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Sample records for adults methods cross-sectional

  1. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  2. Cross-sectional imaging of adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Pezeshk, Parham; Ezzati, Fatemeh; Karp, David R; Taurog, Joel D; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-09-01

    This article highlights the key aspects and current perspectives of the role of cross-sectional imaging in adult crystal and inflammatory arthropathies in adults, briefly discussing CT, and particularly focusing on MRI and US imaging as it supplements the conventional radiography. The role of conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques and imaging findings in this domain is discussed and illustrated with case examples. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article contains images and data, which were collected from patients as a part of a retrospective IRB from the institutional teaching files and informed consent was waived. PMID:27209200

  3. Reducing cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method and effects on cross-section geometry and steady-flow profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reduced cross-sectional data points on steady-flow profiles were also determined. Thirty-five cross sections of the original steady-flow model of the Kootenai River were used. These two methods were tested for all cross sections with each cross section resolution reduced to 10, 20 and 30 data points, that is, six tests were completed for each of the thirty-five cross sections. Generally, differences from the original water-surface elevation were smaller as the number of data points in reduced cross sections increased, but this was not always the case, especially in the braided reach. Differences were smaller for reduced cross sections developed by the genetic algorithm method than the standard algorithm method.

  4. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  5. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Health Inequalities and Service Access by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S. A.; McConnachie, A.; Allan, L. M.; Melville, C.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities and are more likely to live in deprived areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of deprivation of the area a person lives in affects their access to services, hence contributing to health inequalities. Method: A cross-sectional study…

  6. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  7. Association Between Smoking and Back Pain in a Cross-Section of Adult Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire D; Snodgrass, Jeff; Smith, Monica; Dunn, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Back pain is the leading cause of global years lived with disability. This cross-sectional study assessed if a greater exposure to smoking cigarettes was associated with a greater prevalence of back pain. Methods: This study examined data from 34,525 United States adults from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses assessed the difference in back pain prevalence among current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked between current smokers with and without back pain. Results: Back pain prevalence was 28%. There was a significant association between back pain and smoking, X2 (2, 599, n = 34, 241) = 546.3, p < .001. Back pain increased with increased smoking exposure; back pain was present in 23.5% of never-smokers, 33.1% of former smokers, and 36.9% of current smokers. The number of cigarettes smoked per day for current daily smokers was higher for those with back pain (Md = 13) than those without back pain (Md = 10), U = 2701065, z = -3.70, p < .001, r = .05. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there may be a biological gradient associated with exposure to smoking cigarettes and back pain in adult Americans. PMID:27790393

  8. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  9. Social determinants of health and periodontal disease in Brazilian adults: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, increasing importance has been placed on the social determinants of health and disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in Brazilian adults and identify possible relationships with social determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 743 adults (aged 35–49 years) living in an urban area of a large city in southeastern Brazil. The condition of the periodontium was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to the diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The variables related to social determinants were collected using a structured questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of all study variables was performed. Multiple correspondence analysis was subsequently performed to identify relationships between periodontal disease and the social determinants of health. Results The periodontal exams showed that 36.5% of adults had a healthy periodontium, 2.0% had gingival bleeding, 47.1% had calculus and 9.5% had periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. Periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more were the worst periodontal condition found (affecting only 2.1% of the participants). The correspondence analysis enabled us to form three groups with different profiles. The first group was distinguished by the presence of bleeding (gingivitis) or a healthy periodontium. The members of this group were typically aged 35 to 39 years and had 9–12 years or more than 12 years of education. The second group consisted of subjects with calculus and periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. The members of this group were typically white men aged 40–44 years with incomes greater than $ 300.00. The third group was distinguished by the presence of periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more. The members of this group were typically adult females, black and mixed individuals who had 8 years or less of schooling, individuals with incomes ≤ $ 300.00 and widowers

  10. Educational and economic determinants of food intake in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro A; Padrão, Patricia D

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences of educational and economic variables on food consumption may be useful to explain food behaviour and nutrition policymaking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of educational and economic factors in determining food pattern in Portuguese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of Portuguese adults (20977 women and 18663 men). Participants were distributed in four categories according to years of education (≤4, 5–9, 10–12, and >12) and income (≤314 euros, 315–547 euros, 548–815 euros, and >815 euros). Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the magnitude of the association between food groups and education/income, adjusting for confounders. Results In both genders, the odds favouring milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption, increased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years; the odds favouring wine, and spirits consumption decreased significantly with education, for those having >12 years of education compared to those with ≤4 years. In males, the odds favouring starchy foods and meat consumption decreased significantly with income, while for milk, the odds increased with higher income (those having >815 euros compared to those with ≤314 euros). Conclusions The low and high income groups are or tend to be similar in regard to several food groups consumption, and access to education/information appears to be the key element to a better food pattern as indicated by higher frequency of milk, vegetable soup, vegetables, fruit, and fish consumption. PMID:15575953

  11. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by older adults – a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by older adults in Germany. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of CAM and other health promoting substances (e.g., herbal teas) by older adults of at least 70 years of age. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among persons of ≥70 years from metropolitan Berlin and rural parts of Brandenburg, Germany. Recorded were: demographics, current use of CAM, medical diagnoses, users’ opinions and preferences. Results A total of 400 older adults, living as ‘self-reliant’ (n = 154), ‘home care service user’ (n = 97), or ‘in nursing home’ (n = 149), and with the legal status ‘without guardian’ (n = 355) or ‘with guardian’ (n = 45) were included (mean age 81.8 ± 7.4 years, 78.5% female). Any type of CAM used 61.3% of respondents (dietary supplements 35.5%, herbal medicines 33.3%, and external preparations 26.8%); 3.0% used drug-interaction causing preparations. Usage was based on recommendations (total 30.3%; in 20.0% by friends or family and 10.4% by pharmacists), own initiative (27.3%), and doctors’ prescription (25.8%). Participants with legal guardian took almost solely prescribed dietary supplements. Of the others, only half (58.7%) informed their general practitioner (GP) of their CAM use. Participants expected significant (44.9%) or moderate (37.1%) improvement; half of them perceived a good effect (58.7%) and two-thirds (64.9%) generally preferred a combination of CAM and conventional medicine. More than half (57.9%) stated that they could neither assess whether their CAM preparations have side effects, nor assess what the side effects might be. Strongest predictors for CAM use were two treatment preferences (vs. ‘conventional only’: ‘CAM only’, OR = 3.98, p = 0.0042 and ‘CAM + conventional’, 3.02, 0.0028) and the type of health insurance (‘statutory’ vs. ‘private’, 3.57, 0.0356); against CAM use two

  13. Free molecular collision cross section calculation methods for nanoparticles and complex ions with energy accommodation

    SciTech Connect

    Larriba, Carlos Hogan, Christopher J.

    2013-10-15

    The structures of nanoparticles, macromolecules, and molecular clusters in gas phase environments are often studied via measurement of collision cross sections. To directly compare structure models to measurements, it is hence necessary to have computational techniques available to calculate the collision cross sections of structural models under conditions matching measurements. However, presently available collision cross section methods contain the underlying assumption that collision between gas molecules and structures are completely elastic (gas molecule translational energy conserving) and specular, while experimental evidence suggests that in the most commonly used background gases for measurements, air and molecular nitrogen, gas molecule reemission is largely inelastic (with exchange of energy between vibrational, rotational, and translational modes) and should be treated as diffuse in computations with fixed structural models. In this work, we describe computational techniques to predict the free molecular collision cross sections for fixed structural models of gas phase entities where inelastic and non-specular gas molecule reemission rules can be invoked, and the long range ion-induced dipole (polarization) potential between gas molecules and a charged entity can be considered. Specifically, two calculation procedures are described detail: a diffuse hard sphere scattering (DHSS) method, in which structures are modeled as hard spheres and collision cross sections are calculated for rectilinear trajectories of gas molecules, and a diffuse trajectory method (DTM), in which the assumption of rectilinear trajectories is relaxed and the ion-induced dipole potential is considered. Collision cross section calculations using the DHSS and DTM methods are performed on spheres, models of quasifractal aggregates of varying fractal dimension, and fullerene like structures. Techniques to accelerate DTM calculations by assessing the contribution of grazing gas

  14. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  15. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Napolitano, F.

    2016-06-01

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers' cross-sectional spacing.

  16. Deducing the 237U destruction cross-sections using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Escher, J; Dietrich, F S; Lyles, B F; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Bleuel, D L; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Ai, H C; Beausang, C W; Crider, B

    2006-03-31

    We have deduced the destruction cross section of {sup 237}U via the (n, {gamma}) and (n,2n) reactions over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using a new form of the Surrogate Ratio method [1-4] . The relative fission and neutron-evaporation decay probabilities of excited {sup 238}U populated via the ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) inelastic scattering were measured using the silicon telescope array for reaction studies (STARS) coupled to the Livermore Berkeley array for collaborative experiments (LIBERACE). These relative probabilities were then combined with the {sup 237} U(n,f) cross section deduced by Burke et al., [4] to deduce the (n, {gamma}) and (n,2n) cross sections in a model independent fashion. These cross sections are then compared to the compound reaction cross section calculated using an optical model calculation tuned to reproduce scattering data in the transactinide region. Our results presented and the prospects for using this technique to deduce (n,x) cross sections on radioactive nuclei are discussed.

  17. A method for calculating proton-nucleus elastic cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Recently [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; Extraction of in-medium nucleon-nucleon amplitude from experiment, NASA-TP, 1998], we developed a method of extracting nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. We investigated [Proton-nucleus total cross-sections in coupled-channel approach, NASA/TP, 2000; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 173-174 (2001) 391] the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate proton-nucleus elastic cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  19. Thick-target transmission method for excitation functions of interaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, M.; Ebata, S.; Imai, S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a method, called as thick-target transmission (T3) method, to obtain an excitation function of interaction cross sections. In an ordinal experiment to measure the excitation function of interaction cross sections by the transmission method, we need to change the beam energy for each cross section. In the T3 method, the excitation function is derived from the beam attenuations measured at the targets of different thicknesses without changing the beam energy. The advantage of the T3 method is the simplicity and availability for radioactive beams. To confirm the availability, we perform a simulation for the 12C + 27Al system with the PHITS code instead of actual experiments. Our results have large uncertainties but well reproduce the tendency of the experimental data.

  20. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  1. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-01-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  2. Scattering Cross Section of Sound Waves by the Modal Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1994-01-01

    #he modal element method has been employed to determine the scattered field from a plane acoustic wave impinging on a two dimensional body. In the modal element method, the scattering body is represented by finite elements, which are coupled to an eigenfunction expansion representing the acoustic pressure in the infinite computational domain surrounding the body. The present paper extends the previous work by developing the algorithm necessary to calculate the acoustics scattering cross section by the modal element method. The scattering cross section is the acoustical equivalent to the Radar Cross Section (RCS) in electromagnetic theory. Since the scattering cross section is evaluated at infinite distance from the body, an asymptotic approximation is used in conjunction with the standard modal element method. For validation, the scattering cross section of the rigid circular cylinder is computed for the frequency range 0.1 is less than or equal to ka is less than or equal to 100. Results show excellent agreement with the analytic solution.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10% of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  4. Well-Being and Institutional Care in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Time Effects of Provided and Received Support

    PubMed Central

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Gruszczynska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of provided and received support on older adults’ subjective well-being (positive affect and depression) and to examine whether being a recipient of institutional care moderates these effects. Methods Social support (provided and received), positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice (at baseline and 1 month later) for 277 older adults (age 77.39 ± 9.20 years, 67.50% women, 65% residents of an institutional care facility). Findings Two structural equation models were analyzed: cross-sectional (at baseline) and longitudinal (after 1 month). The first model revealed a significant positive relationship between providing and receiving support and positive affect, and a negative relationship between receiving support and depression. However, being a recipient of institutional care appeared to be a significant moderator in the longitudinal model. Specifically, the findings indicated effects of both providing and receiving support on positive affect but only for noninstitutionalized older adults. Discussion Although both types of support may be beneficial for older adults, their effects depend on the nature of social exchange and the dimensions of well-being. This suggests that such factors should be systematically investigated in future research. PMID:27548721

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  7. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  8. Elastic wave propagation in bars of arbitrary cross section: a generalized Fourier expansion collocation method.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Jonathan C; Bond, Jill V; Sinclair, Anthony N

    2014-09-01

    The problem of elastic wave propagation in an infinite bar of arbitrary cross section is studied via a generalized version of the Fourier expansion collocation method. In the current formulation, the exact three dimensional solution to Navier's equation in cylindrical coordinates is used to obtain the boundary traction vector as a periodic, piecewise continuous/differentiable function of the angular coordinate. Traction free conditions are then met by setting the Fourier coefficients of the boundary traction vector to zero without approximating the bounding surface by multi-sided polygons as in the method presented by Nagaya. The method is derived for a general cross section with no axial planes of symmetry. Using the general formulation it is shown that the symmetric and asymmetric modes decouple for cross sections having one axial plane of symmetry. An efficient algorithm for computing dispersion curves based on the current method is presented and used to obtain the fundamental longitudinal and flexural wave speeds for a bar of elliptical cross section. The results are compared to those obtained by previous researchers using exact and approximate treatments.

  9. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  10. Frailty and telomere length: cross-sectional analysis in 3537 older adults from the ESTHER cohort.

    PubMed

    Saum, Kai-Uwe; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Müezzinler, Aysel; Müller, Heiko; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Butterbach, Katja; Schick, Matthias; Canzian, Federico; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Hauer, Klaus; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-10-01

    Both telomere length and frailty were observed to be associated with aging. Whether and to what extent telomere length is related to frailty is essentially unknown. In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 3537 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 75 years of a large German cohort study, we assessed the hypothesis that shorter telomere length might be a biological marker for frailty. Using whole blood DNA we examined mean telomere repeat copy to single gene copy number (T/S ratio) using quantitative PCR. Construction of a frailty index (FI) was based on a deficit accumulation approach, which quantifies frailty as ratio of the deficits present divided by the total number of deficits considered. Mean FI was determined according to age by tertiles of T/S ratio. Furthermore, we used correlation analyses stratified for gender and age groups to examine the association of the T/S ratio with frailty. Mean FI value was similar across tertiles of the T/S ratio (0.24±0.14, 0.24±0.14 and 0.23±0.14, respectively (p=0.09)), and FI and the T/S ratio were uncorrelated in gender- and age-specific analyses. In conclusion, T/S ratio and frailty were unrelated in this large sample of older adults. T/S ratio may therefore not be a meaningful biological marker for frailty.

  11. Indirect (n,γ) cross sections of thorium cycle nuclei using the surrogate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A.-C.; Mansouri, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Semchenkov, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Wiedeking, M.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.

    2012-03-01

    Indirect neutron capture (n,γ) cross sections have been extracted for the key thorium cycle nuclei 232Th, 231Pa, and 230Th using the surrogate reaction method. Final nucleus γ-decay probabilities were measured between the neutron binding energy and around 1 MeV above it using the 232Th(d,p)233Th, 232Th(3He,t)232Pa, and 232Th(3He,α)231Th reactions in experiments with the CACTUS γ-detector array and Silicon Ring charged-particle detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. Because the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison with these results provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate method in the actinide region for indirect (n,γ) cross-section measurements. In addition, a new technique for correcting measured γ-ray decay probabilities below the neutron emission energy threshold is proposed and used. We find good agreement between indirect and direct (n,γ) cross-section measurements in the range 500 keV-1 MeV, but large discrepancies outside this range. Explanations for the observed differences are proposed.

  12. Measuring (n,f) cross sections of plutonium nuclei via the surrogate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Tarlow, T.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Saastamoinen, A.; Cooper, N.; Humby, P.

    2012-10-01

    Neutron-induced cross section measurements of exotic nuclei provide a significant experimental challenge due to the need for radioactive targets and high neutron fluxes. Over the past few years the surrogate method has been shown to provide a means of indirectly measuring certain neutron-induced cross sections. Recent results benchmarking (p,t-f) and (p,d-f) reactions as surrogates for (n,f) cross section measurements in uranium nuclei show good agreement with literature data [1]. Building on this work, the use of (p,t-f) and (p,d-f) reactions has very recently been extended to surrogate measurements of the poorly established ^236Pu(n,f) and ^237Pu(n,f) cross sections. The experiment was performed at Texas A&M University using a 30 MeV proton beam from the K150 cyclotron, incident on ^239Pu and ^235U targets. Charged particle-fission and charged particle-γ coincidence data were collected using the combined silicon telescope and γ-ray array: STARLiTe. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09 NA29454 and DE-FG02-05 ER41379 (UR) and DE-AC52-07 NA27344 (LLNL).[4pt] [1] R.O. Hughes et al., PRC 85, 024613 (2012).

  13. Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Talou, P.; Lynn, J. E.; Chadwick, M. B.; Madland, D. G.

    2009-08-15

    We calculate nuclear cross sections on excited nuclei in the fast neutron energy range. We partition the whole process into two contributions: the direct reaction part and the compound nuclear reactions. A coupled-channels method is used for calculating the direct transition of the nucleus from the initial excited state, which is a member of the ground-state rotational band, to the final ground and excited low-lying levels. This process is strongly affected by the channel coupling. The compound nuclear reactions on the excited state are calculated with the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model, with the transmission coefficients obtained from the coupled-channels calculation. The calculations are performed for a strongly deformed nucleus {sup 169}Tm, and selected cross sections for the ground and first excited states are compared. The calculation is also made for actinides to investigate possible modification to the fission cross section when the target is excited. It is shown that both the level coupling for the entrance channel, and the different target spin, change the fission cross section.

  14. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  15. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  16. Family Context and Khat Chewing among Adult Yemeni Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    AL-abed, AL-abed Ali; Sutan, Rosnah; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khat chewing is associated with unfavourable health outcomes and family dysfunction. Few studies have addressed the factors associated with khat chewing among Yemeni women. However, the family and husband effects on chewing khat by women have not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of khat chewing among Yemeni women and its associated factors, particularly husbands and family factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 692 adult Yemeni women in the city of Sana'a in Yemen using structured “face to face” interviews. Mean (±SD) age of women was 27.3 years (±6.10). The prevalence of chewing khat by women was 29.6%. Factors associated with chewing khat among women were chewing khat by husbands (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.53), being married (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.37), frequent family social gatherings (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.10), high family income (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.21), larger house (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.31), and age of women (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). It is concluded that khat chewing by women in this study was significantly associated with family factors and with khat chewing by their husbands. Urgent action is needed to control khat chewing particularly among women. PMID:24982886

  17. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of liver volume and total liver fat burden in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Chen, Joshua; Le, Thuy-Anh; Changchien, Christopher; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between fractional liver fat content, liver volume, and total liver fat burden. Methods In 43 adults with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis participating in a clinical trial, liver volume was estimated by segmentation of magnitude-based low-flip-angle multiecho GRE images. The liver mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The total liver fat index (TLFI) was estimated as the product of liver mean PDFF and liver volume. Linear regression analyses were performed. Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between TLFI and liver mean PDFF (R2 = 0.740 baseline/0.791 follow-up, P < 0.001 baseline/P < 0.001 follow-up), and between TLFI and liver volume (R2 = 0.352/0.452, P < 0.001/< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between liver volume change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.556, P < 0.001), between TLFI change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.920, P < 0.001), and between TLFI change and liver volume change (R2 = 0.735, P < 0.001). Conclusion Liver segmentation in combination with MRI-based PDFF estimation may be used to monitor liver volume, liver mean PDFF, and TLFI in a clinical trial. PMID:25015398

  18. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension.

  19. Particular difficulties faced by GPs with young adults who will attempt suicide: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major public health problem in young people. General Practitioners (GPs) play a central role in suicide prevention. However data about how physicians deal with suicidal youths are lacking. This study aims to compare young adult suicide attempters (from 18 to 39 years old) with older adults in a primary care setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried. All suicide attempts (N=270) reported to the French Sentinel surveillance System from 2009 to 2011 were considered. We conducted comparison of data on the last GP’s consultation and GPs’ management in the last three months between young adults and older adults. Results In comparison with older adults, young adults consulted their GP less frequently in the month preceding the suicidal attempt (40.9 vs. 64.6%, p=.01). During the last consultation prior to the suicidal attempt, they expressed suicidal ideas less frequently (11.3 vs. 21.9%, p=.03). In the year preceding the suicidal attempt, GPs identified depression significantly less often (42.0 vs. 63.4%, p=.001). In the preceding three months, GPs realized significantly less interventions: less psychological support (37.5 vs. 53.0%, p=.02), prescribed less antidepressants (28.6 vs. 54.8%, p<.0001) or psychotropic drugs (39.1 vs. 52.9%, p=.03) and made fewer attempts to refer to a mental health specialist (33.3 vs. 45.5%, p=.05). Conclusion With young adults who subsequently attempt suicide, GPs face particular difficulties compared to older adults, as a significant proportion of young adults were not seen in the previous six months, as GPs identified less depressions in the preceding year and were less active in managing in the preceding three months. Medical training and continuing medical education should include better instruction on challenges relative to addressing suicide risk in this particular population. PMID:23706018

  20. A new method for calculating the scattered field by an arbitrary cross-sectional conducting cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragheb, Hassan A.

    2011-04-01

    Scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by an arbitrary cross-sectional perfectly conducting cylinder must be performed numerically. This article aims to present a new approach for addressing this problem, which is based on simulating the arbitrary cross-sectional perfectly conducting cylinder by perfectly conducting strips of narrow width. The problem is then turned out to calculate the scattered electromagnetic field from N conducting strips. The technique of solving such a problem uses an asymptotic method. This method is based on an approximate technique introduced by Karp and Russek (Karp, S.N., and Russek, A. (1956), 'Diffraction by a Wide Slit', Journal of Applied Physics, 27, 886-894.) for solving scattering by wide slit. The method is applied here for calculating the scattered field in the far zone for E-polarised incident waves (transverse magnetic (TM) with respect to z-axis) on a perfectly conducting cylinder with arbitrary cross-section. Numerical examples are introduced first for comparison to show the accuracy of the method. Other examples for well-known scattering by conducting cylinders are then introduced followed by new examples which can only be solved by numerical methods.

  1. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia.

  2. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  3. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months. There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior. Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge. Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  4. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  5. Urinary Metals and Heart Rate Variability: A Cross-Sectional Study of Urban Adults in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Chen, Mu; Deng, Siyun; Qiu, Gaokun; Li, Xiaoliang; Liu, Chuanyao; Li, Jun; Deng, Qifei; Huang, Suli; Wang, Tian; Dai, Xiayun; Yang, Binyao; Yuan, Jing; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Chen, Weihong; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between external estimates of exposure to metals in air particles and altered heart rate variability (HRV). However, studies on the association between internal assessments of metals exposure and HRV are limited. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the potential association between urinary metals and HRV among residents of an urban community in Wuhan, China. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 23 urinary metals and 5-min HRV indices (SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals; r-MSSD, root mean square of successive differences in adjacent normal-to-normal intervals; LF, low frequency; HF, high frequency; TP, total power) using baseline data on 2,004 adult residents of Wuhan. Results After adjusting for other metals, creatinine, and other covariates, natural log-transformed urine titanium concentration was positively associated with all HRV indices (all p < 0.05). Moreover, we estimated negative associations between cadmium and r-MSSD, LF, HF, and TP; between lead and r-MSSD, HF, and TP; and between iron, copper, and arsenic and HF, SDNN, and LF, respectively, based on models adjusted for other metals, creatinine, and covariates (all p < 0.10). Several associations differed according to cardiovascular disease risk factors. For example, negative associations between cadmium and r-MSSD were stronger among participants ≤ 52 years of age (vs. > 52), current smokers (vs. nonsmokers), body mass index < 25 kg/m2 (vs. ≥ 25), and among those who were not hypertensive. Conclusions Urine concentrations of several metals were associated with HRV parameters in our cross-sectional study population. These findings need replication in other studies with adequate sample sizes. Citation Feng W, He X, Chen M, Deng S, Qiu G, Li X, Liu C, Li J, Deng Q, Huang S, Wang T, Dai X, Yang B, Yuan J, He M, Zhang X, Chen W, Kan H, Wu T. 2015. Urinary metals and heart rate variability: a

  6. Effect of antiepileptic drug therapy on thyroid hormones among adult epileptic patients: An analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Arulmozhi, Ranjitha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on thyroid hormone levels in adult epileptic patients. Methods: A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult epileptic patients receiving conventional AEDs (Group 2) or newer AEDs (Group 3) for more than 6 months. Serum thyroid hormone levels including free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were analyzed and the hormonal status was compared with healthy control subjects (Group 1). Findings: Sodium valproate and phenytoin were commonly used conventional AEDs; levetiracetam and topiramate were common among the newer drugs. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum fT4 and increase in serum TSH levels (P < 0.0001) in patients on long-term therapy with conventional antiepileptic agents than in the control group. No significant change in thyroid hormone levels (fT3, fT4, and TSH; P = 0.68, 0.37, and 0.90, respectively) was observed with newer antiepileptics-treated patients when compared to control group. One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software package. Conclusion: The present study showed that conventional AEDs have significant alteration in the thyroid hormone levels than the newer antiepileptics in adult epileptic patients. PMID:27512707

  7. A Method for Creating a Three Dimensional Model from Published Geologic Maps and Cross Sections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    This brief report presents a relatively inexpensive and rapid method for creating a 3D model of geology from published quadrangle-scale maps and cross sections using Google Earth and Google SketchUp software. An example from the Green Mountains of Vermont, USA, is used to illustrate the step by step methods used to create such a model. A second example is provided from the Jebel Saghro region of the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The report was published to help enhance the public?s ability to use and visualize geologic map data.

  8. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  9. Neutron Cross Section Processing Methods for Improved Integral Benchmarking of Unresolved Resonance Region Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we describe the development and application of computational methods for processing neutron cross section data in the unresolved resonance region (URR). These methods are integrated with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, thereby enabling their use in high-fidelity analyses. Enhanced understanding of the effects of URR evaluation representations on calculated results is then obtained through utilization of the methods in Monte Carlo integral benchmark simulations of fast spectrum critical assemblies. First, we present a so-called on-the-fly (OTF) method for calculating and Doppler broadening URR cross sections. This method proceeds directly from ENDF-6 average unresolved resonance parameters and, thus, eliminates any need for a probability table generation pre-processing step in which tables are constructed at several energies for all desired temperatures. Significant memory reduction may be realized with the OTF method relative to a probability table treatment if many temperatures are needed. Next, we examine the effects of using a multi-level resonance formalism for resonance reconstruction in the URR. A comparison of results obtained by using the same stochastically-generated realization of resonance parameters in both the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) and multi-level Breit-Wigner (MLBW) formalisms allows for the quantification of level-level interference effects on integrated tallies such as keff and energy group reaction rates. Though, as is well-known, cross section values at any given incident energy may differ significantly between single-level and multi-level formulations, the observed effects on integral results are minimal in this investigation. Finally, we demonstrate the calculation of true expected values, and the statistical spread of those values, through independent Monte Carlo simulations, each using an independent realization of URR cross section structure throughout. It is observed that both probability table

  10. The Oral Status of Adult Population in the Croatian Town of Knin: a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Robert; Ivanišević, Ana Malčić; Matijević, Jurica

    2015-01-01

    The aim Epidemiologic studies in many countries show uneven distribution of oral diseases (primarily caries) within the population. This is why more studies are oriented towards specific regions or subpopulations instead of large scale national surveys. The major purpose of this cross sectional study was to obtain relevant data about the oral status of the population of Knin and its surroundings according to the WHO criteria. Subjects and methods The study included 414 participants aged between 18 and 65. The recorded variables included general anamnestic data, extraoral status, oral mucosa status, temporomandibular joint status, dental, periodontal and prosthetic status, and the need for dental restoration. The comparison between different groups regarding age, gender, educational level and origin was made. Results DMFT index was 17.3 – with on average 1.7 caries, 6.2 fillings, and 9.4 teeth extracted. SiC index equaled 26.4. The difference was significant regarding the level of education and age (p<0.001). The percentages of individuals with the highest CPI scores from 0-4 were 27.3, 16.9, 36.5, 16.4 and 2.9%, respectively. The difference between the age groups in CPI scores was statistically significant, while the differences according to the gender and origin were not significant (p=0.001). Conclusion The population of Knin and the surrounding area exhibited very bad oral status which can be attributed to the consequences of the war in the 1990-ies, the economic transition, and the lack of national program for oral health promotion.

  11. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy method and studies of implant damage in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, D.P.; Kuryliw, E.; Siebein, K.; Jones, K.S.; Chodelka, R.; Elliman, R.

    2006-07-15

    Few transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of single crystal diamond have been reported, most likely due to the time and difficulty involved in sample preparation. A method is described for creating a TEM cross section of single crystal diamond using a focused ion beam and in situ lift-out. The method results in samples approximately 10 {mu}m long by 3 {mu}m deep with an average thickness of 100-300 nm. The total time to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample of diamond is less than 5 h. The method also allows for additional thinning to facilitate high resolution TEM imaging, and can be applied to oddly shaped diamond samples. This sample preparation technique has been applied to the study of ion implantation damage in single crystal diamond and its evolution upon annealing. High-pressure-high-temperature diamonds were implanted with Si{sup +} at an energy of 1 MeV and a temperature of 30 deg. C. One sample, with a (110) surface, was implanted with a dose of 1x10{sup 14} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 950 deg. C for 10 and 40 min. No significant defect formation or evolution was discernible by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Another sample, with a (100) orientation, was implanted with 1 MeV at 1x10{sup 15} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 1050 deg. C for 10 min. Prior to annealing, a heavily damaged but still crystalline region was observed. Upon annealing, the sample showed no signs of conversion either to an amorphous form of carbon or to graphite. This is unexpected as the energy and dose are above the previously reported graphitization threshold for diamond. Higher annealing temperatures and possibly a high vacuum will be required for future study of defect formation, evolution, and phase transformations in ion-implanted single crystal diamond.

  12. The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ndetei, David M; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Kuria, Mary W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A; Kokonya, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over) inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,770 male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1%) subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Conclusion The 4.1% clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries. PMID:19144164

  13. Determination of (n,{gamma}) cross sections in the rare-earth region using the surrogate ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblum, B. L.; Prussin, S. G.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Younes, W.; Guttormsen, M.

    2008-12-15

    The surrogate ratio method was used to convert experimentally determined relative {gamma}-decay probabilities for excited {sup 171}Yb and {sup 161}Dy nuclei, populated using ({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{sup '}) and ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) reactions, into neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections in an equivalent neutron energy range of 165-465 keV. The relative {gamma}-decay probabilities were measured using the CACTUS array at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory and were found to agree with the ratio of neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections for the same compound nuclei over the range of excitation energies measured. No significant entrance-channel effects on the extracted (n,{gamma}) cross sections were observed. The cross sections obtained using the surrogate ratio method were compared to directly measured neutron-capture cross sections and found to agree within the total estimated uncertainty over the range of equivalent neutron energies measured.

  14. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  15. A new method for measuring absolute total electron-impact cross sections with forward scattering corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.; Liescheski, P.B.; Bonham, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    In this article we describe an experimental technique to measure the total electron-impact cross section by measurement of the attenuation of an electron beam passing through a gas at constant pressure with the unwanted forward scattering contribution removed. The technique is based on the different spatial propagation properties of scattered and unscattered electrons. The correction is accomplished by measuring the electron beam attenuation dependence on both the target gas pressure (number density) and transmission length. Two extended forms of the Beer--Lambert law which approximately include the contributions for forward scattering and for forward scattering plus multiple scattering from the gas outside the electron beam were developed. It is argued that the dependence of the forward scattering on the path length through the gas is approximately independent of the model used to describe it. The proposed methods were used to determine the total cross section and forward scattering contribution from argon (Ar) with 300-eV electrons. Our results are compared with those in the literature and the predictions of theory and experiment for the forward scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed as a further test of the method.

  16. Code System to Calculate Group-Averaged Cross Sections Using the Collision Probability Method.

    1995-05-17

    Version 00 This program calculates group-averaged cross sections for specific zones in a one-dimensional geometry. ROLAIDS-CPM is an extension of ROLAIDS from the PSR-315/AMPX-77 package. The main extension is the capability to use the collision probability method for a slab- or cylinder-geometry rather than the interface-currents method. This new version allows slowing down of neutrons in the energy range where the scattering is elastic and upscattering does not occur. The scattering sources are assumed tomore » be flat and isotropic in the different zones. The extra assumption of cosine currents at the interfaces of the zones (interface currents method) is not necessary for the collision probability method.« less

  17. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    DOEpatents

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  18. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  19. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  20. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  1. Sense of Coherence among Older Adult Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jueng, Ruo-Nan; Tsai, Der-Chong; Chen, I-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that sense of coherence (SOC) is related to health promotion. Knowledge of SOC among older adults in Taiwan is limited. The present study aimed to investigate SOC status and its relationship to personal and environmental factors among older adult residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in northeastern Taiwan. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in Yilan, Taiwan. With face-to-face interviews, we obtained data from 104 LTCF residents (aged 65 years and older) using the Chinese version of Antonovsky's short 13-item SOC scale. We also collected the information on personal characteristics, physical and social environmental resources. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze factors potentially influencing SOC. Results Of the participants, the mean score (±standard deviation) of SOC was 58.3 (±8.8), while scores on SOC subscales (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were 23.4 ±4.5, 17.9 ±3.8, and 17.0 ±3.2, respectively. Education level, activities of daily living and number of LTCF staff were found to be independently associated with SOC status after adjusting for demographic characteristics, health status, and environmental resources. In addition, interactions between personal and environmental factors had a crucial influence on SOC status. Conclusions Participants in this study had relatively low SOC scores compared to their counterparts in Western countries. In addition to personal factors, environmental factors can play a significant role in SOC status among older adult LTCF residents. Comprehensive evaluation of SOC status should consider person-environment interaction effects. PMID:26751949

  2. Methods of Experimental Investigation of Cavitation in a Convergent - Divergent Nozzle of Rectangular Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Jablonská; Milada, Kozubková; Daniel, Himr; Michal, Weisz

    2016-08-01

    Cavitation is a phenomenon with both positive and negative effects and with dynamic manifestations in hydraulic, food, chemical and other machinery. This article deals with the detection and dynamic behavior of cavitation clouds in water flows through a rectangular cross-section convergent-divergent nozzle. Cavitation was measured by methods applicable in engineering practice. Pressure, flow rate, noise, vibration, and amount of air dissolved in the liquid were measured and cavitation region was recorded with a high-speed camera. Evaluation of acquired images in connection with measured pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations was performed with the use of the FFT method. In certain cases, dimensionless parameters were used to generalize the measurements. The results will be used to specify multiphase mathematical cavitation model parameters.

  3. Method of multilayer semiconductor structures cross section preparation for transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasyov, Vladimir Y.; Skornyakov, Alexander V.; Kuznetsov, Mikhail G.

    1995-09-01

    The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) are frequently applied for defects and failures ULCI analysis. The preparation of the electron transparent big area flat- parallel semiconductor thin films is needed. The simple and speed automated method of the thin films (less 10 micrometers ) and cross-sections of the multilayer semiconductor structures and devices preparation is described in this paper. It is based on the mechanical and chem- mechanical grinding and polishing of the semiconductor sample with a free abrasive. This method allows to form the flat-parallel and composition uniform thin films with electron transparent area more that 2 mm2 after ion-etching treatment. The original equipment which consists of a local treatment unit, planar treatment unit and wire saw unit is developed.

  4. High-Quality Cross-Sectioning Method: Examples of Applications in Optimizing Solar Cell Contact Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Sahoo, S.; Mehta, V.; Guhabiswas, D.; Spiller, S.; Moutinho, H.

    2011-01-01

    A damage-free polishing method is developed to prepare a high-quality cross-section of a large length of a solar cell. A 1-inch-long sample is diced from the solar cell and embedded in wax using a specially designed chuck. The sample edge is sequentially polished by progressively reducing the grit sizes. The final polishing is done by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). This polishing procedure produces a highly flat edge, with excellent interfaces between metal contacts and the Si cell. The planarity of the wafer edge makes it possible to perform a variety of analyses of various regions and the interfaces of the cell, using optical microscopy, EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and conductive AFM (C-AFM). Here, we will discuss some details of the chuck and the polishing procedure, and present some applications for optimizing the contact firing process. This method has an added advantage of delineating the back surface field for optical observation.

  5. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26799685

  6. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  7. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Austrian Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study among Civilians and Military Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lagler, Heimo; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Winkler, Heidi; Herkner, Harald; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. Methods and Findings A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological information on possible risk factors for exposure to HEV was obtained. The overall seropositivity for HEV antibodies was 14.3% and significantly increased with age. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals with previous military employments abroad (21.4% vs. 9.9%) and among professional soldiers aged 30–39 years (20.2% vs. 7.3%). No association was found for private travel, occupational or private animal contact or regular outdoor activities. Individuals who tested positive for antibodies against HEV had significantly higher laboratory values regarding liver enzymes, lipid levels and blood fasting glucose. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in Austria. Military employment abroad could be a potential risk factor for HEV infection. Further studies are required to investigate the significance of pathological laboratory results found among asymptomatic individuals previously exposed to HEV. PMID:24498349

  9. Calculation Of Change-Changing Cross Sections Of IONS Or Atoms Colliding With Fast IONS Using The Classical Trajectory Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I. D., Shnidman, Ariel, Mebane, Harrison, Davidson, R.C.

    2008-10-10

    Evaluation of ion-atom charge-changing cross sections is needed for many accelerator applications. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation has been used to calculate ionization and charge exchange cross sections. For benchmarking purposes, an extensive study has been performed for the simple case of hydrogen and helium targets in collisions with various ions. Despite the fact that the simulation only accounts for classical mechanics, the calculations are comparable to experimental results for projectile velocities in the region corresponding to the vicinity of the maximum cross section. Shortcomings of the CTMC method for multielectron target atoms are discussed.

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion. PMID:22985407

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and some associated factors among adult residents of northeast China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Gao, Chunshi; Li, Zhijun; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine potential influencing factors among adults in northeast China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jilin Province, northeast China, in 2012. A total of 9873 men and 10 966 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included using a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Data were obtained from face-to-face interview and physical examination. After being weighted according to a complex sampling scheme, the sample was used to estimate the prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI >28 kg/m2) in Jilin Province, and analyse influencing factors through corresponding statistical methods based on complex sampling design behaviours. Results The overall prevalence of overweight was 32.3% (male 34.3%; female 30.2%), and the prevalence of obesity was 14.6% (male 16.3%; female 12.8%) in Jilin Province. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher in men than women (p<0.001). Influencing factors included sex, age, marriage status, occupation, smoking, drinking, diet and hours of sleep (p<0.05). Conclusions This study estimated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult residents of Jilin Province, northeast China, were high. The results of this study will be submitted to the Health Department of Jilin Province and other relevant departments as a reference, which should inform policy makers in developing education and publicity to prevent and control the occurrence of overweight and obesity. PMID:27456326

  12. Frequency and cost of potentially inappropriate prescribing for older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Hunt, Jordan; Rioux, Jocelyn; Proulx, Jeffery; Weymann, Deirdre; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many medications pose greater health risks when prescribed for older adults, compared with available pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic alternatives. We sought to quantify the frequency and cost of potentially inappropriate prescribing for older women and men in Canada. Methods: Using data for 2013 from the National Prescription Drug Utilization Information System database, which contains prescription claims from publicly financed drug plans in all provinces except for Quebec, we identified the frequency of prescribing and cost of potentially inappropriate medications dispensed to provincial drug plan enrollees aged 65 years or more. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions were defined with the use of the American Geriatrics Society's 2012 version of the Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Results: For the 6 provinces with relatively complete data coverage (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Prince Edward Island), 37% of older people filled 1 or more prescription meeting the Beers Criteria. A higher proportion of women (42%) than men (31%) filled potentially inappropriate prescriptions. The highest rates of prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications were among women aged 85 or more (47%). Benzodiazepines and other hypnotics were the leading contributors to the overall frequency of and sex differences in prescribing of potentially inappropriate drugs among older adults. We estimated that $75 per older Canadian, or $419 million in total, was spent on potentially inappropriate medications outside of hospital settings in 2013. Interpretation: Prescribing of potentially inappropriate medications for older adults is common and costly in Canada, especially for women. Multipronged and well-coordinated strategies to reduce the use and cost of potentially inappropriate drugs would likely generate significant health system savings while simultaneously generating major benefits to

  13. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Manojlovič, Stanko; Trkov, Andrej; Žerovnik, Gašper; Snoj, Luka

    2015-07-01

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spectrum were calculated for (197)Au, (232)Th, (181)Ta, (98)Mo, (65)Cu and (84)Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR_UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for (197)Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for (232)Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for (181)Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for (98)Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for (63)Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for (84)Sr.

  14. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A.; Marquez-Corona, Maria L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity. Key words:Oral health, periodontal health

  15. Prevalence and determinants of asthma in adult male leather tannery workers in Karachi, Pakistan: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Khurram; Akhtar, Saeed; Mahmud, Sadia

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to identify some risk factors of adult asthma in male leather tannery workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2003 to March 2004 on leather tannery workers of Karachi, Pakistan. Data were collected from 641 workers engaged in 95 different tanneries in Korangi industrial area selected as sample of convenience. Face to face interviews were performed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire by trained data collectors. Results Prevalence of adult asthma was 10.8% (69/641) in this study population. The prevalence of perceived work-related asthma was 5.3% (34/641). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that after taking into account the age effect, the leather tannery worker were more likely to be asthmatic, if they were illiterate (adjusted OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.17–3.88), of Pathan ethnicity (adjusted OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.35–5.36), ever-smoked (adjusted OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.16–4.26), reportedly never used gloves during different tanning tasks (OR = 3.28; 95% CI : 1.72–6.26). Also, the final model showed a significant interaction between perceived allergy and duration of work. Those who perceived to have allergy were more likely to have asthma if their duration of work was 8 years (adjusted OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19 – 4.29) and this relationship was even stronger if duration was 13 years (adjusted OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.98–6.79). Conclusion Prevalence of asthma in leather tannery workers appears to be high and is associated with educational status, ethnicity, smoking, glove use, perceived to have allergy and duration of work. PMID:17144930

  16. Cross-sectional associations of oral health measures with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, Supawadee; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Beck, James; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Alonso, Alvaro; Heiss, Gerardo; Slade, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has not been established to what extent oral health is associated with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults. In this study, which is part of the national Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the authors investigated whether tooth loss and periodontitis are associated with lower cognitive function. Methods The authors analyzed ARIC data measuring cognitive function in 11,097 participants from 1996 through 1998 according to tests of delayed word recall, digit-symbol substitution (DSS) and word fluency; 9,874 participants answered dental screening questions. Of the 8,554 dentate participants, 5,942 received oral examinations. The authors used measures of dental status, number of teeth and periodontitis (classified according to the Biofilm-Gingival Interface Index) in multiple linear regression models to estimate these factors’ cross-sectional association with cognitive scores, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and diabetes. Results Approximately 13 percent of participants were edentulous. Of the dentate participants, 27.3 percent had fewer than 20 teeth and 12.4 percent had pocket depth of 4 millimeters or more with severe bleeding. Compared with dentate participants, edentulous participants had lower scores for all cognitive tests. Among the dentate participants, having fewer teeth and gingival bleeding were associated with lower DSS and word fluency test scores, although periodontal pocket depth was not. Conclusions In this cohort, edentulism was correlated with lower cognitive status. Tooth loss and gingival bleeding were markers of poorer executive function among dentate people. Practical Implications The association of lower cognitive scores with edentulism suggests that past oral diseases may be a risk indicator for cognitive decline, whereas the association with gingival inflammation indicates a possible effect of cognitive decline on oral health. Practitioners should be aware that

  17. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis.

  18. Determining (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei indirectly: An examination of the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2006-05-22

    The validity of the Surrogate Ratio method for determining (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei is examined. This method relates the ratio of two compound-nucleus reaction cross sections to a ratio of coincidence events from two measurements in which the same compound nuclei are formed via a direct reaction. With certain assumptions, the method allows one of the cross sections to be inferred if the other is known. We develop a nuclear reaction-model simulation to investigate whether the assumptions underlying the Ratio approach are valid and employ these simulations to assess whether the cross sections obtained indirectly by applying a Ratio analysis agree with the expected results. In particular, we simulate Surrogate experiments that allow us to determine fission cross sections for selected actinide nuclei. The nuclei studied, {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U, are very similar to those considered in recent Surrogate experiments. We find that in favorable cases the Ratio method provides useful estimates of the desired cross sections, and we discuss some of the limitations of the approach.

  19. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  20. Evaluation of the computational methods for electron-impact total ionization cross sections: Fluoromethanes as benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, I.; Martínez, R.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Castaño, F.

    2001-09-01

    The experimental electron-impact total ionization cross sections (TICSs, ICSs) of CF4, CHF3, CH2F2, and CH3F fluoromethanes reported so far and a new set of data obtained with a linear double focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer have been compared with the ab initio and (semi)empirical based ICS available methods. TICSs computational methods include: two approximations of the binary-encounter dipole (BED) referred to hereafter as Kim (Kim-BEB) and Khare (Khare-BEB) methods, the Deutsch and Märk (DM) formalism, also requiring atomic and molecular ab initio information, the modified additivity rule (MAR), and the Harland and Vallance (HV) methods, both based on semiempirical or empirical correlations. The molecular ab initio information required by the Kim, Khare, and DM methods has been computed at a variety of quantum chemistry levels, with and without electron correlation and a comprehensive series of basis sets. The general conclusions are summarized as follows: the Kim method yields TICS in excellent agreement with the experimental method; the Khare method provides TICS very close to that of Kim at low electron-impact energies (<100 eV), but their Mott and Bethe contributions are noticeably different; in the Kim and Khare approximations the electron correlation methods improve the fittings to the experimental profiles in contrast with the large basis sets, that leads to poorer results; the DM formalism yields TICS profiles with shapes similar to the experimental and the BEB methods, but consistently lower and with the profiles maxima shifted towards lower incident electron energies; the MAR method supplies very good ICS profiles, between those of BEB and DM methods; finally, the empirical HV method provides rather poor fittings concomitant with the simplicity and the few empirical parameters used.

  1. Methods for obtaining true particle size distributions from cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Kristina Alyse

    2013-01-01

    Sectioning methods are frequently used to measure grain sizes in materials. These methods do not provide accurate grain sizes for two reasons. First, the sizes of features observed on random sections are always smaller than the true sizes of solid spherical shaped objects, as noted by Wicksell [1]. This is the case because the section very rarely passes through the center of solid spherical shaped objects randomly dispersed throughout a material. The sizes of features observed on random sections are inversely related to the distance of the center of the solid object from the section [1]. Second, on a plane section through the solid material, larger sized features are more frequently observed than smaller ones due to the larger probability for a section to come into contact with the larger sized portion of the spheres than the smaller sized portion. As a result, it is necessary to find a method that takes into account these reasons for inaccurate particle size measurements, while providing a correction factor for accurately determining true particle size measurements. I present a method for deducing true grain size distributions from those determined from specimen cross sections, either by measurement of equivalent grain diameters or linear intercepts.

  2. Italian Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study (AISAG) on light smoking and allergic diseases in adults.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C; Passalacqua, G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. On the basis of these contradictory data in the literature we have carried out a multicenter cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between some allergic conditions and exposure or not to active light smoking. The study was carried out between May 2013 and November 2013 in 22 different Italian hospitals. Patients with respiratory and/or food allergy, and aged 18 years and over, visited at Allergy Outpatient Clinics, were invited to participate. A total of 1586 allergic patients (21.6% smokers) with a mean age of 39.2 years (standard deviation, SD = 15.1) were included. We demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco smoking was higher in patients with food allergy and in asthmatic patients in stage III-IV. But no other statistical differences were found at univariate analysis. The sensitization patterns of non-smokers and smokers were similar. Furthermore, tobacco smoking was associated with higher risk of food allergy and lower risk of asthma. Moreover, tobacco smoking was an independent risk factor for persistent respect to intermittent rhinitis, and for asthma GINA stage III-IV with respect to stage I-II.

  3. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  4. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  5. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and cognition in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gale, S D; Brown, B L; Erickson, L D; Berrett, A; Hedges, D W

    2015-04-01

    Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). There were 4178 participants aged 20-59 years, of whom 19.1% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Two ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models adjusted for the NHANES complex sampling design and weighted to represent the US population were estimated for simple reaction time, processing speed and short-term memory or attention. The first model included only main effects of latent toxoplasmosis and demographic control variables, and the second added interaction terms between latent toxoplasmosis and the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), educational attainment and race-ethnicity. We also used multivariate models to assess all three cognitive outcomes in the same model. Although the models evaluating main effects only demonstrated no association between latent toxoplasmosis and the cognitive outcomes, significant interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and the PIR, between latent toxoplasmosis and educational attainment, and between latent toxoplasmosis and race-ethnicity indicated that latent toxoplasmosis may adversely affect cognitive function in certain groups.

  6. Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different

  7. Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different

  8. Numerical optimization of collisional cross sections for plasma simulation by Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sang-Young; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2014-10-01

    For reliable plasma simulation an accurate full-set data of collision cross sections between each species participated in the plasma is required. However, the full-set of the reaction data is hard to achieve and estimated data have been used for the missing. To achieve reliable reaction data researchers have tuned the estimated reaction data so that the simulation results with the data agree with experimental results. However, as the number of data to be tuned is increased it becomes very hard work for researchers. In this study, we developed a code to optimize the data numerically based on the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm and adopted with a 0-dimensional global simulator for semiconductor processing plasma. BFGS algorithm is a type of a quasi-Newton method. The second derivatives are used for a next estimation like Newton method but are calculated by iterations from first derivatives and previous second derivatives. So the function is called (i.e. the simulator is executed) much smaller times than Newton method. Parallel algorithm was applied to the code to save time. In the serial code the calculation time for each iteration were proportional to the number of unknown variables but it became independent of the number of the variables in the parallel code.

  9. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  10. The improvement of the method of equivalent cross section in HTR

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Li, F.

    2012-07-01

    The Method of Equivalence Cross-Sections (MECS) is a combined transport-diffusion method. By appropriately adjusting the diffusion coefficient of homogenized absorber region, the diffusion theory could yield satisfactory results for the full core model with strong neutron absorber material, for example the control rod in High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR). Original implementation of MECS based on 1-D cell transport model has some limitation on accuracy and applicability, a new implementation of MECS based on 2-D transport model are proposed and tested in this paper. This improvement can extend the MECS to the calculation of twin small absorber ball system which have a non-circular boring in graphite reflector and different radial position. A least-square algorithm for the calculation of equivalent diffusion coefficient is adopted, and special treatment for diffusion coefficient for higher energy group is proposed in the case that absorber is absent. Numerical results to adopt MECS into control rod calculation in HTR are encouraging. However, there are some problems left. (authors)

  11. An Accurate Method for Measuring Airplane-Borne Conformal Antenna's Radar Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuxia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Chufeng

    2016-09-01

    The airplane-borne conformal antenna attaches itself tightly with the airplane skin, so the conventional measurement method cannot determine the contribution of the airplane-borne conformal antenna to its radar cross section (RCS). This paper uses the 2D microwave imaging to isolate and extract the distribution of the reflectivity of the airplane-borne conformal antenna. It obtains the 2D spatial spectra of the conformal antenna through the wave spectral transform between the 2D spatial image and the 2D spatial spectrum. After the interpolation from the rectangular coordinate domain to the polar coordinate domain, the spectral domain data for the variation of the scatter of the conformal antenna with frequency and angle is obtained. The experimental results show that the measurement method proposed in this paper greatly enhances the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS measurement accuracy, essentially eliminates the influences caused by the airplane skin and more accurately reveals the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS scatter properties.

  12. Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Asady, Hadi; Baikpour, Masoud; Barat, Atena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and physical inactivity are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Not only these factors have a causal effect on NCDs, but they can also affect each other. This study aimed to assess the relationship between these factors as well as their effect on NCDs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,602 healthy adults aged 30–60 years participated in this survey in 2010. Data on demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking status, physical activity and anthropometric measures including weight and height were collected and analyzed. The effect of smoking on physical activity was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among demographic characteristics, only age (P<0.001) and educational level (P<0.001) had a significant association with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had an odds ratio of 4.88 (95% CI, 3.34–7.13) for having unsatisfactory physical activity. Conclusion: The present study showed that cigarette smoking negatively affects the quality of physical activity. PMID:27114725

  13. Correlates of foot pain severity in adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) is highly prevalent and associated with progressive first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation and osteoarthritis. The link between structural HV deformity and foot pain is unclear. This study investigated possible explanatory factors surrounding foot pain in HV, including radiographic HV angle and signs of joint degeneration. Methods Participants were 60 adults (53 female) with HV aged 20 to 75 years. Participant demographics and a range of radiographic, clinical and functional measures were considered potential correlates of foot pain. Self-reported foot pain (visual analogue scales and a dichotomous definition) was considered the dependent variable. Multivariate modelling was used to determine which characteristics and measures explained pain, with univariate analyses first used to screen potential variables. Results Approximately 20 to 30% of the variance in foot pain associated with HV could be explained by patient characteristics such as poorer general health status, lower educational attainment and increased occupational physical activity levels, in combination with some dynamic physical characteristics such as hallux plantarflexion weakness and reduced force-time integral under the second metatarsal during gait. Neither increasing lateral deviation of the hallux (HV angle) nor presence of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis was associated with foot pain. Conclusions This study shows that passive structural factors, including HV angle, do not appear to be significant correlates of foot pain intensity in HV. Our data demonstrate the importance of considering patient characteristics such as general health and physical activity levels when assessing foot pain associated with HV. PMID:25028598

  14. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Ghada; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4%) reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71), with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84), higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories), and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62) were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88) and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65) were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017). Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. PMID:26690189

  15. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs) see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73%) compared to those who were overweight (55%) and normal weight (33%). The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified. PMID:22646972

  16. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  17. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  18. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors among overweight and obese adults in Pakistan: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss is known to decrease the health risks associated with being overweight and obese. Awareness of overweight status is an important determinant of weight loss attempts and may have more of an impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. We therefore investigated the perception of weight among adults attending primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan, and compared it to their weight categories based on BMI (Body Mass Index), focusing on the underestimation of weight in overweight and obese individuals. We also explored the factors associated with underestimation of weight in these individuals. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted on 493 adults presenting to the three primary care clinics affiliated with a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We conducted face to face interviews to gather data on a pre-coded questionnaire. The questionnaire included detail on demographics, presence of comorbid conditions, and questions regarding weight assessment. We measured height and weight of the participants and calculated the BMI. The BMI was categorized into normal weight, overweight and obese based on the revised definitions for Asian populations. Perception about weight was determined by asking the study participants the following question: Do you consider yourself to be a) thin b) just right c) overweight d) obese. We compared the responses with the categorized BMI. To identify factors associated with underestimation of weight, we used simple and multiple logistic regression to calculate crude odds Ratios (OR) and adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with 95% Confidence Intervals. Results Overall 45.8% (n = 226) of the study participants were obese and 18% (n = 89) were overweight. There was poor agreement between self perception and actual BMI (Kappa = 0.24, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001). Among obese participants a large proportion (73%) did not perceive themselves as obese, although half (n = 102) of them thought they may

  19. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  20. Anisotropic fibrous thermal insulator of relatively thick cross section and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Carl D.; Ardary, Zane L.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an anisotropic thermal insulator formed of carbon-bonded organic or inorganic fibers and having a thickness or cross section greater than about 3 centimeters. Delaminations and deleterious internal stresses generated during binder curing and carbonizing operations employed in the fabrication of thick fibrous insulation of thicknesses greater than 3 centimeters are essentially obviated by the method of the present invention. A slurry of fibers, thermosetting resin binder and water is vacuum molded into the selected insulator configuration with the total thickness of the molded slurry being less than about 3 centimeters, the binder is thermoset to join the fibers together at their nexaes, and then the binder is carbonized to form the carbon bond. A second slurry of the fibers, binder and water is then applied over the carbonized body with the vacuum molding, binder thermosetting and carbonizing steps being repeated to form a layered insulator with the binder providing a carbon bond between the layers. The molding, thermosetting and carbonizing steps may be repeated with additional slurries until the thermal insulator is of the desired final thickness. An additional feature of the present invention is provided by incorporating opacifying materials in any of the desired layers so as to provide different insulating properties at various temperatures. Concentration and/or type of additive can be varied from layer-to-layer.

  1. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  2. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13) was used for the statistical analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%), vitamin A (92.4%) and vitamin C (85.1%) in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:21513578

  3. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  4. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  5. Evaluating Educational Output: An Estimation Method Based on Cross-Section Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro-Perez, M. C.; Serrano-Sanz, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Develops a valuation model of educational output based on individual earnings from cross-sectional data; describes the problems associated with defining certain elements of the model and proposes adjustments related thereto; uses model to estimate the value of university education in Spain. (Contains 68 references.) (PKP)

  6. Cross-sectional study of the prehospital management of adult patients with a suspected seizure (EPIC1)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Louise H; Shewan, Jane; Baldwin, Trevor; Grünewald, Richard A; Reuber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Suspected seizures are a common reason for emergency calls to ambulance services. Prehospital management of these patients is an important element of good quality care. The aim of this study, conducted in a regional ambulance service in the UK, was to quantify the number of emergency telephone calls for suspected seizures in adults, the associated costs, and to describe the patients’ characteristics, their prehospital management and their immediate outcomes. Design Quantitative cross-sectional study using routinely collected data and a detailed review of the clinical records of a consecutive series of adult patients (≥16 years). Setting A regional ambulance service within the National Health Service in England. Participants Cross-sectional data from all 605 481 adult emergency incidents managed by the ambulance service from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013. We selected a consecutive series of 178 individual incidents from May 2012 for more detailed analysis (132 after exclusions and removal of non-seizure cases). Results Suspected seizures made up 3.3% of all emergency incidents. True medical emergencies were uncommon but 3.3% had partially occluded airways, 6.8% had ongoing seizure activity and 59.1% had clinical problems in addition to the seizure (29.1% involving injury). Emergency vehicles were dispatched for 97.2% of suspected seizures, the seizure had terminated on arrival in 93.2% of incidents, 75% of these patients were transported to hospital. The estimated emergency management cost per annum of suspected seizures in the English ambulance services is £45.2 million (€64.0 million, $68.6 million). Conclusions Many patients with suspected seizures could potentially be treated more effectively and at lower cost by modifying ambulance call handling protocols. The development of innovative care pathways could give call handlers and paramedics alternatives to hospital transportation. Increased adoption of care plans could reduce 999 calls and

  7. Under-recognized pertussis in adults from Asian countries: a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Koh, M T; Liu, C-S; Chiu, C-H; Boonsawat, W; Watanaveeradej, V; Abdullah, N; Zhang, Xh; Devadiga, R; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P < 0·04). Of the seroconfirmed patients, the median total direct medical cost per pertussis episode in public hospitals (including physician consultations and/or emergency room visits) was US$13 in Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered.

  8. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  9. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

  10. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  11. Sleep problems and computer use during work and leisure: Cross-sectional study among 7800 adults.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Garde, Anne Helene

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies linked heavy computer use to disturbed sleep. This study investigates the association between computer use during work and leisure and sleep problems in working adults. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners on daytime schedule (N = 7883) replied to the Bergen insomnia scale and questions on weekly duration of computer use. Results showed that sleep problems for three or more days per week (average of six questions) were experienced by 14.9% of the respondents. Logistic regression analyses, controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle, chronic disease and mental health showed that computer use during leisure for 30 or more hours per week (reference 0-10 hours per week) was associated with increased odds of sleep problems (OR 1.83 [95% CI 1.06-3.17]). Computer use during work and shorter duration of computer use during leisure were not associated with sleep problems. In conclusion, excessive computer use during leisure - but not work - is associated with sleep problems in adults working on daytime schedule.

  12. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  13. Obtaining multistate life table distributions for highly refined subpopulations from cross-sectional data: A Bayesian extension of Sullivan's method.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Scott M; Brown, J Scott

    2010-11-01

    Multistate life table methods are often used to estimate the proportion of remaining life that individuals can expect to spend in various states, such as healthy and unhealthy states. Sullivan's method is commonly used when panels containing data on transitions are unavailable and true multistate tables cannot be generated. Sullivan's method requires only cross-sectional mortality data and cross-sectional data indicating prevalence in states of interest. Such data often come from sample surveys, which are widely available. Although the data requirements for Sullivan's method are minimal, the method is limited in its ability to produce estimates for subpopulations because of limited disaggregation of data in cross-sectional mortality files and small cell sizes in aggregated survey data. In this article, we develop, test, and demonstrate a method that adapts Sullivan's approach to allow the inclusion of covariates in producing interval estimates of state expectancies for any desired subpopulation that can be specified in the cross-sectional prevalence data. The method involves a three-step process: (1) using Gibbs sampling to sample parameters from a bivariate regression model; (2) using ecological inference for producing transition probability matrices from the Gibbs samples; (3) using standard multistate calculations to convert the transition probability matrices into multistate life tables.

  14. A cross-sectional study of elite adult Irish dancers: biopsychosocial traits, pain, and injury.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Roisin; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    Despite its growing popularity, scant research exists concerning musculoskeletal pain and injury in Irish dancing (ID). This study aimed to record the biopsychosocial characteristics of elite adult Irish dancers and to investigate potential relationships between these characteristics and musculoskeletal pain and injury. One hundred and four professional Irish dancers, elite competitive Irish dancers, and dancers in full time education studying ID completed a questionnaire providing data on dance and activity levels, physical and psychological health, and pain and injury history. Of these subjects, 84 underwent 1. a physical screening of lower limb flexibility, which involved balance and endurance; 2. a number of functional tests; and 3. anthropometric, biomechanical, and anatomical assessments. Subjects were divided into "significantly injured (SI)" and "not significantly injured (NSI)" categories based on the severity and impact of self-reported pain and injury. Thirty-three (31.7%) subjects were classified as SI and 71 (68.3%) as NSI. The factors significantly associated with being SI were female sex (p = 0.036), higher number of subjective general health (p = 0.001) and psychological (p = 0.036) complaints, low mood (p = 0.01), heightened catastrophizing (p = 0.047), and failure always to complete a warm-up (p = 0.006). A self-reported injury rate of 76.9% over the previous 5 years was reported. The mean number of injuries sustained to all body parts over the previous 5 years was 1.49, with a mean of 126.1 days lost annually to injury. Foot and ankle injuries were most prevalent. It was concluded that there is a significant level of musculoskeletal pain and injury in elite adult ID. A complex combination of biopsychosocial factors appears to be associated with pain and injury.

  15. Breadwinner and caregiver: a cross-sectional analysis of children's and emerging adults' visions of their future family roles.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Megan; Coyle, Emily F

    2011-06-01

    Participants were 150 school-age boys and girls, 58 high school students, and 145 university students drawn from communities in the Southeastern United States. In this cross-sectional study, family role attitudes and expectations were examined across development. Parental work traditionality (occupational prestige and traditionality, and employed hours) predicted daughters' social role attitudes and plans for future family roles, such that daughters' envisioned families resembled that of their parents. Sons' and daughters' own attitudes about adult family roles predicted their plans to work or stay home with their future children; however, mothers' work traditionality predicted daughters' future plans over and above daughters' own attitudes. The only exception to this was in the case of university daughters, where university women's attitudes about social roles fully mediated this relationship. It may be that, as young women approach adulthood and the formation of families, they adjust their vision of their future self to match more closely their own attitudes about the caregiving role.

  16. Exploring the factors that influence medication rating Web sites value to older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    AlRuthia, Yazed Sulaiman H; Hong, Song Hee; Graff, Carolyn; Kocak, Mehmet; Solomon, David; Nolly, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated factors that affected the perceived value of medication rating Web sites to 284 people aged ≥ 60 years who were taking prescription medications. The Patient Reviews of Medication Experience (PROMEX) questionnaire score, which assessed participant opinions about the value of online reviews of medications, was positively associated with preference to share health care decision making with the health care provider and negatively associated with the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summary scores of the Short Form 12 health survey. The Primary Care Assessment Survey Communication score, which measured participant satisfaction with the communication from the health care provider, was positively associated with PCS-12 and health literacy. In summary, older adults who had poor physical and mental health-related quality of life were more likely to believe that medication rating Web sites were useful and helpful in facilitating communication with health care providers. PMID:26563919

  17. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45–53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  18. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  19. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  20. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  1. Prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in the Lebanese adult population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; El Khoury, Ghada M; Deeb, Mary E; Sheikh-Taha, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the profile of benzodiazepine (BDZ) users in Lebanon. Adult patients visiting the pharmacies with prescriptions of BDZs were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-six current BDZ users were included, of whom 54.2% were females. Twenty-three percent reported being alcohol consumers and were mostly males. The two most commonly used BDZs were alprazolam (34.6%) and bromazepam (33.6%). The indication for use was mainly anxiety (44.4%), insomnia (22.5%), and depression (15.9%). The prescribing physicians were primarily psychiatrists (43.2%), followed by general practitioners (29.7%). Forty percent had been taking the drug for more than a year. Among those using BDZs for at least 1 month, 35.5% increased the dose with time. Thirty-three percent reported having experienced side effects. Eighteen patients (2.3%) reported taking more than one BDZ concomitantly, while 18.3% were taking drugs that should not be prescribed along with BDZs. In conclusion, the use of BDZs is highest among females, especially for the treatment of anxiety. Moreover, continuous use of the drugs for more than a year as well as significant potential drug interactions was identified.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  3. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  4. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes. PMID:26548377

  5. Prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in the Lebanese adult population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; El Khoury, Ghada M; Deeb, Mary E; Sheikh-Taha, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the profile of benzodiazepine (BDZ) users in Lebanon. Adult patients visiting the pharmacies with prescriptions of BDZs were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-six current BDZ users were included, of whom 54.2% were females. Twenty-three percent reported being alcohol consumers and were mostly males. The two most commonly used BDZs were alprazolam (34.6%) and bromazepam (33.6%). The indication for use was mainly anxiety (44.4%), insomnia (22.5%), and depression (15.9%). The prescribing physicians were primarily psychiatrists (43.2%), followed by general practitioners (29.7%). Forty percent had been taking the drug for more than a year. Among those using BDZs for at least 1 month, 35.5% increased the dose with time. Thirty-three percent reported having experienced side effects. Eighteen patients (2.3%) reported taking more than one BDZ concomitantly, while 18.3% were taking drugs that should not be prescribed along with BDZs. In conclusion, the use of BDZs is highest among females, especially for the treatment of anxiety. Moreover, continuous use of the drugs for more than a year as well as significant potential drug interactions was identified. PMID:27660452

  6. Prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in the Lebanese adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; El Khoury, Ghada M; Deeb, Mary E; Sheikh-Taha, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the profile of benzodiazepine (BDZ) users in Lebanon. Adult patients visiting the pharmacies with prescriptions of BDZs were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-six current BDZ users were included, of whom 54.2% were females. Twenty-three percent reported being alcohol consumers and were mostly males. The two most commonly used BDZs were alprazolam (34.6%) and bromazepam (33.6%). The indication for use was mainly anxiety (44.4%), insomnia (22.5%), and depression (15.9%). The prescribing physicians were primarily psychiatrists (43.2%), followed by general practitioners (29.7%). Forty percent had been taking the drug for more than a year. Among those using BDZs for at least 1 month, 35.5% increased the dose with time. Thirty-three percent reported having experienced side effects. Eighteen patients (2.3%) reported taking more than one BDZ concomitantly, while 18.3% were taking drugs that should not be prescribed along with BDZs. In conclusion, the use of BDZs is highest among females, especially for the treatment of anxiety. Moreover, continuous use of the drugs for more than a year as well as significant potential drug interactions was identified. PMID:27660452

  7. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  8. Predictive factors of self-medicated analgesic use in Spanish adults: a cross-sectional national study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Analgesics are among the most commonly consumed drugs by the world populations. Within the broader context of self-medication, pain relief occupies a prominent position. Our study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-medication with analgesics among the Spanish population and to identify predictors of self-medication, including psychological disorders, psychological dysfunction, mental health status, and sociodemographic and health-related variables. Methods We used individualized secondary data retrieved from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for Spain to conduct a nationwide, descriptive, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiology study on self-medication with analgesics among adults (individuals aged at least 16 years) of both genders living in Spain. A total of 7,606 interviews were analysed. The dichotomous dependent variables chosen were the answers “yes” or “no” to the question In the last 2 weeks have you taken the medicines not prescribed for you by a doctor for joint pain, headache, or low back pain?” Independent variables were sociodemographic, comorbidity, and healthcare resources. Results A total of 7,606 individuals reported pain in any of the locations (23.7%). In addition, analgesic consumption was self-prescribed in 23.7% (1,481) of these subjects. Forty percent (40.1%) of patients self-medicated for headache, 15.1% for low back pain, and 6.7% for joint pain. The variables significantly associated with a greater likelihood of self-medication of analgesics, independently of pain location were: age 16–39 years (2.36 < AOR < 3.68), higher educational level (1.80 < AOR <2.21), psychological disorders (1.56 < AOR < 1.98), and excellent/good perception of health status (1.74 < AOR < 2.68). In subjects suffering headache, self-prescription was associated with male gender (AOR 2.13) and absence of other comorbid condition (AOR 4.65). Conclusions This pharmacoepidemiology study constitutes

  9. Occupational irritants and asthma: an Estonian cross-sectional study of 34,000 adults.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Orianne; Laurent, Emeline; Bousquet, Jean; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Occupational exposures make important contributions to asthma morbidity. The role of low/moderate level irritant exposures remains unclear. We aimed to determine which occupational exposures are associated with asthma in an eastern European country with low asthma prevalence. The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu collected data from 50 077 adults in 2002-2011. Asthma was assessed through a questionnaire regarding diagnosed diseases, current health status and medication. Exposures to 22 agents during the current and longest held jobs were estimated using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Analyses included 34 015 subjects (aged 18-65 years, 67.0% females), of which 1209 (3.6%) reported asthma (608 with physician-confirmed diagnosis). After adjusting for age, sex and smoking habits, lifetime occupational exposure to known asthmagens (20.4%) was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.59), especially high molecular weight agents (flour: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.27; animals: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.60). Exposure to low/moderate levels of irritants (17.4%) was associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.48-2.37). More pronounced associations were observed in subjects reporting current treated asthma. Beyond confirming the effect of known asthmagens (which are well-known, mostly from observations in western countries), the results provide evidence for a role of low/moderate exposure to irritants. This finding, observed in a country with a low prevalence of asthma and atopy, provides new insight into the understanding of asthma heterogeneity.

  10. Physical predictors of cognitive performance in healthy older adults: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Scherder, Erik J A; Wieling, Martijn B; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Geuze, Reint H; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender.

  11. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  12. The relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Biye; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Zhihao; Ren, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 111 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were classified by the exercise-related questionnaire to be in an open-skill group, closed-skill group or sedentary group. In experiment 1, the participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that both closed-skill (p < 0.05) and open-skill (p < 0.01) groups reached a higher accuracy than the sedentary group. Experiment 2 examined whether the exercise-induced benefit of working memory was manifested in passive maintenance or active manipulation of working memory which was assessed by visuospatial short-term memory task and visuospatial mental rotation task, respectively. The results showed that the open-skill (p < 0.01) group was more accurate than the sedentary group in the visuospatial short-term memory task, whereas the group difference in the visuospatial mental rotation task was not significant. These findings combined to suggest that physical exercise was associated with better visuospatial working memory in older adults. Furthermore, open-skill exercises that demand higher cognitive processing showed selective benefit for passive maintenance of working memory. PMID:27547560

  13. The relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Biye; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Zhihao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 111 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were classified by the exercise-related questionnaire to be in an open-skill group, closed-skill group or sedentary group. In experiment 1, the participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that both closed-skill (p < 0.05) and open-skill (p < 0.01) groups reached a higher accuracy than the sedentary group. Experiment 2 examined whether the exercise-induced benefit of working memory was manifested in passive maintenance or active manipulation of working memory which was assessed by visuospatial short-term memory task and visuospatial mental rotation task, respectively. The results showed that the open-skill (p < 0.01) group was more accurate than the sedentary group in the visuospatial short-term memory task, whereas the group difference in the visuospatial mental rotation task was not significant. These findings combined to suggest that physical exercise was associated with better visuospatial working memory in older adults. Furthermore, open-skill exercises that demand higher cognitive processing showed selective benefit for passive maintenance of working memory. PMID:27547560

  14. New method of calculating the wakefields of a point charge in a waveguide of arbitrary cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, S. S.; Kanareykin, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    A new method for calculating the Cherenkov wakefield acting on a point charged particle passing through a longitudinally homogeneous structure lined with layer(s) of an arbitrary retarding (dielectric, resistive, or corrugated) material has been developed. In this paper we present a rigorous derivation of the expressions for the fields that are valid at the cross section of the particle on the basis of a conformal mapping method. This new formalism allows reduction of the loss factor calculation to a simple derivation of a conformal mapping function from the arbitrary cross section onto a circular disc. We generalize these results to the case of a bunch with an arbitrary transverse distribution by deriving a two-dimensional Green function at the cross section of the particle. Consequently, for the first time analytical expressions for the transverse distributions of the electric field Ez for the most commonly used cylindrical, planar and elliptical cross section geometries are found. The proposed approach significantly decreases simulation time and opens new possibilities in optimizing wakefield effects resulting from short charged particle bunches for FEL and Linear Collider applications.

  15. Dietary patterns and hypertension among Chinese adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several healthful dietary patterns appear to be effective at lowering blood pressure and preventing hypertension. However, the relationship between dietary patterns and hypertension among a representative Chinese population sample is unclear. Methods A nationally representative sample of 23 671 participants aged 18-59 years were recruited by the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. All participants had their blood pressure measured with standardized mercury sphygmomanometers. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. We conducted factor analysis using dietary information from a validated food frequency questionnaire to derive dietary patterns. Information of participants on physical activities, education level, annual household income, smoking status and family history of hypertension was collected by interviewer-administrated questionnaires. Results Three major dietary patterns, defined as 'Western', 'traditional northern', and 'traditional southern', were identified. Participants with the highest quartile for the score of the Western pattern had significantly higher blood pressure comparing with counterparts in the lowest quartile. In contrast, participants in the top quartile for the score of the traditional southern pattern presented significantly lower blood pressure comparing with counterparts in the lowest quartile. In multivariate analyses the traditional northern pattern score was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.53, P for trend = 0.0001) comparing with the lowest quartile. The OR for the top quartile of score for the traditional southern pattern was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.89, P for trend = 0.0040) compared with the lowest quartile of traditional southern pattern score. However, the significant association between the traditional northern pattern and prevalence of hypertension disappeared after further adjusting for body

  16. Dye lasing arrangement including an optical assembly for altering the cross-section of its pumping beam and method

    DOEpatents

    O'Neil, Richard W.; Sweatt, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An optical assembly is disclosed herein along with a method of operation for use in a dye lasing arrangement, for example a dye laser oscillator or a dye amplifier, in which a continuous stream of dye is caused to flow through a given zone in a cooperating dye chamber while the zone is being illuminated by light from a pumping beam which is directed into the given zone. This in turn causes the dye therein to lase and thereby produce a new dye beam in the case of a dye laser oscillator or amplify a dye beam in the case of a dye amplifier. The optical assembly so disclosed is designed to alter the pump beam such that the beam enters the dye chamber with a different cross-sectional configuration, preferably one having a more uniform intensity profile, than its initially produced cross-sectional configuration. To this end, the assembly includes a network of optical components which first act on the beam while the latter retains its initially produced cross-sectional configuration for separating it into a plurality of predetermined segments and then recombines the separated components in a predetermined way which causes the recombined beam to have the different cross-sectional configuration.

  17. Kidney function changes with aging in adults: comparison between cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses in renal function assessment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang M; Lee, David J; Hand, Austin; Young, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluated whether the renal function decline rate per year with age in adults varies based on two primary statistical analyses: cross-section (CS), using one observation per subject, and longitudinal (LT), using multiple observations per subject over time. A total of 16628 records (3946 subjects; age range 30-92 years) of creatinine clearance and relevant demographic data were used. On average, four samples per subject were collected for up to 2364 days (mean: 793 days). A simple linear regression and random coefficient models were selected for CS and LT analyses, respectively. The renal function decline rates per year were 1.33 and 0.95 ml/min/year for CS and LT analyses, respectively, and were slower when the repeated individual measurements were considered. The study confirms that rates are different based on statistical analyses, and that a statistically robust longitudinal model with a proper sampling design provides reliable individual as well as population estimates of the renal function decline rates per year with age in adults. In conclusion, our findings indicated that one should be cautious in interpreting the renal function decline rate with aging information because its estimation was highly dependent on the statistical analyses. From our analyses, a population longitudinal analysis (e.g. random coefficient model) is recommended if individualization is critical, such as a dose adjustment based on renal function during a chronic therapy.

  18. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  19. Inverse Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Asthma Among Adults Younger than 40 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Nayoung; Lim, Seon Hee; Kwon, Jin-Won; Shin, Cheol Min; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori could prevent allergic disease, particularly in children. However, whether this is true in adults is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is negative association between H. pylori infection and asthma among adults in an area with a high prevalence of H. pylori.This was a cross-sectional study using 2011 health surveillance data. Blood samples were taken from all participants to measure serum H. pylori IgG status. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, and medical history, including asthma and other allergic conditions were collected by a questionnaire.Of the 15,032 patients, 9492 (63.1%) had a history of H. pylori infection, 359 (2.4%) had asthma, and 3277 (21.8%) had other allergic conditions. H. pylori infection was positively correlated with age (OR, 1.050; 95% CI, 1.047-1.053, P < 0.001). Asthma history was positively correlated with age (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.013-1.032, P < 0.001). H. pylori and age were shown to have interaction on asthma in the total participants (OR, 1.041; 95% CI, 1.021-1.062, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, H. pylori infection among those < 40 years old was inversely correlated with asthma (OR, 0.503; 95% CI, 0.280-0.904, P = 0.021). Other allergic conditions were not related with H. pylori infection among the total and those <40 years old.The inverse association between H. pylori infection and asthma among young adults suggests that the underlying immune mechanism induced by H. pylori infection may affect allergic reactions associated with asthma in young adults.

  20. Method of characteristics design of a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle with square cross-section, supplement 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1993-01-01

    Nozzle design codes developed earlier were modified and used in order to design a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle with square cross-sections. As part of the design process, a post-processing code that generates square nozzles from the output of the Sivells code was written. The method is based on the results of an axisymmetric method of characteristics code and an axisymmetric boundary layer code. These design codes are documented.

  1. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross-sectional clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Payne, Martha E; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Anderson, John J B

    2014-07-28

    Recent studies have implicated Ca supplements in vascular risk elevation, and therefore these supplements may also be associated with the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. In the present cross-sectional clinical observational study, the association between Ca-containing dietary supplement use and lesion volumes was investigated in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and above). Food and supplemental Ca intakes were assessed with the Block 1998 FFQ; participants with supplemental Ca intake above zero were categorised as supplement users. Lesion volumes were determined from cranial MRI (1.5 tesla) scans using a semi-automated technique; volumes were log-transformed because they were non-normal. ANCOVA models revealed that supplement users had greater lesion volumes than non-users, even after controlling for food Ca intake, age, sex, race, years of education, energy intake, depression and hypertension (Ca supplement use: β = 0.34, SE 0.10, F(1,217)= 10.98, P= 0.0011). The influence of supplemental Ca use on lesion volume was of a magnitude similar to that of the influence of hypertension, a well-established risk factor for lesions. Among the supplement users, the amount of supplemental Ca was not associated with lesion volume (β = - 0.000035, SE 0.00 015, F(1,139)= 0.06, P= 0.81). The present study demonstrates that the use of Ca-containing dietary supplements, even low-dose supplements, by older adults may be associated with greater lesion volumes. Evaluation of randomised controlled trials is warranted to determine whether this relationship is a causal one.

  2. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (< 100 μg/L urine). Results: Of 1,525 participants, 400 (26%) had low iodine only (T0I1), 87 (6%) had high TPOAb only (T1I0), and 26 (2%) had both high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). In general, associations were similar among participants in the groups with neither (T0I0) or only one thyroid stressor (T0I1 or T1I0), suggesting that PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p < 0.05) with fT4, and all four PFASs were positively associated (p < 0.05) with fT3, fT3/fT4, TSH, and TT3 in the group with joint exposure to high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). Conclusions: We found evidence of PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of

  3. Recoil distance transmission method: Measurement of interaction cross sections of excited states with fast rare-isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Whitmore, K.; Iwasaki, H.

    2016-09-01

    The possible appearance of nuclear halos in ground and excited states close to the particle-decay threshold is of great importance in the investigation of nuclear structure and few-body correlations at the limit of stability. In order to obtain direct evidence of the halo structure manifested in nuclear excited states, we have considered a new method to measure the interaction cross sections of excited states. The combination of the transmission method and the recoil distance Doppler-shift method with a plunger device enables us to measure the number of interactions of the excited states in a target. Formulae to determine the interaction cross section are derived, and key issues to realize measurements are discussed. Dominant sources of errors are uncertainties in the excited-state lifetimes and γ-ray yields. We examine prototype experiments and perform simulations to study the impact of each uncertainty on the final result. This method provides a novel opportunity to perform cross section measurements on the excited states of rare isotopes.

  4. Risk factors associated with malnutrition in older adults living in Italian nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Papparotto, Carla; Bidoli, Ettore; Palese, Alvisa

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem among older adults living in nursing homes: Malnourished residents are at increased risk of hospitalization and mortality. Multiple factors determine malnutrition, and the extant literature has focused attention on individual factors such as aging, sex, and dependence in activities of daily living. However, little evidence is available on factors influenced by nursing care. Exploring the relationship between the nutritional status of nursing home residents and certain individual factors, including those potentially influenced by nursing care, was the aim of this cross-sectional study. A total of 186 nursing home residents was enrolled in the study; in addition, 18 nurses were involved in the data collection process. Twenty-one percent of the residents had an adequate nutritional status, 43% were at risk of malnutrition, and 36% were malnourished. Multivariate analysis revealed that those independent factors associated with malnutrition, once adjusted for age, sex, and dependence in activities of daily living, were: having had a stroke, being dependent in activities of daily living, eating half or less of food provided at mealtimes, and having their weight checked only every 3 months or longer. Nursing care projects may be effective in reducing the risk of malnutrition among nursing home residents. However, further research is needed to develop knowledge of the factors associated with malnutrition and those influenced by care delivered in nursing homes.

  5. The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae

    PubMed Central

    Katayose, Masaki; Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. Purpose We aimed to investigate the variation in the lumbar facet joint orientation in an adult Asian population. The relationship between the facet joint orientation and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus and erector spinae was also clarified. Overview of Literature Several studies have reported that lumbar pathologies, such as lumbar spondylolysis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, were related to the horizontally shaped lumbar facet joint orientation at the lower lumbar level. However, data regarding variations in the facet joint orientation in asymptomatic subjects have not been well documented. Methods In 31 healthy male adult Asian volunteers, the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae were measured using magnetic resonance imaging at the L4–5 and L5–S1 levels. Variation in the facet joint orientation was examined using coefficients of variation (CV). Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae. Results Lumbar facet joint orientation had a wider range of variation at L5–S1 (CV=0.30) than at L4–5 (CV=0.18). The L4–5 facet joint orientation had a weak but significant correlation with the CSA of erector spinae (r=0.40; p=0.031). The CSA of the multifidus had no relationship with the facet joint orientation at the L4–5 (r=0.19; p=0.314) and the L5–S1 level (r=0.19; p=0.312). Conclusions The lumbar facet joint orientation was found to have a wide variation, particularly at the L5–S1 in the Asian adult population, and the facet joint orientation had a relationship with the CSA of the erector spinae at the L4–5. PMID:27790316

  6. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA) Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hammersen, Friederike; Niemann, Hildegard; Hoebel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012), a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294). Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support), both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality. PMID:27681736

  7. Optical Anisotropy Measurements of TRISO Nuclear Fuel Particle Cross-Sections: The Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Hunn, John D

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of two-modulator generalized ellipsometry microscope (2-MGEM) data to extract information on the optical anisotropy of coated particle fuel layers is discussed. Using a high resolution modification to the 2-MGEM, it is possible to obtain generalized ellipsometry images of coating layer cross-sections with a pixel size of 2.5 m and an optical resolution of ~ 4 m. The most important parameter that can be extracted from these ellipsometry images is the diattenuation, which can be directly related to the optical anisotropy factor (OAF or OPTAF) used in previous characterization studies of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Because high resolution images can be obtained, the data for each coating layer contains >6,000 points, allowing considerable statistical analysis. This analysis has revealed that the diattenuation of the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) coatings varies significantly throughout the layer. The 2-MGEM data can also be used to determine the principal axis angle of the pyrocarbon layers, which is nearly perpendicular to the TRISO radius (i.e., growth direction) and corresponds to the average orientation of the graphine planes.

  8. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Bernstein, L.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Thompson, I. J.; Guttormssen, M.; Larsen, A.-C.; Mansouri, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Wiedeking, M.; Wiborg, T.

    2012-02-01

    Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x) and 232Th(3He,x) reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  9. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  10. Prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the small membrane filtration method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jones-López, Edward; Manabe, Yukari C; Palaci, Moises; Kayiza, Carol; Armstrong, Derek; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ssengooba, Willy; Gaeddert, Mary; Kubiak, Rachel; Almeida Júnior, Pedro; Alland, David; Dietze, Reynaldo; Joloba, Moses; Ellner, Jerrold J; Dorman, Susan E

    2014-07-01

    Smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity, and there is a need to improve its performance since it is commonly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the small membrane filtration (SMF) method, an approach that uses a vacuum manifold and is designed to concentrate bacilli onto a filter that can be examined microscopically. We enrolled hospitalized adults suspected to have pulmonary TB in Kampala, Uganda. We obtained a clinical history and three spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct, concentrated, and SMF), MGIT (mycobacterial growth indicator tube) 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) cultures, and Xpert MTB/RIF testing. We performed per-specimen (primary) and per-patient analyses. From October 2012 to June 2013, we enrolled 212 patients (579 sputum specimens). The participants were mostly female (63.2%), and 81.6% were HIV infected; their median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl. Overall, 19.0%, 20.4%, 27.1%, 25.2%, and 25.9% of specimens tested positive by direct smear, concentrated smear, MGIT culture, LJ culture, and Xpert test, respectively. In the per-specimen analysis, the sensitivity of the SMF method (48.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.4 to 59.6) was lower than those of direct smear (60.9%; 51.4 to 70.5 [P = 0.0001]) and concentrated smear (63.3%; 53.6 to 73.1 [P < 0.0001]). Subgroup analyses showed that SMF performed poorly in specimens having a low volume or low bacterial load. The SMF method performed poorly compared to standard smear techniques and was sensitive to sample preparation techniques. The optimal laboratory SMF protocol may require striking a fine balance between sample dilution and filtration failure rate.

  11. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2-4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor

  12. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  13. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors.

  14. The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haijiang; Huang, Zhijun; Deng, Qihong; Li, Ying; Xiao, Ting; Ning, Xingping; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2015-08-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood lead levels and both serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in adult residents living within an area of China with lead pollution. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2120 subjects (1180 of whom were male) between the ages of 20 and 75 years who had undergone health examinations at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a lead-polluted area of China between January 2013 and August 2014. Blood lead was positively correlated with serum uric acid in both males (r = 0.095, p = 0.001) and females (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that for males, blood lead (p = 0.006), age (p = 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.012), education (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.001), and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. For females, blood lead (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009), and TG (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. After multiple adjustments, blood lead was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia when female subjects were categorized into quartiles (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.190; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.106-4.338; p = 0.025); however, no such association was observed for male subjects. Continuous lead exposure has an independent impact on serum uric acid for both males and females, although this impact is more pronounced for females than for males. Lead exposure is significantly associated with hyperuricemia for females but not for males.

  15. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  16. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  17. Laughter is the Best Medicine? A Cross-Sectional Study of Cardiovascular Disease Among Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kei; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kondo, Katsunori; Shirai, Kokoro; Kondo, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to evaluate the associations between frequency of daily laughter with heart disease and stroke among community-dwelling older Japanese women and men. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data in 20 934 individuals (10 206 men and 10 728 women) aged 65 years or older, who participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study in 2013. In the mail-in survey, participants provided information on daily frequency of laughter, as well as body mass index, demographic and lifestyle factors, and diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and depression. Results Even after adjustment for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, depression, body mass index, and other risk factors, the prevalence of heart diseases among those who never or almost never laughed was 1.21 (95% CI, −1.03–1.41) times higher than those who reported laughing every day. The adjusted prevalence ratio for stroke was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.24–2.06). Conclusions Daily frequency of laughter is associated with lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. The association could not be explained by confounding factors, such as depressive symptoms. PMID:26972732

  18. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  19. Pattern, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcome of Meningitis among HIV-Infected Adults Admitted in a Tertiary Hospital in North Western Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Matobogolo M; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Mpondo, Bonaventura C T; Mshana, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Lumbar puncture was performed to all patients; cerebrospinal fluid samples were sent for analysis. Results. Among 60 HIV-infected adults clinically diagnosed to have meningitis, 55 had CSF profiles consistent with meningitis. Of these, 14 (25.5%) had a laboratory-confirmed etiology while 41 (74.5%) had no isolate identified. Cryptococcus neoformans was the commonest cause of meningitis occurring in 11 (18.3%) of patients followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.7%). The in-hospital mortality was 20/55 (36.4%). Independent predictors of mortality were low baseline CD4 count and turbid CSF appearance. Conclusion. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent laboratory-confirmed etiological agent among adult HIV-infected patients with suspected meningitis admitted to medical wards in Western Tanzania. Mortality rate in this population remains unacceptably high. Improving diagnostic capacity and early treatment may help to decrease the mortality rate. PMID:27651801

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  1. Body mass index relates weight to height differently in women and older adults: serial cross-sectional surveys in England (1992–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Sperrin, Matthew; Marshall, Alan D.; Higgins, Vanessa; Renehan, Andrew G.; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) tends to be higher among shorter adults, especially women. The dependence of BMI–height correlation on age and calendar time may inform us about temporal determinants of BMI. Methods Series of cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey for England, 1992–2011. We study the Benn Index, which is the coefficient in a regression of log(weight) on log(height). This is adjusted for age, gender and calendar time, allowing for non-linear terms and interactions. Results By height quartile, mean BMI decreased with increasing height, more so in women than in men (P < 0.001). The decrease in mean BMI in the tallest compared with the shortest height quartile was 0.77 in men (95% CI 0.69, 0.86) and 1.98 in women (95% CI 1.89, 2.08). Regression analysis of log(weight) on log(height) revealed that the inverse association between BMI and height was more pronounced in older adults and stronger in women than in men, with little change over calendar time. Conclusions Unlike early childhood, where taller children tend to have higher BMI, adults, especially women and older people, show an inverse BMI–height association. BMI is a heterogeneous measure of weight-for-height; height may be an important and complex determinant of BMI trajectory over the life course. PMID:26036702

  2. Pattern, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcome of Meningitis among HIV-Infected Adults Admitted in a Tertiary Hospital in North Western Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Lumbar puncture was performed to all patients; cerebrospinal fluid samples were sent for analysis. Results. Among 60 HIV-infected adults clinically diagnosed to have meningitis, 55 had CSF profiles consistent with meningitis. Of these, 14 (25.5%) had a laboratory-confirmed etiology while 41 (74.5%) had no isolate identified. Cryptococcus neoformans was the commonest cause of meningitis occurring in 11 (18.3%) of patients followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.7%). The in-hospital mortality was 20/55 (36.4%). Independent predictors of mortality were low baseline CD4 count and turbid CSF appearance. Conclusion. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent laboratory-confirmed etiological agent among adult HIV-infected patients with suspected meningitis admitted to medical wards in Western Tanzania. Mortality rate in this population remains unacceptably high. Improving diagnostic capacity and early treatment may help to decrease the mortality rate.

  3. Pattern, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcome of Meningitis among HIV-Infected Adults Admitted in a Tertiary Hospital in North Western Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool. Lumbar puncture was performed to all patients; cerebrospinal fluid samples were sent for analysis. Results. Among 60 HIV-infected adults clinically diagnosed to have meningitis, 55 had CSF profiles consistent with meningitis. Of these, 14 (25.5%) had a laboratory-confirmed etiology while 41 (74.5%) had no isolate identified. Cryptococcus neoformans was the commonest cause of meningitis occurring in 11 (18.3%) of patients followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.7%). The in-hospital mortality was 20/55 (36.4%). Independent predictors of mortality were low baseline CD4 count and turbid CSF appearance. Conclusion. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent laboratory-confirmed etiological agent among adult HIV-infected patients with suspected meningitis admitted to medical wards in Western Tanzania. Mortality rate in this population remains unacceptably high. Improving diagnostic capacity and early treatment may help to decrease the mortality rate. PMID:27651801

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  5. A method for calibrating cryogenic void fraction RF-sensors having a round cross-section and estimating their accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Yu. P.; Kakorin, I. D.

    2016-10-01

    The calibration principle of the cryogenic void fraction RF-sensors of a round cross-section for a wide temperature range is proposed and described in detail. It is shown that the simplest and reliable method of the calibration procedure requires finding a dependence of the resonant frequency, f, of the empty sensor on its temperature and only two f-values when it is filled with saturated liquid and vapor at the given temperature T0. The calibration test-bench is described. The errors of the calibration are estimated, and the experimental data for helium, hydrogen and nitrogen are presented.

  6. Quantitative ultrasound method for assessing stress-strain properties and the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yang, Chia-En; Wu, Jian-Xing; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly observed tendons injured with a variety of causes, such as trauma, overuse and degeneration, in the human body. Rupture and tendinosis are relatively common for this strong tendon. Stress-strain properties and shape change are important biomechanical properties of the tendon to assess surgical repair or healing progress. Currently, there are rather limited non-invasive methods available for precisely quantifying the in vivo biomechanical properties of the tendons. The aim of this study was to apply quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, including ultrasonic attenuation and speed of sound (SOS), to investigate porcine tendons in different stress-strain conditions. In order to find a reliable method to evaluate the change of tendon shape, ultrasound measurement was also utilized for measuring tendon thickness and compared with the change in tendon cross-sectional area under different stress. A total of 15 porcine tendons of hind trotters were examined. The test results show that the attenuation and broadband ultrasound attenuation decreased and the SOS increased by a smaller magnitude as the uniaxial loading of the stress-strain upon tendons increased. Furthermore, the tendon thickness measured with the ultrasound method was significantly correlated with tendon cross-sectional area (Pearson coefficient = 0.86). These results also indicate that attenuation of QUS and ultrasonic thickness measurement are reliable and potential parameters for assessing biomechanical properties of tendons. Further investigations are needed to warrant the application of the proposed method in a clinical setting.

  7. A method for (n,alpha) and (n,p) cross section measurements using a lead slowing-down spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jason Tyler

    The need for nuclear data comes from several sources including astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and reactor design. Photodisintegration, neutron capture, and charged particle out reactions on stable or short-lived radioisotopes play crucial roles during stellar evolution and forming solar isotopic abundances whereas these reactions can affect the safety of our national weapons stockpile or criticality and safety calculations for reactors. Although models can be used to predict some of these values, these predictions are only as good as the experimental data that constrains them. For neutron-induced emission of α particles and protons ((n,α) and (n,p) reactions) at energies below 1 MeV, the experimental data is at best scarce and models must rely on extrapolations from unlike situations, (i.e. different reactions, isotopes, and energies) providing ample room for uncertainty. In this work a new method of measuring energy dependent (n,α) and (n,p) cross sections was developed for the energy range of 0.1 eV - ˜100 keV using a lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS). The LSDS provides a ˜10 4 neutron flux increase over the more conventionally used time-of-flight (ToF) methods at equivalent beam conditions, allowing for the measurement of small cross sections (µb’s to mb’s) while using small sample masses (µg’s to mg’s). Several detector concepts were designed and tested, including specially constructed Canberra passivated, implanted, planar silicon (PIPS) detectors; and gas-electron-multiplier (GEM) foils. All designs are compensated to minimize γ-flash problems. The GEM detector was found to function satisfactory for (n,α) measurements, but the PIPS detectors were found to be better suited for (n,p) reaction measurements. A digital data acquisition (DAQ) system was programmed such that background can be measured simultaneously with the reaction cross section. Measurements of the 147Sm(n,α)144Nd and 149 Sm(n,α)146Nd reaction cross sections were

  8. The subsurface cross section resistivity using magnetotelluric method in Pelabuhan Ratu area, West Java, implication for geological hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2016-02-01

    Pelabuhan Ratu area is located on the south coast of West Java. Pelabuhan Ratu area's rapid development and population growth were partly stimulated by the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 66 the year 1998 that made Pelabuhan Ratu the capital city of the district of Sukabumi. Because of this fact, it is very important to create a geological hazard mitigation plan for the area. Pelabuhan Ratu were passed by two major faults: Cimandiri fault in the western and Citarik fault in the eastern. Cimandiri fault starts from the upstream of Cimandiri River to the southern of Sukabumi and Cianjur city. While Citarik fault starts from the Citarik River until the Salak Mountain. These two faults needs to be observed closely as they are prone to cause earthquake in the area. To mitigate earthquake that is estimated will occur at Cimandiri fault or the Citarik fault, the Research Center for Geotechnology LIPI conducted research using Magnetotelluric (MT) method with artificial Phoenix MT tool to determine the cross-section resistivity of the Pelabuhan Ratu and the surrounding area. Measurements were taken at 40 points along the highway towards Jampang to Pelabuhan Ratu, and to Bandung towards Cibadak with a distance of less than 500 meters between the measuring points. Measurement results using this tool will generate AMT cross-section resistivity to a depth of 1500 meters below the surface. Cross-section resistivity measurement results showed that there was a layer of rock with about 10 Ohm-m to 1000 Ohm-m resistivity. Rocks with resistivity of 10 Ohm-m was interpreted as conductive rocks that were loose or sandstone containing water. If an earthquake to occur in this area, it will lead to a strong movement and liquefaction that will destroy buildings and potentially cause casualties in this area.

  9. Factors Associated with Hallux Valgus in a Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Adults with and without Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Renner, Jordan B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hallux valgus (HV) was associated with potential risk factors including foot pain in a large, bi-racial cohort of older men and women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of cohort members of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project of whom 1,502 had complete clinical and demographic data available (mean age 68 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 31.3 kg/m2, 68% women, 30% African American). The presence of HV was assessed visually using a validated examination. Multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations for the total sample and for each sex and race subgroup were used to examine the effect of age, BMI, foot pain, pes planus, and knee or hip radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) on HV. Results HV was present in 64% of the total sample (African American men=69%, African American women=70%, Caucasian men=54%, Caucasian women=65%). The association between HV and foot pain was elevated but not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.47). Women, African American, older individuals, and those with pes planus or knee/hip OA had significantly higher odds of HV (aORs 1.17–1.48). Participants with higher BMI had lower odds of HV compared to those with normal BMI (aORs 0.54–0.72). Overall, patterns of associations were similar across subgroups. Conclusion HV was associated with female sex, African American race, older age, pes planus, and knee/hip OA and inversely associated with higher BMI. Early prevention and intervention approaches may be needed in high-risk groups; longitudinal studies would inform these approaches. PMID:25418024

  10. Factors associated with blood pressure control amongst adults with hypertension in Yaounde, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Menanga, Alain; Edie, Sandrine; Boombhi, Jérôme; Musa, Ahmadou Jingi; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Kingue, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Improvement of its management to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes will require an understanding of the patient characteristics and treatment factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure. Factors that affect blood pressure control have not been sufficiently described in Cameroon. The main goal of our study was to determine the predictors of blood pressure control in patients with hypertension in an urban city in Cameroon. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study from five outpatient hypertension consultation units in Hospitals in Yaoundé. Controlled hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≤140/90 mmHg. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with blood pressure control. Results Among the 440 patients enrolled in the survey, 280 (63.6%) were females. The mean age was 61 (SD ±11) years. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 147 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 88 mmHg. Only 36.8% of patients had their mean blood pressure controlled (BP ≤140/90 mmHg). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed good adherence to anti-hypertensive medications (OR= 3.99; 95% CI: 2.20–7.23; P<0.000) and dietary lifestyle changes (OR =1.5; 95% CI: 0.53–2.49; P=0.031) to be factors independently associated with controlled hypertension. Conclusions Only one out of three patients has their blood pressure controlled. The results of our study suggest that good adherence to treatment are important factors for tight blood pressure control in primary care. Further identification of patients at risk of non-adherence to treatment and poor blood pressure control can lead to targeted interventions to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality in this setting. PMID:27747167

  11. A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Nizar A. M.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia. Objectives: We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS) and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out. Results: Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84). Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57) and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29). Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were −0.118 (P = 0.03), −0.014 (P = 0.81) and 0.242 (P < 0.001) respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = −0.111, P = 0.033) and marital status (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001) and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001) were positively associated with the CIUS score. Conclusions: Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients. PMID:24696631

  12. A comparison of three time-dependent wave packet methods for calculating electron-atom elastic scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judson, Richard S.; Mcgarrah, Dorothy B.; Sharafeddin, Omar A.; Kouri, Donald J.; Hoffman, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Three time-dependent wave packet methods for performing elastic scattering calculations from screened Coulomb potentials are compared. The three methods are the time-dependent amplitude density method (TDADM), a Cayley-transform method (CTM), and the Chebyshev propagation method of Tal-Ezer and Kosloff. Both the TDADM and the CTM are based on a time-dependent integral equation for the wave function. In the first, the time-dependent amplitude density is propagated, while in the other two, the wave function is propagated. As a numerical example, phase shifts and cross sections are calculated using a screened Coulomb, Yukawa type potential over the range 200-1000 eV. It is found that, in most cases, all three methods yield comparable accuracy and are about equally efficient computationally. However for l = 0, where the Coulomb well is not screened by the centrifugal potential, the TDADM requires smaller grid spacings to maintain accuracy.

  13. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  14. Contraceptive Method Selection by Women with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gawron, Lori M.; Gawron, Andrew J.; Kasper, Amanda; Hammond, Cassing; Keefer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Women with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) utilize contraception at a lower rate than the general population. We sought to identify factors associated with contraceptive use and selection of more effective methods in IBD patients at risk for unintended pregnancy. Study Design An online survey was distributed to women with IBD in January 2013. Contraceptive methods were categorized by effectiveness and associations with use explored by demographics, disease characteristics, and reproductive goals. Results 162 respondents were analyzed: 62% had Crohn’s disease and 38% ulcerative colitis. Mean age was 31 (range 20–45), 97% identified as White, and 53% were nulliparas. 74% were currently using IBD medications. A quarter of participants (23%) used no contraception, 17% used highly effective methods, 41% used short-term hormonal methods, and 19% chose barrier/behavioral methods. Prior IBD-related surgery, biologic therapy use, and low education attainment were associated with no contraception use. Of contraceptive users, age, parity, insurance status, IBD surgery and prior immunomodulator use were associated with highly effective method selection. Conclusions A quarter of women with IBD at-risk for pregnancy in this study population reported no contraceptive method use. Higher levels of IBD activity influence contraceptive use and method selection, which could guide future patient and provider educational interventions. Implications Pregnancy planning is important for women with inflammatory bowel diseases to avoid adverse outcomes in a disease-poor state. Use of contraception assists in avoidance of unintended pregnancy. IBD characteristics are targets for educational interventions to improve uptake of highly effective contraceptive methods. PMID:24486008

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer among adult women: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Agam B.; Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Kapoor, Neelkamal; Mehrotra, Ragini; Kokane, Arun Mahadeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women of reproductive age. Unfortunately, despite the evidence of methods for prevention, most of the women remain unscreened. The reported barriers to screening include unawareness of risk factors, symptoms and prevention; stigma and misconceptions about gynecological diseases and lack of national cervical cancer screening guidelines and policies. This study attempts to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening among women of reproductive age (15-45 years). Materials and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was done on 400 females of reproductive age who presented to out-patient-department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. Structured questionnaire consisting 20 knowledge items and 7-items for attitude and history of pap smear for practices were administered by one of the investigators after informed consent. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-Info version 7. Qualitative variables were summarized as counts and percentages while quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation. Predictors of better knowledge, attitude, and practices were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 442 women were approached for interview of which 400 responded of which two-third (65.5%) had heard of cervical cancer. At least one symptom and one risk factor were known to 35.25% and 39.75% participants. Only 34.5% participants had heard, and 9.5% actually underwent screening test, however, 76.25% of the participants expressed a favorable attitude for screening. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that education age and income were independent predictors of better knowledge. Education level influences attitude toward screening and actual practice depends on age, income, and marital status. This study shows that despite the fact that women had suboptimal level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer

  16. Cross Sectional Study of Agile Software Development Methods and Project Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development methods, characterized by delivering customer value via incremental and iterative time-boxed development processes, have moved into the mainstream of the Information Technology (IT) industry. However, despite a growing body of research which suggests that a predictive manufacturing approach, with big up-front…

  17. A Method of Assembling Cross-Sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Donald R.; Menon, Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a new method of measuring quality of life at the local and state level. Further, it presents a methodology that combines heterogeneous indicators from different fields, such as economics, social, and health, into one total measurement. The technique shown can be used to compare one region with another, or compare one metro area…

  18. Total photoionization cross-sections of excited electronic states by the algebraic diagrammatic construction-Stieltjes-Lanczos method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruberti, M.; Yun, R.; Averbukh, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kopelke, S.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Tarantelli, F.

    2014-05-14

    Here, we extend the L{sup 2} ab initio method for molecular photoionization cross-sections introduced in Gokhberg et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064104 (2009)] and benchmarked in Ruberti et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144107 (2013)] to the calculation of total photoionization cross-sections of molecules in electronically excited states. The method is based on the ab initio description of molecular electronic states within the many-electron Green's function approach, known as algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC), and on the application of Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory to Lanczos pseudospectra of the ADC electronic Hamiltonian. The intermediate state representation of the dipole operator in the ADC basis is used to compute the transition moments between the excited states of the molecule. We compare the results obtained using different levels of the many-body theory, i.e., ADC(1), ADC(2), and ADC(2)x for the first two excited states of CO, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O both at the ground state and the excited state equilibrium or saddle point geometries. We find that the single excitation ADC(1) method is not adequate even at the qualitative level and that the inclusion of double electronic excitations for description of excited state photoionization is essential. Moreover, we show that the use of the extended ADC(2)x method leads to a substantial systematic difference from the strictly second-order ADC(2). Our calculations demonstrate that a theoretical modelling of photoionization of excited states requires an intrinsically double excitation theory with respect to the ground state and cannot be achieved by the standard single excitation methods with the ground state as a reference.

  19. Ion collision cross section analyses in quadrupole ion traps using the filter diagonalization method: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; He, Miyi; Guo, Dan; Zhai, Yanbing; Xu, Wei

    2016-04-28

    Previously, we have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring ion collision cross sections (CCSs) within a quadrupole ion trap by performing time-frequency analyses of simulated ion trajectories. In this study, an improved time-frequency analysis method, the filter diagonalization method (FDM), was applied for data analyses. Using the FDM, high resolution could be achieved in both time- and frequency-domains when calculating ion time-frequency curves. Owing to this high-resolution nature, ion-neutral collision induced ion motion frequency shifts were observed, which further cause the intermodulation of ion trajectories and thus accelerate image current attenuation. Therefore, ion trap operation parameters, such as the ion number, high-order field percentage and buffer gas pressure, were optimized for ion CCS measurements. Under optimized conditions, simulation results show that a resolving power from 30 to more than 200 could be achieved for ion CCS measurements. PMID:27066889

  20. Application of a grid numerical method to calculate state-selective cross sections for electron capture in Be4 ++H (1 s ) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, A.; Suárez, J.; Illescas, Clara; Errea, L. F.; Méndez, L.

    2016-09-01

    Charge-transfer n partial cross sections have been calculated for collisions of Be4 + with H (1 s ) by means of a versatile lattice method that is applicable in a wide energy range (between 1 and 500 keV/u). The cross sections, which include up to the high-lying n =8 level, are compared to existing semiclassical calculations in order to quantify the accuracy of the results. The reliability of the lattice method at high impact energies is confirmed by comparison with classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. It is found that the n partial cross sections larger than 10-18 cm2, calculated using the lattice method, agree with differences smaller than 15% with those from the method considered the most accurate at each energy. The calculation yields as well accurate total electron capture cross sections, which are studied in detail at E =100 keV/u to obtain a converged value.

  1. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  2. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  4. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Koren L; Harrison, Elizabeth L; Reeder, Bruce A; Sari, Nazmi; Chad, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health services utilization (H) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years) were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA) was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50-65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations (ORadj = 0.73;  P < 0.001) and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj = 0.92;  P < 0.01) than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65-79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj = 0.82,  P < 0.05). Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services. PMID:26347491

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  6. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Koren L.; Harrison, Elizabeth L.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Sari, Nazmi; Chad, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health services utilization (H) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years) were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA) was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations (ORadj = 0.73;  P < 0.001) and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj = 0.92;  P < 0.01) than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj = 0.82,  P < 0.05). Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services. PMID:26347491

  7. Trends in the use and cost of antipsychotics among older adults from 2007 to 2013: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Paul D.; Camacho, Ximena; Vigod, Simone; Yao, Zhan; Juurlink, David N.; Paterson, J. Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, several new atypical antipsychotic agents have been introduced in Ontario, and regulatory warnings have been issued regarding use of atypical antipsychotics in older adults. We sought to establish the impact of newer atypical antipsychotics on prescribing rates and costs. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of Ontario adults aged 65 years or more using atypical antipsychotics from Jan. 1, 2007, to Mar. 31, 2013. These people have universal access to publicly funded drugs through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and the Ontario Drug Benefit. We conducted time-series analysis to assess the impact of the introduction of new atypical antipsychotics on rates of use of atypical antipsychotics and associated expenditures. Results: Rates of atypical antipsychotic use increased following the introduction of new agents in 2009, from 27.6 users per 1000 older adults in the third quarter of 2009 to 29.1 users per 1000 older adults at the end of the study period (p = 0.04). Although prescribing rates for the newer atypical agents (paliperidone, ziprasidone and aripiprazole) remained low relative to their older counterparts (risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine), rates of aripiprazole use rose to 1.0 user per 1000 older adults by the end of the study period. The proportion of prescriptions that were for brand-name agents fell from 57.5% in the second quarter of 2007 to 6.1% in the second quarter of 2009, and then rose to 11.7% by the end of the study period. By the first quarter of 2013, newer atypical antipsychotic agents were used by 4.4% of atypical antipsychotic users but accounted for 14.1% ($1.2 million of $8.5 million) of atypical antipsychotic expenditures. Interpretation: Although the overall prevalence of use of new atypical antipsychotic agents remains low, their introduction has led to increased prescribing of this class of drugs in older adults. Given the potential cost implications, further study of these trends

  8. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993–1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated. Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors showed that 5-year mean road traffic noise exposure preceding enrollment was associated with a 0.35-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21, 0.50) and a 0.18-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.12, 0.23) per 10 dB. Small, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure–response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1.19) and a 0.19-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.0072, 0.37) compared with unexposed participants (0–20 dB). Conclusions The present study finds positive associations between residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Citation Christensen JS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Nordsborg RB, Ketzel M, Sørensen TI, Sørensen M. 2016. Road traffic and railway noise exposures and adiposity in adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Danish Diet

  9. Short-term acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability among young adults: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Itagi, Afreen Begum H; Arora, Dimple; Patil, Navin A; Bailwad, Sandeep Anant; Yunus, GY; Goel, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: An increase in the consumption of smokeless tobacco has been noticed among high school, college students, and adults. Despite the antiquity and popularity of chewing tobacco in India, its effects have not been investigated systematically in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability (HRV) among healthy young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 young adult males were included in the study. Each individual was asked to chew tobacco and subjected to HRV analysis. HRV analysis using short-term electrocardiogram recording was used to measure HRV parameters before gutkha chewing and at 5, 15, and 30 min after chewing tobacco. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was used to assess changes over time. Results: There was a significant increase in heart rate (HR) during tobacco chewing. Mean HR at baseline measured 73.0 ± 6.2 bpm. There was a rise in mean HR to 83.7 ± 9.1 bpm at 5 min during tobacco chewing and gradual reduction to baseline observed after 15 min followed by no significant change till 30 min. The normalized low-frequency power and LF/high-frequency (HF) power ratio were elevated after 5 min; however, normalized HF power was reduced after 5 min tobacco chewing. Conclusion: Gutkha is closely associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors as detected by a transient enhancing sympathetic activity during tobacco chewing in the form of increased HRV parameters or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity among healthy young adults. PMID:26958522

  10. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. Objectives: We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. Methods: At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50–80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Results: Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Conclusions: Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Citation: Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH

  11. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  13. Examining the association between stimulant treatment and cognitive outcomes across the life cycle of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter R; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Corkum, Lyndsey; Claudat, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of stimulants on cognition in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We evaluated the impact of stimulant treatment on neurocognition in a cross-sectional sample of adults with ADHD. Comparisons were made between adults with ADHD who received (n = 105) and who had never received pharmacotherapy (n = 116) and 146 controls. The subjects were assessed cross-sectionally using a structured diagnostic interview and a neurocognitive battery. We modeled cognitive measures as a function of age and group status using linear regression. Treated ADHD subjects had statistically significantly better scores on measures of IQ than did untreated ones. The treated group also had better (not statistically significant) scores on neuropsychological measures. The direction of the effects of stimulant on neurocognition suggests that either good cognitive functioning may be a determinant of seeking treatment or that stimulant treatment may improve cognition in adults with ADHD. However, this does not indicate a clear causal relationship. PMID:22210365

  14. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  15. Determinants of utilization of a no-cost HIV transition clinic: a cross-sectional study of young adults living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nyabigambo, Agnes; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Atuyambe, Lynn; Babikako, Harriet M; Kambugu, Andrew; Ndoleriire, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is minimal research that has been conducted among young adults to understand the determinants of the utilization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) health services in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels and determinants of HIV transition clinic (HTC) services utilization by young adults living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (YALHA). The study used a cross-sectional design and quantitative methods to collect data from a sample of 379 YALHA between the ages of 15–24 years who were registered clients of an HTC in Uganda. During data analysis, utilization was categorized into two levels: regular (kept all appointment visits) and irregular (missed one or more appointment visits) utilization. Univariable, bivariable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the determinants associated with HTC utilization. The HTC services that were most utilized by the YALHA were those based at the clinic and provided by professional health care providers and these were: clinical examination (96%); laboratory services (87.1%); and counseling (69.7%). The services that were least utilized were home visiting (5.8%) and peer support services (19.8%). Of the 379 YALHA, only 32.4% regularly utilized the HTC. Multivariable analysis showed that the main determinants of HTC utilization were CD4 count category of ≥251/μL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.36–0.95); not being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR =0.27, 95% CI =0.15–0.47); and not receiving counseling services (AOR =0.47, 95% CI =0.27–0.83). Regular utilization of the HTC by YALHA was low and utilization seems to be influenced by HIV infection stage and HIV counseling services, but not sociodemographic factors or community factors. PMID:24966709

  16. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  17. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet. PMID:27189191

  18. Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Relationships between chronic exposures to air pollution and respiratory health outcomes have yet to be clearly articulated for adults. Recent data from nationally representative surveys suggest increasing disparity by race/ethnicity regarding asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relationship between annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and respiratory outcomes for adults using modeled air pollution and health outcome data and to examine PM2.5 sensitivity across race/ethnicity. Methods Respondents from the 2002-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were linked to annual kriged PM2.5 data from the USEPA AirData system. Logistic regression was employed to investigate increases in ambient PM2.5 concentrations and self-reported prevalence of respiratory outcomes including asthma, sinusitis and chronic bronchitis. Models included health, behavioral, demographic and resource-related covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity. Results Of nearly 110,000 adult respondents, approximately 8,000 and 4,000 reported current asthma and recent attacks, respectively. Overall, odds ratios (OR) for current asthma (0.97 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.87-1.07)) and recent attacks (0.90 (0.78-1.03)) did not suggest an association with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Stratified analyses revealed significant associations for non-Hispanic blacks [OR = 1.73 (1.17-2.56) for current asthma and OR = 1.76 (1.07-2.91) for recent attacks] but not for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Significant associations were observed overall (1.18 (1.08-1.30)) and in non-Hispanic whites (1.31 (1.18-1.46)) for sinusitis, but not for chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Non-Hispanic blacks may be at increased sensitivity of asthma outcomes from PM2.5 exposure. Increased chronic PM2.5 exposures in adults may contribute to population sinusitis burdens. PMID:22490087

  19. Relationship between Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF

  20. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  1. A community-based cross-sectional and longitudinal study uncovered asymptomatic proteinuria in Japanese adults with low body weight.

    PubMed

    Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Suwa, Kaname; Oshida, Haruki; Saito, Masafumi; Hori, Yumiko; Seta, Setsuko; Ishida, Takeshi; Kakei, Masafumi; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Kei

    2013-12-01

    Although proteinuria is highly prevalent in obese individuals, the association between proteinuria and low body weight is equivocal. In this study we determine whether low body weight is more strongly associated with proteinuria compared with normal weight. The association between body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria was examined in a cross-sectional study of 62,582 asymptomatic individuals aged 20-70 years without known kidney diseases recruited, based on the results of medical checkups in 1999. We also examined the incidence of recurrent or nonrecurrent proteinuria in an 8-year longitudinal analysis of 12,493 individuals without proteinuria at baseline. The prevalence of proteinuria showed a J-shaped relationship with BMI. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI of 27.0 kg/m(2) and above or 18.9 kg/m(2) and less was significantly associated with proteinuria relative to BMI 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2), even after adjusting for relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. In the longitudinal study, similar J-shaped relationships between the incident rates of proteinuria and baseline BMI groups were observed at post-baseline checkups. Baseline BMI 27.0 kg/m(2) and above was associated with significantly greater risk for recurrent and nonrecurrent proteinuria, whereas BMI 18.9 kg/m(2) and less was only associated with nonrecurrent proteinuria. Thus, obesity and low body weight may be associated with different types of proteinuria independent of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  2. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips) although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red) was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes. PMID:22966752

  3. Cross section measurements of high-p{sub T} dilepton final-state processes using a global fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Budd, S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Gerberich, H.; Grundler, U.; Junk, T. R.; Kraus, J.; Liss, T. M.; Marino, C. P.; Pitts, K.; Rogers, E.; Taffard, A.; Veramendi, G.; Zhang, X.; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Furic, I.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {+-}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of pp{yields}tt, pp{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}, and pp{yields}Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. We perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. Our results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(tt)=8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -})=16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -})=291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  4. Cross Section Measurements of High-p(T) Dilepton Final-State Processes Using a Global Fitting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria U., Santander /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2006-12-01

    The authors present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {-+}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t}, p{bar p} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}, and p{bar p} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. The results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(t{bar t}) = 8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -}) = 16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) = 291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  5. Influence of ethnicity on acceptability of method of blood pressure monitoring: a cross-sectional study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sally; Greenfield, Sheila M; Sayeed Haque, M; Martin, Una; Gill, Paramjit S; Mant, Jonathan; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Heer, Gurdip; Johal, Amanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Schwartz, Claire; McManus, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambulatory and/or home monitoring are recommended in the UK and the US for the diagnosis of hypertension but little is known about their acceptability. Aim To determine the acceptability of different methods of measuring blood pressure to people from different minority ethnic groups. Design and setting Cross-sectional study with focus groups in primary care in the West Midlands. Method People of different ethnicities with and without hypertension were assessed for acceptability of clinic, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using completion rate, questionnaire, and focus groups. Results A total of 770 participants were included, who were white British (n = 300), South Asian (n = 241), and African Caribbean (n = 229). White British participants had significantly higher successful completion rates across all monitoring modalities compared with the other ethnic groups, especially for ambulatory monitoring: white British (n = 277, 92% [95% confidence interval [CI] = 89% to 95%]) versus South Asian (n = 171, 71% [95% CI = 65% to 76%], P<0.001) and African Caribbean (n = 188, 82% [95% CI = 77% to 87%], P<0.001), respectively. There were significantly lower acceptability scores for minority ethnic participants across all monitoring methods compared with white British participants. Focus group results highlighted self-monitoring as most acceptable and ambulatory monitoring least acceptable without consistent differences by ethnicity. Clinic monitoring was seen as inconvenient and anxiety provoking but with the advantage of immediate professional input. Conclusion Reduced acceptability and completion rates among minority ethnic groups raise important questions for the implementation and interpretation of blood pressure monitoring. Selection of method of blood pressure monitoring should take into account clinical need, patient preference, and potential cultural barriers to monitoring. PMID:27266860

  6. Association of Bisphenol A Exposure With Hypertension and Early Macrovascular Diseases in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiange; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Li, Mian; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Weiqing; Lai, Shenghan; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes in previous observational studies. We aimed to examine the relationships of urinary BPA levels with hypertension and early macrovascular diseases.This is a cross-sectional study. From June through August 2009, 3246 participants ages 40 years or older were enrolled from Baoshan District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression modes were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent risk of hypertension, elevated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), arterial stiffness, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) with multivariable adjustment. We also performed stratification analysis by age and sex.The median (interquartile range) for BPA was 0.81 (0.48, 1.45) ng/mL, which is notably lower than previously reported in the United States and other Western countries. Urinary BPA concentrations were negatively associated with hypertension (multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest BPA quartile = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46, 0.80), elevated CIMT (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.87), and arterial stiffness (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.87). The corresponding OR for PAD (60 cases total) was not significant (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.28, 2.80). The negative associations of BPA with hypertension, elevated CIMT, and arterial stiffness were consistent by age and sex stratifications, and were stronger among participants ≥60 versus <60 years of age, and among women than men.In contrast with previous investigations, our study suggests negative associations of BPA exposure with hypertension and early macrovascular diseases among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Future investigations are needed to draw more definite conclusions and generalize to other populations. PMID:26512580

  7. Exploring motivations to seek and undergo prosthodontic care: a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Antonio Hélio; e Silva, Donizete Castro; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influence of individual and social factors regarding intentions and behaviors related to prosthodontic treatment, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 225 individuals with some degree of tooth loss. A questionnaire was used containing factors that would have potential influence on the intentions and behaviors of individuals, as well as clinical and sociodemographic data. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency analysis, chi-square test for trend, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The TPB components – attitude toward the behavior (ATB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) – showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.60–0.78). Intention and behavior were associated with TPB components and the overall scale. Similarly, positive intentions and behaviors were associated with age, upper tooth loss, anterior tooth loss, and higher social status. Multiple logistic regression showed that intention was associated with PBC (OR =1.57; P<0.016), while behavior was associated with tooth loss in both arches (OR =9.3; P<0.001), anterior tooth loss (OR =5.13; P<0.001), higher social status (OR =3.06; P<0.03), and PBC (OR =1.38; P=0.03). The presence of anterior tooth loss was the most relevant factor for prosthodontic treatment demand and utilization, while socioeconomic status and an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty in undergoing treatment played a significant, but secondary, role in behavior toward prosthodontic care. PMID:26124647

  8. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  9. Effects of bone-specific physical activity, gender and maturity on tibial cross-sectional bone material distribution: a cross-sectional pQCT comparison of children and young adults aged 5-29 years.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Weeks, Benjamin K; Nogueira, Rossana C; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-03-01

    Growth is the opportune time to modify bone accrual. While bone adaptation is known to be dependent on local loading and consequent deformations (strain) of bone, little is known about the effects of sex, and bone-specific physical activity on location-specific cross-sectional bone geometry during growth. To provide more insight we examined bone traits at different locations around tibial cross sections, and along the tibia between individuals who vary in terms of physical activity exposure, sex, and pubertal status. Data from 304 individuals aged 5-29 years (172 males, 132 females) were examined. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied at 4%, 14%, 38%, and 66% of tibial length. Maturity was established by estimating age at peak height velocity (APHV). Loading history was quantified with the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ). Comparisons, adjusted for height, weight and age were made between sex, maturity, and BPAQ tertile groups. Few to no differences were observed between sexes or BPAQ tertiles prior to APHV, whereas marked sexual dimorphism and differences between BPAQ tertiles were observed after APHV. Cross-sectional location-specific differences between BPAQ tertiles were not evident prior to APHV, whereas clear location-specificity was observed after APHV. In conclusion, the skeletal benefits of physical activity are location-specific in the tibia. The present results indicate that the peri- or post-pubertal period is likely a more favourable window of opportunity for enhancing cross-sectional bone geometry than pre-puberty. Increased loading during the peri-pubertal period may enhance the bone of both sexes.

  10. Which health care facilities do adult malawian antiretroviral therapy patients utilize during intercurrent illness? a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic populations have expanded enormously in the successful Malawi ART scale-up programme. Overcrowding, long waiting times and living far away from the clinic may affect the extent to which patients use their ART clinic for intercurrent illnesses. Methods We interviewed patients of a large urban ART clinic in Blantyre, Malawi, during routine visits about the choice of health care facility during recent illness episodes. Results Out of 346 enrolled adults, mean age 39.8 (range 18-70) years, 54.3% female, 202 (58%) reported one or more illness in the past 6 months, during which 85 (42.1%; 95%-confidence interval: 36.9-47.3%) did not utilize their own clinic. Long distance to the clinic was the main subjective reason, while low education attainment, rural residence, perceived mild illness and dissatisfaction with the ART service were associated with not using their own clinic in multivariate analyses. Of all participants, 83.6% were satisfied with the service provided; only 6.1% were aware of the full service package of the ART clinic. Conclusions ART patients often seek health care outside their own clinic, which may have detrimental effects, and has consequences for ART counseling content and reporting of ART information in health passports. PMID:22189056

  11. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  12. Management of Adult Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia in Japan: Patient and Hematologist Perspectives from a Multi-center Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Tsukune, Yutaka; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the perspective of hematologists and their patients regarding the management of adult chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods This was a multi-center, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted between 2012 and 2013 throughout Japan. Patients Hematologists, members of the Japanese Society of Hematology in 171 institutions, and their patients were invited to participate in this study. The hematologists were mainly asked about their treatment strategies, while patients were asked about their opinion of the applied treatments, treatment effect, impact on their quality of life (QOL), and treatment satisfaction. Results Questionnaires from 204 hematologists and 213 patients were collected. One hundred sixty hematologists (78.4%) started treatment based on the patient's platelet count. Corticosteroids were considered to be the most effective treatment (44.1%). Forty-six percent of hematologists responded that treatment would be started after the platelet count fell below 20×10(9)/L with bleeding symptoms, compared to 62.9% for patients with no bleeding symptoms. A platelet count of 50×10(9)/L or lower was acceptable for 94.0% of hematologists and 66.8% of patients. Fatigue was most frequently experienced by patients (44.6%). Patients also experienced psychological symptoms (feeling of anxiety or depressive mood: 29.1%, labyrinthitis: 23.5%). While 70.6% of hematologists assumed that the patient QOL was impaired to a moderate to substantial degree, the QOL was impaired in 34.3% of patients. Conclusion A substantial gap which exists between hematologists and their patients highlights a need for better understanding of potential conflicts for establishing effective strategies for ITP management. PMID:27580537

  13. Exploration of risk taking behaviors and perceived susceptibility of colorectal cancer among Malaysian adults: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived susceptibility to an illness has been shown to affect Health-risk behavior. The objective of the present study was to determine the risk taking behaviors and the demographic predictors of perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a population-based sample. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 305 Malaysian adults in six major districts, selected from urban, semi-urban, and rural settings in one state in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study. It was comprised of socio-demographics, risk-taking behaviors, and validated domains of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Results The mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 34.5 (± 9.6) and the majority (59.0%) of them were 30 years or older. Almost 20.7% of the respondents felt they were susceptible to colorectal cancer. Self-reported perceived susceptibility mirrored unsatisfactory screening behaviors owing to the lack of doctors’ recommendation, ignorance of screening modalities, procrastination, and the perception that screening was unnecessary. Factors significantly associated with perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer were gender (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.3), age (OR = 2. 2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0), ethnicity (OR = 0. 3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 3. 2, 95% CI 1.4-7.4) and alcohol intake (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.5). Conclusion The present study revealed that screening behavior among respondents was unsatisfactory. Hence, awareness of the importance of screening to prevent colorectal cancers is imperative. PMID:24093502

  14. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  15. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  16. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  17. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  18. Assessing the Quality of Care for Pneumonia in Integrated Community Case Management: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinyangwe, Chomba; Graham, Kirstie; Nicholas, Sarala; King, Rebecca; Mukupa, Samuel; Källander, Karin; Counihan, Helen; Montague, Mark; Tibenderana, James; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children under five worldwide. Community-level interventions, such as integrated community case management, have great potential to reduce the burden of pneumonia, as well as other diseases, especially in remote populations. However, there are still questions as to whether community health workers (CHW) are able to accurately assess symptoms of pneumonia and prescribe appropriate treatment. This research addresses limitations of previous studies using innovative methodology to assess the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement by CHWs and provides new evidence on the quality of care given for children with symptoms of pneumonia. It is one of few that assesses CHW performance in their usual setting, with independent re-examination by experts, following a considerable period of time post-training of CHWs. Methods In this cross-sectional mixed methods study, 1,497 CHW consultations, conducted by 90 CHWs in two districts of Luapula province, Zambia, were directly observed, with measurement of respiratory rate for children with suspected pneumonia recorded by video. Using the video footage, a retrospective reference standard assessment of respiratory rate was conducted by experts. Counts taken by CHWs were compared against the reference standard and appropriateness of the treatment prescribed by CHWs was assessed. To supplement observational findings, three focus group discussions and nine in depth interviews with CHWs were conducted. Results and Conclusion The findings support existing literature that CHWs are capable of measuring respiratory rates and providing appropriate treatment, with 81% and 78% agreement, respectively, between CHWs and experts. Accuracy in diagnosis could be strengthened through further training and the development of improved diagnostic tools appropriate for resource-poor settings. PMID:27011331

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  20. Transformation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes using a micro-cross section method in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward).

    PubMed

    Kim, Misun; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Song, Kwan Jeong; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, In-Jung; Song, Eun-Young; Chun, Seung-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (MCS) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). The introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), β-carotene hydroxylase (CHX), and phytoene synthase (PSY). The transformed explants were selected on half-strength MS medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeatin, either 5 mg l(-1) hygromycin or 25 mg l(-1) kanamycin, and 500 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. The genomic PCR, genomic Southern blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed to confirm the integration and expression of the transgenes. The transformation efficiencies of either kanamycin- or hygromycin-resistant shoots ranged from 2.9 to 22.1% depending on the target genes, and from 2.9 to 24.2% depending on the reporter genes. The selection efficiencies ranged from 66.7 to 100% for the target genes and from 95.8 to 100% for the reporter genes. Changes of carotenoid content in the several PCR-positive plants were determined by UPLC analysis. As a result, transgenic plants expressing either GGPS or PSY increased about 1.2- to 1.3-fold in lutein or β-carotene content compared to non-transgenic plants. Our results suggest that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of kiwifruit can be greatly increased by this MCS method and that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway can be modified in kiwifruit by genetic transformation. Our results further suggest that GGPS and PSY genes could be major target genes to increase carotenoid contents in kiwifruit.

  1. The Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for Fully Compressible Two-Phase Flows in Ducts of Spatially Varying Cross-Section

    SciTech Connect

    Ray A. Berry; Richard Saurel; Tamara Grimmett

    2009-07-01

    Typically, multiphase modeling begins with an averaged (or homogenized) system of partial differential equations (traditionally ill-posed) then discretizes this system to form a numerical scheme. Assuming that the ill-posedness problem is avoided by using a well-posed formulation such as the seven-equation model, this presents problems for the numerical approximation of non-conservative terms at discontinuities (interfaces, shocks) as well as unwieldy treatment of fluxes with seven waves. To solve interface problems without conservation errors and to avoid this questionable determination of average variables and the numerical approximation of the non-conservative terms associated with 2 velocity mixture flows we employ a new homogenization method known as the Discrete Equations Method (DEM). Contrary to conventional methods, the averaged equations for the mixture are not used, and this method directly obtains a (well-posed) discrete equation system from the single-phase system to produce a numerical scheme which accurately computes fluxes for arbitrary numbers of phases and solves non-conservative products. The method effectively uses a sequence of single phase Riemann equation solves. Phase interactions are accounted for by Riemann solvers at each interface. Flow topology can change with changing expressions for the fluxes. Non-conservative terms are correctly approximated. Some of the closure relations missing from the traditional approach are automatically obtained. Lastly, we can often times identify the continuous equation system, resulting from taking the continuous limit with weak wave assumptions, of the discrete equations. This can be very useful from a theoretical standpoint. As a first step toward implict integration of the DEM method in multidimensions, in this paper we construct a DEM model for the flow of two compressible phases in 1-D ducts of spatially varying cross-section to test this approach. To relieve time step size restrictions due to

  2. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  3. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.

  4. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  5. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  6. DDT and its metabolites are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Saudi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Othman, AbdulAziz A; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide including many Arab Gulf countries. According to a community-based national epidemiological health survey, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Saudi adults (age group of 30-50 years) is 23.7%. A recent study by Al-Daghri et al. (BMC Med 9:76, 2011) reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is 31.6%. We investigated the associations between OC pesticides and type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia using a simple, sensitive, rapid, and selective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method that has been recently developed. A total of 280 Saudi adults (136 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and 144 non-DM controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on established diagnosis and medications taken. Blood dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were quantified using GC-MS. Residues of DDT and its derivatives were analyzed in serum by means of gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. Associations between DDT exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. DDT and its derivatives and serum concentrations of DDT and its derivative DDE showed the strongest and most significant association to type 2 diabetes in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Associations of DDT and its derivatives varied across different diabetes-related components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four of the five of these components especially elevated triacylglycerol, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL. Possible biological mechanisms are discussed. This study

  7. Absolute cascade-free cross-sections for the 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged-beams methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute cascade-free excitation cross-sections in an ion have been measured for the resonance 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged electron-ion beams methods. Measurements were carried out at electron energies of below threshold to 6 times threshold. Comparisons are made with 2-, 5-, and 15-state close-coupling and distorted-wave theories. There is good agreement between experiment and the 15-state close-coupling cross-sections over the energy range of the calculations.

  8. Sports Facilities, Shopping Centers or Homes: What Locations are Important for Adults' Physical Activity? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin

    2016-03-04

    Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA.

  9. Social Network and Mental Health Among Older Adults in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lucky; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of the older population in India draws attention to the factors that contribute to their changing health realities. However, there has hardly been any study in India that has looked at the effects of specific social networks with children, relatives, friends and confidant on depression among older adults. The objective of the study is to investigate the association between social network and depression among the rural elderly. The study population comprised over 630 older adults (aged 60 and above) from the rural areas of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. We adopted Berkman's theoretical model of the impact of social relations on depression among the elderly in the Indian context. Results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the four specific social network types: children, relatives, friends and confidant were tenable. The results showed that a better social network with 'friends/neighbours' was protective against depression among the rural elderly. This clearly points to the need for more social network centres for older adults, so that they can interact with friends within the community or between communities and participate in group activities. PMID:26879450

  10. Social Network and Mental Health Among Older Adults in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lucky; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of the older population in India draws attention to the factors that contribute to their changing health realities. However, there has hardly been any study in India that has looked at the effects of specific social networks with children, relatives, friends and confidant on depression among older adults. The objective of the study is to investigate the association between social network and depression among the rural elderly. The study population comprised over 630 older adults (aged 60 and above) from the rural areas of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. We adopted Berkman's theoretical model of the impact of social relations on depression among the elderly in the Indian context. Results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the four specific social network types: children, relatives, friends and confidant were tenable. The results showed that a better social network with 'friends/neighbours' was protective against depression among the rural elderly. This clearly points to the need for more social network centres for older adults, so that they can interact with friends within the community or between communities and participate in group activities.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Physical Activity with Depression and Cognitive Deficit in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulo T, R S; Tribess, Sheilla; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Meneguci, Joilson; Martins, Cristiane A; Freitas, Ismael F; Romo-Perez, Vicente; Virtuoso, Jair S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/ week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.

  12. Is there an association between seeing incidents of alcohol or drug use in films and young Scottish adults' own alcohol or drug use? A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As the promotion of alcohol and tobacco to young people through direct advertising has become increasingly restricted, there has been greater interest in whether images of certain behaviours in films are associated with uptake of those behaviours in young people. Associations have been reported between exposure to smoking images in films and smoking initiation, and between exposure to film alcohol images and initiation of alcohol consumption, in younger adolescents in the USA and Germany. To date no studies have reported on film images of recreational drug use and young people's own drug use. Methods Cross sectional multivariable logistic regression analysis of data collected at age 19 (2002-4) from a cohort of young people (502 boys, 500 girls) previously surveyed at ages 11 (in 1994-5), 13 and 15 in schools in the West of Scotland. Outcome measures at age 19 were: exceeding the 'sensible drinking' guidelines ('heavy drinkers') and binge drinking (based on alcohol consumption reported in last week), and ever use of cannabis and of 'hard' drugs. The principle predictor variables were an estimate of exposure to images of alcohol, and of drug use, in films, controlling for factors related to the uptake of substance use in young people. Results A third of these young adults (33%) were classed as 'heavy drinkers' and half (47%) as 'binge drinkers' on the basis of their previous week's consumption. Over half (56%) reported ever use of cannabis and 13% ever use of one or more of the 'hard' drugs listed. There were linear trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers (p = .018) and binge drinkers (p = 0.012) by film alcohol exposure quartiles, and for ever use of cannabis by film drug exposure (p = .000), and for ever use of 'hard' drugs (p = .033). The odds ratios for heavy drinking (1.56, 95% CI 1.06-2.29 comparing highest with lowest quartile of film alcohol exposure) and binge drinking (1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.30) were attenuated by adjustment for gender, social

  13. Do adult obesity rates in England vary by insecurity as well as by inequality? An ecological cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Geographical variations in adult obesity rates have been attributed in part to variations in social and economic inequalities. Insecurity is associated with obesity at the cross-national level, but there is little empirical evidence to show that insecurity contributes to the structuring of adult obesity rates at the subnational level. This is examined in this study across local authorities in England, using a recently developed social classification for the British population. Setting Modelled obesity rates from the Health Survey for England 2006–2008 were related to social class (as estimated from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey of 2011 and a nationally representative sample survey), across 320 local authorities in England. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparisons of mean obesity rates across Z score categories for seven latent social classes were carried out using one-way analysis of variance. Pooled ordinary least square regression analyses of obesity rates by local authorities according to the proportion of different social classes within each of them were performed to determine the extent of geographical variations in obesity rates among the classes that were more greatly based on insecurity (emergent service workers, precariat), and those more closely based on inequality (elite, established middle class, technical middle class, new affluent workers, traditional working class). Results Adult obesity rates vary negatively across local authorities according to the proportion of people in the elite (F=39.06, p<0.001) and technical middle class (F=8.10, p<0.001) and positively with respect to the proportion of people of the established middle class (F=26.36, p<0.001), new affluent workers (F=73.03, p<0.001), traditional working class (F=23.00, p<0.001) and precariat (F=13.13, p<0.001). Social classes more closely based on inequality show greater association with adult obesity rates across local authorities than social classes more

  14. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  15. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2008-09-01

    The use of mobile phone telecommunication has increased in recent years. In parallel, there is growing concern about possible adverse health effects of cellular phone networks. We used personal dosimetry to investigate the association between exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults. A random population-based sample of 329 adults living in four different Bavarian towns was assembled for the study. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 s, limit of determination 0.05 V/m). Exposure levels over waking hours were totalled and expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Each participant reported acute symptoms in a day-long diary. Data on five groups of chronic symptoms and potential confounders were assessed during an interview. The overall exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields was markedly below the ICNIRP reference level. We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney test) and MIP (p<0.01, t-test). The groups did not differ during rest and inspiration at LTC, regarding sEMG amplitude and POC%. DA was significantly lower in the MB group at TV (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney) and TLC (p=0.03, t-test). Mouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  17. Content validation of algorithms to guide negative pressure wound therapy in adults with acute or chronic wounds:a cross-sectional study .

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; van Rijswijk, Lia

    2012-09-01

    Despite extensive use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and reported patient safety concerns, evidence-based algorithms to guide its safe and appropriate use in various wounds have only recently been developed. Preliminary content validity was established using literature review and expert-based face validity with a small sample of experts (N = 12). To examine the content validity of this set of three NPWT algorithms and to enhance understanding about previously identified wound terminology issues, a cross-sectional, mixed-methods, quantitative study was conducted among wound experts. The paper/pencil survey instrument consisted of the algorithms, a demographic questionnaire, and request to provide definitions of five commonly used terms: acute wound, chronic wound, and primary, secondary, and tertiary intention healing. A Likert scale (range 1 to 4) was included to rate the relevance of each of the 34 unique steps/statements/decision points contained in the algorithms, and space was provided to comment on each component. Convenience-sampling methods were used in three different settings: an international professional wound care meeting; a regional wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurses meeting; and an urban university with a suburban satellite campus. Of the 190 wound care experts invited to participate, 114 accepted. Participants' average age was 48 (range 23 to 68) years, and most were registered nurses (72%) practicing in the United States (94%). The content validity of the NPWT components was strong, with an overall mean rating of 3.76 (SD = 0.56, range 3.49 to 3.92; very relevant/appropriate, relevant/appropriate). The overall content validity index for the 5,696 responses received was 0.96 (range 0.88 to 1.0). Qualitative themes included comments about wound terminology and definitions, the presentation of the central algorithm, reading level, helpfulness/ease of use, the use of color, and information placement in the algorithm document. Some

  18. Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Purohit, Vidula; Kudale, Abhay; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare sociocultural features of pandemic influenza with reference to illness-related experience, meaning and behaviour in urban and rural areas of India. Design Cross-sectional, mixed-methods, cultural epidemiological survey with vignette-based interviews. Semistructured explanatory model interviews were used to study community ideas of the 2009 influenza pandemic. In-depth interviews elaborated respondents’ experience during the pandemic. Setting Urban and rural communities, Pune district, western India. Participants Survey of urban (n=215) and rural (n=221) residents aged between 18 and 65 years. In-depth interviews of respondents with a history of 2009 pandemic influenza (n=6). Results More urban (36.7%) than rural respondents (16.3%, p<0.001) identified the illness in the vignette as ‘swine flu’. Over half (56.7%) believed the illness would be fatal without treatment, but with treatment 96% predicted full recovery. Worry (‘tension’) about the illness was reported as more troubling than somatic symptoms. The most common perceived causes—‘exposure to a dirty environment’ and ‘cough or sneeze of an infected person’–were more prominent in the urban group. Among rural respondents, climatic conditions, drinking contaminated water, tension and cultural ideas on humoral imbalance from heat-producing or cold-producing foods were more prominent. The most widely reported home treatment was herbal remedies; more rural respondents suggested reliance on prayer, and symptom relief was more of a priority for urban respondents. Government health services were preferred in the urban communities, and rural residents relied more than urban residents on private facilities. The important preventive measures emphasised were cleanliness, wholesome lifestyle and vaccines, and more urban respondents reported the use of masks. In-depth interviews indicated treatment delays during the 2009 pandemic, especially among rural patients

  19. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  20. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  1. Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-01

    Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

  2. Traditional Masculinity as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Evidence from a Study of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional masculinity is hypothesized to be associated with suicidal ideation, and traditional masculinity is predicted to interact with stressors, intensifying suicidal ideation. Cross-sectional and prospective data from a study of 2,431 young adults was analyzed using hierarchical regression main effects and interaction models. Traditional masculinity was associated with suicidal ideation, second only in strength to depression, including when controlling for other risk factors. Prospective effects were substantially weaker. There was mixed evidence for traditional masculinity by stress interactions. The results provide preliminary support for the role of traditional masculinity in suicidal ideation, but the relationship should be tested in studies of suicide attempts and mortality. Implications for prevention and intervention are explored.

  3. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors.

  4. Cross-sectional study of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two rural public primary healthcare facilities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ooi, C P; Loke, S C; Zaiton, A; Tengku-Aizan, H; Zaitun, Y

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is indispensible for improvement of their care. A cross-sectional study in two rural public primary healthcare centres in Malaysia identified 170 actively engaged older patients with T2DM, with suboptimal glycaemic control and frequent hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of multiple co-morbidities, complications of T2DM, high cardiovascular risk, neurological, musculoskeletal and visual deficits suggested high risk of disabilities and dependency but not yet disabled. This short window for interventions presents as an opportunity for development of a more comprehensive approach extending beyond glycaemia control to risk management, preventing functional loss and continuity of social participation.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Parathyroid Hormone and Other Biomarkers in Community-Dwelling Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Lynda E.; Hurley, Daniel L.; Gross, Myron D.; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Most association studies of bone-related biomarkers (BBMs) with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conducted in postmenopausal women. Objective: We tested whether the following BBMs were cross-sectionally associated with BMD among young adults: serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), PTH, osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine. Setting and Participants: We studied 319 individuals (134 women, 149 black, 24–36 years) recruited during 1992 through 1993 in Oakland, California. BMD was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression models estimated the association between BMD and each BBM. Results: 1,25(OH)2D was inversely associated with all BMDs. 25OHD was positively, and PTH inversely, associated with lumbar spine, total hip, and whole-body BMD. BAP was inversely associated with left arm, right arm, and whole-body BMD but not with spine or hip BMD. Neither osteocalcin nor urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine was associated with BMD. When we placed all BBMs (including 1,25(OH)2D) in one model, the pattern and magnitude of association was similar except for PTH, which was attenuated. The association of BMD and BBMs did not differ significantly by race or sex. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study of healthy young men and women who had PTH levels considered normal in clinical practice, higher PTH was associated with lower BMD, particularly in weight-bearing sites (ie, spine and hip). The inverse association of 1,25(OH)2D, together with the attenuation of PTH, suggests that the observed association of PTH is mediated by 1,25(OH)2D. BAP was inversely associated with arm BMD. BBMs can be important markers of skeletal activity in young adults, but their clinical role on bone health among this population is yet to be fully determined. PMID:23966240

  6. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study on Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Lampe, Fiona C; Miltz, Ada; Gilson, Richard; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka; Scott, Christopher; Day, Sara; Clarke, Amanda; Anderson, Jane; O'Connell, Rebecca; Apea, Vanessa; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Gompels, Mark; Farazmand, Paymaneh; Allan, Sris; Mann, Susan; Dhar, Jyoti; Tang, Alan; Sadiq, S Tariq; Taylor, Stephen; Collins, Simon; Sherr, Lorraine; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Miners, Alec; Elford, Jonathan; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. Objective The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. Results Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. Conclusions The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population. PMID:27091769

  8. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Method Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81–110.15 mg/day, 110.16–146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. Result The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54–0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72–1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53–0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. Conclusion There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population. PMID:26824361

  9. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  10. Renal Function Impairment and Associated Factors among HAART Naïve and Experienced Adult HIV Positive Individuals in Southwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mekuria, Yewulsew; Yilma, Daniel; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment cause renal diseases. Renal disease is associated with an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive individuals than in the general population. It has been also associated with adverse outcomes, such as complications of decreased renal functions and progression to renal failure. Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with renal function impairment among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) naive and HAART experienced adult HIV positive individuals. Methods A facility based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) from June to September 2014. HIV positive individuals who visited JUSH during the study period were included in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was analyzed for renal function tests. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Results A total of 446 HIV positive individuals, 223 HAART naïve and 223 HAART experienced, were recruited. The overall prevalence of renal function impairment was 18.2% [95%CI: 14.6–21.7]. The prevalence of renal impairment in HAART naive and HAART experienced persons was 28.7% [95%CI: 23.1–34.4] and 7.6% [95%CI: 4.6–11.6], respectively. Age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.4, 9.6), advanced WHO stage (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.1, 4.7), and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 6.9; 95% CI 3.3, 14.2) were independent risk factors among HAART naive participants. Female gender (AOR = 6.6; 95 CI % 1.2, 34), age ≥ 50 years (AOR = 12.1; 95% CI 1.7, 84) and CD4 count <200 (AOR = 17; 95% CI 5.2, 58) were independent risk factors among HAART experienced participants. Conclusion The prevalence of renal function impairment was higher among HAART naïve than HAART experienced HIV positive individuals. Renal function impairment was

  11. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in Morocco and its correlates: cross-sectional analysis of a sample of the adult Moroccan population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary habits in Morocco are changing and the causes are not well understood. This study aimed to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) in a national random sample of the adult Moroccan population. Methods The data collected in this cross-sectional survey included socio-demographic factors and a food frequency questionnaire. MeDi adherence was assessed in 2214 individuals with complete dietary data. MeDi adherence was measured according to a simplified MeDi score based on the weekly frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and olive oil) with the use of the sex specific medians of the sample as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MeDi adherence (low score 1-4 vs. high 5-8) and other factors. Results Mean age of the sample was 41.4 (standard deviation 15.3) years, 45.4% were men and 29.9% had a low MeDi adherence. Married subjects (adjusted odds ratio ORa=0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84) were less likely to have a low MeDi adherence compared to single, divorced or widowed persons. Persons from rural areas (ORa=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02-2.08), were more often low MeDi adherents compared to those from urban areas. Obese persons (ORa=1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11) were more prone to low MeDi adherence than normal weight individuals. Conclusion MeDi is far from being a universal pattern in the Moroccan population. Intervention strategies should be implemented in target groups to maintain the traditional MeDi pattern considered as the original diet in Morocco. PMID:22578133

  12. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  13. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  14. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective.

  15. Gamma ray production cross section from energetic neutron inelastic scattering for methodical improvements in planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, C.M.; Gearhart, R.; Sanii, B.; Englert, P.A.J.; Drake, D.M.; Reedy, R.C.

    1991-12-31

    Planetary Gamma ray spectroscopy can be used to chemically analyze the top soil from planets in future planetary missions. The production from inelastic neutron interaction plays an effective role in the determination on the C and H at the surface. The gamma ray production cross section from the strongest lines excited in the neutron bombardment of Fe have been measured by the use of a time analyzed quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam and a high purity germanium detector. The results from En=6.5, 32, 43, and 65 MeV are presented.

  16. Reformulation of the modal method based on Gegenbauer polynomial expansion for cylindrical structures with arbitrary cross sections.

    PubMed

    Edee, Kofi; Abboud, Mira; Granet, Gérard; Cornet, Jean Francois; Dauchet, Jéremi

    2014-10-01

    The work presented here focuses on the numerical modeling of cylindrical structure eigenmodes with an arbitrary cross section using Gegenbauer polynomials. The new eigenvalue equation leads to considerable reduction in computation time compared to the previous formulation. The main idea of this new formulation involves considering that the numerical scheme can be partially separated into two independent parts and the size of the eigenvalue matrix equation may be reduced by a factor of 2. We show that the ratio of the computation times between the first and current versions follows a linear relation with respect to the number of polynomials. PMID:25401241

  17. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  18. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and

  19. An examination of the association between seeing smoking in films and tobacco use in young adults in the west of Scotland: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002–04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994–95) were conducted. The main outcome measure is smoking at age 19. No association was found between the number of occurrences of smoking estimated to have been seen in films (film smoking exposure) and current (or ever) smoking in young adults. This lack of association was unaffected by adjustment for predictors of smoking, including education, risk-taking orientation and smoking among peers. There was no association between film smoking exposure and smoking behaviour for any covariate-defined subgroup. Associations have been found between film smoking exposure and smoking initiation in younger adolescents in the United States. In this study, conducted in Scotland, no similar association was seen, suggesting that there may be age or cultural limitations on the effects of film smoking exposure on smoking. The lack of association could be due to methodological issues or greater sophistication of older adolescents and young adults in interpreting media images or the greater ubiquity of real-life smoking instances in Scotland. If the latter, film smoking exposure could become a more important risk factor for smoking uptake and maintenants in older adolescents following the recent ban on smoking in public places in Scotland. PMID:18203682

  20. An examination of the association between seeing smoking in films and tobacco use in young adults in the west of Scotland: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah

    2009-02-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were conducted. The main outcome measure is smoking at age 19. No association was found between the number of occurrences of smoking estimated to have been seen in films (film smoking exposure) and current (or ever) smoking in young adults. This lack of association was unaffected by adjustment for predictors of smoking, including education, risk-taking orientation and smoking among peers. There was no association between film smoking exposure and smoking behaviour for any covariate-defined subgroup. Associations have been found between film smoking exposure and smoking initiation in younger adolescents in the United States. In this study, conducted in Scotland, no similar association was seen, suggesting that there may be age or cultural limitations on the effects of film smoking exposure on smoking. The lack of association could be due to methodological issues or greater sophistication of older adolescents and young adults in interpreting media images or the greater ubiquity of real-life smoking instances in Scotland. If the latter, film smoking exposure could become a more important risk factor for smoking uptake and maintenants in older adolescents following the recent ban on smoking in public places in Scotland.

  1. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  2. Mortality from adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients at four hospitals in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Johannes P; Mehta, Ushma; Parrish, Andy G; Wilson, Douglas P K; Stewart, Annemie; Njuguna, Christine W; Kramer, Nicole; Maartens, Gary; Blockman, Marc; Cohen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aims Fatal adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important causes of death, but data from resource-limited settings are scarce. We determined the proportion of deaths in South African medical inpatients attributable to ADRs, and their preventability, stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Methods We reviewed the folders of all patients who died over a 30 day period in the medical wards of four hospitals. We identified ADR-related deaths (deaths where an ADR was ‘possible’, ‘probable’ or ‘certain’ using WHO-UMC criteria and where the ADR contributed to death). We determined preventability according to previously published criteria. Results ADRs contributed to the death of 2.9% of medical admissions and 56 of 357 deaths (16%) were ADR-related. Tenofovir, rifampicin and co-trimoxazole were the most commonly implicated drugs. 43% of ADRs were considered preventable. The following factors were independently associated with ADR-related death: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 12), exposure to more than seven drugs (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3, 4.8) and increasing comorbidity score (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1, 1.7). Conclusions In our setting, where HIV and tuberculosis are highly prevalent, fatal in-hospital ADRs were more common than reported in high income settings. Most deaths were attributed to drugs used in managing HIV and tuberculosis. A large proportion of the ADRs were preventable, highlighting the need to strengthen systems for health care worker training and support. PMID:25475751

  3. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasdottir, Margret Olafia; Sigurdsson, Johann Agust; Petursson, Halfdan; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Krokstad, Steinar; McEwen, Bruce; Hetlevik, Irene; Getz, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood. Materials and Methods We included 37 612 participants, 30–69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006–8). Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from ‘very good’ to ‘very difficult’. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups. Results Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a ‘good’ or ‘very good’ childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% ‘difficult’ and 0.8% ‘very difficult’. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63–7.11). Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension) showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups. Conclusions We found a general, graded association between self

  4. Seroprevalence for Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Austrian adults: a cross-sectional survey among military personnel and civilians.

    PubMed

    Tobudic, Selma; Nedomansky, Klara; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Müller, Maria; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Allerberger, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis infections in Austria and the exposure risk of military personnel were assessed in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy adult individuals, 222 of which were soldiers and 304 were civilians. Screening for IgA/IgG antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase I) and IgG/IgM antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase II), and to F. tularensis was done with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, an in-house complement fixation test was used. Overall, 11 individuals (2.0%) showed antibodies to C. burnetii, 3 individuals (0.5%) were seropositive for F. tularensis, and one (0.3%) individual was borderline positive. All individuals positive or borderline for F. tularensis tested negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. All individuals tested negative for antibodies against B. melitensis/B. abortus. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of C. burnetii and F. tularensis among military personnel and civilians. Our data demonstrate serological evidence of a low rate of exposure to C. burnetii and F. tularensis among the Austrian adult population and military personnel.

  5. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  6. Calculation of state-to-state cross sections for triatomic reaction by the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Dong-H.; Sun, Zhigang; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2014-04-28

    A framework for quantum state-to-state integral and differential cross sections of triatomic reactive scattering using the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method is introduced, where a modified version of the Heidelberg MCTDH package is applied. Parity of the system is adopted using only non-negative helicity quantum numbers, which reduces the basis set size of the single particle functions in angular degree of freedom almost by half. The initial wave packet is constructed in the space-fixed frame, which can accurately account for the centrifugal potential. By using the reactant-coordinate-based method, the product state-resolved information can be accurately extracted. Test calculations are presented for the H + H{sub 2} reactive scattering. This work demonstrates the capability of the MCTDH method for extracting accurate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections. As an efficient scheme for high-dimensional problems, the MCTDH method may be promising for the study of product state-resolved cross sections for polyatomic reactive systems.

  7. Light Intensity Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Body Mass Index and Grip Strength in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hire, Don; Manini, Todd; Cooper, Rachel; Botoseneanu, Anda; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Glynn, Nancy W.; Fielding, Roger; King, Abby C.; Church, Timothy; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Gill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time—assessed both objectively and by self-report—with body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in a large sample of older adults. Methods We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years) at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity activity were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3–7 days (Actigraph GT3X) and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression. Results Greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity activity. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light activity (assessed objectively) was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary activities with light intensity activities could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity

  8. Bereavement by suicide as a risk factor for suicide attempt: a cross-sectional national UK-wide study of 3432 young bereaved adults

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, David P J; Rantell, Khadija; King, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives US and UK suicide prevention strategies suggest that bereavement by the suicide of a relative or friend is a risk factor for suicide. However, evidence is lacking that the risk exceeds that of any sudden bereavement, is specific to suicide, or applies to peer suicide. We conducted the first controlled UK-wide study to test the hypothesis that young adults bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt compared with young adults bereaved by other sudden deaths. Design National cross-sectional study. Setting Staff and students at 37 UK higher educational institutions in 2010. Participants 3432 eligible respondents aged 18–40 exposed to sudden bereavement of a friend or relative after the age of 10. Exposures Bereavement by suicide (n=614), by sudden unnatural causes (n=712) and by sudden natural causes (n=2106). Primary outcome measures Incident suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Findings Adults bereaved by suicide had a higher probability of attempting suicide (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.65; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.42; p=0.012) than those bereaved by sudden natural causes. There was no such increased risk in adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes. There were no group differences in probability of suicidal ideation. The effect of suicide bereavement was similar whether bereaved participants were blood-related to the deceased or not. The significant association between bereavement by suicide and suicide attempt became non-significant when adding perceived stigma (AOR=1.11; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.67; p=0.610). When compared with adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes, those bereaved by suicide did not show significant differences in suicide attempt (AOR=1.48; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.33; p=0.089). Conclusions Bereavement by suicide is a specific risk factor for suicide attempt among young bereaved adults, whether related to the deceased or not. Suicide risk assessment of young adults should involve screening for a history of suicide in

  9. Collision cross sectional areas from analysis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance line width: a new method for characterizing molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve.

  10. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10). PMID:20366141

  11. Precise Measurement of the e+e-→π+π-(γ) Cross Section with the Initial State Radiation Method at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Esteve, L.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e+e-→π+π-(γ) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at e+e- center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e+e-→μ+μ-γ(γ). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the ππ cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1±2.2(stat)±3.1(syst))×10-10.

  12. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10).

  13. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  14. Influence of test specimen fabrication method and cross-section configuration on tension-tension fatigue life of PMMA bone cement.

    PubMed

    Sheafi, E M; Tanner, K E

    2015-11-01

    Different cyclic loading modes have been used in in vitro fatigue studies of PMMA bone cement. It is unclear which loading mode is most appropriate from the perspective of the in vivo loading experienced by the cement in a cemented arthroplasty. Also, in different in vitro fatigue studies, different test specimen configurations have been used. The present work considers the influence of test specimen fabrication method (direct moulding vs moulding followed by machining) and cross-section shape (rectangular vs circular) on the tension-tension fatigue performance of two bone cement brands (SmartSet GHV and CMW1), under force control conditions. Two trends were consistent: 1) for each of the cements, for moulded specimens, a longer fatigue life was obtained with circular cross-sectioned specimens and, 2) for either rectangular or circular CMW1 specimens, a longer fatigue life was obtained using machined specimens. A comparison of the present results to those reported in our previous work on fully-reversed tension-compression loading under force control showed that, regardless of the test specimen fabrication method or cross-section configuration used, the fatigue life was considerably shorter under tension-compression than tension-tension loading. This finding highlights the fact that the presence of the compression portion in the loading cycle accelerates fatigue failure.

  15. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Mary Jane L; Del Rosario, Christian V; Diño, Michael Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees' length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n = 107) who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent's length of stay and social connectedness (r = 0.224, p = 0.021, α = 0.05). On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1) Taking-In, (2) Taking-Hold, and (3) Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS) provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals.

  16. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosario, Christian V.; Diño, Michael Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees' length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n = 107) who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent's length of stay and social connectedness (r = 0.224, p = 0.021, α = 0.05). On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1) Taking-In, (2) Taking-Hold, and (3) Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS) provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals. PMID:27563462

  17. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Mary Jane L; Del Rosario, Christian V; Diño, Michael Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees' length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n = 107) who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent's length of stay and social connectedness (r = 0.224, p = 0.021, α = 0.05). On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1) Taking-In, (2) Taking-Hold, and (3) Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS) provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals. PMID:27563462

  18. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health.

  19. The role of individual characteristics and physical frailty on health related quality of life (HRQOL): a cross sectional study of Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and HRQOL, and to identify which components of physical frailty measured according to Fried's criteria provided a better explanation of HRQOL. Two hundred and fifty-nine older adults (age 74±6 years; 69% were women) living in Piemonte Region were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were captured by self-reported questionnaires. Physical frailty was assessed using the five criteria of Fried: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level. HRQOL was measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), using both the mental (MCS) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS). Among individual characteristics, gender was the best predictor for SF-36, the MCS, and the PCS, with values of R(2) of 12.7%, 12.1%, and 8.8%, respectively. Among the five Fried's criteria, poor endurance and energy had the largest effect on HRQOL with values of ΔR(2) of 13.9% for SF-36, 13.4% for the MCS, and 9.4% for the PCS. Results highlighted the role of the individual characteristics and the single weight of the five components of physical frailty on HRQOL. This knowledge may give new insights about the relations between individual functioning and self-rated health, allowing the development of individualized and more effective preventive interventions for a healthy aging.

  20. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Rao, Yunshuang; Shi, Zumin; Liu, Lingli; Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health. PMID:27630771

  1. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health. PMID:27630771

  2. Distinct Relationships of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Fat With Cortical Bone: Findings From a Cross-Sectional Study of Young Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Deere, K.; Sayers, A.; Viljakainen, H. T.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sattar, N.; Kemp, J. P.; Fraser, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intracellular fat within muscle and visceral tissue has been suggested to adversely influence bone development. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate associations between im fat, as reflected by muscle density as measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and cortical bone parameters in young adults. Design/Setting/Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1703 males and 2243 females aged 17.8 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Outcome Measures: We measured cortical bone parameters from midtibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Results: Muscle density (inversely related to im fat) was inversely associated with periosteal circumference (PC) (beta = −0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.1, −0.04]), cortical bone mineral density (BMDC) (beta = −0.21 [95% CI, −0.26, −0.17]), and cortical thickness (CT) (beta = −0.37 [95% CI, −0.42, −0.33]) (males and females combined, adjusted for age, height, gender, and muscle cross-sectional area). In contrast, sc fat area was positively associated with PC (beta = 0.10 [95% CI, 0.07, 0.12]), but no association was seen with BMDC or CT. To examine the role of candidate intermediary metabolic pathways, analyses were repeated after adjustment for insulin, C-reactive protein, and β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen. Whereas similar associations were observed after adjustment for insulin and C-reactive protein, the association between muscle density and BMDC was partially attenuated by adjustment for β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (beta = −0.14 [95% CI, −0.20, −0.08]). Conclusion: Although im and sc fat were both positively associated with cortical bone mass, the nature of these relationships differed in that im fat was predominantly associated with CT and BMDC, whereas sc fat was mainly associated with PC. These relationships were largely independent of candidate metabolic pathways, such as altered bone

  3. Validity of approximate methods in molecular scattering. III - Effective potential and coupled states approximations for differential and gas kinetic cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monchick, L.; Green, S.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensionality-reducing approximations, the j sub z-conserving coupled states (sometimes called the centrifugal decoupling) method and the effective potential method, were applied to collision calculations of He with CO and with HCl. The coupled states method was found to be sensitive to the interpretation of the centrifugal angular momentum quantum number in the body-fixed frame, but the choice leading to the original McGuire-Kouri expression for the scattering amplitude - and to the simplest formulas - proved to be quite successful in reproducing differential and gas kinetic cross sections. The computationally cheaper effective potential method was much less accurate.

  4. Physical and Social Environment Are Associated to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adults of a Brazilian City: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios-OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval-95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies.

  5. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  6. Sleep deprivation is related to obesity and low intake of energy and carbohydrates among working Iranian adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Poh, Bee Koon; Hajifaraji, Majid; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deficiency is becoming widespread in both adults and adolescents and is accompanied by certain behaviors that can lead to obesity. This study aims to investigate differences in sleep duration of overweight/obese and normal weight groups, and the association between sleep deprivation and obesity, dietary intake and physical activity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 226 Iranian working adults (109 men and 117 women) aged 20 to 55 years old who live in Tehran. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI was calculated. Questionnaires, including the Sleep Habit Heart Questionnaire (SHHQ), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and 24-hour dietary recall, were interview-administered. Subjects were categorized as normal weight (36.3%) or overweight/obese (63.7%) based on WHO standards (2000). Overweight/ obese subjects slept significantly (p<0.001) later (00:32±00:62 AM) and had shorter sleep duration (5.37±1.1 hours) than normal weight subjects (23:30±00:47 PM and 6.54±1.06 hours, respectively). Sleep duration showed significant (p<0.05) direct correlations to energy (r = 0.174), carbohydrate (r = 0.154) and fat intake (r = 0.141). This study revealed that each hour later in bedtime (going to bed later) increased the odds of being overweight or obese by 2.59-fold (95% CI: 1.61-4.16). The findings in this study confirm that people with shorter sleep duration are more likely to be overweight or obese; hence, strategies for the management of obesity should incorporate a consideration of sleep patterns. PMID:24561976

  7. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  8. Physical and Social Environment Are Associated to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adults of a Brazilian City: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios—OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval—95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies. PMID:26915091

  9. Comparison of two methods of screening for genital chlamydial infection in women attending in general practice: cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Grun, L.; Tassano-Smith, J.; Carder, C.; Johnson, A. M.; Robinson, A.; Murray, E.; Stephenson, J.; Haines, A.; Copas, A.; Ridgway, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women attending general practice: to assess the potential of the ligase chain reaction as a screening tool; and to evaluate selective screening criteria. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Four general practices in northeast London. SUBJECTS: 890 women aged 18-35 years attending general practice for a cervical smear or a "young well woman" check between October 1994 and January 1996. The women were tested for C trachomatis with confirmed enzyme immunoassay (endocervical specimens) and ligase chain reaction assay on urine specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of C trachomatis infection in women aged 18-35 on the basis of each test; sensitivity and specificity of both tests in this population. RESULTS: Prevalence of confirmed infection was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.6% to 3.6%) in all women. Prevalence on the basis of enzyme immunoassay was 1.6% (0.8% to 2.7%), with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100%. Prevalence on the basis of ligase chain reaction was 2.5% (1.5% to 3.9%), with 90% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. Screening all women aged < or = 25 and all women who had had two or more partners in the past year would have detected 87% (20/23) of infections. CONCLUSION: Ligase chain reaction on urine samples performs at least as well as enzyme immunoassay on cervical specimens in this low prevalence population. It offers potential as a non-invasive screening tool. A simple selective screening strategy might be appropriate and would be able to detect most cases of infection. However, a rigorous economic evaluation of possible screening strategies is needed first. PMID:9253271

  10. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  11. A cross-sectional study of glucose regulation in young adults with very low birth weight: impact of male gender on hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shirai, Kenji; Ohki, Shigeru; Genma, Rieko; Morita, Hiroshi; Inoue, Eisuke; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Maekawa, Masato; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate glucose regulation in young adults with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) in an Asian population. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting A general hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. Participants 111 young adults (42 men and 69 women; aged 19–30 years) born with VLBW between 1980 and 1990. Participants underwent standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcomes were glucose and insulin levels during OGTT and risk factors for a category of hyperglycaemia defined as follows: diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and non-diabetes/IGT/IFG with elevated 1 h glucose levels (>8.6 mmol/l). The secondary outcomes were the pancreatic β cell function (insulinogenic index and homeostasis model of assessment for beta cell (HOMA-β)) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Results Of 111 young adults with VLBW, 21 subjects (19%) had hyperglycaemia: one had type 2 diabetes, six had IGT, one had IFG and 13 had non-diabetes/IGT/IFG with elevated 1 h glucose levels. In logistic regression analysis, male gender was an independent risk factor associated with hyperglycaemia (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.08 to 10.3, p=0.036). Male subjects had significantly higher levels of glucose and lower levels of insulin during OGTT than female subjects (p<0.001 for glucose and p=0.005 for insulin by repeated measures analysis of variance). Pancreatic β cell function was lower in men (insulinogenic index: p=0.002; HOMA-β: p=0.001), although no gender difference was found in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: p=0.477). In male subjects, logistic regression analysis showed that small for gestational age was an independent risk factor associated with hyperglycaemia (OR 33.3, 95% CI 1.67 to 662.6, p=0.022). Conclusions 19% of individuals with VLBW already had hyperglycaemia in young adulthood, and male gender

  12. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  13. Cardiac Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Exposed to Cardiotoxic Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Huang, Sujuan; Ness, Kirsten K.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Green, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Deokumar; Santucci, Aimee; Krasin, Matthew J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of cardiac disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer have generally relied upon self-reported or registry-based data. Objective Systematically assess cardiac outcomes among childhood cancer survivors Design Cross-sectional Setting St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Patients 1,853 adult survivors of childhood cancer, ≥18 years old, and ≥10 years from treatment with cardiotoxic therapy for childhood cancer. Measurements History/physical examination, fasting metabolic and lipid panels, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) all collected at baseline evaluation. Results Half (52.3%) of the survivors were male, median age 8.0 years (range: 0-24) at cancer diagnosis, 31.0 years (18-60) at evaluation. Cardiomyopathy was present in 7.4% (newly identified at the time of evaluation in 4.7%), coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3.8% (newly identified in 2.2%), valvular regurgitation/stenosis in 28.0% (newly identified in 24.8%), and conduction/rhythm abnormalities in 4.6% (newly identified in 1.4%). Nearly all (99.7%) were asymptomatic. The prevalences of cardiac conditions increased with age at evaluation, ranging from 3-24% among those 30-39 years to 10-37% among those ≥40 years. On multivariable analysis, anthracycline exposure ≥250 mg/m2 increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9) compared to anthracycline unexposed survivors. Radiation to the heart increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.7) compared to radiation unexposed survivors. Radiation >1500 cGy with any anthracycline exposure conferred the greatest odds for valve findings. Limitations 61% participation rate of survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies, which were limited to anthracyclines and cardiac-directed radiation. A comparison group and longitudinal assessments are not available. Conclusions Cardiovascular screening identified considerable subclinical disease among adult survivors of childhood

  14. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  15. Awareness of Climate Change and the Dietary Choices of Young Adults in Finland: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Korkala, Essi A. E.; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major public health threat that is exacerbated by food production. Food items differ substantially in the amount of greenhouse gases their production generates and therefore individuals, if willing, can mitigate climate change through dietary choices. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess if the understanding of climate change, concern over climate change or socio-economic characteristics are reflected in the frequencies of climate-friendly food choices. The study population comprised 1623 young adults in Finland who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64.0%). We constructed a Climate-Friendly Diet Score (CFDS) ranging theoretically from −14 to 14 based on the consumption of 14 food items. A higher CFDS indicated a climate-friendlier diet. Multivariate linear regression analyses on the determinants of CFDS revealed that medium concern raised CFDS on average by 0.51 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 0.98) and high concern by 1.30 points (95% CI 0.80, 1.80) compared to low concern. Understanding had no effect on CFDS on its own. Female gender raised CFDS by 1.92 (95% CI 1.59, 2.25). Unemployment decreased CFDS by 0.92 (95% CI −1.68, −0.15). Separate analyses of genders revealed that high concern over climate change brought about a greater increase in CFDS in females than in males. Good understanding of climate change was weakly connected to climate-friendly diet among females only. Our results indicate that increasing awareness of climate change could lead to increased consumption of climate-friendly food, reduction in GHG emissions, and thus climate change mitigation. PMID:24824363

  16. Awareness of climate change and the dietary choices of young adults in Finland: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major public health threat that is exacerbated by food production. Food items differ substantially in the amount of greenhouse gases their production generates and therefore individuals, if willing, can mitigate climate change through dietary choices. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess if the understanding of climate change, concern over climate change or socio-economic characteristics are reflected in the frequencies of climate-friendly food choices. The study population comprised 1623 young adults in Finland who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64.0%). We constructed a Climate-Friendly Diet Score (CFDS) ranging theoretically from -14 to 14 based on the consumption of 14 food items. A higher CFDS indicated a climate-friendlier diet. Multivariate linear regression analyses on the determinants of CFDS revealed that medium concern raised CFDS on average by 0.51 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 0.98) and high concern by 1.30 points (95% CI 0.80, 1.80) compared to low concern. Understanding had no effect on CFDS on its own. Female gender raised CFDS by 1.92 (95% CI 1.59, 2.25). Unemployment decreased CFDS by 0.92 (95% CI -1.68, -0.15). Separate analyses of genders revealed that high concern over climate change brought about a greater increase in CFDS in females than in males. Good understanding of climate change was weakly connected to climate-friendly diet among females only. Our results indicate that increasing awareness of climate change could lead to increased consumption of climate-friendly food, reduction in GHG emissions, and thus climate change mitigation.

  17. Differential cross sections and product rotational polarization in A + BC reactions using wave packet methods: H+ + D2 and Li + HF examples.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, A; Roncero, O; González-Lezana, T; Rodríguez-López, A; Aguado, A; Sanz-Sanz, C; Gómez-Carrasco, S

    2009-12-31

    The state-to-state differential cross sections for some atom + diatom reactions have been calculated using a new wave packet code, MAD-WAVE3, which is described in some detail and uses either reactant or product Jacobi coordinates along the propagation. In order to show the accuracy and efficiency of the coordinate transformation required when using reactant Jacobi coordinates, as recently proposed [ J. Chem. Phys. 2006 , 125 , 054102 ], the method is first applied to the H + D(2) reaction as a benchmark, for which exact time-independent calculations are also performed. It is found that the use of reactant coordinates yields accurate results, with a computational effort slightly lower than that when using product coordinates. The H(+) + D(2) reaction, with the same masses but a much deeper insertion well, is also studied and exhibits a completely different mechanism, a complex-forming one which can be treated by statistical methods. Due to the longer range of the potential, product Jacobi coordinates are more efficient in this case. Differential cross sections for individual final rotational states of the products are obtained based on exact dynamical calculations for some selected total angular momenta, combined with the random phase approximation to save the high computational time required to calculate all partial waves with very long propagations. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with available exact time-independent calculations. Finally, the method is applied to the Li + HF system for which reactant coordinates are very well suited, and quantum differential cross sections are not available. The results are compared with recent quasiclassical simulations and experimental results [J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 244304]. Furthermore, the polarization of the product angular momenta is also analyzed as a function of the scattering angle.

  18. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  19. Levitation Force Investigation of Bulk HTSC Above Halbach PMG with Different Cross-Section Physical Dimensions by 3D-Modeling Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Liu, Guoliang; Qin, Yujie

    2014-10-01

    The levitation force of a bulk high temperature superconductor (HTSC) over Halbach permanent magnet guideways (PMG) with different cross-section configuration is studied by numerical method. The Halbach PMG is composed of three host permanent magnets (HPMs) and two slave permanent magnets (SPMs). One cylindrical bulk HTSC with a diameter of 30 mm and height of 15 mm is used. The 3D-modeling is formulated by the H-method. The numerical resolving codes are practiced using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of bulk HTSC. By the method, the influence of the cross-section physical dimensions of Halbach PMG on the levitation forces of bulk HTSC levitated above the PMG is studied. The simulation results show that increasing the width of SPM ( can enhance the bulk HTSC levitation performance immediately under the condition of keeping the ratio of ( : the width of HPM) to between 1.6 and 1.8, the ratio of td (the height of the PMG) to between 1.2 and 1.4. By the method, the bulk HTSC better levitation performance can be expected.

  20. Relationships of ultrasound measures of intrinsic foot muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume with maximum toe flexor muscle strength and physical performance in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Tayashiki, Kota; Nakatani, Miyuki; Watanabe, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationships between toe flexor muscle strength with (TFS-5-toes) and without (TFS-4-toes) the contribution of the great toe, anatomical and physiological muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of intrinsic toe flexor muscle and physical performance were measured. [Subjects] Seventeen men (82% sports-active) and 17 women (47% sports-active), aged 20 to 35 years, volunteered. [Methods] Anatomical CSA was measured in two intrinsic toe flexor muscles (flexor digitorum brevis [FDB] and abductor hallucis) by ultrasound. Muscle volume and muscle length of the FDB were also estimated, and physiological CSA was calculated. [Results] Both TFS-5-toes and TFS-4-toes correlated positively with walking speed in men (r=0.584 and r=0.553, respectively) and women (r=0.748 and r=0.533, respectively). Physiological CSA of the FDB was significantly correlated with TFS-5-toes (r=0.748) and TFS-4-toes (r=0.573) in women. In men, physiological CSA of the FDB correlated positively with TFS-4-toes (r=0.536), but not with TFS-5-toes (r=0.333). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that physiological CSA of the FDB is moderately associated with TFS-4-toes while toe flexor strength correlates with walking performance. PMID:26957721

  1. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    PubMed

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value <0.001). Participants with a higher educational level (university) had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value <0.001). This study has documented important knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of

  2. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Resistance: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study Among Palestinian Adults.

    PubMed

    Abu Taha, A; Abu-Zaydeh, A H; Ardah, R A; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Awang, R; Zyoud, S H

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are considered to be among the most commonly sold drug classes in Palestine. Resistance to antibiotics has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and awareness about resistance among adults visiting the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine. A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving participants aged 18 or over was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013. Adults who visited the emergency departments at hospitals in North Palestine were included. Demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic use were included in the questionnaire. Poor and good knowledge were defined as a total knowledge score of 0-7 and 8-15 of 15 questions, respectively. Attitude scores of 0-3 and 4-7 of 7 questions were considered poor and good, respectively. A total of 375 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 83.3% was attained. About 55.0% of the participants had a good knowledge and 56.5% had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use. A significant positive correlation was shown between participants' knowledge scores and participants' attitude scores towards antibiotic use (R = 0.344, P = 0.001. Participants with a high family income were more likely to be aware of appropriate antibiotic use than participants with a low family income (P-value <0.001). Participants with a higher educational level (university) had a good attitude towards rational antibiotic use than those with a lower education level (P-value <0.001). This study has documented important knowledge and attitude gaps in antibiotic use. These findings will help health policymakers in Palestine to implement intervention programmes to rationalize antibiotic use. Continuing medical education, professional development and training workshops for healthcare professionals regarding rational use of

  3. Method for Calculation of Laminar Heat Transfer in Air Flow Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section (including Large Temperature Differences and Transpiration Cooling)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R; Livingood, John N B

    1953-01-01

    The solution of heat-transfer problems has become vital for many aeronautical applications. The shapes of objects to be cooled can often be approximated by cylinders of various cross sections with flow normal to the axis as, for instance heat transfer on gas-turbine blades and on air foils heated for deicing purposes. A laminar region always exists near the stagnation point of such objects. A method previously presented by E. R. G. Eckert permits the calculation of local heat transfer around the periphery of cylinders of arbitrary cross section in the laminar region for flow of a fluid with constant property values with an accuracy sufficient for engineering purposes. The method is based on exact solutions of the boundary-layer equations for incompressible wedge-type flow and on the postulate that at any point on the cylinder the boundary-layer growth is the same as that on a wedge with comparable flow conditions. This method is extended herein to take into account the influence of large temperature differences between the cylinder wall and the flow as well as the influence of transpiration cooling when the same medium as the outside flow is used as coolant.

  4. Use of new guidance to profile 'equivalent minutes' of aerobic physical activity for adults in England reveals gender, geographical, and socio-economic inequalities in meeting public health guidance: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David; Townsend, Nick; Foster, Charlie

    2016-12-01

    English physical activity guidance now recognises a double weighting of vigorous over moderate activity; 1 min of vigorous activity is the same as two 'equivalent' minutes of moderate activity. In addition, concerns of over-estimation of occupational PA led to newly applied measurement methods for this domain. Vigorous activity is associated with higher socio-economic position and occupational PA has the opposite association, so these changes may increase inequalities. We profiled adults' total and domain-specific 'equivalent minutes' of weekly PA in England 2012, and investigated inequalities in PA participation, accounting for the new weighting of vigorous PA, and new measurements of occupational PA. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data on the self-reported PA of 8158 adults was used to produce a profile of the domain and duration of weekly 'equivalent minutes' of PA. Vigorous PA was double-weighted compared to moderate PA, and the percentage contribution from each PA domain quantified, stratified by gender and activity status and split by socio-demographic variables. Women, older adults, and adults without qualifications, from deprived areas, with worse employment conditions, or living in the North of England were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidance. Type of activity was also socially patterned, particularly sport participation, which contributed a higher percentage of PA in adults of higher socioeconomic status. For active men, sporting activity was the most prevalent domain, and sports and walking for active women. In England, there are important socio-demographic differences in how adults participate in PA, and in percentage meeting public health guidance. PMID:27413661

  5. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  6. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P<0.001), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (P<0.001), urea (P=0.019), BMI (P=0.001), systolic blood pressures (P<0.001), TG (P=0.007) and lower HDL (P=0.034) than patients with IFG, IGT, and normoglycemic subjects. Conclusions: The current study showed a high prevalence of T2DM in the Zoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  7. Effect of sex and age on the association between suicidal behaviour and obesity in Korean adults: a cross-sectional nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kwon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that the relationship between obesity and the risk of suicidal behaviour would differ according to sex and age. Setting Data from the 2007–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used. Participants 36 211 adults with body mass index (BMI) data were included and the mean age was 49.6 years. Independent variable BMI. Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide ideation and attempts. Design and analysis A cross-sectional study was performed. Multiple logistic regressions after controlling for socioeconomic variables and concomitant diseases were applied to see the relationship between obesity level and suicidal ideation or attempt. Results Women with severe obesity had the highest prevalence of suicide attempts and ideation, whereas among males, underweight men had the highest prevalence. After adjustment, obese men had a lower OR for suicide ideation (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00). Among women, the ORs of severely obese and underweight women were 1.27 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.52) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.45), respectively. When grouped by age category, the ORs for suicide ideation in severely obese women aged 18 to <30 years or attempts in severely obese women aged 30 to <50 years were 2.30 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.89) and 3.07 (95% CI 1.50 to 6.31), respectively. However, overweight and obese women aged more than 50 years exhibited significantly less ORs of suicide ideation, when compared with counterparts of normal weight. Conclusions The association between obesity and suicidal behaviour exhibited a different pattern by sex and age in South Korea. In particular, severely obese young women had a substantial risk of suicidal behaviour. Our study results highlighted the importance of obesity management in the prevention of suicide among young women, and may be helpful for the drafting of the health agenda in Asian countries with an obesity prevalence and culture similar to those in Korea

  8. Dihydrofolate reductase 19-bp deletion polymorphism modifies the association of folate status with memory in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic study of adults123

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Dana; Buch, Assaf; Moorthy, Denish; Scott, Tammy M; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovás, José M; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Tucker, Katherine L; Troen, Aron M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Folate status has been positively associated with cognitive function in many studies; however, some studies have observed associations of poor cognitive outcomes with high folate. In search of an explanation, we hypothesized that the association of folate with cognition would be modified by the interaction of high-folate status with a common 19-bp deletion polymorphism in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. To our knowledge, the cognitive effects of this gene have not been studied previously. Objective: We examined the association between cognitive outcomes with the 19-bp deletion DHFR polymorphism, folate status, and their interaction with high or normal plasma folate. Design: This was a pooled cross-sectional study of the following 2 Boston-based cohorts of community living adults: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study and the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders study. Individuals were genotyped for the DHFR 19-bp deletion genotype, and plasma folate status was determined. Cognitive outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and factor scores for the domains of memory, executive function, and attention from a set of cognitive tests. Results: The prevalence of the homozygous deletion (del/del) genotype was 23%. In a multivariable analysis, high folate status (>17.8 ng/mL) was associated with better memory scores than was normal-folate status (fourth–fifth quintiles compared with first–third quintiles: β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). Carriers of the DHFR del/del genotype had worse memory scores (β ± SE = −0.24 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) and worse executive scores (β = −0.19, P < 0.05) than did those with the del/ins and ins/ins genotypes. Finally, we observed an interaction such that carriers of the del/del genotype with high folate had significantly worse memory scores than those of both noncarriers with high-folate and del/del carriers with normal-folate (β-interaction = 0

  9. Prevalence of Metformin Use and the Associated Risk of Metabolic Acidosis in US Diabetic Adults With CKD: A National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Bradley; Tsai, Ching-Wei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2015-12-01

    The use of metformin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population has been intensely debated with conflicting evidence. Large population studies are needed to inform risk assessment and therapeutic decision-making. We evaluated the associations among metformin, metabolic acidosis, and CKD in a 10-year nationally representative noninstitutionalized civilian population in the United States.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2279 diabetic adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were included and had measurements of serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The exposure was metformin use. The outcome was subclinical and severe metabolic acidosis defined by serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L and anion gap > 16mEq/L and by serum bicarbonate < 20 mEq/L, respectively.The prevalence of metformin use decreased from 67.2% among CKD-1 and -2, 40.6% among CKD-3, to 1.3% among advanced CKD-4 and -5. Across CKD stages up to CKD-3b, we observed a tendency of lower levels of serum bicarbonate that was significant in metformin users with CKD-2 and CKD-3a and marginally significant with CKD-3b compared to nonmetformin users. The corresponding tendency of higher anion gap in metformin users with the estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m was also observed. In multiple linear regression analysis, metformin was significantly associated with decreased serum bicarbonate levels (β = -0.45, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.17) and increased serum anion gap levels (β = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61). The adjusted odds ratio of subclinical high anion gap and severe metabolic acidosis for metformin users was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.55) and 1.31 (0.49, 3.47), respectively. The association between metformin and serum bicarbonate was significantly modified by CKD status. No interaction was found between metformin and CKD stages for serum anion gap and acidosis.Metformin is associated with subclinical

  10. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  11. Prevalence and determinants of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adults with type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nianquan; Lou, Peian; Shang, Yan; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Jian; Chang, Guiqiu; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression and to assess their impact on glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. Participants 893 Chinese men and women aged 18–84 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Methods People with type 2 diabetes completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales. Demographic and physiological characteristics were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the combined effect of factors associated with anxiety and depression and to assess the effects of anxiety and depression on glycaemic control. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was 56.1% and 43.6%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that anxiety symptoms were associated with being woman, low income, chronic disease, depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. Depressive symptoms were associated with being woman, older age, low education level, being single, diabetes complications, anxiety symptoms and poor sleep quality. Glycaemic control was not related to anxiety symptoms (OR=1.31, 95% CIs 0.94 to 1.67) or depressive symptoms (OR=1.23, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.63). A combination of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was associated with poor glycaemic control (relative excess risk due to interaction: 4.93, 95% CI 2.09 to 7.87; attributable proportion due to interaction: 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in this Chinese sample of participants, although depression and anxiety were not singly associated with glycaemic control. However, a combination of depressive and anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27531739

  12. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  13. Elastic Differential Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin M.; Ford, William P.; Norbury, John W.; Vera, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A less than or equal to 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon- nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability.

  14. An Investigation of the Performance of the Unified Monte Carlo Method of Neutron Cross Section Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, Roberto Smith, Donald L.

    2008-12-15

    The Unified Monte Carlo method (UMC) has been suggested to avoid certain limitations and approximations inherent to the well-known Generalized Least Squares (GLS) method of nuclear data evaluation. This contribution reports on an investigation of the performance of the UMC method in comparison with the GLS method. This is accomplished by applying both methods to simple examples with few input values that were selected to explore various features of the evaluation process that impact upon the quality of an evaluation. Among the issues explored are: i) convergence of UMC results with the number of Monte Carlo histories and the ranges of sampled values; ii) a comparison of Monte Carlo sampling using the Metropolis scheme and a brute force approach; iii) the effects of large data discrepancies; iv) the effects of large data uncertainties; v) the effects of strong or weak model or experimental data correlations; and vi) the impact of ratio data and integral data. Comparisons are also made of the evaluated results for these examples when the input values are first transformed to comparable logarithmic values prior to performing the evaluation. Some general conclusions that are applicable to more realistic evaluation exercises are offered.

  15. A Modified activation method for reaction total cross section and yield measurements at low astrophysically relevant energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, S. V.; Igamov, S. B.; Karakhodjaev, A. A.; Radyuk, G. A.; Tojiboyev, O. R.; Salikhbaev, U. S.; Ergashev, F. Kh.; Nam, I. V.; Aliev, M. K.; Kholbaev, I.; Rumi, R. F.; Khalikov, R. I.; Eshkobilov, Sh. Kh.; Muminov, T. M.

    2016-07-01

    The activation method is proposed for collection of the sufficient statistics during the investigation of the nuclear astrophysical reactions at low energies with the short-living residual nuclei formation. The main feature is a multiple cyclical irradiation of a target by an ion beam and measurement of the radioactivity decay curve. The method was tested by the yield measurement of the 12C(p,γ)13N reaction with detecting the annihilation γγ- coincidences from 13N(β+ν)13C decay at the two-arm scintillation spectrometer.

  16. Novel method to determine capture cross-section activation energies by deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, J.; Gomez, A.; Calleja, E.; Muñoz, E.

    1988-02-01

    Deep-center characterization by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) allows a direct determination of the trap thermal emission activation energy. However, capture barrier energy measurements, based on trap partial filling by pulses of increasing width, require a quite different experimental processing and pose some hardware difficulties. In this letter we present a new method to determine the trap capture barrier energy, one that requires constant-width filling pulses and obtains capture information from standard DLTS data. This technique has been applied to Te-, Sn-, and Si-related DX centers in AlGaAs alloys.

  17. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  18. A cross-sectional mixed methods study protocol to generate learning from patient safety incidents reported from general practice

    PubMed Central

    Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Hibbert, Peter; Avery, Anthony; Butlin, Amy; Carter, Ben; Cooper, Alison; Evans, Huw Prosser; Gibson, Russell; Luff, Donna; Makeham, Meredith; McEnhill, Paul; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Parry, Gareth; Rees, Philippa; Shiels, Emma; Sheikh, Aziz; Ward, Hope Olivia; Williams, Huw; Wood, Fiona; Donaldson, Liam; Edwards, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incident reports contain descriptions of errors and harms that occurred during clinical care delivery. Few observational studies have characterised incidents from general practice, and none of these have been from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. This study aims to describe incidents reported from a general practice care setting. Methods and analysis A general practice patient safety incident classification will be developed to characterise patient safety incidents. A weighted-random sample of 12 500 incidents describing no harm, low harm and moderate harm of patients, and all incidents describing severe harm and death of patients will be classified. Insights from exploratory descriptive statistics and thematic analysis will be combined to identify priority areas for future interventions. Ethics and dissemination The need for ethical approval was waivered by the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board research risk review committee given the anonymised nature of data (ABHB R&D Ref number: SA/410/13). The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:26628526

  19. Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    Background Private for-profit outlets are important treatment sources for malaria in most endemic countries. However, these outlets constitute only the last link in a chain of businesses that includes manufacturers, importers and wholesalers, all of which influence the availability, price and quality of antimalarials patients can access. We present evidence on the composition, characteristics and operation of these distribution chains and of the businesses that comprise them in six endemic countries (Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia). Methods and Findings We conducted nationally representative surveys of antimalarial wholesalers during 2009–2010 using an innovative sampling approach that captured registered and unregistered distribution channels, complemented by in-depth interviews with a range of stakeholders. Antimalarial distribution chains were pyramidal in shape, with antimalarials passing through a maximum of 4–6 steps between manufacturer and retailer; however, most likely pass through 2–3 steps. Less efficacious non-artemisinin therapies (e.g. chloroquine) dominated weekly sales volumes among African wholesalers, while volumes for more efficacious artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) were many times smaller. ACT sales predominated only in Cambodia. In all countries, consumer demand was the principal consideration when selecting products to stock. Selling prices and reputation were key considerations regarding supplier choice. Business practices varied across countries, with large differences in the proportions of wholesalers offering credit and delivery services to customers, and the types of distribution models adopted by businesses. Regulatory compliance also varied across countries, particularly with respect to licensing. The proportion of wholesalers possessing any up-to-date licence from national regulators was lowest in Benin and Nigeria, where vendors in traditional markets are important

  20. The association between coping method and distress in infertile woman: A cross-sectional study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Hande; Yigitoglu, Sayime; Aksakal, Belgin Iyik; Kavlak, Oya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the distress level in infertile women and their coping skills. Methods: One hundred and twenty-seven infertile women who had been referred to the Family Planning and Infertility Research and Practice Center (IRPC) of a university hospital to receive therapy between June 2012-2013 were enrolled in this study. Several surveys, including the “Infertile Woman Identification Form”, the “Infertility Distress Scale (IDS)” and the “Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI),” were used as data collection tools. Results: The mean age of the women who participated in the study was 32.34 ± 5.44. They had been on therapy for 3.95 ± 3.21 years and had been referred for therapy 2.73 ± 1.76 times. The mean score of the IDS was determined to be 37.0 ± 9.7 (23–66), and the mean score of the WCI subscale was 1.86 ± 0.55 (0.5-3.0). In the IDS and WCI subscales, statistically significant negative relationships were detected between “Optimism” (r=-0.327), “Seeking Social Support” (r=-0.255), and “Self-Confidence” (r=-0.305), whereas there were statistically significant positive relationships between “Helplessness” (r=0.376) and “Submissiveness” (r=0.278) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The women who developed negative coping strategies had higher infertility distress scores than other women. PMID:26870115

  1. What is the Profile of Individuals Joining the KNEEguru Online Health Community? A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hambly, Karen; Tamakloe, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of the Internet for seekers of health-related information provides convenience and accessibility to diverse sources (of variable quality) for many medical conditions. There is a suggestion that patients may find empowerment by engaging with Internet health care strategies and communities. The profile of consumers of online health information on knee pain has not been explored. Objective Our objective was to identify the characteristics and motivations of online health information-seekers accessing the online health community, KNEEguru (KG). The study was designed to obtain the respondents’ sociodemographic profile, together with their main reasons and motivations for joining such a community, their health information-seeking behavior, the extent of their knee problems, and their general Internet usage. Methods We undertook an online questionnaire survey, offered to users of the KG website from June to July 2012. A mix of open and closed questions was used to facilitate inductive enquiry. Quantitative responses were analyzed using univariate analysis; qualitative thematic analysis of the open responses was completed and a conceptual model was developed. Results One-hundred and fifty-two respondents took part (11.56% response rate, 152/1315), with a mean age of 40.1 years. Of this cohort, 61.2% were female, 68.4% were in domestic partnerships, 57.2% were employed, 75.0% had higher education qualifications, and 80.3% were of white/Caucasian ethnicity. Females were associated with joining KG in order to get emotional support from other users (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04 - 4.27, P=.04). Respondents’ self-perception of health was associated with reported quality of life (OR 10.86, 95% CI 3.85 - 30.43, P<.001). Facebook users were associated with joining KG to share experiences (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.04 - 5.56, P=.03). Post-surgery respondents were associated with joining KG to compare symptoms with other users (OR 7.31, 95% CI 2.06 - 39.82, P<.001). Three key

  2. Calculation of the multifold differential cross section of the electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen by prolate spheroidal external complex scaling method with second Born corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Serov, Vladislav V.; Joulakian, Boghos B.

    2010-08-15

    We introduce the second Born dipole corrections in our recently developed ab initio procedure based on the driven Schroedinger equation formalism and the external scaling method for the determination of the multifold differential cross sections of the single and double ionization of molecular hydrogen by electron impact. To test our procedure, we first apply it to the excitation-ionization process of a He atom and compare the results to those of equivalent theoretical results, which are available. We then show that the introduction of the second Born correction including only dipole terms improves the agreement with the experimental results only in the case of the simple ionization. We think that the introduction of nondipole contributions in the second Born term which are not taken into account in the present work is necessary in the case of the double ionization process.

  3. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  4. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  5. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. Results A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was −33 mL (95% CI −38, −29) and −26 mL (95% CI −30, −22), and −30 mL (95% CI −35, −25) and −19 mL (95% CI −23, −14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations). Conclusions All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness–FM estimation–BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures–FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF. PMID:27682232

  6. Prevalence, severity, and risk indicators of gingival inflammation in a multi-center study on South American adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Paola; Gómez, Mariel; Gomes, Sabrina; Costa, Ricardo; Toledo, Andres; Solanes, Fernando; Romanelli, Hugo; Oppermann, Rui; Rösing, Cassiano; Gamonal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil), Tucumán (Argentina), and Santiago (Chile) were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI) (Gingival Index ≥0.5). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 96.5% of the adults have GI. Regarding the severity of GI, 22.5% of participants examined have mild GI, 74.0% have moderate GI, and 3.6% have severe GI. The multivariate analyses identify the main risk indicators for GI as adults with higher mean of Calculus Index (OR=18.59); with a Visible Plaque Index ≥30% (OR=14.56); living in Santiago (OR=7.17); having ≤12 years of schooling (OR=2.18), and females (OR=1.93). Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation, being the first one performed in adult populations in three cities of South America.

  7. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  8. Prevalence and factors affecting use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. Conclusion The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided. PMID:25404960

  9. Physical inactivity and television-viewing time among Aboriginal adults with asthma: a cross-sectional analysis of the Aboriginal Peoples Survey

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, N.; Dogra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this analysis was to 1) determine the association between asthma and physical activity levels or sedentary time among Aboriginal adults, and 2) understand the influence of physical inactivity and sedentary time on health care use among Aboriginal adults with asthma. Methods: We analyzed 20 953 adults from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Those with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and a current prescription for asthma medication were considered to have current asthma. Insufficient physical activity was defined as < 3 hours/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity; high television screen time was defined as > 10 hours/week. Health care use was assessed using the number of health professional visits and overnight hospital stays. Results: Aboriginal adults with asthma were more likely to report high television-viewing time (OR = 1.16; CI: 1.11–1.22) and insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.15; CI: 1.10–1.20) than those without asthma. Those with asthma who reported high television-viewing time reported more health professional consults in the past 12 months (OR = 2.59; CI: 2.34–2.87), more overnight stays in hospital in the past year (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.82–2.08) and more overnight stays in the hospital in the past 5 years (OR = 1.13; CI: 1.07–1.18); results were less consistent for physical activity and health care use. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Aboriginal adults with asthma are less active than their peers without asthma and that such a lifestyle may be associated with higher health care use. These findings have implications for physical activity promotion and sedentary behaviour strategies targeting Aboriginal adults with asthma. PMID:25970805

  10. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  11. Water and beverage consumption among adults in the United States: cross-sectional study using data from NHANES 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined plain water consumption among US adults. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and total water among US adults by age group (20-50y, 51-70y, and ≥71y), gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Methods Data from up to two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from the 2005–2006, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to evaluate usual intake of water and water as a beverage among 15,702 US adults. The contribution of different beverage types (e.g., water as a beverage [tap or bottled], milk [including flavored], 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks [regular and diet], fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, coffee, tea, and alcoholic beverages) to total water and energy intakes was examined. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) values from the US Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. Results Water and other beverages contributed 75-84% of dietary water, with 17-25% provided by water in foods, depending on age. Plain water, from tap or bottled sources, contributed 30-37% of total dietary water. Overall, 56% of drinking water volume was from tap water while bottled water provided 44%. Older adults (≥71y) consumed much less bottled water than younger adults. Non-Hispanic whites consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-Americans consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. On average, younger adults exceeded or came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. Older men and women failed to meet the Institute of Medicine (IOM) AI values, with a shortfall in daily water intakes of 1218 mL and 603 mL respectively. Eighty-three percent of women and 95% of men ≥71y failed to meet the IOM AI values for water. However, average water volume per 1,000 kcal was 1

  12. Cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2 - An application of the Schwinger multichannel variational method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lima, M. A. P.; Gibson, T. L.; Mckoy, V.; Huo, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    In this and the two accompanying letters, the results of calculations of the cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2, for collision energies from near threshold to 30 eV, are presented. These results are obtained using a multichannel extension of the Schwinger variational principle at the two-state level. The quantitative agreement between the integral cross sections of these three studies is very good. Inclusion of correlation terms in the scattering wavefunctions, which relax the orthogonality between bound and continuum orbitals, is seen to affect the cross sections substantially. Although a comparison of these calculated cross sections with available experimental data is encouraging, some seious discrepancies exist.

  13. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  14. A method for estimating time-dependent acoustic cross-sections of bubbles and bubble clouds prior to the steady state

    PubMed

    Clarke; Leighton

    2000-04-01

    Models for the acoustic cross-sections of gas bubbles undergoing steady-state pulsation in liquid have existed for some time. This article presents a theoretical scheme for estimating the cross-sections of single bubbles, and bubble clouds, from the start of insonation onward. In this period the presence of transients can significantly alter the cross-section from the steady-state value. The model combines numerical solutions of the Herring-Keller model with appropriate damping values to calculate the extinction cross-section of a bubble as a function of time in response to a continuous harmonic sound field (it is also shown how the model can be adapted to estimate the time-dependent scatter cross-section). The model is then extended to determine the extinction cross-section area of multiple bubbles of varying population distributions assuming no bubble-bubble interactions. The results have shown that the time taken to reach steady state is dependent on the closeness of the bubble to resonance, and on the driving pressure amplitude. In the response of the population as a whole, the time to reach steady state tends to decrease with increasing values of the driving pressure amplitude; and with the increasing values of the ratio of the numbers of bubbles having radii much larger than resonance to the number of resonant bubbles. The implications of these findings for the use of acoustic pulses are explored.

  15. A fast and robust computational method for the ionization cross sections of the driven Schrödinger equation using an O (N) multigrid-based scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cools, S.; Vanroose, W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper improves the convergence and robustness of a multigrid-based solver for the cross sections of the driven Schrödinger equation. Adding a Coupled Channel Correction Step (CCCS) after each multigrid (MG) V-cycle efficiently removes the errors that remain after the V-cycle sweep. The combined iterative solution scheme (MG-CCCS) is shown to feature significantly improved convergence rates over the classical MG method at energies where bound states dominate the solution, resulting in a fast and scalable solution method for the complex-valued Schrödinger break-up problem for any energy regime. The proposed solver displays optimal scaling; a solution is found in a time that is linear in the number of unknowns. The method is validated on a 2D Temkin-Poet model problem, and convergence results both as a solver and preconditioner are provided to support the O (N) scalability of the method. This paper extends the applicability of the complex contour approach for far field map computation (Cools et al. (2014) [10]).

  16. Sequential Cross-Sectional Surveys in Orange Farm, a Township of South Africa, Revealed a Constant Low Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Adults despite Demand Creation Campaigns and High Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Hlatswayo, Florence; Tshabalala, Simphiwe; Khela, Simphiwe; Xulu, Lindo; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Malinga, Thobile; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2016-01-01

    Background WHO recommends a male circumcision (MC) prevalence rate higher than 80% to have a substantial impact on the HIV-AIDS epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. Orange Farm, a township in South Africa, has a free-for-service voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clinic in operation since 2008. Following an intense campaign from 2008 to 2010, MC prevalence rate increased to 55.4% (ANRS-12126). Ongoing and past VMMC campaigns focused on youths, through school talks, and adults at a community level. The main objective of the study was to assess the change in MC prevalence rate among adults aged 18–19 and 18–49 years in the past 5 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey (ANRS-12285) was conducted among a random sample of 522 adult men in 2015. MC status and characteristics of participants were collected through a genital examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Results MC prevalence rate among young adult men aged 18–19 years increased markedly from 61.2% (95%CI: 57.4% to 65.0%) in 2010 to 87.5% (76.0% to 94.6%) in 2015 (p<0.001). In the same period, among men aged 18–49 years, MC prevalence rate varied slightly from 55.4% (53.6% to 57.1%) to 56.7% (52.4% to 60.9%). In 2015, 84.9% (79.2% to 89.5%) of uncircumcised adult men reported that they were willing to be circumcised. However, we estimated that only 4.6% (11/237; 2.5% to 7.9%) of the uncircumcised men underwent circumcision in 2015, despite 117/185 (63.2%; 95%CI: 56.1% to 69.9%) who reported that they were definitely willing to become circumcised. Conclusions In Orange Farm, VMMC campaigns were successful among the youth and led to a sufficiently high MC prevalence rate to have a substantial impact in the future on the HIV-AIDS epidemic. However, despite high acceptability and a free VMMC service, VMMC campaigns since 2010 have failed to increase MC prevalence rate among adults to above 80%. These campaigns should be revisited. PMID:27427957

  17. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among women aged 15-49 years in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alege, Stephen Galla; Matovu, Joseph KB; Ssensalire, Simon; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of knowledge of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a critical barrier to eventual uptake of FP services. We assessed knowledge, sources and use of FP methods among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Methods This secondary analysis uses data from a larger cross-sectional study conducted to measure changes in perceptions towards long-term and reversible contraceptive use among 2,033 women of reproductive age (15-49years) resident in 34 districts of Uganda. Both users and non-users of FP methods were interviewed. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software, version 12. Results Majority of the women were less than 30 years of age (64.3%). Nearly three-quarters were married (73.1%), 51.1% had primary education and more than half (57%) were engaged in employment. Knowledge of FP methods was universal (98.1%). Clinic providers (60.4%), friends (56.9%) and the media (51.3%) were the most trusted sources of contraceptive information. Government (27.6%) and private (21.1%) health facilities were the main sources of modern FP methods. Sixty two per cent of women reported current use of any FP method. Among non-users of FP, injectables (50.4%), implants (22.8%) and pills (20.2%) were the most preferred FP methods. Conclusion Our findings show that knowledge of FP methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method. Clinic providers, friends and the media are the most trusted sources of FP information. Government and private health facilities are the main sources of FP services. PMID:27583102

  18. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  19. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross- sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Results Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -3.58), number of live children (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46- 4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR = 6.11, 95% CI: 2.29- 16.30), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.40 - 3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 8.37 - 22.47). Conclusion Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples PMID:26523185

  20. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  1. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. Methods The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects (“multilevel”) logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. Results The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p = 0.002), in good health (p < 0.001), greater commitment to being more active (p = 0.002), favourable activity social norms (p = 0.004), greater physical activity habit (p < 0.001), and recent use of recreational facilities (p = 0.01). In addition, there was evidence (p < 0.05) that younger age, lower body mass index, having a physical occupation, dog ownership, inconvenience of public

  2. Statistical methods and errors in family medicine articles between 2010 and 2014-Suez Canal University, Egypt: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: With limited statistical knowledge of most physicians it is not uncommon to find statistical errors in research articles. Objectives: To determine the statistical methods and to assess the statistical errors in family medicine (FM) research articles that were published between 2010 and 2014. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All 66 FM research articles that were published over 5 years by FM authors with affiliation to Suez Canal University were screened by the researcher between May and August 2015. Types and frequencies of statistical methods were reviewed in all 66 FM articles. All 60 articles with identified inferential statistics were examined for statistical errors and deficiencies. A comprehensive 58-item checklist based on statistical guidelines was used to evaluate the statistical quality of FM articles. Results: Inferential methods were recorded in 62/66 (93.9%) of FM articles. Advanced analyses were used in 29/66 (43.9%). Contingency tables 38/66 (57.6%), regression (logistic, linear) 26/66 (39.4%), and t-test 17/66 (25.8%) were the most commonly used inferential tests. Within 60 FM articles with identified inferential statistics, no prior sample size 19/60 (31.7%), application of wrong statistical tests 17/60 (28.3%), incomplete documentation of statistics 59/60 (98.3%), reporting P value without test statistics 32/60 (53.3%), no reporting confidence interval with effect size measures 12/60 (20.0%), use of mean (standard deviation) to describe ordinal/nonnormal data 8/60 (13.3%), and errors related to interpretation were mainly for conclusions without support by the study data 5/60 (8.3%). Conclusion: Inferential statistics were used in the majority of FM articles. Data analysis and reporting statistics are areas for improvement in FM research articles. PMID:27453839

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship between Cortical Bone and High-Impact Activity in Young Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Deere, K.; Sayers, A.; Rittweger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The factors that govern skeletal responses to physical activity remain poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender or fat mass influences relationships between cortical bone and physical activity, after partitioning accelerometer outputs into low (0.5–2.1 g), medium (2.1–4.2 g), or high (>4.2 g) impacts, where g represents gravitational force. Design/Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Participants: We studied 675 adolescents (272 boys; mean age, 17.7 yr). Outcome Measures: We measured cortical bone parameters from peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the mid-tibia, adjusted for height, fat mass, and lean mass. Results: High-impact activity was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) in males but not females [coefficients (95% confidence intervals), 0.054 (0.007, 0.100) and 0.07 (−0.028, 0.041), respectively; showing sd change per doubling in activity]. There was also weak evidence that medium impacts were positively related to PC in males but not females (P = 0.03 for gender interaction). On stratifying by fat mass, the positive relationship between high-impact activity and PC was greatest in those with the highest fat mass [high impact vs. PC in males, 0.01 (−0.064, 0.085), 0.045 (−0.040, 0.131), 0.098 (0.012, 0.185), for lower, middle, and upper fat tertiles, respectively; high impact vs. PC in females, −0.041 (−0.101, 0.020), −0.028 (−0.077, 0.022), 0.082 (0.015, 0.148), P = 0.01 for fat mass interaction]. Similar findings were observed for strength parameters, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and strength-strain index. Conclusions: In late adolescence, associations between high-impact activity and PC are attenuated by female gender and low body fat, suggesting that the skeletal response to high-impact activity is particularly reduced in young women with low fat mass. PMID

  4. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  5. A method for estimating static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces at angles of attack from 0 deg to 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for estimating normal-force, axial-force, and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. Static aerodynamic characteristics computed by the method are shown to agree closely with experimental results for slender bodies of circular and elliptic cross section and for winged-circular and winged-elliptic cones. However, the present experimental results used for comparison with the method are limited to angles of attack only up to about 20 deg and Mach numbers from 2 to 4.

  6. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  7. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A Jantine; Baan, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly type 2 diabetes patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Diabetes self-management was indicated by HbA1c level, glucose self-control and self-reported monitoring of glucose levels, physical activity, and smoking. Multilevel analyses were applied based on multiple imputed data. Lower health literacy was significantly associated with less diabetes knowledge, higher HbA1c level, less self-control of glucose level, and less physical activity. Participants with more diabetes knowledge were less likely to smoke and more likely to control glucose levels. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator in the association between health literacy and glucose self-control and between health literacy and smoking. This study indicates that higher health literacy may contribute to participation in certain self-management activities, in some cases through diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge and health literacy skills may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-management.

  8. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts.

  9. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts. PMID:25505045

  10. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  11. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meiqin; Wan, Yi; Yu, Lifen; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Yonghong; Hou, Bin; Jiang, Xun; Shang, Lei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China.From October to December 2013, participants in Xi'an, China were recruited for the study by using a multiple-stage sampling method. A self-developed questionnaire with an additional health examination was used to collect data on the history of hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive medication. The status on prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were analyzed and related risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis.A total of 8193 participants were included with an overall prevalence of hypertension of 20.4%. Among the hypertensive participants, 63.7% were aware of their conditions, 47.3% took antihypertensive medication, and 17.8% had their blood pressure (BP) controlled within 140/90 mm Hg. More complications and less frequent BP measurements were associated with hypertension. Older participants, non-drinkers, and those with more complications and more frequent BP measurements were more aware of their hypertension. Being older, living in an urban area, and having more frequent BP measurements were all factors for better treatment. Participants who were women, living in an urban area, with a higher educational level and who were not obese were more likely to have their hypertension controlled.The prevalence of hypertension among adults in Xi'an is high with suboptimal low awareness, treatment, and control rates. Further comprehensive integrated strategies based on these risk factors should be taken into account in order to improve the prevention, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:27559980

  12. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk (<10% CAD) were lower age (<60 years old), and plasma values of uric acid. The presence of MS within low, intermediary, and high CAD risk categories was 30.8%, 55.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. The independent risk factors associated with CAD risk score was MS and uric acid, and the protective factors were recommended intake of saturated fat and fiber and muscle mass index. Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score. PMID:21554698

  13. Examination of the surrogate ratio method for the determination of the 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr cross section with Zr,9290(18O,16O)Zr,9492 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. Q.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Y. B.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Su, J.; Li, Y. J.; Nishinaka, I.; Hirose, K.; Han, Y. L.; Orlandi, R.; Shen, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zeng, S.; Lian, G.; Chen, Y. S.; Bai, X. X.; Qiao, L. H.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    The relative γ -decay probability ratios of the neutron resonance states in 94Zr and 92Zr populated via two-neutron transfer reactions, 92Zr(18O,16O)94Zr and 90Zr(18O,16O)92Zr , have been measured to test the validity of the surrogate ratio method (SRM) in determining the (n , γ ) reaction cross section. The cross sections of the 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr reaction are derived from the experimentally obtained ratios and the cross sections of the 91Zr(n ,γ )92Zr reaction in the equivalent neutron energy range of En=0 -8 MeV . The deduced cross sections of 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr reaction agree with the directly measured ones in the low-energy region, and with the evaluated ENDF/B-VII.1 data at higher energies of En>3 MeV . The agreement supports the concept of the SRM method to indirectly determine the (n ,γ ) reaction cross sections.

  14. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n = 416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n = 216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n = 276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR = 2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR = 2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on

  15. Method of sustaining a radial electric field and poloidal plasma rotation over most of the cross-section of a tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Douglass S.; Ono, Masayuki

    1990-03-06

    A radial electric field of a desired magnitude and configuration is created throughout a substantial portion of the cross-section of the plasma of a tokamak. The radial electric field is created by injection of a unidirectional electron beam. The magnitude and configuration of the radial electric field may be controlled by the strength of the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak.

  16. Method of sustaining a radial electric field and poloidal plasma rotation over most of the cross-section of a tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Douglass S.; Ono, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    A radial electric field of a desired magnitude and configuration is created hroughout a substantial portion of the cross-section of the plasma of a tokamak. The radial electric field is created by injection of a unidirectional electron beam. The magnitude and configuration of the radial electric field may be controlled by the strength of the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak.

  17. Estimating minimum adult HIV prevalence: a cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics of people living with HIV in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load.

  18. Estimating Minimum Adult HIV Prevalence: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Characteristics of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India: findings from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the distribution of diabetes and modifiable risk factors to provide data to aid diabetes prevention programmes in India. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey of men and women included in India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006). Setting The sample is a multistage cluster sample with an overall response rate of 98 %. All states of India are represented in the sample (except the small Union Territories), covering more than 99 % of the country's population. Subjects Women (n 99 574) and men (n 56 742) aged 20–49 years residing in the sample households. Results Prevalence of diabetes was 1598/100 000 (95 % CI 1462, 1735) among men and 1054/100 000 (95 % CI 974, 1134) among women in India. Rural–urban and marked geographic variation were found with higher rates in south and north-eastern India. Weekly and daily fish intake contributed to a significantly higher risk of diabetes among both women and men. Risks of diabetes increased with increased BMI, age and wealth status of both women and men, but no effects of the consumption of milk/curd, vegetables, eggs, television watching, alcohol consumption or smoking were found. Daily consumption of pulse/beans or fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes among women, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in the case of men. Conclusions Prevalence was underestimated using self-reports. The wide variation in self-reported diabetes is unlikely to be due entirely to reporting biases or access to health care, and indicates that modifiable risk factors exist. Prevention of diabetes should focus on obesity and target specific socio-economic groups in India. PMID:22050916

  20. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, J Mark; Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to conduct culturally-based participatory research to assess cultural and belief contexts for smoking behaviours within Mandarin and Cantonese communities. Outcome variables were smoking-related knowledge, smoking patterns, attitudes and beliefs, and perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. Design A community-based approach was applied involving smokers, community key-informants and professionals in study design and implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted and findings were used to develop study instrument. Participants responded once to study questionnaire after informed consent. Setting Community based in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada. Participants 16 Chinese smokers participated in focus groups and subsequently, 167 current Chinese immigrant (137 males and 30 females) smokers from Mandarin and Cantonese communities, recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that a majority believed smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (<35 years of age) did not mind smoking in front of young children compared to older smokers (≥35 years of age) (p<0.001). People with high school or lower levels of education believed that they would benefit more from smoking than suffering from withdrawal symptoms compared to better educated smokers (p<0.05). Mandarin smokers were significantly more likely to encourage others to quit than Cantonese smokers (p<0.05). Many indicated not receiving adequate support from care providers and lack of access to culturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programmes impacted on their ability to quit smoking. Conclusions Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco beliefs and perceptions among Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as

  1. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years) experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent). Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0%) or weak opioids (81.8%), and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%), TENS (72.9%) or acupuncture (60.2%). Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7) and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8). Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of myofascial

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  3. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors.

  4. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  5. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors. PMID:27616893

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel method for measuring carrier lifetime and capture cross-section by using the negative resistance I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairong, Li; Siyuan, Li

    2010-08-01

    A brand new and feasible method for measuring the carrier lifetime and capture cross-section of a barrier by using the negative resistance segment of the I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor (BTH) is put forward. The measuring principle and calculation method are given. The BTH samples are experimentally measured and the results are analyzed in detail.

  7. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  8. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of 22Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.

    2009-01-01

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important 22Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched 22Ne and CH4 were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7±0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication use among older adults in Israel: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings from two cohorts a decade apart

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Chetrit, Angela; Mizrahi, Eliyahu H.; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess: 1) changes in use of psychotropic medications across two cohorts, ten years apart, of community-dwelling elderly and the socio-demographic, physical and mental health correlates of their use; and 2) changes in psychotropic medication use over 3.5 years follow-up. Methods Data were taken from two national surveys of the Israeli Jewish population aged 75–94, which respectively sampled two cohorts in 1989 (n=1200) and again in 1999 (n=421). Psychotropic medications were assessed from the list of all medications recorded during a face-to-face interview. The current analysis focused on two medication groups: anxiolytics & sedatives/hypnotics and antidepressants. Results Sedatives/hypnotics & anxiolytics use increased from 22.2% in 1989 to 25.4% in 1999 and antidepressants from 3.8% to 4.8% (both nonsignificantly) corresponding to a decline in the health profile of community-dwelling older adults. Similar patterns of associations were observed for socio-demographics, physical and mental health status indicators with use of psychotropic medications across the two cohorts. The pooled multivariate analysis showed significantly higher use of sedative/hypnotics & anxiolytics among women and lower use among religious elderly. Additional risk factors were sleeping problems, number of other medications, depressive symptoms and traumatic life events. Antidepressants use was related to a higher education, ADL disability and depressive symptoms. Longitudinally, use of psychotropic medications was not significantly different among participants who were followed again after 3.5 years. Conclusions Sedative/hypnotics & anxiolytics use was relatively high while antidepressants use was low even among depressed elderly suggesting that some depressed elderly were treated inappropriately with benzodiazepines. PMID:22313035

  10. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  11. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard. Methods and Findings The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)–traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p < 0.001, t-test). At GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2, the mean ratios with the Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p < 0.001, t-test). In young adults (18–40 y), the Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients

  12. [USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN WOMEN FROM THE ZAPRESIĆ AREA AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF METHOD: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY].

    PubMed

    Benčić, Miro; Vrcić-Keglević, Mladenka

    2014-12-01

    There have long been no surveys in the field of family planning in Croatia. There were some carried out by commercial agencies and some related to adolescents, but none focused on women of reproductive age. Therefore, we embarked upon this survey including women living in the town of Zaprešić and its surroundings. The aims of the study were to investigate how many of them used contraception, which methods prevailed, how they made their choice and whether demographic and health care characteristics had have any influence on it. This cross-sectional survey was conducted at eight family medicine practices from the town of Zaprešić town and six practices from nearby rural settings. We used a purposeful sampling method; women aged 18-45 visiting family medicine practices for different reasons were asked to participate in the study. Those that agreed were given a questionnaire designed for this survey and based on literature results. The questions were closed and related to the women's demographic and some health-related characteristics and those related to the usage of contraception, such as the method used, how they made their choice, if they made any changes and why. The STATA/IC 11.2 (license 30110536846) was used on data processing. Descriptive statistics was used with Pearson χ2-test and logistic regression analysis to determine associations between categorical variables and dependent variable, in this case contraception use or non-use. The value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Out of 283 women having filled in the questionnaire, 44.5% used some contraceptive methods. The most frequently used was condom (24.7%), then pill (24.1%) and combination of several methods (20.0%). The women living in the town used more coitus interruptus, and those living in rural areas used more pills. The most frequently stated reasons for the use of certain methods were as follows: the methods is simple for use (32.9%), it is safe (24.6%), and it is efficient and safe (22

  13. Negative life events and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is a typical migraine trigger. However, the impact of negative life events on migraine activity is poorly studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between negative life events and migraine using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study conducted in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included validated questionnaires for headache classification and the occurrence of five pre-specified negative life events (financial hardship, hospitalization other than for childbirth, death of a close relative, robbery and end of a love relationship), focusing on a 12-month period before evaluation. We built crude and adjusted logistic regression models to study the association between the occurrences of negative life events and migraine diagnosis and activity. Results We included 4,409 individuals with migraine and 4,457 participants without headache (reference). After adjustment for age, sex, race, income and educational level, we found that the occurrence of a negative life event (Odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.19 – 1.45) was associated with migraine. However, after stratifying with subgroup analyses, only financial hardship (Odds ratio = 1.65; 95% confidence interval = 1.47 – 1.87) and hospitalization (Odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.25 – 1.72) were independently associated with migraine. Further adjustment for a current major depression episode and report of religious activity did not significantly change the results. Considering migraine frequency as (a) less than once per month, (b) once per month to once per week, or (c) more than once per week, financial hardship and hospitalization remained significantly associated with migraine in all episode frequency strata, with higher odds ratios for higher frequencies in adjusted models. We also observed a significant

  14. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008-2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09-3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. PMID:27447668

  15. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. PMID:27447668

  16. WE-E-BRE-11: New Method to Simulate DNA Damage Using Ionization Cross-Sections and a Geometrical Nucleosome Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, P; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To obtain probability distributions of various DNA damage types as a function of the incident electron kinetic energy. Methods: Using Geant4-DNA electron ionization cross-sections, we calculated path length distributions for electrons of energies between 10 eV and 1 MeV, defined as the length between two subsequent interactions. These path lengths were then convolved with probability distributions for the creation of same-strand damage, opposite-strand damage, clustered damage, isolated damage, and same DNA strand target damage. These probability distributions of DNA damage were obtained by a Monte Carlo routine calculating probabilities of interaction in DNA targets inside a nucleosome geometrical model. Results represent the probability of a secondary electron, initially created inside a DNA strand target, of undergoing its next interaction: (1) in the opposite strand (DSB), (2) in the same strand (SSB+), (3) in either the opposite or same-strand (clustered), (4) in the same DNA target (multiple-hit) or (5) more than 10 base pairs away (isolated). Results: Electrons with kinetic energy between 50 and 250 eV have a maximal probability of creating DSB, SSB+, clustered damage and multiple-hits in the same target The probabilities for these damage patterns have values of 2.5%, 4.3%, 6.7% and 5.4%, respectively. Isolated damage is most probable between 700 eV to 900 eV with a probability of 0.2%. Conclusion: We obtained DNA damage probability distributions as a function of electron incident energy. We showed that electrons with kinetic energies between 50 and 250 eV have the highest probability of producing complex forms of DNA damage (DSB, SSB+). We also showed that a double ionization within the same DNA target is the most frequent outcome occurring 5% of the time. It is expected that electron slowing down spectra can be convolved with our formalism to calculate source specific DNA damage patterns. Research grants from governments of Canada and Quebec. PP

  17. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  18. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3–1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  19. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including 'cooking, washing up'. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables.

  20. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

    PubMed

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-04-06

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011-2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18-35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m² using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals.

  1. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

    PubMed

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011-2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18-35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m² using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  2. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  3. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  4. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  5. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  6. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  7. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  8. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Rated Health among Older Adults: Association with Drinking Profiles and Other Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Pascale Audrey; Nadeau, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between drinking profiles and self-rated health with and without adjusting for other determinants of health among a sample of older adults from the general population. Respondents were 1,494 men and 2,176 women aged between 55 and 74 from the GENACIS Canadian survey. The dependent variable was self-rated health, an individual's perception of his or her own general health, a measure used as a proxy for health status. The independent variables were drinking profiles (types of drinkers and nondrinkers) as well as other demographic, psychosocial, and health-related variables (control variables). After adjustment for other determinants of health, regression analyses showed that (1) frequent/moderate drinkers were more likely to have a better self-rated health compared with nondrinkers (lifetime abstainers and former drinkers) and (2) self-rated health did not differ significantly between frequent/moderate drinkers and other types of drinkers (frequent/nonmoderate and infrequent drinkers). Our results suggest that drinking is related to a better self-rated health compared with nondrinking regardless of the drinking profile. Drinking and healthy lifestyle guidelines specific to older adults should be studied, discussed, and integrated into public health practices. PMID:26843861

  10. Are Irish adult general practice consultation rates as low as official records suggest? A cross sectional study at six general practices.

    PubMed

    Behan, W; Molony, D; Beamer, C; Cullen, W

    2013-01-01

    Accurate data on primary care activity is key to health services planning and reconfiguration. Official data estimate general practice adult consultation rates to be 3.2 visits annually, based on patient self reports. We aim to estimate the consultation rate using practice based data and compare this to official estimates. We interrogated six general practices' information systems and estimated consultation rates based on practice, telephone, domiciliary and out of hours consultations by patients aged 18 years or older. The study population (20,706 patients) was representative of the national population in terms of age and GMS status. The mean consultation rate was 5.17, though this was higher among GMS-eligible patients and among older age groups. Estimates of consultation rates derived from practice based data are likely to be higher than that derived from other approaches. Using multiple sources of data will enhance accuracy of workload estimates and this will benefit service planning. PMID:24579407

  11. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  12. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men.

  13. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  14. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  15. Societal views on NICE, cancer drugs fund and value-based pricing criteria for prioritising medicines: a cross-sectional survey of 4118 adults in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Linley, Warren G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2013-08-01

    The criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for accepting higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for some medicines over others, and the recent introduction of the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England, are assumed to reflect societal preferences for National Health Service resource allocation. Robust empirical evidence to this effect is lacking. To explore societal preferences for these and other criteria, including those proposed for rewarding new medicines under the future value-based pricing (VBP) system, we conducted a choice-based experiment in 4118 UK adults via web-based surveys. Preferences were determined by asking respondents to allocate fixed funds between different patient and disease types reflecting nine specific prioritisation criteria. Respondents supported the criteria proposed under the VBP system (for severe diseases, address unmet needs, are innovative--provided they offered substantial health benefits, and have wider societal benefits) but did not support the end-of-life premium or the prioritisation of children or disadvantaged populations as specified by NICE, nor the special funding status for treatments of rare diseases, nor the CDF. Policies introduced on the basis of perceived--and not actual--societal values may lead to inappropriate resource allocation decisions with the potential for significant population health and economic consequences.

  16. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  17. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  18. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  19. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  20. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  1. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  2. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Attempted Suicide Among Students and Young Adults in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Suicide Attempts Based on Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Rahme, Elham; Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Yung, Emily C. C.; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Renaud, Johanne; Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a chart review to identify postsecondary students and nonstudents in the same age range who presented to the emergency department following a suicide attempt to (1) compare demographic characteristics and suicide risk factors and (2) determine factors associated with more serious attempts requiring hospitalizations. Method The study was conducted in 1 tertiary trauma hospital and 1 community hospital affiliated with McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010. Charts of patients with potential suicide attempts were identified from medical records using ICD-10 codes that indicated traumatic injury, intentional self-harm, poisoning, and psychiatric or perception/cognition disorders and from the emergency department triage file using keywords that indicated suicidality or self-harm at presentation. Results In multivariable logistic regression models (odds ratio, 95% CI), students were younger (per 5-year increase: 0.22, 0.12–0.41), less likely to be born in Canada (0.17, 0.06–0.44), and more likely to use less violent methods (laceration, poisoning, other, multiple methods) versus more violent methods (collision, jump, fire burns, firearm, hanging) in their attempt. Fewer students had a history of substance abuse (0.12, 0.02–0.94) but were not different from nonstudents on history of other mental disorders. Less students attempted suicide in the winter/spring (January–April) versus fall (September–December) semester (0.32, 0.11–0.91). Students who attempted suicide were more likely to have family/social support. Those who attempted suicide in the previous year were more likely to require hospitalization for their current suicide attempt. Conclusions Knowledge of specific factors associated with suicide attempts in young people can help inform and guide suicide prevention efforts in both academic and community settings. Specific to the findings of this study regarding the method of suicide

  4. A package for the ab-initio calculation of one- and two-photon cross sections of two-electron atoms, using a CI B-splines method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

    2003-02-01

    A package is presented for the fully ab-initio calculation of one- and two-photon ionization cross sections for two-electron atomic systems (H -, He, Mg, Ca, …) under strong laser fields, within lowest-order perturbation theory (LOPT) and in the dipole approximation. The atomic structure is obtained through configuration interaction (CI) of antisymmetrized two-electron states expanded in a B-spline finite basis. The formulation of the theory and the relevant codes presented here represent the accumulation of work over the last ten years [1-11,13-15]. Extensions to more than two-photon ionization is straightforward. Calculation is possible for both the length and velocity form of the laser-atom interaction operator. The package is mainly, written in standard FORTRAN language and uses the publicly available libraries SLATEC, LAPACK and BLAS.

  5. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  6. Comparison of cross sections from the quasi-classical trajectory method and the j(z)-conserving centrifugal sudden approximation with accurate quantum results for an atom-rigid nonlinear polyatomic collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of a series of calculations of state-to-state integral cross sections for collisions between O and nonvibrating H2O in the gas phase on a model nonreactive potential energy surface. The dynamical methods used include converged quantum mechanical scattering calculations, the j(z) conserving centrifugal sudden (j(z)-CCS) approximation, and quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. We consider three total energies 0.001, 0.002, and 0.005 E(h) and the nine initial states with rotational angular momentum less than or equal to 2 (h/2 pi). The j(z)-CCS approximation gives good results, while the QCT method can be quite unreliable for transitions to specific rotational sublevels. However, the QCT cross sections summed over final sublevels and averaged over initial sublevels are in better agreement with the quantum results.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions) about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5%) and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6%) completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%). Of these 47,487 (26.8%) participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%), “Sharing utensils” (18.2%), and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%). Only 52,617 (29.7%) participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21), being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26) or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34), listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1.13) and

  8. Cross-sectional Biomonitoring of Metals in Adult Populations in Post-war Eastern Croatia: Differences Between Areas of Moderate and Heavy Combat

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Matijana; Miškulin, Maja; Puntarić, Dinko; Gmajnić, Rudika; Milas, Josip; Sipos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in metal and metalloid exposure between residents of areas in eastern Croatia exposed to heavy fighting during the war in Croatia and residents of areas exposed to moderate fighting. Methods Concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn), reported to be associated with military operations, were determined in hair, serum, and urine samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. A total of 127 and 46 participants from areas of heavy and moderate fighting, respectively, were included. Results Compared with participants from areas exposed to moderate fighting, participants from areas exposed to heavy fighting had significantly higher serum concentrations of Al (87.61 vs 42.75 μg/L, P = 0.007), As (5.05 ± 1.79 vs 4.16 ± 1.55 μg/L, P = 0.003), Ba (7.12 vs 6.01 μg/L, P = 0.044), and V (17.98 vs 16.84 μg/L, P = 0.008); significantly higher urine concentrations of As (43.90 vs 11.51 μg/L, P < 0.001) and Cd (0.67 vs 0.50 μg/L, P = 0.031); and significantly higher hair concentrations of Al (12.61 vs 7.33 μg/L, P < 0.001), As (0.32 vs 0.05 μg/L, P < 0.001), Cd (0.03 vs 0.02 μg/L, P = 0.002), Fe (22.58 vs 12.68 μg/L, P = 0.001), Pb (1.04 vs 0.69 μg/L, P = 0.006), and V (0.07 vs 0.03 μg/L, P < 0.001). Conclusion Differences between populations from eastern Croatian areas exposed to heavy and populations exposed to moderate fighting point to the need for extensive monitoring of metal and metalloid exposure, emphasizing the role of biomonitoring through ecologic and preventive activities. PMID:20960595

  9. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  10. Modeling elastic momentum transfer cross-sections from mobility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitović, Ž. D.; Stojanović, V. D.; Raspopović, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we present a new method to simply obtain the elastic momentum transfer cross-section which predicts a maximum of reduced mobility and its sensitivity to the temperature variation at low energies. We first determined the transport cross-section which resembles mobility data for similar closed-shell systems by using the Monte Carlo method. Second, we selected the most probable reactive processes and compiled cross-sections from experimental and theoretical data. At the end, an elastic momentum transfer cross-section is obtained by subtracting the compiled cross-sections from the momentum transfer cross-section, taking into account the effects of the angular scattering distributions. Finally, the cross-section set determined in such a way is used as an input in a final Monte Carlo code run, to calculate the flux and bulk reduced mobility for Ne+ + CF4 which were discussed as functions of the reduced electric field E/N (N is the gas density) for the temperature T = 300 K.

  11. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  12. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  13. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  14. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  15. Obesity Among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data From the Cross-Sectional Medical Monitoring Project and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Paul, Angela M; Wei, Stanley C; Mattson, Christine L; Robertson, McKaylee; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Bell, Tanvir K; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    Our objective was to compare obesity prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving care and the U.S. general population and identify obesity correlates among HIV-infected men and women.Cross-sectional data was collected in 2009 to 2010 from 2 nationally representative surveys: Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).Weighted prevalence estimates of obesity, defined as body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m, were compared using prevalence ratios (PR, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Correlates of obesity in HIV-infected adults were examined using multivariable logistic regression.Demographic characteristics of the 4006 HIV-infected adults in MMP differed from the 5657 adults from the general U.S. population in NHANES, including more men (73.2% in MMP versus 49.4% in NHANES, respectively), black or African Americans (41.5% versus 11.6%), persons with annual incomes <$20,000 (64.5% versus 21.9%), and homosexuals or bisexuals (50.9% versus 3.9%). HIV-infected men were less likely to be obese (PR 0.5, CI 0.5-0.6) and HIV-infected women were more likely to be obese (PR1.2, CI 1.1-1.3) compared with men and women in the general population, respectively. Among HIV-infected women, younger age was associated with obesity (<40 versus >60 years). Among HIV-infected men, correlates of obesity included black or African American race/ethnicity, annual income >$20,000 and <$50,000, heterosexual orientation, and geometric mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count >200 cells/μL.Obesity is common, affecting 2 in 5 HIV-infected women and 1 in 5 HIV-infected men. Correlates of obesity differ for HIV-infected men and women; therefore, different strategies may be needed for the prevention and treatment. PMID:26166086

  16. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  17. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  18. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  20. Differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Mei, Yu; Chun-Ying, Pu; Xiao-Yu, Huang; Fu-Rong, Yin; Xu-Yan, Liu; Li-Guang, Jiao; Ya-Jun, Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed. Project supported by the Nanyang Normal University Science Foundation of China (Grant No. ZX2013017) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174066, 61306007, and U1304114).

  1. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  2. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34-8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22-0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  3. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34–8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26–0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31–0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22–0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22–0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  4. Topological Optimization of Beam Cross Section by Employing Extrusion Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuberi, Rehan H.; Zhengxing, Zuo; Kai, Long

    2010-05-01

    Optimal cross-section design of beams plays a characteristic role which signifies the rigidity of the member in bending, shear and torsion load conditions. Practically modern overhead crane girders, railway bridge girders or rail tracks etc. require constant cross-section along the axial direction. Conventional topological optimization modeling procedures in such cases prove inadequate for the reason that these procedures generate non-uniform topologies along the axis of the bending member. To examine optimal topology of those structural bending members which commonly possess constant cross-section along the axis the topology optimization with extrusion constraint is more appropriate. The extrusion constraint method suggests a fresh approach to investigate optimal topologies of beam cross-section under the influence of realistic loading condition across the section at the beginning of design cycle. Presented study is focused upon the influence of various configuration and location of the load and boundary conditions on the topology of the of the beam cross-section which was not possible prior to the materialization of the extrusion or stamping constraint method. Several realistic loads and boundary conditions have been applied on the 3D beam model and optimal cross-section topologies obtained have uniform compliance history and convergent solutions. The lowest compliance criteria have been suggested to choose topologies as furthers shape and size optimization candidates during beam design process.

  5. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  6. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences.

  7. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  8. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  9. MEMENTA—‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’. A cross-sectional epidemiological multisite study assessing prevalence of psychiatric symptomatology, needs for care and quality of healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability in Germany: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Andrea; Vogel, Anke; Holzmann, Marco; Pfennig, Andrea; Salize, Hans Joachim; Puschner, Bernd; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study ‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’ (MEMENTA) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in three different regions of Germany. Its main aim is to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID) as well as quality of mental healthcare for this population. Methods and analysis The target population are persons aged between 18 and 65 years with a mild or moderate ID. The study population will be recruited through service providers. A representative sample is realised by two-stage sampling. First, institutions providing services for people with ID (sheltered workshops) are selected in a stratified cluster sampling, with strata being (1) types of service-providing non-governmental organisations and (2) sizes of their sheltered workshops. Then persons working in selected sheltered workshops are selected by simple random sampling. An estimated number of 600 adults with ID will be included. Information will be obtained from the group leaders in the sheltered workshops, informal carers or staff members in sheltered housing institutions and the person with ID. Besides the main outcome parameter of psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour, other outcome parameters such as needs for care, quality of life, caregiver burden, health services utilisation and costs for care are assessed using well-established standardised instruments. If a comorbid mental disorder is diagnosed, quality of mental healthcare will be assessed with open questions to all interview partners and, in addition, problem-focused interviews with a small subgroup. Analyses will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ethics and dissemination Approval of all three local ethics committees was obtained. Research findings will add much needed empirical information in order to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Trial

  10. Silicon Detector System for Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials it is necessary to know cosmic ray particles are broken up as they pass though these materials. The breakup of cosmic ray particles is characterized by the nuclear fragmentation cross sections, i.e. an effective geometrical cross section assigned to each target nucleus that represents its apparent size for fragmenting the incident particle. The values of these cross sections depend on the details of nuclear physics and cannot be calculated from first principles owing to the many-body nature of the interactions. The only way to determine them is to measure them. Once a sufficient number of cross sections have been measured, the systematic nature of the interactions allows other cross-sections to be estimated. The number of cross sections that contribute to the estimation of shielding effectiveness is very large 10,000. Fortunately most make minor contributions. These can be estimated from nuclear systematics. Only those who's uncertainties make significant contributions to the error in the shielding effectiveness estimations need to be measured. In the past it has proven difficult to measure light fragment production cross sections from the interactions of heavy cosmic rays owing to the size of the detectors used. We have developed a highly pixilated silicon (Si) detector system that can individually identify these light fragments while making efficient use of costly accelerator time. This system is an outgrowth of detector technology developed under a CDDF and a Code S sponsored cosmic ray experiment.

  11. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  12. Differential cross-sections with hard targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J. L.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2005-09-01

    When the concept of scattering differential cross-section is introduced in classical mechanics textbooks, usually it is first supposed that the target is a fixed, hard sphere. In this paper we calculate the scattering differential cross-section in the case of the hard target being a fixed figure of revolution of any shape. When the target is a paraboloid of revolution, we find the well-known formula corresponding to Rutherford's scattering. In addition, we analyse the inverse problem, i.e. given a differential cross-section, what is the profile of the corresponding hard target?

  13. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= −0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= −0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= −0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.13), and total cholesterol (r= −0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= −0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= −0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  14. Cross-sectional study of diet, physical activity, television viewing and sleep duration in 233 110 adults from the UK Biobank; the behavioural phenotype of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered

  15. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  16. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  17. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  18. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  19. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a si