone Sr/Ca ratios and strontium concentrations were compared between reproductive-age females, postmenopausal females, and adult males from two late prehistoric Native American sites in Georgia: the King site (N = 43) and the Etowah site (N = 51). At the King site, the mean Sr/Ca ratio of females was over 14% greater than that of males. At Etowah, the mean strontium level of reproductive-age females exceeded that of postmenopausal females by almost 25%. Most of the difference, it is argued, is due to pregnancy and lactation. A dietary preference among pregnant and lactating women for foods high in alkaline earths, particularly nuts and corn, may also be partially responsible. Until we assess the influence variables other than nutrition exert on trace element concentrations, our reconstructions of paleodiets will be suspect. PMID:2801910

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoxetine in Pregnant Baboons (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Shoulson, Rivka L; Stark, Raymond L; Garland, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Fluoxetine is used to treat a number of psychiatric conditions in humans and behavioral problems in animals. Its use in pregnancy must balance maternal benefit with potential risk to the fetus. Knowledge of adult and fetal drug disposition can assist clinicians in selecting therapy that minimizes adverse effects to the fetus. Nonhuman primate models are used frequently in drug dose-translation studies, and pregnancy in baboons has many similarities to human pregnancy. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic analysis of a series of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine administrations to pregnant baboons was performed. The mean maternal baboon steady-state clearance of fluoxetine (42 mL/min/kg) was considerably higher than that in humans. Norfluoxetine, the major active metabolite, had a higher metabolite-to-drug ratio (8.7) than that found in humans, particularly with oral dosing. These results are consistent with more extensive metabolism in baboons than in humans and leads to a higher clearance than would be expected from allometric scaling. Fetal-to-maternal fluoxetine and norfluoxetine ratios under steady-state conditions were similar to those in humans, with fetal concentrations of fluoxetine 42% and norfluoxetine 47% of maternal concentrations. The fetal clearance of fluoxetine (303 ± 176 mL/min) and norfluoxetine (450 mL/min) exceeded reported placental blood flow. Understanding these species-associated differences in metabolism is a prerequisite to extrapolating data between species. Nonetheless, nonhuman primates are likely to remain valuable models for pharmacokinetic studies during pregnancy, particularly those directed toward fetal neurodevelopmental effects. Our results also are applicable to determining appropriate dosing of nonhuman primates in clinical settings. PMID:25650979

  11. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  12. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  13. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  14. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-12-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman. PMID:26766798

  15. Adoption as an option for unmarried pregnant teens.

    PubMed

    Custer, M

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood reduces the opportunities and optimal outcomes for both mother and child, yet pregnant teenagers rarely consider adoption. This paper reports a qualitative study that explored the reasons this option is so rarely examined. Twenty-one unmarried pregnant adolescents and their significant others were interviewed twice to determine the meaning adoption has for them. Four phenomena were found to be pivotal to the their willingness to consider adoption: (1) societal sanctions, (2) low level of knowledge, (3) anticipated psychological discomfort, and (4) lack of support from helping professionals. Information generated should be useful at health and social policy levels as well as to professionals who work with pregnant teenagers. PMID:8266842

  16. Policies and attitudes toward the pregnant radiology resident

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, S.; Freedman, M.T.; Arak, G.

    1985-07-01

    To evaluate attitudes and policies toward pregnant radiology residents, a questionnaire was sent to the chiefs of radiology residency programs across the country. A return rate of 76.4% and a response rate of 75.4% were achieved. A large majority of the respondents indicated that schedule changes would be made to avoid excessive exposure of a pregnant resident to radiation. The accommodations they suggest are reviewed, and suggestions are made that would help alleviate some of the stress and conflicts that invariably arise when a resident becomes pregnant.

  17. Perceptions of African-American Health Professionals and Community Members on Participation of Children and Pregnant Women in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Emmanuel M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2014-01-01

    Background As genetic research gains more prominence in society, ethical concerns and the need for safeguards in the participation of children and pregnant women have increased. This study examined the perspectives of African-American health professional and community members on genetic research involving children and pregnant women. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to collect and analyze survey data and qualitative data from focus groups of community members and structured interviews of health professionals. Results We found that community members had significantly more favorable attitudes toward participation of children and pregnant women in genetic research than health professionals. Health professionals did not differ significantly from community members in their perceived understanding of genetic research. Emergent themes included limited knowledge of genetic research and distinction of biomedical research and clinical care, ethical concerns about confidentiality, and potential harm and the need to protect children and pregnant women. Participants expressed high interest and favorable attitude towards genetic research, despite limited genetic knowledge and concerns of potential harm to children and pregnant women. Some participants felt that genetic research findings could help dispel stigma and reduce discrimination, especially in mental illness. Conclusion Findings suggest that the recruitment of participants into genetic research should directly address privacy and benefit concerns, and limited knowledge of physical and mental illness genetic research. There is a critical need to invest and engage racial/ethnic communities early, provide education on genetics, mental illness, and translate and share research findings with these communities. PMID:24216722

  18. Analysis of pregnant occupant crash exposure and the potential effectiveness of four-point seatbelts in far side crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Gabler, Hampton C; Manoogian, Sarah M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion.

  19. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  20. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Turan, Janet M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  1. The development and evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in a regional hospital, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thassri, J; Kala, N; Chusintong, L; Phongthanasarn, J; Boonsrirat, S; Jirojwong, S

    2000-12-01

    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Thailand is higher than neighbouring developing countries including Malaysia and Singapore. The 1993 MMR of Thailand was 249 per 100 000 livebirths which was four times higher than the rates in Malaysia and Singapore (World Health Organization 1995). The major causes of these deaths were haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy and sepsis which were likely to be prevented by adequate prenatal care (Thailand Ministry of Public Health 1996). A large proportion of Thai pregnant women have poor health. Between 1994 and 1995, a national study conducted by Thailand Ministry of Health showed that 39% of pregnant women were anaemic, defined as haemoglobin concentration lower than 33% (Supamethaporn 1997). Another study conducted in the southern region also indicated that 13.8% of pregnant women were anaemic caused by iron deficiency (Phatthanapreechakul et al. 1997). Other behaviours which increased risks associated with child birth included non-antenatal care (ANC) attendance, undertaking physically demanding tasks and failure to increase nutritional intake during their pregnancy period (N. Phiriyanuphong et al. 1992, unpublished report). These factors emphasize the importance of a health education programme which could facilitate women to, for example, increase protein and iron intake during pregnancy which would reduce complications from their poor health status. This study was conducted in a regional hospital in Thailand where there was no systematic and well-planned health education programme for pregnant women. The initial aim was to design a health education programme using input from the hospital health care professionals including obstetricians, nurses, nutritionists, health educators and health promoters. An active involvement of these personnel assisted to sustain the provision of the programme provided for pregnant women after the cessation of the study project. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the

  2. Difference in ponderal growth and body composition among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents varies by birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that following pregnancy and 6 months of lactation, adolescents cease linear growth and have reduced fat and lean mass in rural Bangladesh. Here, we examined whether these changes varied by pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. Anthropometric measurements were taken among 12-19-year-old primigravidae (n = 229) in early pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Never-pregnant adolescents (n = 456) matched on age and time since menarche were also measured at the same time. Change in anthropometry among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents was compared by pregnancy outcome adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. Pregnant girls, irrespective of birth outcome, did not gain in stature, while never-pregnant girls increased in height by 0.36 +/- 0.04 cm year(-1) (P < 0.05). Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and % body fat among pregnant adolescents whose infants survived the neonatal period had decreased at 6 months post-partum, whereas those who experienced a fetal loss or neonatal death did not change in any of the measurements. Consequently, the difference in change in ponderal size and body composition measures between pregnant and never-pregnant girls was higher among those whose neonates survived vs. those who experienced a fetal loss/neonatal death (BMI: -0.64 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.16 kg m(-2) year(-1); MUAC: -0.96 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17 cm year(-1), both P < 0.05). LBW and preterm birth did not have a similar effect modification. Linear growth ceased among pregnant girls regardless of birth outcome. Maternal weight loss and depletion of fat and lean mass at 6 months post-partum were more pronounced when the infants survived through the neonatal period. PMID:20055928

  3. Anti-C1q autoantibodies are linked to autoimmune thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vitkova, H; Jiskra, J; Springer, D; Limanova, Z; Telicka, Z; Bartakova, J; Trendelenburg, M; Potlukova, E

    2016-10-01

    Anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anti-C1q and thyroid function in pregnancy-associated AITD. In 96 pregnant women screened positive for AITD (thyroid dysfunction and/or antibodies against thyroperoxidase - TPOAb), anti-C1q were measured during the 9-11th gestational week and after delivery (median 16 months after delivery), and compared to the corresponding serum levels of thyroid hormones. As controls, 80 healthy pregnant women, 72 non-pregnant AITD patients and 72 blood donors were included. In the non-pregnant AITD group, two serum samples ≥ 6 months apart were analysed. Compared to blood donors, anti-C1q levels were substantially higher in all pregnant women analysed. In pregnancy, anti-C1q levels were higher in the TPOAb-positive women than in controls (37 versus 17·5%, P < 0·0001). Anti-C1q-positive pregnant women screened positive for AITD had higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than anti-C1q-negative women (2·41 versus 1·94 mU/l, P = 0·01), and TSH correlated positively with anti-C1q (r = 0·226, P = 0·045) in the TPOAb-positive women. After delivery, serum levels of anti-C1q decreased in the positively screened TPOAb-negative women (8·8 versus 5·9 U/l, P = 0·002), but not in the TPOAb-positive ones, and they no longer correlated with TSH. Anti-C1q antibody levels increase during pregnancy in general and even more in the context of AITD, where they correlate with thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27198614

  4. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  5. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  6. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population. PMID:26658057

  7. Motor activity of pregnant tethered sows.

    PubMed

    Cariolet, R; Dantzer, R

    1984-01-01

    Continuous recording of body postures (standing or lying) using photocells connected to an event recorder was carried out on 125 pregnant sows tethered either by a thoracic girth or by a neck harness in six different farms, at different times of the year. Standing activity occupied an average of 250 min per day. This position occurred mainly during daytime, with amount of standing during the night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.) averaging less than 2% of the total time. This mean value was found in 4 farms out of 6. However, on one farm, standing postures lasted 390 min and this hyperactivity was associated with stereotypes. In another farm, time spent standing did not exceed 180 min. In all cases, multiparous sows spent about 60% more time standing than first or second litter sows. Time spent standing was dependent on other animal characteristics such as physical condition and foot condition, and also on environmental factors. Activity rhythms were synchronized by food distribution. These results are discussed together with the potential of using motor activity to characterize adaptability of sows to tethering.

  8. Social Licking in Pregnant Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Grazyne; Weary, Daniel M; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    Housing affects social behaviors, such as competition, but little work has addressed affiliative behaviors. This study compared social licking (SL) in pregnant heifers housed indoors (in a free-stall barn) versus outdoors (on pasture), and relationships with competition, feeding and physical proximity to others. Six heifer groups were observed during two six-hour-periods in both treatments. The total number of social events (SL and agonistic interactions) was four times higher when heifers were housed indoors compared to pasture (546 ± 43 vs. 128 ± 7 events/group; P < 0.05). SL as a ratio of the total number of social events was similar in the two treatments (12% vs . 8% of interactions, free-stall and pasture, respectively; P > 0.05). Housing did not affect how the SL bout was initiated and terminated, the duration, the body part licked and behavior preceding licking ( P > 0.05). Animals in close proximity showed higher rates of SL ( P < 0.0001) but not agonistic interactions ( P > 0.05). A previous agonistic event did not predict occurrence or the role of heifers in the following licking event. The higher stocking density indoors likely resulted in increased social interactions. PMID:26610578

  9. [Pregnancy and eating behavior in pregnant women from a low-income neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.

  10. CDC: Pregnant Women Should Avoid Southeast Asia Due to Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant Women Should Avoid Southeast Asia Due to Zika Meanwhile, French report shows virus can infect sperm ... 30, 2016 FRIDAY, Sept. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika continues to extend its reach around the globe, ...

  11. Retropharyngeal infection in a pregnant diabetic. A case report.

    PubMed

    Norman, D A; Compton, A A; Baker, S; Slack, S

    1985-10-01

    A retropharyngeal infection occurred in a pregnant class C diabetic at 31 weeks' gestation. Early diagnosis, prompt therapy with antibiotics and possibly surgery for drainage if an abscess develops constitute optimal management. PMID:4067953

  12. Penetrating the Fog: The Experience of Being Pregnant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-O

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this column is to explore the experience of being pregnant as talked about by women in Taiwan. In nursing and healthcare in general, there is a tendency to objectify the experience from a biomedical view, focusing on physiological changes and symptoms. A human science approach is here applied to help understand the themes that were evident in the comments of 23 pregnant Taiwanese women, about what being pregnant was like for them. The perspective used for the explanation was Parse's humanbecoming paradigm. Being pregnant is seen by the author as a chosen way of becoming visible-invisible becoming in the world which involves; being oneself, but not oneself, doubling up, and living with the mystery of the other. PMID:27271138

  13. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  14. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  15. Penetrating the Fog: The Experience of Being Pregnant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-O

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this column is to explore the experience of being pregnant as talked about by women in Taiwan. In nursing and healthcare in general, there is a tendency to objectify the experience from a biomedical view, focusing on physiological changes and symptoms. A human science approach is here applied to help understand the themes that were evident in the comments of 23 pregnant Taiwanese women, about what being pregnant was like for them. The perspective used for the explanation was Parse's humanbecoming paradigm. Being pregnant is seen by the author as a chosen way of becoming visible-invisible becoming in the world which involves; being oneself, but not oneself, doubling up, and living with the mystery of the other.

  16. Management of the pregnant patient with carcinoma of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Barnavon, Y.; Wallack, M.K. )

    1990-10-01

    The diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast during pregnancy poses a challenging dilemma. Although once regarded as incurable, recent reports reveal similar long term survival rates for pregnant and nonpregnant patients who have carcinoma of the breast. When referred to a surgeon, a pregnant woman with a suspicious mammary mass deserves an expedient histologic diagnosis; delay may jeopardize the chances of survival. Once the diagnosis is established, pregnant patients should be treated in a manner similar to nonpregnant patients because there is no evidence that carcinoma of the breast in pregnant women is biologically different than carcinoma of the breast in other premenopausal women. Fears of fetal exposure to radiation should not deter a physician from ordering appropriate preoperative diagnostic tests to stage the patients. Operation may be performed safely when general anesthesia is administered and postoperative adjuvant therapy should be administered when necessary. The involvement of multiple subspecialties in the management of these patients is highly recommended. 52 references.

  17. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  18. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  19. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  20. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  1. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  2. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  3. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  4. Telling Parents You're Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some cases, anger can get out of control. You know your parent and you know your situation. If you need ... With My Parents So Much? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Having a Healthy Pregnancy ... Sign up for our free weekly eNewsletters here ...

  5. Donating umbilical cord blood to a public bank or storing it in a private bank: knowledge and preference of blood donors and of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Pirrè, Guglielma; Valente, Elisabetta; Gesuiti, Paola; Corona, Francesca; Girelli, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Background. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women. Materials and methods. This study was conducted at the “Sapienza” University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women. Results. Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use. Discussion. The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and

  6. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Manzanares-Acuña, Eduardo; Hernández-Dávila, Víctor Martín; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iñiguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  7. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-08

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  8. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for theophylline disposition in the pregnant and nonpregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, J L; Paalzow, L K; Nordström, L

    1984-04-01

    There are numerous studies which examine the disposition of theophylline from a traditional point of view. Information about the behaviour of drugs, including theophylline, is, however, very scarce when investigating the kinetics by means of a physiological flow model. This study is concerned with the development of a predictive analytical model for the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in nonpregnant and pregnant rats. This model postulates that specific organ or tissue masses may be simulated by compartments whose elements have physiological properties, e.g., tissue volumes, blood flow, and metabolic activity. A model has been developed that has blood, brain, hepatic, muscular, pulmonary, renal, and fetal tissues. With few exceptions, the agreement was good between predicted and calculated tissue data in the pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Finally, model simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different pulmonary extraction ratios on the concentration-time profile of theophylline in a "hypothetical" human patient.

  9. Challenges of the pregnant athlete and low back pain.

    PubMed

    Noon, Megan L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common problem with a high prevalence among pregnant athletes. The etiology of pregnancy-related low back pain remains unclear, although more evidence is supporting a biomechanical/musculoskeletal origin. This article will review the causes of low back pain in athletes and pregnant women, differentiate low back from pelvic girdle pain, and discuss the treatment and prevention of pregnancy-related low back and pelvic girdle pain.

  10. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  11. Adaptation of the U.S. Food Security Survey Module for Low-Income Pregnant Latinas: Qualitative Phase

    PubMed Central

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14total) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April – June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validity) of the US HFSSM as well as adapt the US HFSSM based on their recommendations. This was followed by pre-testing (N=7) to make final adaptations to the US HFSSM. Overall, the items in the US HFSSM were clear and understandable to participants, but some questions sounded repetitive to them. Participants felt the questions were applicable to other pregnant Latinas in their community and shared food security related experiences and strategies. Participants recommendations led to key adaptations to the US HFSSM including reducing the scale to 15-items, wording statements as questions, including two time periods, replacing the term “balanced meals” with “healthy and varied”, replacing the term “low cost foods” with “cheap foods” and including a definition of the term, and including a coping mechanism of avoiding running out of food. The adapted US HFSSM was found to have good face validity among pregnant Latinas and can be used to assess food insecurity among this vulnerable population. PMID:20046909

  12. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  13. Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:25548510

  14. Hepatic infarction in a pregnant woman with antiphospholipid syndrome and triple antibody positivity: A case report focusing on catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Yee, Cheonga; Kuk, Jin-Yi; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) carry a high risk of arterial or venous thrombosis. Such thrombotic conditions occur more frequently in patients with triple positivity to antiphospholipid antibodies or with high antibody titers. Hepatic infarction is a rare complication in pregnant women with APS, and it sometimes mimics HELLP syndrome. This report describes a preeclamptic pregnant woman with APS who had high titers of three antiphospholipid antibodies. She experienced severe epigastric pain with elevated liver enzymes; in addition, she had tachycardia and tachypnea. The clinical findings suggested hepatic infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism, a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS. Therefore, she underwent emergent cesarean section at 25+2 weeks of gestation. After the delivery, her laboratory test indicated HELLP-like features, and computed tomography confirmed hepatic infarction and pulmonary micro-thromboembolism. Here, we report a case of a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS in a pregnant woman with triple antibody positivity, including a brief literature review.

  15. Hepatic infarction in a pregnant woman with antiphospholipid syndrome and triple antibody positivity: A case report focusing on catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Yee, Cheonga; Kuk, Jin-Yi; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) carry a high risk of arterial or venous thrombosis. Such thrombotic conditions occur more frequently in patients with triple positivity to antiphospholipid antibodies or with high antibody titers. Hepatic infarction is a rare complication in pregnant women with APS, and it sometimes mimics HELLP syndrome. This report describes a preeclamptic pregnant woman with APS who had high titers of three antiphospholipid antibodies. She experienced severe epigastric pain with elevated liver enzymes; in addition, she had tachycardia and tachypnea. The clinical findings suggested hepatic infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism, a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS. Therefore, she underwent emergent cesarean section at 25+2 weeks of gestation. After the delivery, her laboratory test indicated HELLP-like features, and computed tomography confirmed hepatic infarction and pulmonary micro-thromboembolism. Here, we report a case of a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS in a pregnant woman with triple antibody positivity, including a brief literature review. PMID:27668204

  16. Hepatic infarction in a pregnant woman with antiphospholipid syndrome and triple antibody positivity: A case report focusing on catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Yee, Cheonga; Kuk, Jin-Yi; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) carry a high risk of arterial or venous thrombosis. Such thrombotic conditions occur more frequently in patients with triple positivity to antiphospholipid antibodies or with high antibody titers. Hepatic infarction is a rare complication in pregnant women with APS, and it sometimes mimics HELLP syndrome. This report describes a preeclamptic pregnant woman with APS who had high titers of three antiphospholipid antibodies. She experienced severe epigastric pain with elevated liver enzymes; in addition, she had tachycardia and tachypnea. The clinical findings suggested hepatic infarction and pulmonary thromboembolism, a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS. Therefore, she underwent emergent cesarean section at 25+2 weeks of gestation. After the delivery, her laboratory test indicated HELLP-like features, and computed tomography confirmed hepatic infarction and pulmonary micro-thromboembolism. Here, we report a case of a partial manifestation of catastrophic APS in a pregnant woman with triple antibody positivity, including a brief literature review. PMID:27668204

  17. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns: reports of 102 cases

    PubMed Central

    Loudyi, Fouzia Mnebhi; Kassouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Meryem; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in Morocco, as it supports the program of systematic supplementation of pregnant women in the third quarter. Its results have established a new program for the fight against the deficit of various nutrients, thereby intake of vitamin D has become routine. So this work is a true example of action research. Methods It’s an observational and a cross sectional study. The data was collected prospectively from the 1st January to 31 December 2012 in the labor room of the Souissi maternity hospital, at the Ibn Sina university center of Rabat in Morocco. Women included were consented to participate in the study. Data on epidemiological, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was recolted by interview, physical exam and biochemistry parameters. Hypovitaminosis D is defined as serum level of vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Our study included 102 cases of mother-newborn pairs. The average age of mothers was 28.3 +/- 6.7 years (range 17-43 years), 90.1% of women enrolled had a hypovitaminosis D, the average weight of newborns was 3377.9 +/- 509g (2270 - 4880g). Hypovitaminosis D is not correlated with the origin, season, body mass index, birth interval and birth weight. It was positively correlated with maternal serum calcium (p=0.000). Conclusion The maternal hypovitaminosis D is real public health problem. The prevention is necessary, by the systematic vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women.

  18. Biomechanical modeling of pregnant occupants in far-side vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest single cause of death for pregnant women and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants exposed to far-side vehicle crashes. A test matrix of nine computer simulations was performed using a computational model of a 30-week pregnant occupant. Three separate far-side impact severities were modeled including velocity changes of 5 mph, 15 mph, and 25 mph over the same 100 ms period. Three restraint conditions were modeled including no restraint, lap-belt only, and the three-point belt. All simulations at 5 mph resulted in very low risk of maternal or fetal injury. The simulations at 15 mph and 25 mph demonstrated the protective benefit of the three-point belt as both the lap-belt and no restraint tests resulted in the mother's head contacting the opposite door resulting in severe head injuries with HIC values above 2000. All simulations at 15 mph and 25 mph indicate possible fetal injury risk regardless of restraint condition as the peak strain values at the utero-placental interface were between 27.1% and 44.9% which equate to fetal injury risks between 36.9% and 61.0%. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point belt caused this strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the console was not a potential fetal injury mechanism in these simulations as the occupant either passed over it in the unrestrained simulations or rotated above it for the lap-belt and three-point belt tests. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies that show the three-point belt is the best and most important safety device for protecting pregnant occupants.

  19. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  20. Assessment Scales, Associated Factors and the Quality of Life Score in Pregnant Women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Farideh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat

    2016-01-01

    Women experience physical, chemical, endocrine gland and organ changes during pregnancy that limit their activities and reduce their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of life in pregnant women in Iran, the assessment scales used to measure this variable and the factors associated with it.The present study searched databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, Mahiran, IranDoc and Google Scholar using keywords such as pregnant women, Iran, quality of life, pregnancy and prenatal and their Persian equivalents to find relevant articles conducted in Iran and ultimately found 20 articles to review without any regard for their time, language and publication site.Studies conducted in Iran to assess the quality of life in pregnant women have used four tools, including the SF-36, the WHOQOL-BRIEF, the SF-12 and the Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. The mean quality of life score obtained using these different tools varied from 61.18±13.21 to 66.48±15.57. Social support, socioeconomic status, the pregnancy being wanted, satisfaction with life and sexual function were related directly to the quality of life, while prenatal mental disorders, the severity of pregnancy nausea and vomiting and sleep disorders were related inversely to it.Given the lack of a specific tool designed to assess the quality of life in pregnant women, general tools were used for its assessment. Further studies are thus required to design a specific localized tool and to also assess the relationship between the quality of life and its associated factors. PMID:27241421

  1. Evaluation of an intergenerational program for pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roye, C F; Balk, S J

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the Teenage Mothers-Grandmothers (TAM-GM) Program, which operated during 1988-91, at a large inner-city hospital in the Bronx, New York. Pregnant adolescents who received prenatal care were expected to attend classes on labor and delivery, changes in pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention, teen concerns, sexuality and family planning, the physical care of the newborn, the emotional needs of the newborn and older infant, and nutrition. Grandmothers attended the classes with their pregnant daughters. Postpartum care in the clinic for the same mothers included check-ups monthly during the first year, bimonthly during the second year, and then every 3-6 months. Children were followed-up until the age of 3 years or until the mother turned age 19. The aim of the TAM-GM was to reduce repeat pregnancy. Grandmothers participated in counseling sessions with a social worker during their daughter's pregnancy and in the first months postpartum. 59 grandmothers, or 39% of those eligible, attended at least one session of the TAM-GM Program; 34 attended 4-12 sessions; and 26 attended 1-3 sessions. Adolescent study participants completed questionnaires (demographic survey, the Moos Family Environment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Brief Symptoms Inventory, and the Arizona Social Support Interview) at Time 1, at the onset of TAM-GM Program, and at Time 2, when the index children were aged 2-5 years. Of the 65 adolescent participants (38% of the original 171), 32 had mothers who attended at least one TAM-GM session. Open-ended interviews revealed seven categories of concern. Findings indicate that teens whose mothers participated in TAM-GM were significantly less likely to have dropped out of school and had significantly higher self-esteem scores. Teens credited the program with helping them feel better about the pregnancy and with improving relations with their mothers. Findings suggest that all benefitted in numerous ways from

  2. Peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food: how acceptable and tolerated is it among malnourished pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh?

    PubMed

    Ali, Engy; Zachariah, Rony; Shams, Zubair; Manzi, Marcel; Akter, Tajmary; Alders, Petra; Allaouna, Malik; Delchevalerie, Pascale; Harries, Anthony D

    2015-10-01

    Within a Medecins Sans Frontieres's nutrition programme in Kamrangirchar slum, Dhaka, Bangladesh this study was conducted to assess the acceptability of a peanut-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) - Plumpy'nut(®) (PPN) among malnourished pregnant and lactating women (PLW). This was a cross-sectional survey using semi-structure questionnaire that included all PLW admitted in the nutrition programme, who were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and who had received PPN for at least 4 weeks. A total of 248 women were interviewed of whom 99.6% were at risk of malnutrition. Overall, 212 (85%) perceived a therapeutic benefit. Despite this finding, 193 (78%) women found PPN unacceptable, of whom 12 (5%) completely rejected it after 4 weeks of intake. Reasons for unacceptability included undesirable taste (60%) and unwelcome smell (43%) - more than half of the latter was due to the peanut-based smell. Overall, 39% attributed side effects to PPN intake including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal distension and pain. Nearly 80% of women felt a need to improve PPN - 82% desiring a change in taste and 48% desiring a change in smell. Overall, only 146 (59%) understood the illustrated instructions on the package. Despite a perceived beneficial therapeutic effect, only two in 10 women found PPN acceptable for nutritional rehabilitation. We urge nutritional agencies and manufacturers to intensify their efforts towards developing more RUTF alternatives that have improved palatability and smell for adults and that have adequate therapeutic contents for treating malnourished PLW in Bangladesh.

  3. Nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Amella, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited income, isolation, chronic illness, and physiologic changes. Assessment and nursing interventions are also addressed.

  4. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  5. Social Licking in Pregnant Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Tresoldi, Grazyne; Weary, Daniel M.; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Social licking is often associated with good animal welfare, but little is known about this behavior in cattle. Licking behavior was compared in heifers housed indoors versus on pasture. Licking frequency was four-fold higher when heifers were indoors. However, when considering all social interactions recorded (licking and aggressions) licking events represented about 10% of all interactions regardless of housing. This behavior happened more frequently between heifers that were observed more repeatedly in close vicinity of each other. Provision of smaller indoor floor spaces likely brought animals into closer proximity thus facilitating social interactions. Abstract Housing affects social behaviors, such as competition, but little work has addressed affiliative behaviors. This study compared social licking (SL) in pregnant heifers housed indoors (in a free-stall barn) versus outdoors (on pasture), and relationships with competition, feeding and physical proximity to others. Six heifer groups were observed during two six-hour-periods in both treatments. The total number of social events (SL and agonistic interactions) was four times higher when heifers were housed indoors compared to pasture (546 ± 43 vs. 128 ± 7 events/group; P < 0.05). SL as a ratio of the total number of social events was similar in the two treatments (12% vs. 8% of interactions, free-stall and pasture, respectively; P > 0.05). Housing did not affect how the SL bout was initiated and terminated, the duration, the body part licked and behavior preceding licking (P > 0.05). Animals in close proximity showed higher rates of SL (P < 0.0001) but not agonistic interactions (P > 0.05). A previous agonistic event did not predict occurrence or the role of heifers in the following licking event. The higher stocking density indoors likely resulted in increased social interactions. PMID:26610578

  6. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, E. B.; Fraser, D.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow’s ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use. PMID:26559417

  7. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E B; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  8. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  9. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid.

  10. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  11. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E B; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use. PMID:26559417

  12. [Fetal responses to different methods of electrocution of pregnant sows].

    PubMed

    Peisker, Nina; Preissel, Anne-Kathrin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Schuster, Tibor; Thomes, Rainer; Henke, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The fetal stress responses in sows euthanized by electrical current during their second and last trimester of pregnancy (G1 and G2) were evaluated. Three methods of euthanasia of pregnant sows generally applicable to cases of epizootic or emergency slaughter were investigated: 1. conventional application of electrical current to the head and heart (HH); 2. application of electrical current to the head, heart and the uterus (HHU); 3. application of electrical current to the head, heart and from the upper body to the vagina (HHV). Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at intervals of 3 to 4 minutes and remained attached to the sow by the umbilical cord. Fetal vitality, reflexes, heart rate, blood pressure, rectal body temperature, intracardial arteriovenous pCO2, pH and lactic acid were monitored for a period of 30 minutes. No method was found to kill the fetal pigs immediately. In fetuses at G1 there were no significant differences between the HH and HHU and HHV methods. Fetuses at G2 showed a significantly faster decrease in heart rate and blood pressure as well as a shorter period of time for the absence of fetal body movements and reflexes for the HHT method, compared to the other methods. Since it is not yet known to what extent the fetal pig experiences pain and suffering, the prolonged process of dying for the in utero fetus due to hypoxia which includes struggling and gasps is inconsistent with criteria for humane euthanasia and animal welfare. PMID:18822602

  13. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  14. Chronic HBV infection in pregnant immigrants: a multicenter study of the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Taliani, Gloria; Castelli, Francesco; Bartolozzi, Dario; Cacopardo, Bruno; Armignacco, Orlando; Scotto, Gaetano; Coppola, Nicola; Stroffolini, Tommaso; Sagnelli, Caterina

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the clinical impact of HBV infection in pregnant immigrants and their family members and to identify a useful approach to managing the healthcare of HBsAg-positive immigrants. Included in this study were 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants of the 1,970 from countries with intermediate/high HBV endemicity who delivered in 8 Italian hospitals in 2012-2013. In addition, 172 family members of 96 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants were tested for serum HBsAg. The median age of the 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants was 31.0±12.1 years and the length of stay in Italy 5.0±4.1 years; 56.5% were unaware of their HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA was detected in 74.5% of the pregnant immigrants, i.e., 94.3% from Eastern Europe, 72.2% from East Asia and 58.1% from Sub-Saharan Africa. HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL was detected in 47.8% of pregnant immigrants, associated with ALT ≥1.5 times the upper normal value in 15% of cases. Anti-HDV was detected in 10% of cases. HBsAg was detected in 31.3% of the 172 family members. All HBsAg-positive immigrants received counseling on HBV infection and its prevention, and underwent a complete clinical evaluation. The findings validate the approach used for the healthcare management of the HBsAg-positive immigrant population. PMID:27196549

  15. Chronic HBV infection in pregnant immigrants: a multicenter study of the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Taliani, Gloria; Castelli, Francesco; Bartolozzi, Dario; Cacopardo, Bruno; Armignacco, Orlando; Scotto, Gaetano; Coppola, Nicola; Stroffolini, Tommaso; Sagnelli, Caterina

    2016-04-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the clinical impact of HBV infection in pregnant immigrants and their family members and to identify a useful approach to managing the healthcare of HBsAg-positive immigrants. Included in this study were 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants of the 1,970 from countries with intermediate/high HBV endemicity who delivered in 8 Italian hospitals in 2012-2013. In addition, 172 family members of 96 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants were tested for serum HBsAg. The median age of the 143 HBsAg-positive pregnant immigrants was 31.0±12.1 years and the length of stay in Italy 5.0±4.1 years; 56.5% were unaware of their HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA was detected in 74.5% of the pregnant immigrants, i.e., 94.3% from Eastern Europe, 72.2% from East Asia and 58.1% from Sub-Saharan Africa. HBV DNA ≥2000 IU/mL was detected in 47.8% of pregnant immigrants, associated with ALT ≥1.5 times the upper normal value in 15% of cases. Anti-HDV was detected in 10% of cases. HBsAg was detected in 31.3% of the 172 family members. All HBsAg-positive immigrants received counseling on HBV infection and its prevention, and underwent a complete clinical evaluation. The findings validate the approach used for the healthcare management of the HBsAg-positive immigrant population.

  16. Chickenpox in adults - clinical management.

    PubMed

    Tunbridge, A J; Breuer, J; Jeffery, K J M

    2008-08-01

    Acute varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, or chickenpox, is still perceived by many as a mild infection of childhood. However, chickenpox is increasingly common in adults and adolescents who together with immunosuppressed individuals are at a higher risk of severe infection. Antiviral therapy is available which both ameliorates symptoms and decreases the severity of chickenpox if administered early in the course of the infection. Passive immunisation with varicella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) may prevent or attenuate infection following exposure to varicella of an immunocompromised or pregnant individual or a neonate. Active immunisation is available and is universal in many developed countries. This review reflects current best practice in management of chickenpox in adults by specialist physicians in the UK. The accompanying flowchart has been formulated to guide emergency physicians and general practitioners through the decision-making process regarding treatment and admission for specialist care.

  17. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Stachys lavandulifolia vahl on pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Lobat; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Samani, Roya Ansari; Asgari, Azam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Stachys lavandulifolia is commonly used for many health problems including anxiety. A couple of reports indicate that this plant might have an abortifacient effect on pregnant women. Here we examined this effect on pregnant mice. Materials and methods: Incremental doses of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of the extracts or normal saline (control group) were injected intraperitoneally to the pregnant mice between 7th to 12th days of pregnancy. On day 16, uterine tubes were resected and absorbed fetuses were counted. Results: Our study showed that the different average of absorbed fetuses between treated and control groups is significant (P < 0.05). S. lavandulifolia changes the activity level of hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonad axis due to flavonoid compounds. Also, S. lavandulifolia decreases progesterone concentration resulting in a significant difference between treated and control groups (P < 0.05) and gives rise to failure in fetus survival and consequently, abortion. The length and weight of fetuses decreased in treated groups and there was a significant difference between treated and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Owing to the possible abortive effect of Stachys lavandulifolia, it is highly recommended to use it cautiously during pregnancy. PMID:27418911

  18. Household food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Latinas experience high rates of poverty, household food insecurity and prenatal depression. To date, only one USA study has examined the relationship between household food insecurity and prenatal depression, yet it focused primarily on non-Latina white and non-Latina black populations. Therefore, this study examined the independent association of household food insecurity with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas. This cross-sectional study included 135 low income pregnant Latinas living in Hartford, Connecticut. Women were assessed at enrolment for household food security during pregnancy using an adapted and validated version of the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A cut-off of ≥21 was used to indicate elevated levels of prenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS). Multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for EPDS. Almost one third of participants had EPDS. Women who were food insecure were more likely to experience EPDS compared to food secure women (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.03-6.52). Being primiparous, experiencing heartburn and reporting poor/fair health during pregnancy, as well as having a history of depression were also independent risk factors for experiencing EPDS. Findings from this study suggest the importance of assessing household food insecurity when evaluating depression risk among pregnant Latinas.

  19. Automated Software Analysis of Fetal Movement Recorded during a Pregnant Woman's Sleep at Home.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Kyoko; Ohki, Noboru; Kamata, Hideo; Ryo, Eiji; Horiuchi, Shigeko

    2015-01-01

    Fetal movement is an important biological index of fetal well-being. Since 2008, we have been developing an original capacitive acceleration sensor and device that a pregnant woman can easily use to record fetal movement by herself at home during sleep. In this study, we report a newly developed automated software system for analyzing recorded fetal movement. This study will introduce the system and compare its results to those of a manual analysis of the same fetal movement signals (Experiment I). We will also demonstrate an appropriate way to use the system (Experiment II). In Experiment I, fetal movement data reported previously for six pregnant women at 28-38 gestational weeks were used. We evaluated the agreement of the manual and automated analyses for the same 10-sec epochs using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) including quantitative indicators for prevalence and bias. The mean PABAK value was 0.83, which can be considered almost perfect. In Experiment II, twelve pregnant women at 24-36 gestational weeks recorded fetal movement at night once every four weeks. Overall, mean fetal movement counts per hour during maternal sleep significantly decreased along with gestational weeks, though individual differences in fetal development were noted. This newly developed automated analysis system can provide important data throughout late pregnancy.

  20. Occupational hazards for pregnant or lactating women in the orthopaedic operating room.

    PubMed

    Downes, Jessica; Rauk, Philip N; Vanheest, Ann E

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant or lactating staff working in the orthopaedic operating room may be at risk of occupational exposure to several hazards, including blood-borne pathogens, anesthetic gases, methylmethacrylate, physical stress, and radiation. Because the use of proper personal protective equipment is mandatory, the risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV is low. Moreover, effective postexposure prophylactic regimens are available for hepatitis B and HIV. In the 1960s, concerns were raised about occupational exposure to harmful chemicals in the operating room such as anesthetic gases and methylmethacrylate. Guidelines on safe levels of exposure to these chemicals and the use of personal protective equipment have helped to minimize the risks to pregnant or lactating staff. Short periods of moderate physical activity are beneficial for pregnant women, but prolonged strenuous activity can lead to increased pregnancy complications. The risk of prenatal radiation exposure during orthopaedic procedures is of concern, as well. However, proper lead protection and contamination control can minimize the risk of occupational exposure to radiation. PMID:24788448

  1. Occupational hazards for pregnant or lactating women in the orthopaedic operating room.

    PubMed

    Downes, Jessica; Rauk, Philip N; Vanheest, Ann E

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant or lactating staff working in the orthopaedic operating room may be at risk of occupational exposure to several hazards, including blood-borne pathogens, anesthetic gases, methylmethacrylate, physical stress, and radiation. Because the use of proper personal protective equipment is mandatory, the risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV is low. Moreover, effective postexposure prophylactic regimens are available for hepatitis B and HIV. In the 1960s, concerns were raised about occupational exposure to harmful chemicals in the operating room such as anesthetic gases and methylmethacrylate. Guidelines on safe levels of exposure to these chemicals and the use of personal protective equipment have helped to minimize the risks to pregnant or lactating staff. Short periods of moderate physical activity are beneficial for pregnant women, but prolonged strenuous activity can lead to increased pregnancy complications. The risk of prenatal radiation exposure during orthopaedic procedures is of concern, as well. However, proper lead protection and contamination control can minimize the risk of occupational exposure to radiation.

  2. Embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion intravenously administered to pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Ye, Xiangfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Bangjie; Zhang, Yingxue; Bao, Jie; Li, Wanfang; Wei, Jinfeng; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. The drug was intravenously injected to pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0, 200, 600 and 2000 μg/kg/day from day 6-15 of gestation. All the pregnant animals were observed for body weights and any abnormal changes and subjected to caesarean-section on gestation day (GD) 20; all fetuses obtained from caesarean-section were assessed by external inspection, visceral and skeletal examinations. No treatment-related external alterations as well as visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in honokiol microemulsion groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight gain of the pregnant rats, average number of corpora lutea, and the gravid uterus weight in the honokiol microemulsion groups compared with the vehicle control group. However, at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, there was embryo-fetal developmental toxicity observed, including a decrease in the body length and tail length of fetuses. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of honokiol microemulsion is 600 μg/kg/day, 75 times above the therapeutic dosage and it has embryo-fetal toxicity at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, which is approximately 250 times above the therapeutic dosage.

  3. Systematic Review of Interventions for Racial/Ethnic-Minority Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Cassey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Large disparities exist in smoking rates during pregnancy by racial/ethnic status. Aims The current review examined controlled studies that predominantly included racial/ethnic-minority pregnant smokers for providing smoking cessation treatment. Methods Two authors independently conducted the literature searches in the standard databases using a combination of the keywords with minority, pregnancy, smoking, and cessation identifiers. Results The searches identified nine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies exclusively targeted specific minority groups. Most of them provided some form of brief smoking cessation counseling, with two combining with incentives and one combining with pharmacotherapy. Two studies provided intensive cognitive interventions. Pregnant smokers of American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic subgroups, and Asian or Pacific Islander are under-studied. Conclusions Future studies to treat minority pregnant smokers could target under-studied minority groups and may need to directly and intensely target smoking behavior, address cultural and psychosocial issues in an individualized and comprehensive manner, and analyze cost-benefit of an intervention. PMID:26925170

  4. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6-7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  5. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  6. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  7. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  8. Presumptive eligibility for pregnant Medicaid enrollees: its effects on prenatal care and perinatal outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, J M; Mitchel, E F; Ray, W A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. "Presumptive eligibility" permits pregnant prospective Medicaid enrollees to obtain services during the application period. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of presumptive eligibility on the receipt of prenatal care and the occurrence of low-birthweight births and neonatal, perinatal, and infant mortality. METHODS. Outcome rates for pregnant women who enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid in the 6-month period before presumptive eligibility was enacted were compared with those obtained for pregnant women who enrolled in the 6-month period after presumptive eligibility had been in effect for 5 months. RESULTS. Women in the "after" group were 40% more likely to enroll and 30% more likely to obtain prenatal care in the first trimester. They were 300% more likely to fill a prescription for prenatal vitamins in the first trimester and 16% more likely to have begun prenatal care before the third trimester. However, they were similar to those enrolling in the "before" time period in terms of the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. When barriers to prenatal care, including bureaucratic ones, are removed, low-income women will seek care earlier and more frequently. PMID:7943482

  9. The relative economics of feeding open, aborted, pregnant feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    Jim, G. Kee; Ribble, Carl S.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Thorlakson, Ben E.

    1991-01-01

    A 90-day finishing trial involving 144 feedlot heifers was conducted to compare the performance parameters and carcass characteristics of open heifers, therapeutically aborted heifers, and pregnant heifers. In the first 28 days of the trial, the aborted heifers had reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (FE) compared to pregnant and open heifers. Over the entire trial, on a live weight basis, the aborted group had reduced (p < 0.05) final weight, ADG, and FE compared to pregnant and open heifers. However, when the data were adjusted for total uterine weight, the aborted and open heifers had improved (p < 0.05) final weight, ADG, and FE compared to pregnant heifers. The aborted and open group had a higher (p < 0.05) carcass weight, rib eye area, dressing percentage, and cutability estimate compared to the pregnant heifers. The aborted group had lower (p < 0.05) carcass weight than the open heifers. Over the entire 90-day feeding period, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups with respect to feed intake (FI), average fat, grade fat, and carcass grades. Also, there were no significant health problems or mortality in any of the groups. In the economic analysis, aborted heifers returned $26.41 per head more than pregnant heifers. Open heifers returned $39.94 per head more than aborted heifers, and $66.35 more than pregnant heifers. Thus, aborting feedlot heifers during the second trimester was determined to be a safe and cost effective management decision. PMID:17423875

  10. Perceptions about Sexual Concurrency and Factors Related to Inaccurate Perceptions among Pregnant Adolescents and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Niccolai, Linda M.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inaccurate perceptions about whether a partner has concurrent sexual partners are associated with current STI status. Despite high sexually transmitted infection rates among pregnant adolescents, studies have not investigated the accuracy of perceptions about sexual concurrency among young pregnant couples. The objectives were to assess: 1) the accuracy of perceptions about whether one’s partner ever had concurrent sexual partners during the relationship and 2) whether self-reported concurrency and relationship factors are related to inaccurate perceptions. Methods Sociodemographic, psychosocial and sexual behavior data were collected from 296 couples recruited from antenatal clinics. Couples included pregnant adolescents, 14-21 years, and the father of the baby, ≥14 years. Percent agreement and kappa statistics assessed the accuracy of perceptions about whether one’s partner ever had concurrent sexual partners during the relationship. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations assessed associations between respondents’ self-reported concurrency, relationship factors and inaccurate perceptions. Results Among participants whose partner was concurrent (n=171), 60% did not accurately report their partner’s concurrency, and greater relationship satisfaction (AOR: 1.54) increased the likelihood of inaccuracy. Among participants with a nonconcurrent partner (n=418), 17% were inaccurate; self-reported concurrency (AOR: 2.69) and greater partnership duration (AOR: 1.25) increased the likelihood of inaccuracy, while greater relationship satisfaction decreased the likelihood of inaccuracy (AOR: 0.68). Conclusions Many pregnant adolescents and their partners inaccurately perceived their partner’s concurrency status. Self-reported concurrency and relationship factors were associated with inaccuracy, reinforcing the need to improve sexual communication among this population. PMID:22801338

  11. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion and perceived stress among pregnant migraineurs and non-migraineurs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Migraine has been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints among pregnant migraineurs. Methods A cohort of 1,334 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. At the time of interview we ascertained participants' migraine diagnosis status and collected information about sleep duration before and during early pregnancy, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress during early pregnancy. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of short/long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress associated with a history of migraine. Results Approximately 19.4% of the cohort (n = 259) reported having a medical diagnosis of migraine prior to the study pregnancy. Compared with women without migraine, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) among migraineurs for short sleep duration before and during early pregnancy were 1.51 (1.09-2.09), and 1.57 (1.11-2.23), respectively. The corresponding OR (95% CI) for long sleep duration before and during pregnancy were 1.33 (0.77-2.31) and 1.31 (0.94-1.83), respectively. A modest and statistically insignificant association between migraine history and excessive daytime sleepiness in early pregnancy was noted (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.94-2.26). Migraineurs had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.52-2.76) and elevated perceived stress (OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.06-2.31). Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight migraineurs. Conclusions These data support earlier research documenting increased risks of sleep disorders among migraineurs; and extends the literature to include pregnant women. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent migraine-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women. PMID:21047418

  12. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  13. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women.

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  15. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  16. Pregnant rat uterus expresses high levels of the type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase

    PubMed Central

    Galton, Valerie Anne; Martinez, Elena; Hernandez, Arturo; St. Germain, Emily A.; Bates, Joanne M.; St. Germain, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid hormones are critically important for the coordination of morphogenic processes in the fetus and neonate, premature exposure of the embryo to levels of the hormones present in the adult is detrimental and can result in growth retardation, malformations, and even death. We report here that the pregnant rat uterus expresses extremely high levels of the type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3), which inactivates thyroxine and 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine by 5-deiodination. Both D3 mRNA and activity were present at the implantation site as early as gestational day 9 (E9), when expression was localized using in situ hybridization to uterine mesometrial and antimesometrial decidual tissue. At later stages of gestation, uterine D3 activity remained very high, and the levels exceeded those observed in the placenta and in fetal tissues. After days E12 and E13, as decidual tissues regressed, D3 expression became localized to the epithelial cells lining the recanalized uterine lumen that surrounds the fetal cavity. These findings strongly suggest that the pregnant uterus, in addition to the placenta, plays a critical role in determining the level of exposure of the fetus to maternal thyroid hormones. J. Clin. Invest. 103:979–987 (1999). PMID:10194470

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  18. A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP) analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05). Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age) in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination

  19. Experimental pestivirus infections in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Bjerkås, I

    1991-08-01

    Fifty pregnant goats, inoculated intramuscularly at different gestational stages with a non-cytopathic ovine pestivirus or a cytopathic bovine pestivirus, all developed pestivirus-neutralizing antibodies within 5 weeks of inoculation. The incidence of reproductive failure was similar for the two agents. Parturition at term with only healthy kids occurred in 13 (26 per cent) of the goats. Viable kids were not born to any of the 17 goats inoculated at about day 40 of gestation. Three of the 17 delivered dead or weak kids, seven aborted and three of seven which were necropsied during pregnancy had markedly underdeveloped and autolysed or mummified fetuses in utero, while four were barren. When inoculated at around the 60th day of gestation, two of 18 animals gave birth to only healthy kids, 12 to dead and/or weak kids, two aborted and, at necropsy, a small, decomposed fetus was found in one goat while one other was barren. In this group, one kid was ataxic and seven others had body tremors characteristic of border disease. One of the latter kids was viable. Of 15 goats inoculated at around day 100 of gestation, 11 gave birth to healthy kids only, three to dead and/or weak kids and one aborted. In 23 progeny, histological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) consisted mainly of cerebral white matter necrosis, cerebellar dysplasia, hypercellular areas in white matter and lymphocytic perivascular cuffings. All seven weak-born kids with signs of border disease had CNS lesions, particularly cerebellar dysplasia and/or hypercellular areas. Non-cytopathic pestivirus was isolated from tissues from all eight progeny examined in the 40-day inoculation group, from tissues and/or serum from 10 of 23 progeny in the 60-day group, and from four of 24 in the 100-day group. Persistent infection was demonstrated in a healthy kid, in a viable shaker and in two other kids which appeared normal at birth. Examination of offspring before ingestion of colostrum revealed pestivirus

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Correlates of Mental Health Services Use among Pregnant Women with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen Jen; Tabet, Maya; Elder, Keith; Kiel, Deborah W; Flick, Louise H

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine correlates of lifetime mental health services (MHS) use among pregnant women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms by race/ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 81,910 pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms using data from the Florida Healthy Start prenatal screening program (2008-2012). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to ascertain adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals for racial/ethnic differences in the correlates of lifetime MHS use. Results Findings of this study revealed racial/ethnic differences in MHS use among women with prenatal depressive symptoms, the highest rates being among non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest rates among Mexicans and other Hispanics. Most need for care factors, including illness, tobacco use, and physical or emotional abuse, consistently predicted MHS use across racial/ethnic groups after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted associations between predisposing and enabling/restricting factors and MHS use were different for different racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in MHS use were found, with pregnant Hispanic women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms being the least likely to use MHS. Our study findings have significant public health implications for targeted intervention for pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms. PMID:27126445

  1. A Safe and Stable Neonatal Vaccine Targeting GAPDH Confers Protection against Group B Streptococcus Infections in Adult Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Barros, Leandro; Oliveira, Liliana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Ribeiro, Adília; Vieira, Luís Mira; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix; Ferreira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal organism, can turn into a life-threatening pathogen in neonates and elderly, or in adults with severe underlying diseases such as diabetes. We developed a vaccine targeting the GBS glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme detected at the bacterial surface, which was proven to be effective in a neonatal mouse model of infection. Since this bacterium has emerged as an important pathogen in non-pregnant adults, here we investigated whether this vaccine also confers protection in an adult susceptible and in a diabetic mouse model of infection. For immunoprotection studies, sham or immunized adult mice were infected with GBS serotype Ia and V strains, the two most prevalent serotypes isolated in adults. Sham and vaccinated mice were also rendered diabetic and infected with a serotype V GBS strain. For toxicological (pre-clinical) studies, adult mice were vaccinated three times, with three concentrations of recombinant GAPDH adjuvanted with Allydrogel, and the toxicity parameters were evaluated twenty-four hours after the last immunization. For the stability tests, the vaccine formulations were maintained at 4°C for 6 and 12 months prior immunization. The results showed that all tested doses of the vaccine, including the stability study formulations, were immunogenic and that the vaccine was innocuous. The organs (brain, blood, heart, and liver) of vaccinated susceptible or diabetic adult mice were significantly less colonized compared to those of control mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the GAPDH-based vaccine is safe and stable and protects susceptible and diabetic adult mice against GBS infections. It is therefore a promising candidate as a global vaccine to prevent GBS-induced neonatal and adult diseases. PMID:26673420

  2. A Safe and Stable Neonatal Vaccine Targeting GAPDH Confers Protection against Group B Streptococcus Infections in Adult Susceptible Mice.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Barros, Leandro; Oliveira, Liliana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Ribeiro, Adília; Vieira, Luís Mira; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix; Ferreira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal organism, can turn into a life-threatening pathogen in neonates and elderly, or in adults with severe underlying diseases such as diabetes. We developed a vaccine targeting the GBS glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme detected at the bacterial surface, which was proven to be effective in a neonatal mouse model of infection. Since this bacterium has emerged as an important pathogen in non-pregnant adults, here we investigated whether this vaccine also confers protection in an adult susceptible and in a diabetic mouse model of infection. For immunoprotection studies, sham or immunized adult mice were infected with GBS serotype Ia and V strains, the two most prevalent serotypes isolated in adults. Sham and vaccinated mice were also rendered diabetic and infected with a serotype V GBS strain. For toxicological (pre-clinical) studies, adult mice were vaccinated three times, with three concentrations of recombinant GAPDH adjuvanted with Allydrogel, and the toxicity parameters were evaluated twenty-four hours after the last immunization. For the stability tests, the vaccine formulations were maintained at 4°C for 6 and 12 months prior immunization. The results showed that all tested doses of the vaccine, including the stability study formulations, were immunogenic and that the vaccine was innocuous. The organs (brain, blood, heart, and liver) of vaccinated susceptible or diabetic adult mice were significantly less colonized compared to those of control mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the GAPDH-based vaccine is safe and stable and protects susceptible and diabetic adult mice against GBS infections. It is therefore a promising candidate as a global vaccine to prevent GBS-induced neonatal and adult diseases. PMID:26673420

  3. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  4. Heat flux and oxygen consumption of the pregnant uterus.

    PubMed

    Rudelstorfer, R; Tabsh, K; Khoury, A; Nuwayhid, B; Brinkman, C R; Assali, N S

    1986-02-01

    Heat flux (conductive and convective heat) and oxygen consumption of the pregnant uterus and its content were measured simultaneously in the same group of pregnant ewes during the acute postoperative period, during a chronic resting period, and during alpha- and beta-adrenergic-receptor stimulation with norepinephrine and ritodrine. Results indicated four conclusions. First, an excellent correlation existed between heat flux and oxygen consumption in the acute and chronic resting condition as well as during increasing uteroplacental vascular resistance and decreasing blood flow produced by norepinephrine infusion; the correlation was not as good during ritodrine infusion. Second, during rest, about 85% of heat generated by the pregnant uterus is eliminated through the uteroplacental circulation while the remaining heat diffuses through the myometrium. Third, during decreasing uteroplacental blood flow and elevated resistance, the pregnant uterus is able to maintain a normal thermostasis by widening the temperature difference in the blood entering and leaving the uterus and by increasing the myometrial heat exchange; oxygen consumption also is maintained at normal level through increase in oxygen extraction. Fourth, with the exception of uteroplacental circulation, the circulatory, metabolic, and thermal conditions of the pregnant ewe are not different after 5 hours from 5 to 7 days after the surgical procedure. PMID:3004223

  5. Is Passive Smoking Associated With Sleep Disturbance Among Pregnant Women?

    PubMed Central

    Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Harano, Satoru; Tanihata, Takeo; Takemura, Shinji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: Pregnant women suffer from sleep disturbance, which may be aggravated by passive smoking. In this study we investigated the effects of passive smoking on sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Design: Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002 and 2006. Setting: Clinical institutions specializing in obstetrics and gynecology that participated in the nationwide surveys: 260 in the 2002 survey and 344 in the 2006 survey. Participants: 16,396 and 19,386 pregnant women in Japan surveyed in 2002 and 2006, respectively. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Pregnant women exposed to passive smoking were likely to have sleep disturbances, such as subjective insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably. Smoking pregnant women had the same sleep disturbances and also experienced excessive daytime sleepiness and early morning awakening. The prevalence of 5 types of sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably) among nonsmokers with environmental tobacco smoke showed a mean value intermediate between that of active smokers and that of nonsmokers without environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion: Passive smoking is independently associated with increased sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Citation: Ohida T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Harano S; Tanihata T; Takemura S; Wada K; Kanda H; Hayashi K; Uchiyama M. Is passive smoking associated with sleep disturbance among pregnant women? SLEEP 2007;30(9):1155-1161. PMID:17910387

  6. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development.

  7. Malaria prevention in the pregnant traveller: a review.

    PubMed

    Roggelin, Louise; Cramer, Jakob P

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is still a major threat to health in tropical regions. Particular attention should be directed to malaria prevention in infants and pregnant women as they are at high risk for plasmodial infection and complicated malaria. In this review, we summarize and discuss current evidence on malaria prevention in pregnant travellers. As neither anti-mosquito measures nor anti-malarial drugs have been proven to be unequivocally safe or toxic in pregnant women, the individual risk assessment should take into account the risk of transmission at the destination, the benefit of travelling despite being pregnant as well as the individual risk perception. All three factors may differ in various groups of travellers like tourist travellers, expatriate travellers as well as those visiting friends and relatives. For pregnant women, mefloquine appears to be the drug of choice for prophylaxis and stand by-therapy if no contraindications exist - despite recent renewed warnings related to prolonged side effects. In areas with high resistance against mefloquine or in women with contraindications to mefloquine, atovaquone-proguanil or artemether-lumefantrine should be considered as an option for stand-by emergency therapy. Nevertheless, evidence on the safety of anti-malarials especially during the first trimester is still insufficient.

  8. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onoh, RC; Umeora, OUJ; Egwuatu, VE; Ezeonu, PO; Onoh, TJP

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics. Objectives To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI. Methodology This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software. Results A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5%) had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%), Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%), S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%), Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%), Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%), Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%). Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%), ofloxacin (77.4%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ceftriaxone (66.7%), and gentamicin (50.8%). Conclusion E. coli was the

  9. Expression and functional implications of luteal endothelins in pregnant and non-pregnant dogs.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Latter, Sophie; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    Luteal development is regulated by many locally produced mediators, e.g., prostaglandins and angiogenic factors. However, the role and function of vasoactive factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) remain largely unknown. Consequently, expression of the endothelin (ET) receptors-A and -B (ETA and ETB, revealing vasoconstriction and vasodilator properties respectively), the ET-converting enzyme (ECE1) and ET1, -2 and -3 were investigated in CL from non-pregnant dogs (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 65 post-ovulation), and at selected stages of pregnancy (pre-implantation, post-implantation, mid-gestation), and during normal and antigestagen-induced prepartum luteolysis/abortion. The interrelationship between PGE2 and the ET system was investigated in PGE2-treated canine primary lutein cells from early CL. ET1 did not change significantly over time; ET2, ECE1 and ETB were elevated in early CL and were downregulated towards the mid/late-luteal phase. The prepartum increase of ET2 was significant. ET3 increased gradually, and was highest in late CL and/or at prepartum luteolysis. ETA remained constant until the late CL phase and increased only during prepartum luteolysis. ET1 was localized to the luteal cells, and ET2, ET3 and ETA to vascular endothelium. ECE1 and ETB were detected at both locations. Except for upregulated ET1 and lack of effect on ET2, antigestagen applied to mid-pregnant dogs evoked similar changes to those observed during normal luteolysis. PGE2 upregulated ETB in treated cells; ETA and ET1 remained unaffected, and ET2 decreased. A modulatory role of the ETs in canine CL, possibly in association with other factors (e.g., PGE2 and progesterone receptor), is strongly indicated.

  10. Fasciolopsis buski infection in a Vietnamese pregnant woman with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fiamma, Maura; Longoni, Silvia Stefania; Ngo, Thi Minh Chau; Le Phan, Minh Triet; Santona, Antonella; Ton Nu, Phuong An; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-06-01

    A clinical case of infection caused by Fasciolopsis buski in a 24 weeks pregnant woman from Vietnam affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported here. On 22 February 2012 the patient was admitted to Hue Hospital in Hue, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of general illness and suspected acute anaemia. Laboratory analysis indicated possible SLE syndrome and coprological tests demonstrated the presence of F. buski eggs. During hospitalization the patient naturally eliminated the adult form in faeces suggesting the infection had already progressed at least for three months. One month after hospitalization due to the high severity of both SLE and fasciolopsiasis, a medical abortion was carried out and the following day the patient died. Even though infection due to Fasciolopsis buski is rare, this case highlights the importance of an accurate and prompt diagnosis of this infectious agent, which may have saved the foetus and mother's lives. PMID:26142680

  11. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. PMID:25934357

  12. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

  13. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  14. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

  15. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  16. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2007-05-01

    Pregnant women and infants are two groups at the highest risk of severe outcomes from foodborne illnesses. We surveyed adult clients of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic serving predominately African Americans in inner-city Miami, Florida, to assess food safety practices. Eligible and consenting women completed a 23-item self-administered survey with questions concerning food handling practices around the Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC! campaign constructs of "clean", "separate" (not cross-contaminated), "cook", and "chill". Of 342 eligible clients, 299 (87.4%) consented to participate. In general, the clients' food safety practices were most problematic in the cook and chill constructs. Using a cooking thermometer, refrigerating foods within 2 h, and thawing them safely were the least commonly reported safe practices. Women who were pregnant with their first child had the lowest food safety practice scores. Of the 62 pregnant participants, 32 (51.6%) reported eating hot dogs or deli meats without first reheating them some of the time or more often, and 22 (35.5%) reported eating soft cheeses and blue-veined cheeses some of the time or more often, putting the women at risk of listeriosis. Although all women in the WIC program could benefit from food safety education, these findings indicate that women during their first pregnancy should especially be targeted for food safety education.

  17. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2007-05-01

    Pregnant women and infants are two groups at the highest risk of severe outcomes from foodborne illnesses. We surveyed adult clients of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic serving predominately African Americans in inner-city Miami, Florida, to assess food safety practices. Eligible and consenting women completed a 23-item self-administered survey with questions concerning food handling practices around the Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC! campaign constructs of "clean", "separate" (not cross-contaminated), "cook", and "chill". Of 342 eligible clients, 299 (87.4%) consented to participate. In general, the clients' food safety practices were most problematic in the cook and chill constructs. Using a cooking thermometer, refrigerating foods within 2 h, and thawing them safely were the least commonly reported safe practices. Women who were pregnant with their first child had the lowest food safety practice scores. Of the 62 pregnant participants, 32 (51.6%) reported eating hot dogs or deli meats without first reheating them some of the time or more often, and 22 (35.5%) reported eating soft cheeses and blue-veined cheeses some of the time or more often, putting the women at risk of listeriosis. Although all women in the WIC program could benefit from food safety education, these findings indicate that women during their first pregnancy should especially be targeted for food safety education. PMID:17536684

  18. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2007-01-01

    The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters.

  19. Analysis of self-reported problematic tasks for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P L; Dumas, G A; Smith, J T; Leger, A B; Plamondon, A; McGrath, M J; Tranmer, J E

    2006-02-22

    The objective of this study was to identify major components of, and influential factors in, problematic tasks performed by pregnant women employed in education, health care and service areas. Seventy-two pregnant women were surveyed using specially designed questionnaires consisting of an Initial Survey, a Job Analysis Questionnaire and a Task Description Questionnaire. Forty-four subjects (60%) had difficulty performing at least one work task and reported 105 tasks that were problematic at work. Reaching above the head, bending forward, bending and twisting, pushing, repeating actions and working at a fast pace were identified as the task components requiring the greatest level of effort. Excessive effort, excessive time, getting tired, repetitive actions, stress and fear of injury were identified as factors that had strong associations with the six major task components. Findings of this study suggest that these task components and factors should be considered when designing, assigning or analysing tasks for working pregnant women. PMID:16540440

  20. Hepatitis B Management in the Pregnant Patient: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Walid S.; Cohen, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy. We discuss, in this article, the current and emergent strategies which aim to reduce the rate of transmission of hepatitis B from the pregnant mother to the infant and we review the updated guidelines regarding management of liver disease in pregnant women with hepatitis B. PMID:27777892

  1. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  2. Nursing care of low-income battered Hispanic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Torres, S

    1993-01-01

    Nurses working with pregnant Hispanic women can create barriers in the health care system by not understanding or accepting the variety of ways in which the Hispanic culture perceives and treats pregnancy. This article describes nursing care of low-income, battered Hispanic pregnant women within the context of the Hispanic culture and discusses clinical and nursing implications for interventions. To deliver effective culturally competent care to battered Hispanic pregnant women, nurses need to have a thorough understanding of the variables that influence the health care of Hispanics in the United States, such as the scope of wife abuse in the Hispanic population, sociodemographic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanic women's access to health care, pregnancy in the Hispanic population, and health care practices of Hispanics in the United States. This will facilitate screening, education, and guidance without upsetting the often precarious security of this period.

  3. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  4. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

  5. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  6. The changing self-concept of pregnant and parenting teens.

    PubMed

    Alpers, R R

    1998-01-01

    Self-concept has been recognized and researched as a powerful variable in relation to teenage pregnancy. Low self-concept frequently has been identified as a cause and consequence of teenage pregnancy as well as a factor in participation and compliance with health care recommendations. Most of the research on self-concept and teenage pregnancy occurred in the 1970s to mid-1980s, and all found lower self-concept in pregnant and parenting teens when compared with their nonpregnant contemporaries and normative data. This study found the opposite to be true. The 126 pregnant and parenting teens in this study had higher self-concepts than the reported normative group. Also, important variations in self-concept were found in relation to sociodemographics. This potentially suggests that what was once known about this aggregate is no longer true, and a reinvestigation is warranted. The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the self-concept of pregnant and parenting teens and compare them with published normative data and to examine the relationship between sociodemographics and self-concept. The study employed a survey methodology. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, measures of central tendency and dispersion, t test, chi-square test, and analysis of variance. This study found that pregnant and parenting teens had a higher self-concept than the normative data on nonpregnant teens reported by the research instrument authors. Furthermore, this older sample of pregnant and parenting teens (mean age, 17.83 years) had self-concepts more similar to the junior high school normative sample than their senior high school-age contemporaries. Also, this study found that self-concept varies according to the pregnant and parenting teens; ages, years of schooling, types of schools attended, income sources, and receipt of public assistance. This study has implications for health care providers, health and public educators, and nursing researchers in terms of program

  7. Exposure of pregnant women to tap water related activities

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Ferrier, H; Steer, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Evidence for an association between exposure of pregnant women to chlorination disinfection by-products and adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent and inconclusive. Aims: To evaluate the use of a questionnaire in a population of pregnant women to assess their exposure to water, examine the validity of the questionnaire by a seven day diary, and to obtain a better understanding of the exposure of pregnant women to water in Central London. Methods: A total of 147 pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Information was requested on their exposure to water from cooking and washing up, showering and bathing, food and drink, and swimming. Demographic and socioeconomic information were also recorded. For validation purposes, women were asked to complete a seven day diary at home. Results: The average exposure duration was 338.5 min/week for cooking and washing up, 172.2 min/week for bathing and showering, and 67.9 min/month for swimming. The total fluid intake was 18.9 l/week of which, on average, 18% was cold tap water; 30% of this tap water was consumed outside the home. The correlation between questionnaire and diary data was generally good to very good, although women tended to overestimate their exposure in the questionnaire compared to the diary. Conclusions: Information was obtained on the daily exposure of pregnant women in Central London to chlorinated water at home, work, and elsewhere. The questionnaire was found to be a valid method to assess the exposure of pregnant women to water and the response rate was higher than for diaries. PMID:15090668

  8. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  9. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  11. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-01-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation. PMID:26157673

  12. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  13. Health seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Bateau, Reginald; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further knowledge of health care seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti. Eighty-two pregnant women were interviewed to assess care seeking behaviors during pregnancy, satisfaction with services, reliance on social networks, and management of pregnancy-related illness. Twenty-five percent reported not seeking care in the formal health sector for a pregnancy-related illness; 32% delayed seeking care. Women relied primarily on their husbands and mothers for health care advice during pregnancy and times of illness, and coped with illness by lying down. Strategies for improving awareness and health care access are discussed. PMID:17060181

  14. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  15. [Rectal cancer in a pregnant woman, a case report].

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Helle Manfeld; Rahr, Hans

    2012-06-25

    A case of disseminated rectal cancer in a 32-year-old pregnant woman is described. Pain was her main complaint, but this had been ascribed to haemorrhoids and treated with topical agents. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer late in the third trimester when her midwife referred her for surgical assessment. Following caesarian section, diagnostic workup showed multiple liver metastases. Rectal cancer in pregnancy is rare, while haemorrhoids are common. We recommend keeping the differential diagnoses in mind and performing a digital rectal examination if pregnant women have anal symptoms.

  16. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  17. Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.

    1981-06-01

    Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.

  18. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  19. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  20. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B.; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). Materials and Methods This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10–14 and were monitored until delivery. Principle findings 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4–43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5–40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese

  1. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  2. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  3. SAF values for internal photon emitters calculated for the RPI-P pregnant-female models using Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, C. Y.; Xu, X. George; Stabin, Michael G.

    2008-07-15

    Estimates of radiation absorbed doses from radionuclides internally deposited in a pregnant woman and her fetus are very important due to elevated fetal radiosensitivity. This paper reports a set of specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for use with the dosimetry schema developed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. The calculations were based on three newly constructed pregnant female anatomic models, called RPI-P3, RPI-P6, and RPI-P9, that represent adult females at 3-, 6-, and 9-month gestational periods, respectively. Advanced Boundary REPresentation (BREP) surface-geometry modeling methods were used to create anatomically realistic geometries and organ volumes that were carefully adjusted to agree with the latest ICRP reference values. A Monte Carlo user code, EGS4-VLSI, was used to simulate internal photon emitters ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV. SAF values were calculated and compared with previous data derived from stylized models of simplified geometries and with a model of a 7.5-month pregnant female developed previously from partial-body CT images. The results show considerable differences between these models for low energy photons, but generally good agreement at higher energies. These differences are caused mainly by different organ shapes and positions. Other factors, such as the organ mass, the source-to-target-organ centroid distance, and the Monte Carlo code used in each study, played lesser roles in the observed differences in these. Since the SAF values reported in this study are based on models that are anatomically more realistic than previous models, these data are recommended for future applications as standard reference values in internal dosimetry involving pregnant females.

  4. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  5. Cholera in pregnant women: the 2012 epidemic at the reference center at the Donka National Hospital in Conakry.

    PubMed

    Sako, F B; Traoré, F A; Camara, M K; Sylla, M; Bangoura, E F; Baldé, O

    2016-05-01

    Cholera is an epidemic diarrheal disease transmitted through the digestive tract; it can cause obstetric complications in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of cholera in pregnant women, as well as its course, during the 2012 epidemic in Conakry. This retrospective, descriptive studied examined the records of this epidemic over a 7-month period (from May 15 to December 15, 2012). Of 2,808 cholera patients at our hospital, 80 were pregnant, that is, 2.85%. Their mean age was 30 years [range: 15-45 years], 94% were from Conakry (94%), and 69% were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Choleriform diarrhea and vomiting were the main signs, found respectively in 100% and 95% of the women; dehydration was mild for 16%, moderate for 45%, and severe for 39%. Support consisted of rehydration, by plans A (16%), B (45%) or C (39%) and antibiotic treatment based on erythromycin (85%), doxycycline (14%), or azithromycin (1%). Other drugs that were used included phloroglucinol-trimethylphloroglucinol (Spasfon(®)) for 45%, acetaminophen for 65%, and iron/folic acid for 1% of cases. The major obstetric complications were 4 intrauterine deaths (5%), 2 cases of threatened abortion (2%), 1 preterm delivery (1%), and 1 maternal death. The cholera outbreak in 2012 affected a large number of pregnant women in Conakry, most during their third trimester. The classic clinical manifestations were associated with obstetric complications and maternal-fetal risks. PMID:27412979

  6. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley; Haller, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group. PMID:24474853

  7. Study of Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvulotomy for Treatment of Pregnant Patients with Severe Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit Sureshbhai; Deshmukh, Jagjeet Kishanrao; Prajapati, Jayesh Somabhai; Sahoo, Sibasis Shahsikant; Vyas, Pooja Maheshbhai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In pregnant women mitral stenosis is the commonest cardiac valvular lesion. When it is present in majorly severe condition it leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In mitral stenosis pregnancy can lead to development of heart failure. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon mitral valvulotomy (BMV) in pregnant females with severe mitral stenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 30 pregnant patients who underwent BMV were included in the study from July 2011 to November 2013. Clinical follow-up during pregnancy was done every 3 months until delivery and after delivery. The mean follow up time after BMV was 6.72±0.56 months. Results From the 30 pregnant females 14 (46.67%) and 16 (53.3%) patients underwent BMV during the third and second trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean mitral valve area was 0.85+0.16 cm2 before BMV that increased to 1.60+0.27 cm2 (p<0.0001) immediately after BMV. Peak and mean diastolic gradients had decreased significantly within 48 hours after the procedure (p<0.001) but remained very much unchanged at 6.72 month period of follow-up. Two patients had an increase in mitral regurgitation by 2 grades. Conclusion During pregnancy BMV technique is safe and effective in patients with severe mitral stenosis. This results in marked symptomatic relief along with long term maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:26816932

  8. Review of antifungal therapy, part II: treatment rationale, including specific patient populations.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert; Hay, Rod J; Garduno, Javier I

    2008-01-01

    This portion of the antifungal review focuses on treatment rationale and suggestions, including special populations such as the elderly, children, and pregnant and immunocompromised individuals. In elderly individuals, the pathogen may be associated with certain comorbidities; treatment should begin with local treatments such as debridement (mechanical or chemical) and a topical. In children, the pathogen most commonly isolated is Trichophyton rubrum. Children should be examined for concomitant tinea and treatment options can begin with a chemical debridement (non-painful) and a topical, with non-responders being treated with combination therapy as in adults. It is suggested that blood tests are monitored at baseline and every 4-8 weeks in children on systemic therapy. Terbinafine is the only systemic in category B and local therapies should be the primary treatment modalities in pregnancy. Prevalence of onychomycosis is high in immunocompromised patients with higher relapse rates after treatment. The same fungal infections that are seen in healthy populations are usually represented in the immunocompromised host. There is a stepwise approach that is suggested in the treatment of onychomycosis. Before treatment, several factors should be determined, which include risk for failure and compliance issues. Strategies for therapy include monotherapy, combination therapy, supplemental therapy, and intermittent therapy. Topical monotherapy is effective in early distal nail disease and for the prevention of reinfection of the cured nail. Combination therapy is an appropriate progression of therapy for patients who failed monotherapy or are at risk for failure. Combined therapies are shown to increase cure rates. Mechanical interventions are essential in reducing fungal burdens to allow other modalities to penetrate, especially in dermatophytomas and onycholysis. PMID:18569273

  9. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  10. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  11. A multi-platform metabolomics approach identifies highly specific biomarkers of bacterial diversity in the vagina of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Amy; Rulisa, Stephen; Sumarah, Mark; Macklaim, Jean M.; Renaud, Justin; Bisanz, Jordan E.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases transmission of HIV, enhances the risk of preterm labour, and is associated with malodour. Clinical diagnosis often relies on microscopy, which may not reflect the microbiota composition accurately. We use an untargeted metabolomics approach, whereby we normalize the weight of samples prior to analysis, to obtained precise measurements of metabolites in vaginal fluid. We identify biomarkers for BV with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.99) in a cohort of 131 pregnant and non-pregnant Rwandan women, and demonstrate that the vaginal metabolome is strongly associated with bacterial diversity. Metabolites associated with high diversity and clinical BV include 2-hydroxyisovalerate and γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), but not succinate, which is produced by both Lactobacillus crispatus and BV-associated anaerobes in vitro. Biomarkers associated with high diversity and clinical BV are independent of pregnancy status, and were validated in a blinded replication cohort from Tanzania (n = 45), where we predicted clinical BV with 91% accuracy. Correlations between the metabolome and microbiota identified Gardnerella vaginalis as a putative producer of GHB, and we demonstrate production by this species in vitro. This work illustrates how changes in community structure alter the chemical composition of the vagina, and identifies highly specific biomarkers for a common condition. PMID:26387596

  12. Zika Testing for All Pregnant Women Who Have Been in Florida County: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161597.html Zika Testing for All Pregnant Women Who Have Been in Florida County: ... News) -- U.S. health officials are now recommending that all pregnant women who have recently spent time in ...

  13. Attractiveness of pregnant women to the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Y E; Elbashir, M I; Adam, I

    2004-09-01

    The attractiveness of pregnant women for mosquitoes was investigated in a peri-urban site in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, in September-October 2003. For 20 nights, the mosquitoes feeding on nine pregnant and nine non-pregnant women sleeping under untreated bednets were collected. The women slept outdoors, in the yards of nine houses, each yard holding one pregnant and one non-pregnant woman. In general, each pregnant woman attracted significantly more Anopheles arabiensis (the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in the area) than each non-pregnant women, with mean biting rates of 0.94 and 0.49 bites/woman-night, respectively (P = 0.005). In contrast, the two groups of women attracted similar numbers of the other mosquito species collected, which were all culicine. Impregnated bednets need to be used in the study area, at least by the pregnant women (who appear to be at particularly high risk of acquiring malaria).

  14. Half of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant Excess weight puts mom and baby at risk, ... 4 percent of women were underweight before becoming pregnant. About 46 percent of women started their pregnancies ...

  15. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  16. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H.; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31–32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  17. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  18. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant holstein heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor–mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial...

  19. Can I Be Excused from Gym?--I'm Pregnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Appropriate physical conditioning can improve the physical and psychological health of pregnant students, ease delivery, aid recovery, and contribute to fetal health. This article discusses the importance of exercise during pregnancy, effects of exercise on maternal and fetal systems, and outlines precautions and guidelines for an exercise plan.…

  20. Successful Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia in a Pregnant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Oyetayo, Ola O.; Stewart, David; Costa, Steven M.; Jones, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. Pregnant women are not immune to cardiac arrest, and the treatment of such patients can be difficult. Pregnancy is a relative contraindication to the use of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. A 20-year-old woman who was 18 weeks pregnant had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Upon her arrival at the emergency department, she was resuscitated and her circulation returned spontaneously, but her score on the Glasgow Coma Scale was 3. After adequate family discussion of the risks and benefits of therapeutic hypothermia, a decision was made to initiate therapeutic hypothermia per established protocol for 24 hours. The patient was successfully cooled and rewarmed. By the time she was discharged, she had experienced complete neurologic recovery, apart from some short-term memory loss. Subsequently, at 40 weeks, she delivered vaginally a 7-lb 3-oz girl whose Apgar scores were 8 and 9, at 1 and 5 minutes respectively. To our knowledge, this is only the 3rd reported case of a successful outcome following the initiation of therapeutic hypothermia for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a pregnant woman. On the basis of this and previous reports of successful outcomes, we recommend that therapeutic hypothermia be considered an option in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the pregnant population. To facilitate a successful outcome, a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiology, emergency medicine, obstetrics, and neurology should be used. PMID:26413021