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Sample records for adults methods participants

  1. Participation Training for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevin, Paul; McKinley, John

    Participation Training for Adult Education serves as a manual, guide, and resource for leaders and participants interested in establishing a program of adult learning called group-participation training. Goals emphasize participants learning about themselves as learners, how they relate to and can help others, and exploring the dynamics of a…

  2. METHOD ORIENTATION OF ADULTS FOR PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIVE ACTIVITIES. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE NATIONAL SEMINAR ON ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH (CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 11-13, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLACKBURN, DONALD J.; DOUGLAH, MOHAMMAD A.

    THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE METHOD ORIENTATION OF ADULTS (SPECIFICALLY, 611 RESIDENTS OF PREDOMINANTLY RURAL COLUMBIA COUNTY, WISCONSIN) FOR PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, HOBBIES AND RECREATION, ACADEMIC OR GENERAL EDUCATION, RELIGION, MORALS AND ETHICS, HOME AND FAMILY LIFE, PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT,…

  3. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  4. Literacy Practices Among Adult Education Participants.

    PubMed

    Mellard, Daryl; Patterson, Margaret Becker; Prewett, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Readers' individual literacy practices involve a variety of materials such as books, newspapers, magazines, technical materials and work documents. This study explored the relationship between readership (reading as a form of communication, an advancement of culture, and the development of the individual) and readers' choice of materials for participants in adult education, whose skills varied from very low literacy to high school/General Education Development (GED) levels. In this study we reviewed adult education participants' pattern of reading materials and the frequency of usage among participants. A representative sample of 273 adult education participants was recruited from 12 Kansas adult education programs. Their literacy practices were evaluated in terms of age, education level, and reading skill levels. Our results pointed to differences based on age but not educational completion level. The implications are discussed in terms of matching curricular materials used in instruction to salient learner characteristics. Recommendations for literacy instructors are provided that could enhance the learners' persistence and success. PMID:23526865

  5. Reading Practices among Adult Education Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl; Patterson, Margaret Becker; Prewett, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the relation between reading practices and individual characteristics of participants in adult education who have low literacy skills. Reading practices describe individuals' reading frequency for different types of written material, such as books, newspapers, magazines, technical materials, and work documents.…

  6. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  7. Participation of Very Old Adults in Healthcare Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bynum, Julie PW; Barre, Laura; Reed, Catherine; Passow, Honor

    2013-01-01

    Background Some elderly people receive tests or interventions from which they have low likelihood of benefit or for which the goal is not aligned with their values. Engaging these patients in the decision process is one potential approach to improve the individualization of care. Yet some clinicians perceive and some survey data suggest that older adults prefer not to participate in the decision-making process. Those preferences, however, may be formed based on an experience in which factors, such as communication issues, were barriers to participation. Our goal was to shed light on the experience of very old adults in healthcare decision-making from their own point of view to deepen our understanding of their potentially modifiable barriers to participation. Design and Methods Semi-structured interviews of participants aged 80 and older (n=29, 59% women and 21% black) were analyzed using the constant comparative method in a grounded theory approach to describe decision-making in clinic visits from the patient’s perspective. Results Average age of participants was 84 (range 80–93) and each described an average of 6.4 decision episodes. Active participation was highly variable among subjects. Marked differences in participation across participants and by type of decision -- surgery, medications, diagnostic procedures, and routine testing for preventive care -- highlighted barriers to greater participation. The most common potentially modifiable barriers were the perception that there were no options to consider, low patient activation, and communication issues. Conclusions The experience of very old adults highlights potentially modifiable barriers to greater participation in decision-making. To bring very old patients into the decision process, clinicians will need to modify interviewing skills and spend additional time eliciting their values, goals, and preferences. PMID:24106235

  8. The Age-Participation Relationship Revisited: Focus on Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja

    1998-01-01

    A study of 1097 employed Finnish adults found that 51.8% had recently participated or intended to participate in adult education. Those aged 40-44 were three times more likely to participate than ages 60-64. Participation was influenced by educational attainment and lack of know-how. Results suggested the importance of acknowledging the…

  9. The Emergence of Learning Societies: Who Participates in Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.

    This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…

  10. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  11. Participation as Pedagogy: Quality of Working Life and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Rosenthal, Edward

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of developments in the Quality of Working Life field and some links between this movement and adult education. Discusses worker participation as a strategy for mass adult education. (SK)

  12. Participation in Adult Education Programs and Attitudes toward Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtaugh, Leonard Paul

    Using a population of adults enrolled in 1967 in the 1,123 classes of the Flint, Michigan, adult education program, this study examined the relationship between participation in these programs and the formation or changing of attitudes toward public schools. It sought to determine, among other things, which adult students (if any) actually change…

  13. Satisfaction with Communicative Participation as Defined by Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Deitz, Jean; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Eadie, Tanya; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined satisfaction with communicative participation as reported by adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Eight community-dwelling adults with MS participated in semi-structured interviews. They were asked to discuss their satisfaction with their communication in a variety of situations. Interviews were analyzed using…

  14. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  15. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  16. Fire Safety for Retired Adults: Participant's Coursebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker (Bonnie) and Associates, Inc., Crofton, MD.

    The risk of dying from fire increases substantially among older adults. This document contains a collection of fire safety information for elderly people. Information includes procedures to follow in case of fire and early warning technologies such as smoke alarms. The booklet describes potential sources of fires (smoking, home heating, kitchens,…

  17. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions. PMID:26809852

  18. Adults in Higher Education: International Perspectives in Access and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Pat, Ed.

    This book presents international perspectives on access and participation of adults in higher education in selected European countries. The book begins with an introduction by Pat Davies and includes papers detailing and providing examples of practices and policies of higher educational institutions regarding adult students in the following…

  19. Barriers to Participation in Religious Adult Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, John Thomas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…

  20. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-05-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and their carers. Common and differentiating factors influencing the research participation of participants are identified and discussed. Factors influencing participation were found to differ both between and within participant categories. We propose a dichotomy whereby factors influencing research participation can be classified as those arising from a participant's values, which act as either a motivator or a deterrent; and those based on convenience, which act as either an enabler or inhibitor. These findings are applicable to research studies that seek to recruit adults with ASD as participants. PMID:26810436

  1. Adult Education Participation and Occupational Achievement: A Regression Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A study examined the effects of adult education participation together with educational attainment and work experience on three variables: (1) individual modernity, (2) adoption of modern business practices, and (3) occupational achievement. Survey of 60 Mexican-American shopkeepers indicated participation contributed directly to the first two…

  2. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants. PMID:24654988

  3. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Interference with Communicative Participation across Communication Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Method: Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing 7 different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering,…

  5. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  6. A Framework for Theory and Research on Adult Education Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed is a comprehensive, multivariate, multirealm theoretical framework with which to integrate and advance the theory and research of adult education participation. This article describes elements of the framework that have already been investigated and those for which there are gaps in the literature. Suggestions for further research to…

  7. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  8. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  9. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  10. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  11. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  12. 7 CFR 227.43 - Participation of adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  13. Youth Participation in VOYA Means Adults Sponsoring Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Cathi Dunn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses youth participation (YP) and adult mentorship in public libraries and Voice of Youth Advocates (VOYA), highlighting teen writing opportunities in VOYA: book reviews; annual poetry contest; an occasional column relating teen culture to books, information, entertainment, media, and identity; and occasional lists of favorite teen music,…

  14. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  15. Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

  16. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  17. Metalinguistic and Pragmatic Abilities of Participants in Adult Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Marie E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between oral and written language skills was explored in this study involving 97 participants in an adult literacy program. Analysis of pragmatic language skills identified behaviors likely to detract from communicative effectiveness. A test of metalinguistic/semantic skills correlated with reading levels of subjects. Follow-up…

  18. An Inclusive ACE. Broadening Participation in Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Merilyn; Beatty, Dianne

    A project identified strategies to increase participation by community members who traditionally have not used adult and community education (ACE) in Australia. Methodology included a focus group, literature research, and interviews with 70 people. Government-supported ACE was seen as having a broad role in supporting lifelong learning. ACE…

  19. Research Participation Among Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549

  20. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  1. A qualitative study of interference with communicative participation across communication disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Methods Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing seven different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and laryngectomy. This paper represents a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected in cognitive interviews during development of the Communicative Participation Item Bank. The data were analyzed to identify themes in participants’ experiences related to communicative participation. Results Participants described many situations in which they experienced interference in communicative participation. Two themes emerged from the data. The first theme was Interference is both “functional” and “emotional” in which participants defined interference as limitations in accomplishing tasks and emotional consequences. The second theme was “It depends” - Sources of interference in which participants described many variables that contribute to interference in participation. Participants had limited control of some variables such as symptoms and environmental contexts, but personal decisions and priorities also influenced participation. Conclusions Despite different impairments and activity limitations, participants described similar communicative participation restrictions. These similarities may have theoretical and clinical implications in terms of how we assess, treat and study the participation restrictions associated with communication disorders. PMID:21813820

  2. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164

  3. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  4. Methods in Adult Education, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Barton; And Others

    The adult education textbook is intended for persons preparing to teach adults as well as those already on the job. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 is directed to the learning characteristics of adults. Chapter 3 focuses on steps of involving the potential participant in adult education programs, while Chapter 4 outlines various…

  5. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  6. Reasons for and Reservations about Research Participation in Acutely Injured Adults

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Elliane; Richmond, Therese S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons adult patients seeking emergency department care for minor injuries agree to participate in clinical research and to identify their reservations about participating in a research study. Design and Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of 275 adults who sought emergency department care for physical injury and were followed over 12 months. At the final interview, participants were asked open-ended short-answer questions about their perception of participating in the study. Free text responses were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings The final sample of 214 participants was equally males and females, predominately Black (54%) and White (42%), with a mean age of 41 years. Six themes about reasons for participation emerged from free text responses: being asked, altruism, potential for personal benefit, financial gain, curiosity, and valuing and/or knowledge of research. Most did not report reservations. Those reservations identified included: time constraints, confidentiality, and whether patients felt well suited to fulfill the study requirements. Conclusion Although injured patients are identified by the research community as vulnerable, they are willing to participate in research studies for diverse reasons and their participation is commonly associated with positive experiences. PMID:25599886

  7. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383

  8. Barriers to Social Participation among Lonely Older Adults: The Influence of Social Fears and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933

  9. Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…

  10. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  11. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…

  12. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Norms of Adult Research Participants as a Basis for Outreach Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…

  13. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  14. Leisure and religious activity participation and mental health: gender analysis of older adults in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Ramraj; Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored. Methods The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study. Results Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p < 0.005), watching television and listening to the radio (B = -1.88; p < 0.05), and participating in physical activity (B = -1.05; p < 0.05) correlated to lower depression for older men, but only watching television and listening to the radio (B = -2.68; p < 0.005) related to lower rates of depression for women. Socializing with others (B = 1.22; p < 0.05) was related to higher satisfaction with life for men, but for women visiting friends (B = 1.29; p < 0.05), socializing with others (B = 1.45; p < 0.005), and watching television and listening to the radio (B = 0.92; p < 0.05) related to improved satisfaction with life. Activity engagement significantly improved mental health in older adults

  15. Activity and Participation Characteristics of Adults with Learning Disabilities - A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Learning disabilities’ (LD) refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. Objective The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts. Methods “PsychInfo”, “Eric” and “PubMed” were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. Results Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life), however literature concerning these domains is scarce. Conclusions The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs. PMID:25184315

  16. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  17. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  18. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  19. What Turns Older Adults on to Education. Research Describing Participation in Educational Activities by Active Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James C.

    A study identified distinguishing characteristics of active older adults who participate in educational activities and measured factors that motivated participation. The dependent variables were participation and nonparticipation; independent variables were educational attainment, anomie, life satisfaction, and certain learning-related factors. A…

  20. The Association between Adult Participation and the Engagement of Preschoolers with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Ann M.; Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; Pan, Yi; Hume, Kara; Odom, Samuel L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability for a child to engage in the classroom is associated with better academic outcomes. Yet, there is limited information on how child characteristics of autism and adult behavior impact engagement. This study examined (1) the pattern of adult participation and child engagement in preschool classrooms that serve children with ASD, (2) the associations between child engagement and adult participation, and (3) how characteristics of ASD (autism severity, language ability, and challenging behavior) moderate the relationship between adult participation and child engagement. Overall, children were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Moderators impacted this relationship. Children with higher levels of autism severity were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Similarly, children with lower language abilities were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Finally, children with higher levels of challenging behaviors were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. These findings have important implications for how adults can best support the engagement of children with ASD. PMID:27006829

  1. A population-based profile of adult Canadians living with participation and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Marciniuk, Darcy; Rennie, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Currently, one out of every seven Canadians is affected by limitations to their participation and activity. This study describes the self-reported main causes of these limitations in a national sample. Methods: The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey was a two-phase stratified survey based on filter questions posed in the 2006 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada. Respondents to the survey represent 5 185 980 Canadian adults with activity and participation limitations. We used these data to develop a profile of our population of interest: adult Canadians with activity and participation limitations. Associations between demographic variables and self-reported causes of activity and participation limitations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Results: One quarter of participants did not attribute their disability to any medical cause. The most prevalent medical conditions to which disabilities were attributed were musculoskeletal (46.1%), cardio/cerebrovascular (12.3%), mental health (8.4%), neurologic (6.0%), endocrine (6.0%) and respiratory (4.5%) conditions. Significant associations were noted between sociodemographic variables and participants’ attributions of medical conditions as cause of disability. Multiple logistic regression with bootstrapping showed that people who reported a medical cause for their limitation were more likely (p < 0.05) to be female, widowed, 40 years of age or older, born in Canada or white and were less likely (p < 0.05) to be in the highest income category or to be employed (i.e., to work more than 0 h/w). Interpretation: Most people living with activity and participation limitations report having a musculoskeletal disorder. However, a significant proportion of respondants did not attribute their limitations to a medical cause. PMID:21825051

  2. Adults' Perceptions of Knowledge Construction as Participants in Nonformal World Affairs Programs: An Interpretive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive research study was to explore how adult learners perceive they construct knowledge in connection to their participation in nonformal world affairs programs. The study context involved the exploration of 12 adult learners' perceptions of their knowledge construction as participants in world affairs programs held in…

  3. Hidden Barriers: A Sociological Investigation of Adult Participation in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peinovich, Paula E.

    Many researchers have investigated the factors that keep adults from participating in continuing education or "lifelong learning." Most of the studies have identified factors--previous educational experience, race, ethnic group, and others--that make adults less likely to be participants in schooling. However, the barriers may actually be more…

  4. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

  5. Increasing Participation of Adults in Higher Education: Factors for Successful Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broek, Simon; Hake, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    This article contains an analysis of policies aimed at increasing the participation of adults in higher education (HE) in seven countries (NL, DK, SE, UK, BE Flanders, DE and the state of California in the USA). In order to maintain their economic competitiveness, many countries have developed policies to increase the participation of adults in…

  6. Adult Enrichment Learners in St. Cloud, Minnesota: Motivational Reasons for Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallner, Scott David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify reasons and motivation of adult stakeholders that influence participation in adult community education enrichment classes in the St. Cloud Public School District, St. Cloud, Minnesota. The study also examined the perceptions about adult learners held by leaders, planners, and facilitators of these programs,…

  7. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  8. Labial vibrotactile somatosensory perception: a pilot study in healthy aging versus young adult participants.

    PubMed

    Etter, Nicole M; Van Meter, Emily M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to begin characterizing changes in labial vibrotactile somatosensation in healthy older adults as a foundational step in determining how changes in orofacial sensation can affect functional behaviors, such as speech and feeding. Labial vibrotactile perception capacity of healthy older adults (n = 15) was compared to a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 5). Vibrotactile inputs were delivered to the glabrous surface of the left lower lip at 5, 10, 50, and 150 Hz. A modified von Bekesy (staircase) method was used to identify participants' thresholds and response standard deviations for each test frequency. Consistent with findings in other body regions, a decrease in labial vibrotactile detection sensitivity was expected in healthy older adults. The threshold values for the 5 and 10 Hz test frequencies were higher in the older group and the differences in response standard deviations at these frequencies were statistically significant. This pilot study identified changes in labial perception among healthy older adults. PMID:24897891

  9. Materials and Methods in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevins, Chester, Ed.

    Responding to the lack of relevant materials useful for practitioners of adult education, the editor has compiled a volume that reflects the current thinking of 38 adult educators regarding adult education methods and materials. Following an introductory section, the book is organized around five major areas: (1) curriculum development, (2)…

  10. Adult Attitudes about Youth Participation in Community Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Marilyn F.

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses from 68 civic and community organizations in South Dakota indicated that one-fourth currently had some level of youth participation. Service/community, religious, 4-H/scout leaders, and youth center/after-school programs, but none of the government or business organizations, indicated that youth participated in decision making.…

  11. Participation Bias among Suicidal Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Fox, Allison J.; Chohan, Mariam Zahid; Beck, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Although individuals who attempt suicide have poor compliance rates with treatment recommendations, the nature and degree of participation bias in clinical treatment research among these individuals is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine participation bias by comparing the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of adult…

  12. Adult Participation in Undergraduate Education: The Effect of State-Level Structural Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.; Valentine, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Composite state-level data from four national sets were used to compare 1991 and 1997 higher education participation of adults over 24. Variations in state structural factors significantly affected participation variance. Factors at one point in time substantially affected future participation. State policymakers had an influence on access and…

  13. A Conceptual Framework and Proposed Taxonomy for Social Policy Research on Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    Although a considerable body of research has been developed in recent years on participation in adult education, little has been done from the standpoint of social policy and its impact on participation. To assist investigation of this aspect of participation, three social policy models are presented: market models, progressive-liberal-welfare…

  14. Youth into Adult: Nine Selected Youth Participation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClosky, Mildred; Kleinbard, Peter

    Nine programs chosen for the ways in which they involved adolescents in significant pursuits, either in solving their own problems or in helping adults solve theirs, are described. The programs serve as models for other attempts to aid adolescents toward feeling that they can make a difference in the world around them. Obstacles for youth enroute…

  15. Factor Structure of Deterrents to Adult Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Naveen K.; Shapero, Morris; Sizoo, Steve; Munro, Tom

    2007-01-01

    As institutions of higher learning have seen the aging of American college students, they have been increasingly concerned about helping them overcome what deters their reentry. Adult perception of deterrents is identified in this study. Analysis and the factor structure underlying these deterrents is examined in the Situational, Institutional,…

  16. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  17. Association of Religious Participation With Mortality Among Chinese Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Gu, Danan; George, Linda K.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the association of religious participation with mortality using a longitudinal data set collected from 9,017 oldest-old aged 85+ and 6,956 younger elders aged 65 to 84 in China in 2002 and 2005 and hazard models. Results show that adjusted for demographics, family/social support, and health practices, risk of dying was 24% (p < 0.001) and 12% (p < 0.01) lower among frequent and infrequent religious participants than among nonparticipants for all elders aged 65+. After baseline health was adjusted, the corresponding risk of dying declined to 21% (p < 0.001) and 6% (not significant), respectively. The authors also conducted hazard models analysis for men versus women and for young-old versus oldest-old, respectively, adjusted for single-year age; the authors found that gender differentials of association of religious participation with mortality among all elderly aged 65+ were not significant; association among young-old men was significantly stronger than among oldest-old men, but no such significant young-old versus oldest-old differentials in women were found. PMID:22448080

  18. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Meeting the Needs of Participants. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowden, Kevin; And Others

    A project investigated the extent to which the current adult basic education (ABE) provision was meeting the needs of participants in Northern Ireland. Interviews were conducted with key individuals from 22 agencies providing adult literacy and numeracy support, selected tutors and managers of ABE (n=62), and 55 ABE students. Students had a…

  19. Effects of Increased Mobility Skills on Meaningful Life Participation for an Adult with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an adult with severe, multiple disabilities and discusses issues affecting meaningful life participation. Emphasis is placed on the role of functional mobility skills to increase active engagement in age-appropriate activities and opportunities to make informed choices. MOVE for Adults (Mobility Opportunities…

  20. Adults' Perceptions of Children's Science Abilities and Interest after Participating in a Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanowitz, Karen L.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine adults' and children's perceptions of participating in a family science night event, especially in the context of parental belief about children's science abilities. Family science nights are becoming increasingly popular and are used in a wide range of settings. During family science nights, adults and…

  1. Facing Goliath: Adults' Experiences of Participation, Guidance and Progression in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Amy; And Others

    A study examined adults' experiences regarding participation, guidance, and progression in various formal educational settings across Scotland. In-depth interviews were conducted with 50 adult returners to the different parts of the education system (higher, further, and community education and local schools). Data from the interviews were…

  2. Vocationalism Varies (A Lot): A 12-Country Multivariate Analysis of Participation in Formal Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    To encourage adult participation in education and training, contemporary policy makers typically encourage education and training provision to have a strongly vocational (employment-related) character, while also stressing individuals' responsibility for developing their own learning. Adults' motivation to learn is not, however, purely…

  3. Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…

  4. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  5. Out of Sight, Out of Mind? Barriers to Participation in Rural Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Mike; And Others

    This document contains the following papers, which were developed during a project in which barriers to participation in adult education in rural England were examined through case studies of the historical/geographical, economic/social, and political/public/administrative barriers to participation in four regions of England (East Sussex,…

  6. Adult Vocational Education Follow Through. A System for Participant Feedback for Decision Makers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas R.

    The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Leisure Participation of Youth and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, M.; Orgaz, M. B.; Verdugo, M. A.; Ullan, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with developmental disabilities are at high risk for a limited participation in leisure activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation in, preference for and interest in leisure activities of young and adults with developmental disabilities, and to examine the factors associated with leisure activity.…

  8. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  9. The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed for participants in "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." It provides the 27 participant handouts for the six workshops in the series. The first in the series, "Setting the Stage: The Changing World of Work," is a workshop to clarify what is occurring in the world of work and apply that…

  10. Older Adults' Participation in Education and Successful Aging: Implications for University Continuing Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Representatives from Manitoba seniors' organizations and the University of Manitoba collaborated on a proposal to examine the participation of older adults in learning activities. The initiative led to a series of studies on this theme, including an exploration of participation at a seniors' centre (Sloane-Seale & Kops, 2004), a comparison of…

  11. Perceived Change among Participants in an Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Charles F.; Blumenthal, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of aerobics on functioning of 101 older adults. Subjects participated in either aerobics group, yoga group, or waiting list group for 16 weeks. Aerobic and yoga participants perceived positive changes in several significant life areas; perceived improvement was more closely related to objective improvement for physiological…

  12. Last Chance Gulch: Youth Participation in Urban Adult Basic Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores; Flugman, Bert; Spiegel, Seymour

    2006-01-01

    In a case study of four urban adult basic education programs in a northeastern state, large increases in the participation of 16- to 20-year-old students were found. Many of these students were reading below the fifth-grade level despite aspiring to the General Education Development (GED) diploma. Reasons for youth participation included increased…

  13. Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

  14. Gatekeepers of Science: Attitudes toward the Research Participation of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Keys, Christopher B.; Henry, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' attitudes influence scientific knowledge about individuals with intellectual disability. We recruited 260 intellectual disability researchers and IRB members to develop a measure of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability, the Participation in…

  15. Sustaining advocacy and action on women's participation and gender equality in adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.

  16. Older Adults Newly Diagnosed with Symptomatic Myeloma Want to Participate in Treatment Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Tariman, Joseph D.; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G.; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives The purpose of the study was to describe the preferences for participation in decision making of older patients newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and decisional role preferences. Design Descriptive, cross sectional design Setting Subjects’ homes and two large academic cancer centers. Sample The convenience sample consisted of 20 older adults (60 years of age and above) with symptomatic myeloma diagnosed within the past 6 months. Methods The Control Preferences Scale was administered followed by an in-person one-time semi-structured interview. Main Research Variables Role preferences for participation in treatment decision-making, age, gender, race, work status, personal relationship status, education, and income. Findings 55% (n=11) of the subjects had preferred a shared role with the physician and 40% (n=8) had preferred to make the decisions after seriously considering the opinion of their physicians. Only one subject preferred to leave the decision to the doctor as long as the doctor considered the patient’s treatment preferences. Sociodemographic characteristics had no impact on preferences for participation in treatment decision-making. Conclusions The study findings indicate that older adults newly diagnosed with myeloma wanted to participate during treatment decision-making. Oncology nurses must respect the patient's desired role preference and oncology clinicians must listen to the patient and allow them to be autonomous in making treatment decisions if the patient so desire such control in the decision-making process. A culture of equipoise between the patient and the clinician during TDM must be cultivated in order to achieve the patient's desired level of participation. More studies that focus on supporting and involving patients diagnosed with myeloma in the decision-making process are needed in order to influence clinical practice and policy. Practice

  17. Developing Mentors: Adult participation, practices, and learning in an out-of-school time STEM program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipio, Deana Aeolani

    This dissertation examines learning within an out-of-school time (OST) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) broadening participation program. The dissertation includes an introduction, three empirical chapters (written as individual articles), and a conclusion. The dissertation context is a chemical oceanography OST program for middle school students called Project COOL---Chemical Oceanography Outside the Lab. The program was a collaboration between middle school OST programming, a learning sciences research laboratory, and a chemical oceanography laboratory. Both labs were located at a research-based university in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Participants include 34 youth, 12 undergraduates, and five professional scientists. The dissertation data corpus includes six years of ethnographic field notes across three field sites, 400 hours of video and audio recordings, 40 hours of semi-structured interviews, and more than 100 participant generated artifacts. Analysis methods include comparative case analysis, cognitive mapping, semiotic cluster analysis, video interaction analysis, and discourse analysis. The first empirical article focuses on synthesizing productive programmatic features from four years of design-based research.. The second article is a comparative case study of three STEM mentors from non-dominant communities in the 2011 COOL OST Program. The third article is a comparative case study of undergraduates learning to be mentors in the 2014 COOL OST Program. Findings introduce Deep Hanging as a theory of learning in practice. Deep Hanging entails authentic tasks in rich contexts, providing access, capitalizing on opportunity, and building interpersonal relationships. Taken together, these three chapters illuminate the process of designing a rich OST learning environment and the kinds of learning in practice that occurred for adult learners learning to be mentors through their participation in the COOL OST program. In

  18. Toward a Model of Young Adult Participation in Adult Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James Leonard

    The goal of this study was to construct from the available data a model for integrating the interrelated variables of participation into a consistent, theoretical framework which explained who participated in which activities and why they participated. The author sought to attain the goal by establishing two variable relationships to determine the…

  19. Research participation by older adults at end of life: barriers and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to elaborate on barriers to research participation by older adults at end of life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains: societal attitudes toward death, research procedures, health care organizations, agency staff, patients' families and caregivers, and patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, and infringements on patient self-determination, as well as potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context includes the realization that a singular change will not have large enough impact on participation. We conclude that, along with the responsibility to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying individuals, there is also a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older adults at end of life. PMID:20078006

  20. Changes in Adult, Child, and Family Functioning among Participants in a Family Treatment Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Cosden, Merith; Koch, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes for 76 adults and 115 children from 62 families participating in a Family Treatment Drug Court (FTDC), in either residential or outpatient settings, were studied. Improvements in psychosocial functioning were calculated using a reliable change index (RCI) for family, adult, and child measures. Among outcomes, significant improvements in family functioning were noted and associated with improvements in child development and the likelihood of reunification. Support for FTDCs and implications for future practice and research are discussed. PMID:26827466

  1. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine in healthy adult participants: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Betaine supplementation has been shown to be an effective agent for decreasing plasma homocysteine in healthy adults. Studies in healthy volunteers show that 6 g/d of betaine lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations by 5% to 20%. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials that used daily betaine supplementation to identify the range in betaine's effects on lowering homocysteine. Methods Five randomized controlled trials published between 2002 and 2010 were identified using MEDLINE and a manual search. All 5 studies used health adult participants who were supplemented with at least 4 g/d of betaine for between 6 and 24 weeks. A meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model, and the overall effect size was calculated for changes in plasma homocysteine. Results The pooled estimate of effect for betaine supplementation on plasma homocysteine was a reduction of 1.23 μmol/L, which was statistically significant (95% confidence interval, − 1.61 to − 0.85; P = .01). Conclusion Supplementation with at least 4g/d of betaine for a minimum of 6 weeks can lower plasma homocysteine. PMID:23997720

  2. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental factors more work-related and a subdivision of personal factors. For data extraction the method known as qualitative metasummary was used and the manifest frequency effect size (MFES) for each category in the ICF was calculated. Results From 33 included studies 318 factors have been extracted and classified in the ICF. In the classification the frequency of occurrences and the consistency in direction (i.e., hindering or facilitating) have been made visible. The ICF categories with the highest MFES were mental functions with factors like feelings and emotions about dyslexia; activities like reading or writing/spelling; participation with factors like acquiring and keeping a job; social relationships at work where the attitudes and support of the employer and co-workers are important; working conditions with factors like the availability of assistive technology and accommodations on the job; and personal factors like self-disclosure and coping strategies. Conclusions In the context of work DD affects nearly all domains of functioning, mostly in a negative way. Within each domain the impact of DD increases over the course of life. To overcome that negative influence, many forms of adaptation, compensation, or coping are mentioned. Also notable is the lack of positive attitudes toward DD of the participants with DD—with the exception of the attitudes of teachers with DD—as well as on the part of colleagues, supervisors, and employers. PMID:24460949

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Older Adults and College Students Participating in Recycling Mentors, a Service-Learning, Environmental Health Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth; Fiala, Kelly Ann; Covan, Eleanor Krassen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of both students and older adults that participated in a service-learning, environmental health education program called Recycling Mentors (RM). Methods: Surveys were conducted before and after participation in RM. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS.…

  4. Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with EF participants enrolled from 2005 to 2012. Interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using a deductive approach. Participants were motivated to join EF for expected physical benefits and the social environment of a group-based class. Actualized benefits of participation included physical, social, functional, and improved self-image/sense of well-being. Participants valued the practical application of class exercises to daily activities that support independent living, such as lifting objects and completing household chores. Organizations looking to implement EF or improve existing EF classes can improve program reach, implementation, and maintenance by incorporating participants' expressed motivations and valued benefits in program marketing and by improving organizational support to meet participant needs. EF class instructors can tailor their classes to engage participants based on their motivations. Understanding participants' motivations and valued benefits can improve EF dissemination by meeting participant needs with tailored class offerings and organizational needs informed by participant insights that aid program sustainability. PMID:27178496

  5. Going Back to School: Participation Motives and Experiences of Older Adults in an Undergraduate Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scala, Marisa A.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with 191 older adults attending college (131 females, 60 males) revealed that gender, educational attainment, employment status, and degree-seeking behavior were important sources of differences in motivation for participating. Personal or family health problems were most frequently cited for stopping attendance. (SK)

  6. Researching Returns Emanating from Participation in Adult Education Courses: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitsides, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Throughout contemporary literature, participants in adult education courses have been reported to acquire knowledge and skills, develop understanding and enhance self-confidence, parameters that induce changes in their personal lives, while enabling them to play a more active role in their family, community or work. In this vein, a large-scale,…

  7. Participation in Adult Education and Occupational Mobility. Abstract of a Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Lawrence E.

    Based on analysis of differences among four groups of 40 males each, this study investigated the relationship between recent (within the past five years) adult education participation and occupational mobility. A 119 item questionnaire covering demographic background, early education, occupational history, amount of continuing education, attitudes…

  8. The Role of Adolescent Extracurricular Activities in Adult Political Participation. CIRCLE Working Paper 02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirlin, Mary

    2003-01-01

    This literature review is specifically interested in empirical research addressing the relationship between adolescent participation in extracurricular activities and adult political engagement. Relevant research is found in political science, psychology, education and sociology. In order to capture the literature most directly related to the main…

  9. Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Participations through Interactive Radio Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs) forge effective participations between adults (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. IRPs are vital for them to be engaged citizens,…

  10. Deterrents to Participation in Adult Education. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Changing socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic forces have caused educational nonparticipation among adults to be treated as a social issue. Recent research has attempted to combine dispositional, situational, and environmental factors into composite models of participation. These models have suggested the following categories of deterrence…

  11. Low-Education Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Relationships with Selected Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated informal learning activities among low-education adults, using data from the 2005 National Household Education Survey. Survey respondents were asked about their participation in six types of informal learning activities, from reading books to using computers to attending conventions. Respondents with the lowest educational…

  12. Enhancing Choice and Participation for Adults with Severe Disabilities in Community-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Karena J.; Browder, Diane M.

    1998-01-01

    Three adults with severe disabilities received instructional support to make purchases in fast food restaurants. During intervention, participants were prompted to make five distinct choices during the community routine. This prompting resulted not only in increased choice making, but also in collateral increases in the performance of the…

  13. Congregational Participation of a National Sample of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Kleinert, Harold L.; LoBianco, Tony F.; Sheppard-­Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N.; Tyree, Milton S.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator…

  14. The Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Adult Participants: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…

  15. Participation in Adult Education: Current Population Survey, May 1984 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    The "Participation in Adult Education" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is prepared triennially for the Center for Education Statistics (CES) by the Bureau of the Census, as a supplement to its regular "Current Population Survey" (sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics). Previous specialized surveys in this series have been conducted in…

  16. Functional Path Analysis as a Multivariate Technique in Developing a Theory of Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    This paper reports on attempts by the author to construct a theoretical framework of adult education participation using a theory development process and the corresponding multivariate statistical techniques. Two problems are identified: the lack of theoretical framework in studying problems, and the limiting of statistical analysis to univariate…

  17. Modeling Participation Intention of Adults in Continuing Education--A Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…

  18. Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and…

  19. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  20. Participation Structure and Incidental Focus on Form in Adult ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of incidental focus on form (FonF) in adult English-as-a-second-language classrooms. Specifically, it explored the extent to which the amount, type, and effectiveness of FonF were related to differences in classroom participation structure, that is, the organization of classroom talk within which FonF may occur. The…

  1. Motivations and Characteristics of Adult Students: Factor Stability and Construct Validity of the Educational Participation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.

    1996-01-01

    Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…

  2. The Influence of Social Background on Participation in Adult Education:Applying the Cultural Capital Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…

  3. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  4. Title IX, girls' sports participation, and adult female physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu

    2010-02-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236

  5. Correlates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity participation in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bodde, Amy E; Seo, Dong-Chul; Frey, Georgia C; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Lohrmann, David K

    2013-09-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low levels of physical activity and higher than average rates of related chronic health conditions. Understanding correlates of their physical activity participation may improve health promoting interventions. Forty-two adults with ID participated in a physical activity study. Physical activity knowledge and skills, awareness of recommendations and demographic characteristics were analyzed for their association with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation measured by accelerometers. Five variables were significantly correlated with MVPA. Body mass index was inversely correlated with MVPA, and gender, job location, job tasks, and place of residence were all significantly associated with MVPA. Understanding correlates of physical activity in this population will help inform disability service and health promotion professionals in future research and health intervention design. PMID:23142762

  6. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

  7. Barriers to and Facilitators of Access and Participation in Community-Based Exercise Programmes from the Perspective of Adults with Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Diane C.; Covert, Megan; Gauthier, Roxanne; Monas, Alanna; Murray, Danielle; O'Brien, Kelly K.; Mendelson, Anita Debbie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore communication-related experiences with accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes from the perspective of adults with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: Adults with mild to severe post-stroke aphasia were recruited from the Aphasia Institute (AI), Toronto, Canada, for a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured, in-depth one-on-one interviews. Participants were asked to identify facilitators of, barriers to, and strategies for joining and participating in exercise programmes. Interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results: Ten adults with mild (40%), moderate (40%), or severe (20%) aphasia participated in this study. The majority of participants were men (60%) aged 60–69 years (40%). Participants experienced a combination of communication, environmental, and personal facilitators of and barriers to accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes. Strategies to enhance participation can be applied at both programme and individual levels. Conclusions: Findings may inform clinical practice and programming to optimize access to and participation in community-based exercise programmes for adults with post-stroke aphasia. PMID:25922558

  8. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p < 0.05). Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9) compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98). Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults. PMID:27293891

  9. The Economic Benefits of Adult Learning to Low-Qualified Young Adults: Do Participation and Qualification Decrease the Risk of Unemployment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide consider participation in adult learning beneficial for employability, in particular for specific target groups. However, still little is known about the effect of adult learning pursued by low-qualified young adults on their employment prospects. On the basis of a Flemish longitudinal database, we study the determinants and…

  10. Exercise training program for older adults. Incentives and disincentives for participation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Eveker, Ann; Bronder, Deborah Rilling; Meiner, Sue E; Binder, Ellen F

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the incentives and disincentives for participating in an exercise training program for community-dwelling individuals 78 and older. One hundred forty-seven women and 62 men participated in this descriptive study, and ages ranged from 78 to 95 years (mean 82.7 +/- 4.1). Individuals were interviewed by phone about their decision to participate in an exercise program. Qualitative responses were analyzed using content analysis. Three main incentive themes emerged: Health Benefits, Psychological Benefits, and Positive Program Features. Disincentive themes included Competing Commitments, Doubts about Exercise, and Negative Program Features. To better tailor an exercise program to the needs of this older age group, nurses working with older adults should keep in mind the lifestyle, age-specific obligations, and set of values affecting this cohort's participation. PMID:14528746

  11. Research Participation by Older Adults at the End-of-Life: Barriers and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate upon barriers to research participation by older adults at end-of-life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains:1) societal attitudes towards death; 2) research procedures; 3) health care organizations; 4) agency staff; 5) patients’ families and caregivers; and 6) patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, infringements upon patient self-determination, as well as, potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context included the realization that a singular change would not have large enough impact. We concluded that simultaneous with the need to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying persons is a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older persons at end-of-life. PMID:20078006

  12. 20 CFR 664.500 - May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...

  13. 20 CFR 664.500 - May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...

  14. 20 CFR 664.500 - May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs...

  15. 20 CFR 664.500 - May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...

  16. Perceived change among participants in an exercise program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Emery, C F; Blumenthal, J A

    1990-08-01

    Data regarding perceived change were collected as part of a study of the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychological, cognitive, and physiological functioning among 101 healthy older adults. Subjects were assigned randomly to an aerobic exercise group, a yoga control group, or a waiting list group for 16 weeks, after which all subjects participated in aerobic exercise for another 16 weeks. Exercise participants perceived positive changes in a wide range of significant life areas, and perceived improvement was more closely related to objective improvement for physiological indicators than for indicators of cognitive functioning or psychological well-being. PMID:2394387

  17. Development of a conceptual model to predict physical activity participation in adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Driver, Simon

    2008-10-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with brain injuries completed a series of questionnaires measuring each psychosocial variable. The structural analysis indicated a nonsignificant chi squared value and good fit indices for model two which included affect as the mediating variable. Findings indicate that affect is critical in shaping the physical activity cognitions and behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Suggestions are made on practical ways to enhance affect and subsequently physical activity participation. PMID:18955746

  18. Congregational Participation of a National Sample of Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carter, Erik W; Kleinert, Harold L; LoBianco, Tony F; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N; Tyree, Milton S

    2015-12-01

    Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator data for a sample of 12,706 adults with IDD residing in 24 states. Almost half of adults (48.3%) reported attending a religious service in the past month, and more than one third (34.6%) attended 3 or more times. Religious involvement varied considerably based on a variety of individual (e.g., race, disability type, behavioral support needs, communication mode) and contextual factors (e.g., geographic locale, residential type). Moreover, monthly involvement in religious activities was much less common than participation in other community activities (i.e., exercise, entertainment, eating out, shopping). We offer recommendations for supporting the spiritual lives of adults with IDD, as well as highlight areas for future research and practice. PMID:26618738

  19. WELFARE AND CITIZENSHIP: THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE ON YOUNG ADULTS' CIVIC PARTICIPATION.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather

    2009-10-01

    Recent scholarship and public discourse highlight an apparent waning of civic engagement in the United States. Although the welfare state is generally thought to support democracy by reducing economic inequality, it may paradoxically contribute to political disempowerment of some groups. We examine the effects of state interventions on civic participation among young adults, hypothesizing that involvement with stigmatizing social programs, such as welfare, reduces political engagement while receipt of non-stigmatizing government assistance does not dampen civic involvement. Using official voting records and survey data from the Youth Development Study (YDS), a longitudinal community sample of young adults, a series of regression models suggests that welfare recipients are less likely to vote than non-recipients, whereas recipients of non-means tested government assistance participate similarly to young adults who do not receive government help. These effects hold even when background factors, self-efficacy, and prior voting behavior are controlled. Welfare receipt is not associated, however, with suppressed participation in non-state arenas such as volunteer work. Intensive interviews with YDS welfare recipients are used to illustrate and develop the analysis. PMID:19888350

  20. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    PubMed

    Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. PMID:24506213

  1. Dynamics of Adult Participation in Part-Time Education and Training: Results from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Flora; Lambe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the dynamics of adult participation in part-time education and training throughout the 90s and into the 2000s using data from 14 waves (1992-2005) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We study the volume (stocks) of participation and non-participation and the gross flows between states. This analysis provides a…

  2. Weight Outcomes of Latino Adults and Children Participating in the Y Living Program, a Family-Focused Lifestyle Intervention, San Antonio, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Yin, Zenong; Esparza, Laura; Lopez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction US Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and physical inactivity than the general US population, putting them at greater risk for chronic disease. This evaluation aimed to examine the impact of the Y Living Program (Y Living), a 12-week family-focused healthy lifestyle program, on the weight status of adult and child (aged ≥7 years) participants. Methods In this pretest–posttest evaluation, participants attended twice-weekly group education sessions and engaged in physical activity at least 3 times per week. Primary outcome measures were body mass index ([BMI], zBMI and BMI percentile for children), weight, waist circumference, and percentage body fat. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and mixed effects models were used to evaluate pretest–posttest differences (ie, absolute change and relative change) for adults and children separately. Results BMI, weight, waist circumference, and percentage body fat improved significantly (both absolutely and relatively) among adults who completed the program (n = 180; all P ≤ .001). Conversely, child participants that completed the program (n = 72) showed no improvements. Intervention effects varied across subgroups. Among adults, women and participants who were obese at baseline had larger improvements than did children who were obese at baseline or who were in families that had an annual household income of $15,000 or more. Conclusion Significant improvements in weight were observed among adult participants but not children. This family-focused intervention has potential to prevent excess weight gain among high-risk Latino families. PMID:26652219

  3. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  4. The "participating victim" in the study of erotic experiences between children and adults: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Malón, Agustín

    2011-02-01

    During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called "participating victims," i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships. The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm. Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences with adults. PMID:20039115

  5. A STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES IN AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED IN ANY ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SITTS, MARVIN RALPH

    IN THIS STUDY OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES, THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND AN ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEW SHEET WERE ADMINISTERED TO A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES OFFERED BY THE MOTT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FLINT, MICHIGAN, BOARD OF EDUCATION, AND TO A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT…

  6. Increasing Rural Adults' Participation in Collegial Programs: Exemplary Programs. Proceedings of the Rural Action Conference "Programs and Activities to Overcome Barriers to Rural Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education" (Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Approximately 85 educators from six states participated in a regional conference designed to showcase exemplary and collaborative programs to overcome many of the barriers faced by rural adults in pursuing higher education. After the keynote address, "The Role of Adult Learning in Revitalizing Rural Communities," by Cornelia Butler Flora, the…

  7. An Investigation of the Factors That Motivate Adults to Participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) Classes at a Southeastern Wisconsin Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump-Phillips, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the plausibility of using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the factors that motivate adults to participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at a Southeast Wisconsin Community College. The original TPB (Ajzen, 1991) attests that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are…

  8. Participation in the 2005 General Election by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, H.; Redley, M.; Holland, A. J.; Clare, I. C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: International and UK legislation confirms and supports the right of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) to vote. It is widely accepted, although not previously empirically confirmed, that citizens with ID are under-represented at the polls. Method: To document the extent of their under-representation at the polls, the names and…

  9. Participant Observation as a Method for Evaluating a Mental Health Promotion Program with Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindale, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    A researcher observed older adults participating in planning meetings and a Search Conference to identify community needs. Participants were successfully engaged in addressing important health and social needs. Participant observation was validated as a flexible, effective means of collecting data on older persons whose circumstances might make…

  10. The Social, Economic, and Political Contexts of Adults' Participation in Undergraduate Programmes: A State-Level Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of adult undergraduates to adult populations in the 50 states was calculated. Cross-sectoral analysis identified state characteristics that correlated with participation rates. Best predictors were availability of undergraduate education, educational technology efforts, the population's level of educational attainment, budget…

  11. Adult Motivations in Community Orchestra Participation: A Pilot Case Study of the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra (New Jersey)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shansky, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of adults in choosing to participate in community orchestras. This paper identifies many of those motivations and examines the reasons and implications of why the adults in the study chose to continue to play in community orchestras. The investigation was conducted in 2007 via a case study…

  12. Do "Learners" Always Learn? The Impact of Workplace Adult Literacy Courses on Participants' Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Alison; Jenkins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which British adults participating in workplace literacy courses improved their reading comprehension skills, using longitudinal data which cover the period from enrolment until between two and three years later. Learners were tested using an instrument designed explicitly for adults, with two parallel forms. For…

  13. Psychosocial Experiences Associated with Confirmed and Self-Identified Dyslexia: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…

  14. Making It Visible: An Exploration of How Adult Education Participation Informs Parent Involvement in Education for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…

  15. Older Adult Perceptions of Participation in Group- and Home-Based Falls Prevention Exercise.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lauren M; Hill, K D; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline; Haines, Terry

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23-39%), health professional recommendation (13-19%), and social interaction (4-16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41-67%) and health (15-31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2-14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46-63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22-48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18-46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial. PMID:26539657

  16. PATTERNS OF PARTICIPATION IN A PUBLIC ADULT NIGHT SCHOOL PROGRAM. PAPER PRESENTED AT THE NATIONAL SEMINAR ON ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH (CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 11-13, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DICKINSON, JAMES GARY

    TO DETERMINE WHETHER RETENTION IN PUBLIC ADULT NIGHT SCHOOL PROGRAMS IS RELATED TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS OR TO THE LENGTH AND NATURE OF COURSES, THIS STUDY WAS MADE OF PATTERNS OF PARTICIPATION IN SUCH PROGRAMS IN WHITE ROCK, BRITISH COLUMBIA. DATA WERE DERIVED FROM 2075 REGISTRATION CARDS AND 98 COMPLETED ATTENDANCE…

  17. ‘What Do I Know? Should I Participate?’ Considerations on Participation in HIV Related Research among HIV Infected Adults in Bangalore, South India

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rashmi J.; Antony, Jimmy; Krishnamurthy, Shubha; Shet, Anita; De Costa, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    Background India has the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world after South Africa. Much HIV related behavioral, clinical and laboratory based research is ongoing in India. Yet little is known on Indian HIV patients' knowledge of research, their processes of decision making and motives for participation. We aimed to explore these areas among HIV infected individuals to understand their reasons for participating in research. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a cross sectional survey among 173 HIV infected adults at a tertiary level hospital in Bangalore, India, done between October 2010 and January 2011. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the participants by trained research assistants to assess their knowledge regarding research, willingness to participate, decision making and determinants of participation. Participants were presented with five hypothetical HIV research studies. Each study had a different level of intervention and time commitment. Of respondents, 103(60%), said that research meant ‘to discover something new’ and 138(80%) were willing to participate in research. A third of the respondents were unaware of their right to refuse participation. Willingness to participate in research varied with level of intervention. It was the lowest for the hypothetical study involving sensitive questions followed by the hypothetical drug trial; and was the highest for the hypothetical cross sectional questionnaire based study (p<0.0015). Individual health benefits and altruism were the primary motives for participation in research and indicate the presence of therapeutic misconception. Women were less likely to make autonomous decisions for participation in interventional studies. Conclusions/Significance Despite a majority willing to participate, over a third of respondents did not have any knowledge of research or the voluntary nature of participation. This has ethical implications. Researchers need to focus on enabling potential

  18. Factors Related to Self-Rated Participation in Adolescents and Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…

  19. Personal Factors and Perceived Barriers to Participation in Leisure Activities for Young and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Ullan, Ana M.; Martinez, Magdalena M.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities has been identified as a factor that favors inclusion in the community and it also contributes to a better quality of life. This study analyzed the influence of certain personal characteristics and environmental factors in the participation in leisure activities of youngsters and adults with developmental…

  20. Revisiting the Literature on Study Abroad Participation in Adult and Higher Education: Moving beyond Two Decades and Two Percent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Voges, Shelbee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to critically examine over two decades of research concerned with study abroad participation in the United States. Research questions framing the investigation are: 1) What methodological shortcomings can be identified in assessing influences on study abroad participation for adult and higher education…

  1. The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Brooks, A. Paul; Maher, Arthur; Flensborg, Patsy; Arnold, Susan; Fletcher, Tony; Steenland, Kyle; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Pollard, Cecil; Halverson, Joel A.; Vieira, Verónica M.; Jin, Chuanfang; Leyden, Kevin M.; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The C8 Health Project was created, authorized, and funded as part of the settlement agreement reached in the case of Jack W. Leach, et al. v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (no. 01-C-608 W.Va., Wood County Circuit Court, filed 10 April 2002). The settlement stemmed from the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) contamination of drinking water in six water districts in two states near the DuPont Washington Works facility near Parkersburg, West Virginia. Objectives This study reports on the methods and results from the C8 Health Project, a population study created to gather data that would allow class members to know their own PFOA levels and permit subsequent epidemiologic investigations. Methods Final study participation was 69,030, enrolled over a 13-month period in 2005–2006. Extensive data were collected, including demographic data, medical diagnoses (both self-report and medical records review), clinical laboratory testing, and determination of serum concentrations of 10 perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Here we describe the processes used to collect, validate, and store these health data. We also describe survey participants and their serum PFC levels. Results The population geometric mean for serum PFOA was 32.91 ng/mL, 500% higher than previously reported for a representative American population. Serum concentrations for perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were elevated 39% and 73% respectively, whereas perfluorooctanesulfonate was present at levels similar to those in the U.S. population. Conclusions This largest known population study of community PFC exposure permits new evaluations of associations between PFOA, in particular, and a range of health parameters. These will contribute to understanding of the biology of PFC exposure. The C8 Health Project also represents an unprecedented effort to gather basic data on an exposed population; its achievements and limitations can inform future legal settlements for populations exposed to

  2. Widespread pain and depression are key modifiable risk factors associated with reduced social participation in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Ross; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Belcher, John; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lacey, Rosie J.; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In older adults, reduced social participation increases the risk of poor health-related quality of life, increased levels of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Older adults frequently present to primary care, which offers the potential to deliver interventions at the point of care to increase social participation. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the key modifiable exposures that were associated with reduced social participation in a primary care population of older adults. The study was a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants (n = 1991) were those aged ≥65 years who had completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3 and 6-year follow-ups. Generalized linear mixed modeling framework was used to test for associations between exposures and decreasing social participation over 6 years. At baseline, 44% of participants reported reduced social participation, increasing to 49% and 55% at 3 and 6-year follow-up. Widespread pain and depression had the strongest independent association with reduced social participation over the 6-year follow-up period. The prevalence of reduced social participation for those with widespread pain was 106% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.72, 2.46), higher than for those with no pain. Those with depression had an increased prevalence of 82% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 2.06). These associations persisted in multivariate analysis. Population ageing will be accompanied by increasing numbers of older adults with pain and depression. Future trials should assess whether screening for widespread pain and depression, and targeting appropriate treatment in primary care, increase social participation in older people. PMID:27495019

  3. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  4. Factors affecting the benefits of a six-month supervised exercise program on community-dwelling older adults: interactions among age, gender, and participation.

    PubMed

    Hulya, Tuna Donat; Sevi, Yeşilyaprak Subasi Sevgi; Serap, Acar; Ayse, Ozcan Edeer

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of age, gender, and participation on the benefits of a 6-month supervised exercise program on older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-five (37 women, 48 men) community-dwelling older adults participated. The chair sit-and-reach test, the 8-foot up-and-go test, the 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, balance, metabolic rate, muscle strength, and position sense were evaluated. Repeated-measures of analysis of variance was performed including dependent variables of age, gender, and participation in the exercise program as dependent inter-subject factors and time of assessment as an intra-subject factor. [Results] Mean exercise participation was 29.88 ± 1.29 sessions. Flexibility, balance, position sense, and strength showed a significant main effect of time. There was a significant gender interaction for right shoulder flexion strength and knee extension strength, a significant gender-participation interaction for pre-/post-intervention measures of functional mobility, and a significant age-participation interaction for flexibility. [Conclusion] Exercise training improved outcomes after 6 months of supervised exercise, but the changes were similar regardless of participation level. Changes in strength were more pronounced in men than women. PMID:26157233

  5. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  6. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  7. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  8. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...

  9. Improving CME: Using Participant Satisfaction Measures to Specify Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Jason J.; Regala, Roderick P.

    2013-01-01

    Imagine having developed a continuing medical education (CME) initiative to educate physicians on updated guidelines regarding high cholesterol in adults. This initiative consisted of didactic presentations and case-based discussions offered in 5 major US cities, followed by a Web-based enduring component to distill key points of the live…

  10. Participation in clinical research: perspectives of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Keusch, Florian; Rao, Rohini; Chang, Lawrence; Lepkowski, James; Reddy, Pavan; Choi, Sung Won

    2014-10-01

    Despite major improvements over the past several decades, many patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) continue to suffer from significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical research studies (trials) have been integral to advancing the standard of care in HSCT. However, 1 of the biggest challenges with clinical trials is the low participation rate. Although barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials have been previously explored, studies specific to HSCT are lacking. The current study was undertaken to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HSCT patients regarding clinical trials. As members of focus groups, participants responded to open-ended questions that assessed factors influencing decision-making about HSCT clinical trials. Suggestions for improvements in the recruitment process were also solicited among participants. Seventeen adult HSCT patients and 6 parents of pediatric HSCT patients participated in the study. The median age was 56 years (range, 18 to 70) and 44 years (range, 28 to 54) for adult patients and parents, respectively. Participants universally indicated that too much information was provided within the informed consents and they were intimidated by the medical and legal language. Despite the large amount of information provided to them at the time of study enrollment, the participants had limited knowledge retention and recall of study details. Nevertheless, participants reported overall positive experiences with clinical trial participation and many would readily choose to participate again. A common concern among participants was the uncertainty of study outcome and general lack of feedback about results at the end of the study. Participants suggested that investigators provide more condensed and easier to understand informed consents and follow-up of study findings. These findings could be used to help guide the development of improved consent documents and enhanced

  11. Social participation in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity; testing the measurement properties of the Dutch Keele Assessment of Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hermsen, Lotte A H; Terwee, Caroline B; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Zwaard, Babette; Smalbrugge, Martin; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Wilkie, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP) questionnaire measures person-perceived participation in 11 aspects of life. Participation allows fulfilment of valued life activities and social roles, which are important to older adults. Since we aimed to use the KAP in a larger Dutch cohort, we examined the measurement properties of KAP in a Dutch sample of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Design Cohort study. Setting A community-based sample in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and North Staffordshire, UK. Participants Participants were aged 65 years and over, had at least two chronic diseases (identified through general practice consultation) and reported joint pain on most days (questionnaire). The Dutch cohort provided baseline data (n=407), follow-up data at 6 months (n=364) and test–retest data 2 weeks after 6 months (n=122). The UK cohort provided comparable data (n=404). Outcome measures The primary outcome was person-perceived participation, as measured with the KAP. The measurement properties examined were the following: structural validity (factor analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's α), reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients; ICC), construct validity (hypothesis testing), responsiveness (hypothesis testing and area under the curve) and cross-cultural validity (differential item functioning; DIF). Results Factor analysis revealed two domains: KAPd1: ‘participation in basic activities’ and KAPd2: ‘participation in complex activities’, with Cronbach's α of 0.74 and 0.57 and moderate test–retest reliability: ICC of 0.63 and 0.57, respectively. Further analyses of KAPd1 showed poor construct validity and responsiveness. Despite the uniform DIF in item ‘interpersonal relations’, the total KAPd1 score seemed comparable between the Dutch and UK sample. Conclusions Only KAP domain ‘participation in basic activities’ showed good internal consistency and sufficient reliability. KAPd2 lacks sufficient

  12. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  13. Reasonable Choices: Understanding Why Under-Educated Individuals Choose Not To Participate in Adult Education. Summary Report for the Department for Adult Education & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jane; Haleman, Diana; Goldstein, Beth; Anderman, Eric

    The reasons why undereducated individuals choose not to participate in adult education were examined in a comparative, qualitative case study that was conducted in eight nonmetropolitan sites (including the pilot site) in diverse economic regions across Kentucky. Data were collected from the following sources: in-depth interviews with 84 adults…

  14. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment may benefit, not harm, young adult staff members.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S; Earleywine, M

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of weight-management programmes, some researchers caution that participation in an aggressive approach to weight management could promote the development of eating pathology. The current study evaluated the risks and benefits for young adults of serving as staff members in an immersion treatment of adolescent obesity over the course of a summer. Participants included weight loss staff members (n = 108) along with a comparison group of young adults with similar demographic characteristics (n = 136). Participants completed assessments of eating disorder and obesity risk at three time points: the beginning of the summer, the end of the summer and a 6-week follow-up. Weight loss leadership participants who were initially overweight lost weight over the course of the summer, but those at healthy weights maintained their weight. Comparison participants also maintained their weight during the summer. Weight loss staff members also increased dietary restraint over the summer, and increases in dietary restraint appeared to facilitate appropriate weight reduction. Participation as a leader in an immersion weight loss programme seemed to benefit, not harm, young adults; this suggests potential advantages for using weight controlling interventions in a wide range of individuals, including as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26129749

  15. The Impact of Welfare State Regimes on Barriers to Participation in Adult Education: A Bounded Agency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell; Desjardins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative findings on barriers to participation in adult education are reviewed and some of the defining parameters that may explain observed national differences are considered. A theoretical perspective based on bounded agency is put forth to take account of the interaction between structurally and individually based barriers…

  16. Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

  17. Participation Patterns in Adult Education: The Role of Institutions and Public Policy Frameworks in Resolving Coordination Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels of investment in the development and maintenance of…

  18. 20 CFR 664.500 - May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? 664.500 Section 664.500 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May...

  19. Adult ESL: Politics, Pedagogy, and Participation in Classroom and Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoke, Trudy, Ed.

    The collection of essays on the politics of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction includes: "The Politics of Adult ESL literacy: Becoming Politically Visible" (Pamela Ferguson); "Learning To Be Legal: Unintended Meanings for Adult Schools" (Pia Moriarty); "The Relationship Between Knowing Our Students' Real Needs and Effective…

  20. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TEST METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES OF ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry convened a workshop in Atlanta, GA, that evaluated approaches and methods to ascertain whether there are neurobehavioral sequelae to children and adults exposed to hazardous substances in the environment. his article, developed...

  1. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  2. Review of how we should define (and measure) adherence in studies examining older adults' participation in exercise classes

    PubMed Central

    Hawley-Hague, H; Horne, M; Skelton, D A; Todd, C

    2016-01-01

    Exercise classes provide a range of benefits to older adults, reducing risk of illness, promoting functional ability and improving well-being. However, to be effective and achieve long-term outcomes, exercise needs to be maintained. Adherence is poor and reporting of adherence differs considerably between studies. Objective To explore how adherence to exercise classes for older people is defined in the literature and devise a definition for pooling data on adherence in future studies. Design Methodological review of the approaches used to measure adherence. Methods A review of the literature was carried out using narrative synthesis, based on systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO. 2 investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. Results 37 papers including 34 studies were identified. 7 papers (7 studies) defined adherence as completion (retention). 30 papers (27 studies) identified adherence using attendance records. 12 papers (11 studies) based adherence on duration of exercise and 5 papers (4 studies) specified the intensity with which participants should exercise. Several studies used multiple methods. Conclusions There was little consensus between studies on how adherence should be defined, and even when studies used the same conceptual measure, they measured the concept using different approaches and/or had different cut-off points. Adherence related to health outcomes requires multiple measurements, for example, attendance, duration and intensity. It is important that future studies consider the outcome of the intervention when considering their definition of adherence, and we recommend a series of definitions for future use. PMID:27338884

  3. Older adults' participation in the development of smart environments: an integrated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Hanson, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Smart environments are being developed to support older adults aging in place. However, the design contributions of the older users have not been explicated. The purpose of this review of literature was to determine how older adults' ideas are being incorporated into the design of smart environments. Twenty-one research articles, incorporating older adults' preferences into the design and evaluation of smart environments are presented. Although only one study was found that used findings from older adult focus groups in the design and development of their system, the findings indicate that older adults are open to living in technically advanced environments if doing so would improve their quality of life and help them stay in their own homes, and that incorporating older adults ideas about smart environments improve the desirability of smart homes. PMID:23276642

  4. The prevalence and correlates of sitting in European adults - a comparison of 32 Eurobarometer-participating countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting is an emerging health risk. However, multi-country comparative sitting data are sparse. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of sitting time in 32 European countries. Methods Data from the Eurobarometer 64.3 study were used, which included nationally representative samples (n = 304-1,102) from 32 European countries. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November and December 2005. Usual weekday sitting time was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-version). Sitting time was compared by country, age, gender, years of education, general health status, usual activity and physical activity. Multivariable-adjusted analyses assessed the odds of belonging to the highest sitting quartile. Results Data were available for 27,637 adults aged 15–98 years. Overall, mean reported weekday sitting time was 309 min/day (SD 184 min/day). There was a broad geographical pattern and some of the lowest amounts of daily sitting were reported in southern (Malta and Portugal means 194–236 min/day) and eastern (Romania and Hungary means 191–276 min/day) European countries; and some of the highest amounts of daily sitting were reported in northern European countries (Germany, Benelux and Scandinavian countries; means 407–335 min/day). Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed adults with low physical activity levels (OR = 5.10, CI95 = 4.60-5.66), those with high sitting in their main daily activity (OR = 2.99, CI95 = 2.74-3.25), those with a bad/very bad general health state (OR = 1.87, CI95 = 1.63-2.15) and higher education levels (OR = 1.48, CI95 = 1.38-1.59) were more likely to be in the highest quartile of daily sitting time. Adults within Greece (OR = 2.91, CI95 = 2.51-3.36) and Netherlands (OR = 2.56, CI95 = 2.22-2.94) were most likely to be in the highest quartile. High-sit/low-active participants comprised 10.1% of the sample. Adults self

  5. Recruitment Issues and Strategies for Adults Who Are Not Currently Participating in Literacy and Adult Basic Education (ABE) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohring, Aaron

    Adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs have used many different strategies and tools to recruit new students. A small sampling of Tennessee ABE programs shows the more effective recruitment strategies are word-of-mouth referrals; newspaper advertisements and articles; fliers; brochures; posters, radio messages, and public service…

  6. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedisic, Zeljko; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Charity, Melanie J.; Harvey, Jack T.; Banting, Lauren K.; Vergeer, Ineke; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Eime, Rochelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training). However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. Methods Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15–98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1–10.7) and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1–9.5) met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years), and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001). Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001). Conclusions A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically

  7. Studying Participation Networks in Collaboration Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alejandra; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan; Marcos, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a mixed-evaluation method, published elsewhere, to three different learning scenarios. The method defines how to combine social network analysis with qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to study participatory aspects of learning in CSCL contexts. The three case studies include a course-long,…

  8. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  9. A Preliminary Overview of Methods and Techniques in Adult Literacy and Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, S.E.; Puder, William H.

    Several methods and techniques proven successful in literacy and adult basic education are discussed. The Laubach method does not depend on a plot but uses a chart which pictures an English phrase, letter, word, and stylized representation of the first letter of the word. The Gouin Theme Method is Gestalt in approach as the entire sentences are…

  10. Increasing Practitioners Knowledge of Participation Among Elderly Adults in Senior Center Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jan; Bisbee, Carol; Porter, Russell; Flanders, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The research reported in this paper attempted to identify predictors of senior center participation and to ascertain why there has been a decline in the number of individuals participating at senior centers in recent years. The research reports the results of a survey conducted among senior center participants in an 11-county area in the Nortex…

  11. Increasing Practitioners' Knowledge of Participation among Elderly Adults in Senior Center Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jan; Bisbee, Carol; Porter, Russell; Flanders, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The research reported in this paper attempted to identify predictors of senior center participation and to ascertain why there has been a decline in the number of individuals participating at senior centers in recent years. The research reports the results of a survey conducted among senior center participants in an 11-county area in the Nortex…

  12. Participant Leadership in Adult Basic Education: Negotiating Academic Progress and Leadership Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Brendaly; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the conflicts and challenges that student leaders in adult basic education and literacy programs experience in balancing their leadership responsibilities with academic endeavours. Based upon a case study of an adult basic education student leadership council in New York City, the article shows that leadership activities can…

  13. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  14. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  15. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders. PMID:26955926

  16. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  17. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  18. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18 months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18 months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a

  19. An Exploratory Inquiry of the Outcomes of Adults Who Participated in a Virginia Alternative Education Program: Making Sense of Their Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Melody D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop an understanding of how one group of adults who graduated from a Virginia regional alternative program made sense of their experience in an alternative education setting. Specifically, this study sought to determine if adult participants, several years later, perceived participation in the…

  20. Social conditions and urban environment associated with participation in the Ciclovia program among adults from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Luis Fernando; Mosquera, Janeth; Gómez, Olga Lucia; Moreno, José; Pinzon, Jose D; Jacoby, Enrique; Cepeda, Magda; Parra, Diana Celmira

    2015-11-01

    The Ciclovia program (CP) has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression was used for the analysis. Slightly more than 7% of participants had participated in the CP in the previous four weekends. Being male and having a high school degree were positively associated with participation in the CP. Participation in the CP was positively associated with living in neighborhoods with Ciclovia lanes. In contrast, a negative association was found among those living in neighborhoods with a presence of traffic fatalities. This study provides new insights about a recreational program that has potential health benefits in a region marked by urban inequalities in terms of opportunities for physical activity. PMID:26648379

  1. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with social participation of older adults: association with quality of life and best correlates

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Johanne; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components. Results Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P = 0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in “Physical environment and accessibility” (R2 = 0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in “Social support and attitudes” (R2 = 0.51). Conclusion With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions. PMID:20237957

  2. A method for trapping breeding adult American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient and effective method for trapping adult, breeding American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) that minimizes disturbance to nesting birds and the risk of trapping injuries. We used a remote controlled mechanical decoy to lure territorial adults to a leg-hold noose-mat trap. We trapped 25 birds over two seasons and were successful on 54% of our trapping attempts in 2003. We only trapped birds before the breeding season or between nesting attempts to reduce nest-site disturbance.

  3. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. PMID:26681427

  5. The association between social participation and lower extremity muscle strength, balance, and gait speed in US adults.

    PubMed

    Warren, Meghan; Ganley, Kathleen J; Pohl, Patricia S

    2016-12-01

    Social participation is associated with healthy aging, and although associations have been reported between social participation and demographics, no published studies have examined a relationship between social participation and measures amenable to intervention. The purpose was to explore the association between self-reported social participation and lower extremity strength, balance, and gait speed. A cross-sectional analysis of US adults (n = 2291; n = 1,031 males; mean ± standard deviation age 63.5 ± 0.3 years) from the 2001-2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was conducted. Two questions about self-reported difficulty with social participation were categorized into limited (yes/no). The independent variables included knee extension strength (n = 1537; classified as tertiles of weak, normal, and strong), balance (n = 1813; 3 tests scored as pass/fail), and gait speed (n = 2025; dichotomized as slow [less than 1.0 m/s] and fast [greater than or equal to 1.0 m/s]). Logistic regression, accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, and medical conditions, was used to estimate the odds of limitation in social participation with each independent variable. Alpha was decreased to 0.01 due to multiple tests. Slower gait speed was significantly associated with social participation limitation (odds ratio = 3.1; 99% confidence interval: 1.5-6.2). No significant association was found with social participation and lower extremity strength or balance. The odds of having limitation in social participation were 3 times greater in those with slow gait speed. Prospective studies should examine the effect of improved gait speed on levels of social participation. PMID:27413675

  6. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  7. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  8. Scientific Literacy of Adult Participants in an Online Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative…

  9. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Carers as Researchers and Participants in a RCT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Vicky; Leer, Geoffrey; Burchell, Sarah; Khattram, Sukhjinder; Corney, Roslyn; Rowlands, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article describes the process of including people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and carers of people with ID as researchers and participants in randomised controlled trial (RCT) research. People with ID are rarely involved in research about their health, either as researchers or participants. Carers are often included as…

  10. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  11. Through a Gender Lens: Explaining North-Eastern Thai Women's Participation in Adult Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This ethnographic study employs a gender perspective to understand the motivations of eight women literacy learners participating in a village-based functional literacy programme in rural North-eastern Thailand. Field research took place over six months of periodic residence in a North-eastern Thai village, and involved participant observation,…

  12. Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A.; Hinterlong, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood eliminates a key source of support that may trigger greater involvement in social activities and volunteer participation, which are related to better late-life health and functioning. We reexamine and build upon 2 recent studies exploring recent widowhood and social participation. Using different data, we perform a…

  13. Participation and Diffusion Effects of a Peer-Intervention for HIV Prevention among Adults in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Jere, Diana L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether a peer group intervention that reduced self-reported risky behaviors for rural adults in Malawi also had impacts on non-participants in the same communities. We randomly assigned two districts to the intervention and control conditions, and conducted surveys at baseline and 18 months post-intervention using unmatched independent random samples of intervention and control communities in 2003-2006. The six-session peer group intervention was offered to same-gender groups by trained volunteers. In this analysis, we divided the post-intervention sample into three exposure groups: 243 participants and 170 non-participants from the intervention district (total n=415) and 413 control individuals. Controlling for demographics and participation, there were significant favorable diffusion effects on five partially overlapping behavioral outcomes: partner communication, ever used condoms, unprotected sex, recent HIV test, and a community HIV prevention index. Non-participants in the intervention district had more favorable outcomes on these behaviors than survey respondents in the control district. One behavioral outcome, community HIV prevention, showed both participation and diffusion effects. Participating in the intervention had a significant effect on six psychosocial outcomes: HIV knowledge (two measures), hope, condom attitudes, and self-efficacy for community HIV prevention and for safer sex; there were no diffusion effects. This pattern of results suggests that the behavioral changes promoted in the intervention spread to others in the same community, most likely through direct contact between participants and non-participants. These findings support the idea that diffusion of HIV-related behavior changes can occur for peer group interventions in communities, adding to the body of research supporting diffusion of innovations theory as a robust approach to accelerating change. If diffusion occurs, peer group intervention may be more cost

  14. Perceptions of food-insecure HIV-positive adults participating in a food supplementation program in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndirangu, Murugi; Sztam, Kevin; Sheriff, Muhsin; Hawken, Mark; Arpadi, Stephen; Rashid, Juma; Deckelbaum, Richard; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2014-11-01

    Malnutrition coexists with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Food supplementation is recommended for food-insecure, HIV-positive individuals. This study was part of a larger six-month food supplementation program for adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in central Kenya. We conducted 10 focus group interviews with program participants to examine the perceptions of participants regarding the food supplementation program. Focus group transcripts were analyzed for themes and six were identified. These were perception of food insecurity and the health of the participants, the benefits of participating, use of the food, coping strategies after the program ended, suggestions for improving the program, and sustainability of the benefits. Participants perceived that the food improved their health and ART adherence, and reduced stigma. The improvements were not always sustained. Sharing with people beyond the immediate family was very common, depleting the food available to the participants. Interventions with sustainable effects for food-insecure, HIV-positive individuals and their families are needed. PMID:25418241

  15. ParticipACTION: Awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults - Examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM), this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b) confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c) to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted), outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. Methods A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%). The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM). Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy), intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424). Results Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were greater if they were more

  16. Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Watson, Kathleen B; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Foltz, Jennifer L; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-09-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and physical inactivity is a major risk factor (1). Health care professionals have a role in counseling patients about physical activity for CVD prevention. In August 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that adults who are overweight or obese and have additional CVD risk factors be offered or referred to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for CVD prevention. Although the USPSTF recommendation does not specify an amount of physical activity, the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans state that for substantial health benefits adults should achieve ≥150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or ≥75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. To assess the proportion of adults eligible for intensive behavioral counseling and not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This analysis indicated that 36.8% of adults were eligible for intensive behavioral counseling for CVD prevention. Among U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), the prevalence of eligible adults ranged from 29.0% to 44.6%. Nationwide, 19.9% of all adults were eligible and did not meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. These data can inform the planning and implementation of health care interventions for CVD prevention that are based on physical activity. PMID:26401758

  17. Nonformal Learning and Well-Being among Older Adults: Links between Participation in Swedish Study Circles, Feelings of Well-Being and Social Aspects of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åberg, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    How does participation in nonformal learning influence the self-perceived well-being among older adults? This article looks into that issue through a study of people aged 65 years or older who have participated in Swedish study circles. The data analyzed consists of a nation-wide survey of study circle participants. The results show that there are…

  18. Does Participation in Home-Delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults? Results of a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R; Locher, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of all studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the keyword "Meal" was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based on self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to (1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, (2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, (3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and (4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  19. Does Participation in Home-delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults?: Results of a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anthony D.; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R.; Locher, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of ALL studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the Keyword “Meal” was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based upon self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to: 1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, 2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, 3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and 4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  20. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  1. Expanding Access, Knowledge, and Participation for Learning Disabled Young Adults with Low Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Disney, Laurel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of learning disabled young adults who struggle with low literacy skills in order to learn more about their literacy profiles and, from an emic perspective, understand the affective factors that may have influenced their attendance and persistence in a post-secondary residential…

  2. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  3. Civic Participation. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 15. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses how and why to get involved in political and community life in the United States. Topics covered include the following: local political involvement, writing letters, reading the…

  4. The Relationship between Adult Participation and Child Engagement of Preschool Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in classroom activities is associated with better academic outcomes (Downer et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2009), and characteristics of children can affect how a child is able to engage in classroom activities (McWilliam & Bailey, 1995; Kishida & Kemp, 2006). Yet, support from adults can enhance the engagement of…

  5. Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic. PMID:24722612

  6. Explaining Differences in Sport Participation Rates among Young Adults: Evidence from the South Caucasus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, Diane; Roberts, Ken; Pollock, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses evidence about the sport careers of representative samples of 31-37 year olds from the capital city and a comparator region in each of the three South Caucasus countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. This is one of the few surveys to measure sport participation that allows change over time at the aggregate and…

  7. Sentence Repetition Accuracy in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Interactions of Participant Capacities and Sentence Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We asked whether sentence repetition accuracy could be explained by interactions of participant processing limitations with the structures of the sentences. We also tested a prediction of the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) that adjuncts are more difficult than arguments for individuals with developmental…

  8. Developing Guidance Material To Uncover a Mathematics Profile of Adult Participants on a Crane Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenskov, Lena

    This paper reports on a pilot study in the Danish "Profile in Mathematics" project implemented by the Directorate General for Employment, Placement and Vocational Training and the Ministry of Education. The pilot study develops and tests specific guidance materials to guide participants and teachers through a course for crane workers that teaches…

  9. Understanding Social Positioning in the Context of Learning and Participation Experienced by Adult Transitional Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. Beverly

    2010-01-01

    There are two dimensions of positioning: self-identity (reflexive) and, events and interaction between people (discursive). Positioning may become socially restrictive when disruptive discursive episodes have a negative impact on individual self-identity. An interpretive biographical study of 11 participants in a transitional residency (temporary…

  10. Guide to Parent Involvement. Parents as Adult Learners. Parent Participation Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. Adult Learning Potential Inst.

    This document is the third of a series of four reports developed to provide a comprehensive overview of parent involvement, encompassing the family, parenting needs, and existing resources, in addition to current parent education approaches and practices. This Parent Participation Profile (PPR) is intended for use in needs assessment and program…

  11. The Non-Adult Participation Program in Detroit Public School Athletics, 1928-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Wayne

    During the early decades of the twentieth century, there was a gradual shift from educational sports as a forum for non-risk individual participation to team and coach-centered endeavors where an emphasis on winning existed. That shift reflected social changes in the United States as American society itself became highly structured and organized…

  12. Scientific literacy of adult participants in an online citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Charles Aaron

    Citizen Science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. Scientific results from these projects have been well documented. However, there is limited research about how these projects affect their volunteer participants. In this study, I investigate how participation in an online, collaborative astronomical citizen science project can be associated with the scientific literacy of its participants. Scientific literacy is measured through three elements: attitude towards science, belief in the nature of science and competencies associated with learning science. The first two elements are measured through a pre-test given to 1,385 participants when they join the project and a post-test given six months later to 125 participants. Attitude towards science was measured using nine Likert-items custom designed for this project and beliefs in the nature of science were measured using a modified version of the Nature of Science Knowledge scale. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Competencies are measured through analysis of discourse occurring in online asynchronous discussion forums using the Community of Inquiry framework, which describes three types of presence in the online forums: cognitive, social and teaching. Results show that overall attitudes did not change, p = .225. However, there was significant change towards attitudes about science in the news (positive) and scientific self efficacy (negative), p < .001 and p = .035 respectively. Beliefs in the nature of science exhibited a small, but significant increase, p = .04. Relative positioning of scores on the belief items did not change much, suggesting the increase is mostly due to reinforcement of current beliefs. The cognitive and teaching presence in the online forums did not change, p = .807 and p = .505 respectively. However, the social presence did change, p = .011. Overall, these results suggest that multi-faceted, collaborative citizen

  13. The effects of conservation messaging on adult whale watch tour participant's pro-environmental attitudes, knowledge and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Julien L.

    Ten whale watches were completed between October 2014 and January 2015 using a quasi-experimental design with and without balloon debris retrievals. A link to a post-trip electronic survey was sent two weeks after whale watch tours to adult participants who volunteered to take part in this study. This study showed how witnessing the retrieval of marine debris while listening to a conservation message did have an effect on the reported intended pro-environmental behaviors. Overall, those who were exposed to the balloon retrieval mentioned conservation themes within the open-ended questions more than the control group. This study suggests that pro-environmental changes intended behaviors, attitudes and knowledge did occur and may have produced thoughts and actions in individuals who are now more enlightened and aware about marine debris issues. Contrary to changes in attitudes and intended behaviors, there were no noticeable impacts on reported actual behavior changes from the participants after the whale watch tour.

  14. Functional Assessments Used by Occupational Therapists with Older Adults at Risk of Activity and Participation Limitations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Kylie; Clemson, Lindy; Lannin, Natasha; Cameron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of functional assessments to evaluate patient change is complicated by a lack of consensus as to which assessment is most suitable for use with older adults. Objective: To identify and appraise the properties of assessments used to evaluate functional abilities in older adults. Methods A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of occupational therapy interventions was conducted up to 2012 to identify assessments used to measure function. Two authors screened and extracted data independently. A second search then identified papers investigating measurement properties of each assessment. Studies from the second search were included if: i) published in English, ii) the assessment was not modified from its original published form, iii) study aim was to evaluate the quality of the tool, iv) and was original research. Translated versions of assessments were excluded. Measurement quality was rated using the COSMIN checklist and Terwee criteria. Results Twenty-eight assessments were identified from the systematic search of occupational therapy interventions provided to older adults. Assessments were of varied measurement quality and many had been adapted (although still evaluated as though the original tool had been administered) potentially altering the conclusions drawn about measurement quality. Synthesis of best evidence established 15 functional assessments have not been tested in an older adult population. Conclusions The Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) appears to be a promising assessment for use with older adults. Only two tools (the SMAF and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)) were deemed to be responsive to change when applied to older adults. Health professionals should use functional assessments that have been validated with their population and in their setting. There are reliable and valid assessments to capture the functional performance of older adults in community and hospital settings, although

  15. The Learning Divide Revisited: A Report on the Findings of a UK-Wide Survey on Adult Participation in Education and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Naomi

    Based on a 1999 survey of 5,054 adults, this report describes those who are and are not participating in adult learning in Great Britain. It covers factors such as age, gender, previous education experiences, socioeconomic background, and geographical location and points to the workplace as a significant source of information, motivation, and…

  16. Accessibility, Affordability, and Flexibility: The Relationship of Selected State Sociopolitical Factors and the Participation of Adults in Public Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Joseph Michael

    2010-01-01

    This non-experimental, quantitative study examined the extent selected state sociopolitical factors relate to adult participation in public two-year colleges, and assessed how Montana compares to those states enrolling the most adult students. Utilizing archived data from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) Integrated…

  17. Widening Participation in Adult Community Education (ACE). Strategies for Using the Strength Inherent in the Cultural Diversity of Communities and Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, John

    This document presents information concerning a project to research and develop strategies to increase participation in adult community education (ACE) by Australian adults from language backgrounds other than English. Sections 1-3 describe the major project activities, which were as follows: literature review, compilation of model programs…

  18. Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

  19. Does long-term swimming participation have a deleterious effect on the adult female skeleton?

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kate Gwendoline; Walkley, Jeff Whenan; Rich, Peter Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Swimming is a popular activity for Australian women with proven cardiovascular benefits yet lacks the features thought necessary to stimulate positive adaptive changes in bone. Given that peak bone mass is attained close to the end of the second decade, we asked whether swimming was negatively associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women beyond this age. Bone mass and retrospective physical activity data were gathered from 43 female swimmers and 44 controls (mean ages 40.4 and 43.8 years, respectively). Swimmers were recruited from the Australian Union of Senior Swimmers International while controls were healthy community dwellers with similar lean mass, fat mass, height, weight and body mass index. None of the participants had a history of medical complaints nor use of medications known to affect bone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine areal bone mineral density at total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius and tibia while self-administered questionnaires were used to approximate historical and recent physical activity and calcium intake. Swimmers had averaged over 2 hours of swimming per week for the past 5 years and 1.45 h/week over lifetime with no systematic swimming exposure for controls. Lifetime exposure to weight bearing and impact exercise were similar. There were no intergroup differences for bone mass at any site though controls had higher incidence of low bone mass/osteoporosis. No differences in bone mass were detected between swimmers in the upper and lower quartiles for swim participation for any period. Long-term swim participation did not compromise areal bone mineral density. PMID:22230920

  20. Difficulties Experienced in Setting and Achieving Goals by Participants of a Falls Prevention Programme: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. Methods: The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Conclusions: Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants

  1. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  2. 45 CFR 286.90 - How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? 286.90 Section 286.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

  3. Men Want Equality, but Women Don't Expect It: Young Adults' Expectations for Participation in Household and Child Care Chores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askari, Sabrina F.; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Axelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored whether there was a discrepancy between young adults' ideal and expected participation in household and child care chores as well as what variables predicted expectations for future chore division. Three-hundred fifty-eight unmarried, heterosexual participants with no children completed an online questionnaire assessing the…

  4. 'Knowing what makes them tick': motivating cognitively impaired older adults to participate in restorative care.

    PubMed

    Galik, Elizabeth M; Resnick, Barbara; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid

    2009-02-01

    Nursing home residents with dementia represent a majority of the most functionally impaired individuals residing in nursing homes. Although many perceive this population as having little restorative potential, maintaining resident functional abilities for as long as possible helps to optimize quality of life and decrease caregiver burden. This study used a qualitative design with a focus group methodology to explore facilitators and barriers to engaging cognitively impaired residents in functional activities and exercise. A purposive sample of seven geriatric nursing assistants who were experts in dementia care participated in the study. Twenty-seven codes were reduced to three themes: (i) knowing what makes them tick and move; (ii) teamwork and utilizing resources; and (iii) barriers to restorative care. The study findings were used to revise the Restorative Care for the Cognitively Impaired Intervention and could direct future implementation of programmes in nursing home settings. PMID:19187169

  5. Community participation for rural healthcare design: description and critique of a method.

    PubMed

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; Munoz, Sarah Anne; Currie, Mags

    2016-03-01

    This paper outlines a community participation process that was developed to engage rural community stakeholders in designing new health services. The paper explains what led up to the process and provides critique around applying the process for other health services and in other communities. Internationally, community participation is widely invoked, but it is only broadly explained in the literature, other than reviews of outcomes or descriptions of problems. This paper provides an actual process, derived from iterative research, that others could use, but explains caveats in the method and its application. From developing this method of community participation for service design, we conclude that rather than being a benign and inherently 'good thing', community participation is a process into which health services managers and communities should enter cautiously. Stronger parameters around desirable outcomes and awareness of potential pitfalls in the process are important to address. PMID:25684597

  6. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY... Policy Officials Regarding Transactions § 1404.440 What method do I use to communicate those...

  7. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  8. Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Participation among Adults in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Carlson, Susan A.; Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe those who reported meeting the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" ("2008 Guidelines") muscle-strengthening standard of 2 or more days per week, including all seven muscle groups, and to assess the type and location of muscle-strengthening activities performed. Method: Data from HealthStyles…

  9. Low diversity and low frequency of participation in leisure activities compromise working memory efficiency in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Soria-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Almeida-Rosas, Georgina A; García-Vaca, Paola A; Delgado-Herrera, Maribel; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    People perform leisure activities (LA) every day; pursuits that entail applying cognitive, physical and social abilities. As in old age, doing LA during early and middle adulthood is related to a reduced risk of dementias, probably by generating a cognitive reserve. As it is possible that a relation between doing LA and working memory (WM) efficiency exists in young adults, we assessed whether the diversity and frequency of LA are related to WM efficiency in this population. Ninety-three healthy young subjects solved the n-back task at two levels of difficulty (2, 3), and answered an LA questionnaire on the activities in which they had participated in the month prior to the experiment. Subjects were classified separately on their scores for (1) diversity (high/low) and (2) frequency (high/low) in order to test the relation between each variable and WM efficiency. Though no differences were found, a subsequent analysis of the average of diversity and frequency ratios of LA performance taken together-the diversity/frequency index-showed that low diversity plus low frequency was significantly associated with reduced WM efficiency at this age; results that suggest that frequent participation in diverse LA during youth is related to WM efficiency. PMID:22093383

  10. Evaluation of participant recruitment methods to a rare disease online registry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Mueller, Nancy L; Williams, Katherine; Gutmann, David H

    2014-07-01

    Internet communication advances provide new opportunities to assemble individuals with rare diseases to online patient registries from wide geographic areas for research. However, there is little published information on the efficacy of different recruitment methods. Here we describe recruitment patterns and the characteristics of individuals with the self-identified autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who participated in an online patient registry during the 1-year period from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012. We employed four main mechanisms to alert potential participants to the registry: (1) Facebook and Google advertising, (2) government and academic websites, (3) patient advocacy groups, and (4) healthcare providers. Participants reported how they first heard about the registry through an online questionnaire. During the 1-year period, 880 individuals participated in the registry from all 50 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 39 countries. Facebook and Google were reported as referral sources by the highest number of participants (n=550, 72% Facebook), followed by healthcare providers (n=74), and government and academic websites (n=71). The mean participant age was 29±18 years and most participants reported White race (73%) and female sex (62%) irrespective of reported referral source. Internet advertising, especially through Facebook, resulted in efficient enrollment of large numbers of individuals with NF1. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of this approach to assemble individuals with a rare disease from across the world for research studies. PMID:24700441

  11. Perceived Cause, Environmental Factors, and Consequences of Falls in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Rachael; McGinley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Describe perceived cause, environmental influences, and consequences of falls or near-falls in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. Adults with CP completed postal surveys and follow-up semistructured interviews. Surveys sought information on demographic data, self-nominated Gross Motor Function Classification Score (GMFCS-E&R), falls, and near-falls. Interviews gathered additional information on falls experiences, near-falls, and physical and psychosocial consequences. Results. Thirty-four adults with CP participated. Thirty-three participants reported at least one fall in the previous year. Twenty-six participants reported near-falls. Most commonly, falls occurred indoors, at home, and whilst engaged in nonhazardous ambulation. Adults with CP experienced adverse falls consequences, lower limb injuries predominant (37%), and descriptions of fear, embarrassment, powerlessness, and isolation. Discussion. Adults with CP may experience injurious falls. Further investigation into the impact of falls on health-related quality of life and effective remediation strategies is warranted to provide comprehensive falls prevention programs for this population. PMID:25802759

  12. Understanding why adult participants at the World Senior Games choose a healthy diet

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Ray M; Shields, Eric C

    2003-01-01

    Background Identifying those seniors most likely to adopt a healthy diet, the relative importance they place on certain perceived benefits associated with a healthy diet, and whether these perceived benefits are associated with selected demographic, lifestyle, and health history variables is important for directing effective dietary health promotion programs. Methods Analyses are based on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 670 seniors aged 50 years and older at the 2002 World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Data are assessed using frequencies, bivariate analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly higher in individuals aged 70–79, in women, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent overall health. Dietary fiber consumption was significantly higher in former or never smokers, current and previous alcohol drinkers, in those not overweight or obese, and in those with excellent health. The strongest motivating factors identified for adopting a healthy diet were to improve the quality of life, to increase longevity, and to prevent disease. Of intermediate importance were the need to feel a sense of control and to satisfy likes or dislikes. Least important were the desire to experience a higher level of spirituality, social reasons, and peer acceptance. Conclusion Seniors who have adopted a healthy diet are more likely to have chosen that behavior because of perceived health benefits than for personal and social benefits. Overweight or obese individuals and those in poor health were less likely to be engaged in healthy eating behavior and require special attention by dieticians and public health professionals. PMID:14633282

  13. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  14. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with negative affect

  15. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14–22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication – derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model – and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with

  16. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  20. Encouraging Participation in Case Discussions: A Comparison of the MICA and the Harvard Case Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desiraju, Ramarao; Gopinath, C.

    2001-01-01

    Management students used either the Harvard Case Method (n=33) or McAleer Interactive Case Analysis (n=31) to analyze case studies. The McAleer group was better prepared and participated more in discussions; they performed consistently better than the Harvard group on case analyses and recall of content. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  1. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  2. Social participation restriction among U.S. adults with arthritis: A population-based study using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)

    PubMed Central

    Theis, K.A.; Murphy, L.; Hootman, J.M.; Wilkie, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine arthritis impact among U.S. adults with self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework (domains=Impairments, Activity Limitations, Environmental, and Personal factors; outcome=social participation restriction (SPR)) 1) overall and among those with SPR, and 2) to identify correlates of SPR. Methods Cross-sectional 2009 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed to examine the distribution of ICF domain components. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to identify correlates of SPR. Analyses in SAS v9.2 survey procedures accounted for the complex sample design. Results SPR prevalence was 11% (5.7 million) of adults with arthritis. After initial multivariable adjustment by ICF domain, Serious Psychological Distress (Impairments) (PR=2.5, 95% CI=2.0-3.2, ≥5 medical office visits (Environmental) (PR=3.4, 95% CI=2.5-4.4) , and physical inactivity (Personal) (PR=4.8, 95% CI=3.6=6.4) were most strongly associated with SPR. A combined measure, Key Limitations (walking, standing, or carrying) (PR=31.2 (22.3-43.5) represented the Activity Limitations domain. After final multivariable adjustment incorporating all ICF domains simultaneously, the strongest associations with SPR were Key Limitations (PR= 24.3 (16.8-35.1), ≥9 hours sleep (PR=1.6, 95% CI=1.3-2.0), and income-to-poverty ratio <2.00 and severe joint pain (PR=1.4, 95% CI=1.2-1.6 for both). Conclusion SPR affects 1-in-9 adults with arthritis. This work is the first to use the ICF framework in a population-based sample to identify specific functional activities, pain, sleep, and other areas for priority intervention to reduce negative arthritis impacts, including SPR. Increased use of existing clinical and public health interventions is warranted. PMID:23401463

  3. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  4. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (> = 55 years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5 years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population

  5. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  6. Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…

  7. Interventional Education Methods for Increasing Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769

  8. A Conceptual Scheme for an Adaptation of Participation Training in Adult Education for Use in the Three Love Movement of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamitsuka, Arthur Jun

    This study concentrated on developing a conceptual scheme for adapting participation training, an adult education approach based on democratic concepts and practices, to the Three Love Movement (Love of God, Love of Soil, Love of Man) in Japan. (This Movement is an outgrowth of Protestant folk schools.) While democratization is an aim, the…

  9. Financing Adult Education: How Adequate Are Current Sources in Facilitating Access and Participation in Centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Ndonga James; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The thrust of this study was to examine the level of adequacy of current sources in facilitating access and participation in adult education centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Combinations of purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 82…

  10. EVALUATION OF THE ADULT LEARNING CENTER OF ELIZABETHPORT BY STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS, OPERATIONS FROM 2/26/68 - 4/30/68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TATUM, WILLIAM; CHASNOFF, ROBERT

    ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND PROGRAMED READING MATERIALS AT THE ADULT LEARNING CENTER OF ELIZABETHPORT (ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY) WERE EVALUATED IN 1968 BY STAFF MEMBERS AND PARTICIPANTS. STAFF OPINIONS DIFFERED AS TO THE MOST SUCCESSFUL MATERIALS, AND REASONS GIVEN FOR SUCCESS VARIED BETWEEN INTEREST LEVEL, SIZE OF PRINT AND LENGTH OF STORIES, THE…

  11. Developing and Evaluating a Website to Guide Older Adults in Their Health Information Searches: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Fink, Arlene; Beck, John C

    2015-08-01

    This mixed-methods study developed and evaluated an online program to improve older adults' skills in identifying high-quality web-based health information. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to collect data on older adults' preferences for online instruction and information. We used the findings to develop, pilot test, and evaluate an interactive website which was grounded in health behavior change models, adult education, and website construction. Sixty four participants were randomly assigned to Your Health Online: Guiding eSearches or to an analogous slide-based-tutorial and compared in their knowledge, self-efficacy, and program assessment. Experimental participants assigned significantly higher ratings of usability and learning to the new site than controls did to their tutorial although no differences were found in self-efficacy or knowledge. Experimental participants reported that participation was likely to improve future searches. Information is now needed to examine if such programs actually improve health searches, ehealth literacy, and health outcomes. PMID:24652883

  12. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  13. Prefractionation methods for individual adult fruit fly hemolymph proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi; Avilov, Vitaly; Shippy, Scott A

    2016-03-15

    The analysis of blood provides in depth chemical information of physiological states of organisms. Hemolymph (blood) is the fluid in the open circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster that is the medium for molecules regulating a wide variety of physiological activities and signaling between tissues. Adult Drosophila is typically less than 3mm in length and, as a consequence, the available volume of hemolymph is usually less than 50nL from individual flies. Proteomic analysis of volume-limited hemolymph is a great challenge for both sample handling and subsequent mass spectrometry characterization of this chemically diverse biological fluid with a wide dynamic range of proteins in concentrations. Less abundant proteins, in particular, could be easily lost during sample preparation or missed by current mass spectrometry methods. This article describes simple and customized RPLC column and IEX columns to prefractionate volume-limited hemolymph without excessive dilution. Step-gradient elution methods were developed and optimized to enhance the identification of novel proteins from an individual fruit fly hemolymph sample. Fractions from each step gradient was analyzed by an Agilent nano-RPLC chip column and then characterized by high mass resolution and high mass accuracy orbitrap mass spectrometry. As a result, both RPLC (11 proteins) and IEX fractionation approaches (9 proteins) identified more proteins than an unfractionated control approach with higher protein scores, emPAI values and coverage. Furthermore, a significant number of novel proteins were revealed by both RPLC and IEX fractionation methods, which were missed by unfractionated controls. The demonstration of this method establishes a means to deepen proteomic analysis to this commonly used, important biological model system. PMID:26901848

  14. Participant use and communication of findings from exome sequencing: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Katie L.; Hooker, Gillian W.; Connors, Philip D.; Hyams, Travis C.; Wright, Martha F.; Caldwell, Samantha; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated how genome sequencing results affect health behaviors, affect, and communication. Methods We report on 29 participants who received a sequence result in the ClinSeq® study, a cohort of well-educated, post-reproductive volunteers. A mixed methods design was used to explore respondents’ use, communication, and perceived utility of results. Results Most participants (72%) shared their result with at least one health care provider, and 31% reported changes to their health care. Participants scored high on the Positive Experiences subscale and low on the Distress subscale of a modified version of the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA). The majority (93%) shared their result with at least one family member. Participant’s described deriving personal utility from their results. Conclusions This paper is the first to describe research participants’ reactions to actionable sequencing results. Our findings suggest clinical and personal benefit from receiving sequencing results, both of which may contribute to improved health for the recipients. Given the participants’ largely positive or neutral affective responses and disclosure of their results to physicians and relatives, health care providers should redirect concern from the potential for distress and attend to motivating patients to follow their medical recommendations. PMID:26540156

  15. Development and validation of videotaped scenarios: a method for targeting specific participant groups.

    PubMed

    Noel, Nora E; Maisto, Stephen A; Johnson, James D; Jackson, Lee A; Goings, Christopher D; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-04-01

    Researchers using scenarios often neglect to validate perceived content and salience of embedded stimuli specifically with intended participants, even when such meaning is integral to the study. For example, sex and aggression stimuli are heavily influenced by culture, so participants may not perceive what researchers intended in sexual aggression scenarios. Using four studies, the authors describe the method of scenario validation to produce two videos assessing alcohol-related sexual aggression. Both videos are identical except for the presence in one video of antiforce cues that are extremely salient to the young heterosexual men. Focus groups and questionnaires validate these men's perceptions that (a) the woman was sexually interested, (b) the sexual cues were salient, (c) the antiforce cues were salient (antiaggression video only), and (e) these antiforce cues inhibited acceptance of forced sex. Results show the value of carefully selecting and validating content when assessing socially volatile variables and provide a useful template for developing culturally valid scenarios. PMID:18252938

  16. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  17. Comparison of adult corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, R J; Wilde, G E; Shufran, R A; Milliken, G A

    2002-02-01

    Studies were conducted in Kansas corn and soybean fields during 1997 to compare various sampling methods, traps, and trap components for capturing three species of adult corn rootworms: western (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte), southern (D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber), and northern (D. barberi Smith & Lawrence). Lure constituents affected the species of beetle attracted to the trap. Traps with a lure containing 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde attracted more western corn rootworms, those with a lure containing eugenol were more attractive to northern corn rootworms, and those containing trans-cinnamaldehyde were most attractive to southern corn rootworms. Multigard sticky traps caught more beetles than did Pherocon AM sticky traps. In corn, a newly designed lure trap caught more beetles than did sticky traps on most occasions. Also, lure-baited sticky traps caught more beetles than did nonbaited sticky traps. Varying the color of the lure trap bottom did not affect the number caught. In soybeans, the new lure traps captured more beetles than did the nonbaited Multigard or Pherocon AM sticky traps. Results of this study suggest the new lure trap may provide a more accurate assessment of corn rootworm populations than traditional monitoring techniques and may be more esthetically pleasing to growers and consultants. PMID:11942770

  18. Staying connected: neighbourhood correlates of social participation among older adults living in an urban environment in Montréal, Quebec.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Gosselin, Céline; Laforest, Sophie

    2009-03-01

    Alongside community involvement, promoting social participation has been identified as a key strategy of fostering empowerment, one of the central tenets of the health promotion movement. Engagement in social and productive activities appears to be particularly beneficial to older adults, as it has been found to be associated with positive outcomes on a variety of health indicators. It is therefore critical to identify factors that might lead to greater social participation within these age groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of neighbourhood user-friendliness and social participation while controlling for personal characteristics in a sample of seniors living in an urban environment. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 282) was recruited through community organizations located in high- average- and low-income Montreal neighbourhoods. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire assessing social participation and various variables at the neighbourhood level (e.g. housing and social environment, walking environment and transportation, and services and amenities) and at the individual-level (e.g. health status and socio-demographic characteristics). Five variables emerged as independent predictors of social participation. Positive predictors retained in the final regression model included frequent walking episodes (almost every day), higher Vitality and General Health SF-12v2 scores, and perceived accessibility to key resources for older adults. Also included was a negative predictor: age (R2 of the final model = 0.28). Implications of the findings for research and action pertaining to ecological, health promotion interventions for older adults are identified. PMID:19098293

  19. Associations between perceived proximity to neighborhood resources, disability, and social participation among community-dwelling older adults: Results from the VoisiNuAge Study

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Payette, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between perceived proximity to neighborhood resources, disability and social participation, and the potential moderating effect of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources on the association between disability and social participation among community-dwelling older women and men. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Older adults (296 women; 258 men). Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Data on age, education, depressive symptoms, frequency of participation in community activities, perceived proximity to neighborhood resources (services and amenities), and functional autonomy in daily activities (disability) were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Greater perceived proximity to resources and lower level of disability were associated with greater social participation for both women (R2=0.10; p<0.001) and men (R2=0.05; p<0.01). The association between disability and social participation did not vary as a function of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources among women (no moderating effect; p=0.15). Among men, however, greater perceived proximity to neighborhood resources enhanced social participation (p=0.01), but only among those with minor or no disability. Conclusions Future studies should investigate why perceived proximity to services and amenities is associated with social participation among older men with minor or no disabilities and with women overall but has no association among men with moderate disabilities. PMID:22133245

  20. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs. PMID:26471950

  1. Attitudes to Participation in Education of Adult Prisoners in HM Prison, Maze (Compounds) and HM Prison, Belfast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocks, Patrick D.

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 26 prisoners from 2 prisons in Northern Ireland were given a semantic differential questionnaire to assess their reasons for participation or non-participation in prison education and their attitudes toward education. Results indicated that positive attitudes are essential to participation and negative attitudes are part of a…

  2. Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Participation in Decision Making: Ethical Considerations for Professional-Client Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Gurit; Ells, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors challenge professionals to re-examine assumptions about basic concepts and their implications in supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The authors focus on decisions with significant implications, such as planning transition from school to adult life, changing living environments, and…

  3. The Influences of Socio-Demographic Factors, and Non-Formal and Informal Learning Participation on Adult Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digby, Cynthia L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…

  4. Psychophysical Tracking Method to Measure Taste Preferences in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K

    2016-01-01

    The Monell two-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method provides a reliable measure of sweet taste preferences from childhood to adulthood. The method, which is identical for children, adolescents, and adults, is of short duration (< 15 min), does not rely on sustained attention or place demands on memory (which would yield spurious age differences), and minimizes the impact of language development, making this method amenable to the cognitive limitations of pediatric populations. In this whole-mouth tasting method, subjects are asked to taste (without swallowing) pairs of solutions of different sucrose concentrations and to point to the solution they prefer. Each subsequent pair contains the participant's preceding preferred concentration and an adjacent stimulus concentration. The procedure continues until the subject chooses either a given concentration of sucrose when paired with both a higher and a lower concentration, or the highest or lowest concentration two consecutive times. Subjects are prevented from reaching response criteria on the basis of first or second position bias by the two-series design of the method, which counterbalances the order of solution presentation within each pair between the series (the weaker concentration is presented first in Series 1, second in Series 2). The geometric mean of the two sucrose concentrations chosen in Series 1 and 2 is an estimate of the participant's most preferred level of sucrose. Sucrose preference as determined with this laboratory-based measure has been shown to be associated with preference for sugars in foods and beverages and with taste receptor genotype, family history of alcoholism, and race/ethnicity, as well as depressive symptomatology among pediatric populations. The method has real-world relevance and has been applied to determine most preferred level of other tastes (e.g., salt), making it a valuable psychophysical tool. PMID:27501332

  5. Acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods by adolescent participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project

    PubMed Central

    Mestad, Renee; Secura, Gina; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent women have a high risk of unintended pregnancy. Currently, there are little data about their choice to initiate long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Study Design We evaluated the association of age and preference for a LARC vs. a non-LARC method among adolescent participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, comparing those aged 14–17 years to adolescents aged 18–20 years. We then analyzed the association between age and choice of the implant vs. the intrauterine device (IUD) among adolescents. Results Of the 5086 women enrolled, 70% (n=3557) of participants chose a LARC method. Among adolescents aged 14–20 years, 69% of 14–17-year-olds chose LARC, while 61% of 18–20-year-olds chose LARC (relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.30). Among adolescents choosing a LARC method, 63% (n=93/148) of the 14–17-year-olds chose the implant, whereas 71% (n=364/510) of the 18–20-year-olds chose the IUD. Conclusion Long-acting reversible contraception use is clearly acceptable and common among adolescents enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, with the younger group being most interested in the implant. PMID:22018123

  6. A mixed methods study of participant reaction to domestic violence research in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Spencer, Rachael; Everson-Rose, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Research on domestic violence against women has increased considerably over the past few decades. Most participants in such studies find the exercise worthwhile and of greater benefit than emotional cost; however, systematic examination of participant reaction to research on violence is considerably lacking, especially in the Middle East region. This study begins to fill this gap by examining women's reactions to domestic violence research in Jordan and whether a personal history of violence is associated with unfavorable experiences. This sequential exploratory mixed methods study included 17 focus group discussions (FGD) with women in Amman followed by a survey conducted in reproductive health clinics throughout the country (pilot n = 30; survey n = 517). Open coding was used to identify the theme related to participant reaction in the FGD data. This construct was further examined by the subsequent survey that included dichotomous questions inquiring whether the respondent thought the study questions were important and whether they were angry or felt resentment as a result of the survey. One open-ended question on the survey provided additional qualitative data on the theme that was combined with the FGD data. Themes identified in the qualitative data pertained to expressions of gratitude and comments on the survey's value. Findings of this study indicate that Jordanian women's responses to the research process are similar to women currently represented by the extant literature in that a vast majority of its participants felt that the study was important (95%) and it did not evoke anger or resentment (96%). Many even found the study to be useful to them personally or to society. Among those who had a negative emotional reaction, most still found the research to be important. This study's findings highlight the safety and potential benefits of ethically conducted violence research. PMID:22203623

  7. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, David; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Gao, Pei; Sun, Qi; Walldius, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Verschuren, WM Monique; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engström, Gunnar; Ridker, Paul M; Njølstad, Inger; Iso, Hiroyasu; Holme, Ingar; Giampaoli, Simona; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Gaziano, J Michael; Brunner, Eric; Kee, Frank; Tosetto, Alberto; Meisinger, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Whincup, Peter H; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Ian; Cremer, Peter; Hofman, Albert; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Clarke, Robert; de Boer, Ian H; Jukema, J Wouter; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Lawlor, Debbie A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Casiglia, Edoardo; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Simons, Leon A; Nietert, Paul J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Björkelund, Cecilia; Strandberg, Timo E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Blazer, Dan G; Meade, Tom W; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Woodward, Mark; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan; Jørgensen, Torben; Tilvis, Reijo S; Guralnik, Jack M; Rosengren, Annika; Taylor, James O; Kiechl, Stefan; Dagenais, Gilles R; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Wallace, Robert B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Visser, Marjolein; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sundström, Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Daimon, Makoto; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Cooper, Jackie A; Onat, Altan; Devereux, Richard; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Dankner, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew W; Crespo, Carlos J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Goldbourt, Uri; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shaw, Jonathan E; Mussolino, Michael; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Fletcher, Astrid; Kuller, Lewis H; Gillum, Richard F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Assmann, Gerd; Wald, Nicholas; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Greenland, Philip; Trevisan, Maurizio; Ulmer, Hanno; Butterworth, Adam S; Folsom, Aaron R; Davey-Smith, George; Hu, Frank B; Danesh, John; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Charles E; Simpson, Lara M; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Folsom, Aaron R; Demerath, Ellen W; Franceschini, Nora; Lutsey, Pamela L; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Shaw, Jonathan E; Atkins, Robert; Zimmet, Paul Z; Barr, Elizabeth LM; Knuiman, Matthew W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Morris, Richard W; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Weger, Siegfried; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Wald, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Yarnell, John WG; Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Greenland, Philip; Shay, Christina M; Garside, Daniel B; Nietert, Paul J; Sutherland, Susan E; Bachman, David L; Keil, Julian E; de Boer, Ian H; Kizer, Jorge R; Psaty, Bruce M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Schnohr, Peter; Giampaoli, Simona; Palmieri, Luigi; Panico, Salvatore; Pilotto, Lorenza; Vanuzzo, Diego; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Simons, Leon A; Simons, Judith; McCallum, John; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Price, Jackie F; Lee, Amanda J; Taylor, James O; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Wallace, Robert B; Kohout, Frank J; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C; Guralnik, Jack M; Blazer, Dan G; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Phillips, Caroline L; Guralnik, Jack M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Wennberg, Patrik; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Giampaoli, Simona; Woodward, Mark; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Møller, Lars; Jespersen, Jørgen; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Welin, Lennart; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Lappas, Georgios; Bengtsson, Calle; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Cremer, Peter; Nagel, Dorothea; Strandberg, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Tilvis, Reijo S; Miettinen, Tatu A; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases. PMID:22825588

  8. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18–34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969–1982. Beginning from the year of each subject’s 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7–16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers. PMID:25938764

  9. Learning and Coping Strategies Used by Learning Disabled Students Participating in Adult Basic Education and Literacy Programs. A Final Report of the 310 Special Project 87-98-7014.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jovita M.

    Interviews with 19 adults participating in adult basic education or literacy programs were conducted to ascertain the strategies they used to compensate for reading and writing difficulties. Although the project intended to secure this information from adults diagnosed as learning disabled, it had to rely on self-reports and educational history to…

  10. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  11. Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research. PMID:26421906

  12. Evaluation of Bias Correction Methods for "Worst-case" Selective Non-participation in NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Don; Gallagher, Larry; Stancavage, Fran

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the context for NAEP participation is changing. Whereas in the past participation in NAEP has always been voluntary, participation is now mandatory for some grade and subjects among schools receiving Title I funds. While this will certainly raise school-level participation rates in the mandated…

  13. Characteristics and Consequences of Adult Learning Methods and Strategies. Practical Evaluation Reports, Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; O'Herin, Chainey E.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of four adult learning methods (accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training) constituted the focus of this research synthesis. Findings reported in "How People Learn" (Bransford et al., 2000) were used to operationally define six adult learning method characteristics, and to code and analyze…

  14. Being Part, Being Involved: The Adult's Role and Child Participation in an Early Childhood Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirotto, Luca; Mazzoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with some general comments regarding the concept of participation in educative processes as it has developed in the preceding decades from a rights-based perspective, following the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. In order to discuss the notion of participation, the authors introduce a…

  15. Ambivalent Identities: The Role of Risk and Contingency in Adults' Descriptions of Participation in Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2001-01-01

    The opportunities paradigm assumes that participation in lifelong learning is positive and voluntary, yet discourse analysis reveals pervasive pressure to be permanent learners. Recent research suggests that learners may switch between discourses of compulsion and self-realization, and they may combine participant and nonparticipant identities.…

  16. [Monitoring the safety of participants in randomised clinical trials: basis and methods].

    PubMed

    Tijssen, J G P

    2008-03-22

    --Prior to conducting a randomised trial, permission must be obtained from the medical ethics committee (METC). The METC assesses the relevance of the trial and the appropriateness of the chosen study methods. It also weighs the clinical/scientific relevance against the potential benefits, risks and burdens for participants. --Monitoring interim data is the responsibility of an independent data monitoring committee (DMC), comprised of experts in the relevant field. The DMC provides recommendations to the study directors regarding the continuation, amendment or possibly early stopping of the study (when participant safety becomes an issue or when the trial aims are achieved earlier than expected). --Reported adverse events are interpreted clinically by the DMC in the context of available safety data. A statistical protocol for this process cannot be defined prospectively. --A strict statistical protocol can be defined prospectively for the interim analysis of the efficacy of the investigational intervention. In some cases, the results can be so convincing that the study can be stopped early. In other cases, the differences between groups may be smaller than expected, and increasing the size of the study groups can be considered. --In a blinded study, only an independent statistician is aware of the treatment codes. The chair of the DMC also possesses a sealed envelope containing the codes. The envelope can be opened at the request of the entire DMC. PMID:18438062

  17. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  18. Adult Education in Development. Methods and Approaches from Changing Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica; Murray, Frances

    The case studies described in this book provide examples of initiatives illustrating the role of adult education in development and its contribution to the process of change in developing countries. The book is organized in five sections. Case studies in Part 1, "Health Education," illustrate the links between primary health care and adult…

  19. Sampling methods of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exotic weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall was first found in south Florida in 1995. The adults have a broad host range that includes foliage of fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables, but little is known about their basic biology, including larval host plants. Studies were co...

  20. Evaluation of Two Instruction Methods to Increase Employment Options for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Raymond V.; Andersen, Melissa N.; Bowen, Scott L.; Howard, Monica R.; Allen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a vocational training program including behavioral skills training, and a "performance cue system" (i.e., a proprietary iPhone application adapted for the study) to teach targeted social-vocational skills to six young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In two separate studies, participants were employed to assist…

  1. Evaluation of Two Instruction Methods to Increase Employment Options for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Raymond V.; Andersen, Melissa N.; Bowen, Scott L.; Howard, Monica R.; Allen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a vocational training program including behavioral skills training, and a "performance cue system" (i.e., a proprietary iPhone application adapted for the study) to teach targeted social-vocational skills to six young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In two separate studies, participants were employed…

  2. Factors that influence the willingness of young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to participate in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials

    PubMed Central

    Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process. PMID:24572007

  3. Do young adults participate in surveys that 'go green'? Response rates to a web and mailed survey of weight-related health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harwood, Eileen M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Hannan, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding the contextual factors that influence health behaviors to inform the development of programs and services for youth during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Researchers are thus in need of efficient strategies for surveying diverse populations of young adults. This study among a population-based sample of young adults aimed to 1) examine response to a mixed-mode survey design (web and mailed surveys) and 2) identify demographic correlates of response mode. Young adults who participated in previous study waves were invited to participate in the third wave of a 10-year longitudinal study (Project EAT-III: 2008-2009) examining factors associated with weight-related behaviors. Participants were mailed invitation letters providing the web address and a unique password for completing the survey. Nonresponders were mailed three reminder invitations; the third mailing included the paper form, and all other mailings included a postage-paid card for requesting the paper form. Most completed surveys (82.1% of n=2,287) were returned by respondents within the first four months of fielding prior to the mailing which included the paper form. Nearly all of these early responders (92.6% of n=1,878) and 86.5% of the full respondent sample (n=1,979 of 2,287) completed the web form. Response to the web versus mailed paper form of the survey was associated with age >25 years, higher socioeconomic status, current employment, student status, and having no children. The combination of web and mailed survey modes is an effective strategy for conducting data collection in demographically diverse, young adult populations. PMID:23173062

  4. A Study to Compare the Scholastic Attendance and the Scholastic Achievement of First Grade Students Whose Parents Participated in the Adult Basic Education Program with the Scholastic Attendance and the Scholastic Achievement of First Grade Students Whose Parents Did Not Participate in the Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Milton J.

    First grade students from families with common ethnic, social, and economic characteristics were studied to determine the effects of parent participation in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Program on the attendance and achievement of the children. The experimental group was composed of 160 children from low income, Spanish-speaking families in…

  5. Methods to increase participation in organised screening programs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Community recommends the implementation of population-based screening programmes for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. This recommendation is supported by many observational studies showing that organised programmes effectively reduce mortality and control the inappropriate use of screening tests. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions to increase participation in organised population-based screening programs. Methods We included all studies on interventions aimed at increasing screening participation published between 1/1999 and 7/2012. For those published before 1999, we considered the Jepson et al. (2000) review (Health Technol Assess 4:1-133, 2000). Results Including studies from the Jepson review, we found 69 with quantitative information on interventions in organised screening: 19 for cervical, 26 for breast, 20 colorectal cancers, and 4 for cervical and breast cancer together. Effective interventions were: postal (breast RR = 1,37 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.25-1.51; cervical RR = 1.71 95% CI: 1.60-1.83; colorectal RR = 1.33 95% CI: 1.17-1.51) and telephone reminders (with heterogeneous methods for implementation); GP’s signature on invitation letter (breast RR = 1.13 95% CI: 1.11-1.16; cervical RR = 1.20 95% CI: 1.10-1.30; colorectal RR = 1.15 95% CI: 1.07-1.24); scheduled appointment instead of open appointment (breast RR = 1.26 95% CI: 1.02-1.55; cervical RR = 1.49 95% CI: 1.27-1.75; colorectal RR = 1.79 95% CI: 1.65-1.93). Mailing a kit for self-sampling cervical specimens increased participation in non-responders (RR = 2.37 95% CI: 1.44-3.90). Conclusion Although some interventions did prove to be effective, some specific variables may influence their effectiveness in and applicability to organised population-based screening programs. PMID:23663511

  6. Community Participation in Schools in Developing Countries: Characteristics, Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…

  7. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  8. Participants in Adult Basic Skills Classes Using Intertextual and Metacognitive Skills and Strategies to Aid Reading Comprehension and Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMonagle, William Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to seek evidence of awareness of metacognitive processes and intertextuality in the reading comprehension of students in an adult basic education class. Its purpose was to interweave several strands of research investigation and theory to explain the reading and writing capabilities of a representative population…

  9. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  10. The Effects of Gender Segregation, Labor Force Participation, and Family Roles on the Earnings of Young Adult Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowski, Kristine M.; Leicht, Kevin T.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from 12,686 young adult workers demonstrated that men's wages benefited more from marriage, women's were constrained by dual marital/parental roles; detrimental effects of female-dominated occupations were more pronounced for single or childless married persons; married women experience social closure, sorting them into segregated…

  11. Successful After-School Physical Activity Clubs in Urban High Schools: Perspectives of Adult Leaders and Student Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel L.; Kaseta, Michele; Maljak, Kim; Whalen, Laurel; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n= 278) and adult leaders (n= 126).…

  12. Examining Learner Perceptions of Adult Participants Using a Self-Assessment Tool in a Driver Improvement Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Driving behavior is a contributing factor in 85% of all traffic crashes; therefore, driver reeducation must be centered on increasing safe driving behavior. Because self-reflection strategies have been shown to change behavior, a study using a self-assessment tool was conducted with Virginia adult drivers mandated to complete a driver improvement…

  13. Patterns of Organized Activity Participation in Urban, Early Adolescents: Associations with Academic Achievement, Problem Behaviors, and Perceived Adult Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…

  14. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  15. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  16. Connecting Generations: Developing Co-Design Methods for Older Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Druin, Allison; Fails, Jerry; Massey, Sheri; Golub, Evan; Franckel, Sonia; Schneider, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on…

  17. The All Our Babies pregnancy cohort: design, methods, and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prospective cohort study design is ideal for examining diseases of public health importance, as its inherent temporal nature renders it advantageous for studying early life influences on health outcomes and research questions of aetiological significance. This paper will describe the development and characteristics of the All Our Babies (AOB) study, a prospective pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta, Canada designed to examine determinants of maternal, infant, and child outcomes and identify barriers and facilitators in health care utilization. Methods Women were recruited from health care offices, communities, and through Calgary Laboratory Services before 25 weeks gestation from May 2008 to December 2010. Participants completed two questionnaires during pregnancy, a third at 4 months postpartum, and are currently being followed-up with questionnaires at 12, 24, and 36 months. Data was collected on pregnancy history, demographics, lifestyle, health care utilization, physical and mental health, parenting, and child developmental outcomes and milestones. In addition, biological/serological and genetic markers can be extracted from collected maternal and cord blood samples. Results A total of 4011 pregnant women were eligible for recruitment into the AOB study. Of this, 3388 women completed at least one survey. The majority of participants were less than 35 years of age, Caucasian, Canadian born, married or in a common-law relationship, well-educated, and reported household incomes above the Calgary median. Women who discontinued after the first survey (n=123) were typically younger, non-Caucasian, foreign-born, had lower education and household income levels, were less likely to be married or in a common-law relationship, and had poor psychosocial health in early pregnancy. In general, AOB participants reflect the pregnant and parenting population at local and provincial levels, and perinatal indicators from the study are comparable to perinatal

  18. Screening Internet forum participants for depression symptoms by assembling and enhancing multiple NLP methods.

    PubMed

    Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9). PMID:25891366

  19. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  20. Impact of Exercise to Improve Gait Efficiency on Activity and Participation in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Subashan; Brach, Jennifer S.; Wert, David; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Definitive evidence that exercise interventions that improve gait also reduce disability is lacking. A task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise intervention has been shown to reduce the energy cost of walking and improve gait speed, but whether the intervention also improves activity and participation has not been demonstrated. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the impact of a task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise (TO) intervention and the impact of an impairment-oriented, multicomponent exercise (IO) intervention on activity and participation outcomes in older adults with mobility limitations. The mediating effects of a change in the energy cost of walking on changes in activity and participation also were determined. Design This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in an ambulatory clinical research training center. Participants The study participants were 47 older adults (mean age=77.2 years, SD=5.5) with slow and variable gait. Intervention The intervention was a 12-week, physical therapist–guided program of TO or IO. Measurements Measures of activity (gait speed over an instrumented walkway; daily physical activity measured with an accelerometer; confidence in walking determined with the Gait Efficacy Scale; and physical function determined with the total, basic lower-extremity, and advanced lower-extremity components of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument [Late-Life FDI]) and participation (disability limitation dimension and instrumental role [home and community task performance] domain components of the Late-Life FDI) were recorded before and after the intervention. The energy cost of walking was determined from the rate of oxygen consumption during self-paced treadmill walking at the physiological steady state standardized by walking speed. An adjusted comparison of activity and participation outcomes in the treatment arms was made by use of an

  1. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation During Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph L; Vest, Andrea E

    2012-09-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern - called the over-scheduling hypothesis - has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115 youth (ages 12-18) assessed long-term relations between intensity of participation during adolescence and adjustment at young adulthood (ages 18-24). Time diaries measured intensity as hours per week of participation. Results showed that, controlling for demographic factors and baseline adjustment, intensity was a significant predictor of positive outcomes (e.g., psychological flourishing, civic engagement, educational attainment) and unrelated to indicators of problematic adjustment (e.g., psychological distress, substance use, antisocial behavior) at young adulthood. PMID:23066336

  2. Association of Race, Ethnicity and Language with Participation in Mental Health Research Among Adult Patients in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Trina E; Brill, Charlotte D; Traeger, Lara; Bedoya, C Andres; Inamori, Aya; Hagan, Patrick N; Flaherty, Katherine; Hails, Katherine; Yeung, Albert; Trinh, Nhi-Ha

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in clinical psychiatric research, but the reasons are not fully understood and may vary widely between minority groups. We used the Z-test of independent proportions and binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between race, ethnicity or primary language and participation in screening as well as interest in further research participation among primary care patients being screened for a depression study. Minorities were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to complete the initial screening survey. Latinos and Blacks were more likely to agree to be contacted for research than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Latinos, primary language was associated with willingness to be contacted for research. Associations between research participation and race, ethnicity and language are complex and vary across different enrollment steps. Future research should consider stages of the research enrollment process separately to better understand barriers and identify targets for intervention. PMID:25398517

  3. The Lifetime Experiences of Being Labeled "Gifted": Case Studies of Adults Who Participated in a 1959 Public School Gifted Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerle, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the current perceptions of adults who were enrolled in the gifted program of the St. Louis Public Schools in the fall of 1959 or spring of 1960. At this time in history the Cold War was a reality and the U.S. enacted the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) to find talented young people and give them the…

  4. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation during Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…

  5. One Right Way, Intercultural Participation, and Language Learning Anxiety: A Qualitative Analysis of Adult Online Heritage and Nonheritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated self-assessed anxious learners who enrolled in online Spanish courses to determine if their anxiety was mediated by the lack of face-to-face (F2F) and other synchronous learning interactions. Participants were enrolled in courses at two postsecondary institutions located in south-central Texas. Narrative analysis was used…

  6. Counseling Adult Learners for New Careers: The Motivations and Barriers Associated with Postsecondary Educational Participation of Soldiers in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert, Clinton M.

    A qualitative case study approach with individual and focus group interviews identified senior enlisted Army soldiers' primary motivations and perceived barriers to postsecondary education participation. The 92 interviewees shared these common characteristics: they were enlisted soldiers, were older, attended college part time, worked full time,…

  7. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Investigating Cambodian Women's Participation and Investment in Adult ESL Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilton-Sylvester, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    An ethnographic study of four Cambodian women learning English as a second language showed how their participation was connected to their identities as spouses, mothers, sisters, daughters, and workers. The research extends Norton Peirce's theory by highlighting the role that cultural identity plays in investment in learning. (Contains 31…

  8. Insider-Outsider-Inbetweener? Researcher Positioning, Participative Methods and Cross-Cultural Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Lizzi

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the use of participative techniques with final-year secondary school students in one rural community in Western Kenya as an enabling tool for an outsider to both gain insider perspectives and develop a more insider role in that community by privileging and legitimating participant-driven data. Conclusions put forward the…

  9. Development and Validation of Videotaped Scenarios: A Method for Targeting Specific Participant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A., Jr.; Goings, Christopher D.; Hagman, Brett T.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers using scenarios often neglect to validate perceived content and salience of embedded stimuli specifically with intended participants, even when such meaning is integral to the study. For example, sex and aggression stimuli are heavily influenced by culture, so participants may not perceive what researchers intended in sexual aggression…

  10. A Mixed Methods Study of Participant Reaction to Domestic Violence Research in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cari Jo; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Spencer, Rachael; Everson-Rose, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research on domestic violence against women has increased considerably over the past few decades. Most participants in such studies find the exercise worthwhile and of greater benefit than emotional cost; however, systematic examination of participant reaction to research on violence is considerably lacking, especially in the Middle East region.…

  11. The Comparative Impacts of Social Justice Educational Methods on Political Participation, Civic Engagement, and Multicultural Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Amy; Austic, Elizabeth A.; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M.; Dirksen, Kaleigh E.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college students' commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education…

  12. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean adults selected from the general population. We studied 160 Korean adults (aged 41.3 +/- 13.0 years; n = 38 men and n = 122 women) who volunteered in a health promotion program. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based upon spontaneous exercise participation for using a cross-sectional approach. We measured anthropometric factors (body mass index [BMI], percentage body fat, waist-hip ratio [WHR], and abdominal fat area by computed tomographic scanning), blood pressure (BP), blood levels of glucose, lipids, fibrinogen, CRP, leptin, hemoglobin A(1c), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT; via ultrasonography). Associations among the variables were assessed by Pearson partial correlation and linear regression, controlling for age and sex. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between exercise participants and nonparticipants. Significance was accepted at P < .05. As expected, the measures of adiposity (BMI, percentage body fat, WHR, abdominal fat area) were highly correlated with each other (r = .49-.86, P < .01). Blood levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), leptin, and HOMA were modestly correlated with all measures of adiposity. Visceral fat area was the most important predictor of hsCRP, explaining 19.6% of the variance using stepwise linear regression analysis (P < .01). As visceral fat area tertiles increased from low to high, a significant stepwise increment in blood levels of CRP (P < .001), HOMA (P = .005), and left carotid IMT (P = .035) was observed. However, hsCRP and HOMA were not significantly different when compared across whole-body fat tertiles. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and left carotid IMT were modestly correlated with WHR and visceral fat area (P < .05); but systolic BP and diastolic BP were also

  13. Clinically relevant weakness in diverse populations of older adults participating in the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    PubMed

    de Souza Barbosa, Juliana Fernandes; Zepeda, Mario Ulises Perez; Béland, François; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare cut points for weakness proposed by Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project with cut points estimated with our own data; to assess the prevalence of clinically relevant handgrip strength (HGS) weakness according to published criteria across distinct populations of older adults; to estimate the ability of HGS weakness to identify slowness. This is a cross-sectional analysis of International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) involving 1935 community-dwelling older adults, between 65 and 74 years, who completed HGS and gait speed assessment. We used baseline data from Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). Weakness was defined according to sex-specific HGS cut points associated with slowness proposed by FNIH Sarcopenia Project. Slowness was defined as gait speed <0.8 m/s. IMIAS cut points for clinical weakness had good agreement with those proposed by FNIH. Weakness prevalence across the research sites ranged from 1.1 % (Saint-Hyacinthe) to 19.2 % (Manizales) among men. Women from Manizales (13.5 %) and Natal (19.3 %) had higher prevalence of weakness than their counterparts. FNIH cut points had a strong association with slowness, for both sexes. The IMIAS population generated cut points which were close to those proposed by FNIH. There was large variability in prevalence of weakness across our research sites. The HGS cut points for weakness proposed by FNIH performed well in IMIAS populations, providing a useful tool for screening older adults at risk for functional problems. PMID:26867805

  14. The views of patients, mentors and adult field nursing students on patients' participation in student nurse assessment in practice.

    PubMed

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate; Chapman, Linda; James, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, changes to undergraduate nursing curricula in the United Kingdom have been coupled with increasing expectations that service users be involved in assessment of student nurses. These factors lead to the development of a tool to facilitate gathering of feedback from patients/carers on the competency of adult field student nurses in practice. This study evaluated experiences of those involved in the process of using the feedback tool. Using an exploratory qualitative research design, four patients, four mentors and five pre-registration adult field nursing students were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the data identified three interconnecting themes; value of the patient's voice, caring and protection, and authenticity of feedback. A sub-theme of timing of giving feedback was also identified. Patients felt they should be involved in giving feedback, were comfortable in doing so, and felt best placed to judge students' performance in several aspects of care. Students and mentors shared these opinions. Additionally they felt service user feedback potentially helped improve students' competence and confidence, and facilitated mentors in their assessment of students' professional values, communication and interpersonal skills. However, mentors were more reticent about the possibility of receiving feedback from service users on their own practice. PMID:26347448

  15. The Facilitators and Barriers to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing Education Programs: A Mixed Method Explanatory Sequential Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since several factors affect nurses’ participation in Continuing Education, and that nurses’ Continuing Education affects patients’ and community health status, it is essential to know facilitators and barriers of participation in Continuing Education programs and plan accordingly. This mixed approach study aimed to investigate the facilitators and barriers of nurses’ participation, to explore nurses’ perception of the most common facilitators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory sequential mixed methods design with follow up explanations variant were used, and it involved collecting quantitative data (361 nurses) first and then explaining the quantitative results with in-depth interviews during a qualitative study. Results: The results showed that the mean score of facilitators to nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was significantly higher than the mean score of barriers (61.99±10.85 versus 51.17±12.83; p<0.001, t=12.23). The highest mean score of facilitators of nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was related to “Update my knowledge”. By reviewing the handwritings in qualitative phase, two main levels of updating information and professional skills were extracted as the most common facilitators and lack of support as the most common barrier to nurses’ participation in continuing education program. Conclusion: According to important role Continuing Education on professional skills, nurse managers should facilitate the nurse’ participation in the Continues Education. PMID:25948439

  16. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Rationale, Methods, Description of Participants, and Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Ng’ang’a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang’, James K.; Maina, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15–64 years. Kenya’s second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. Methods KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Results Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15–64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10–14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. Conclusions KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country. PMID:24732819

  17. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  18. Evaluation of an automatic brain segmentation method developed for neonates on adult MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeskops, Pim; Viergever, Max A.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is of clinical relevance in images acquired at all ages. The literature presents a clear distinction between methods developed for MR images of infants, and methods developed for images of adults. The aim of this work is to evaluate a method developed for neonatal images in the segmentation of adult images. The evaluated method employs supervised voxel classification in subsequent stages, exploiting spatial and intensity information. Evaluation was performed using images available within the MRBrainS13 challenge. The obtained average Dice coefficients were 85.77% for grey matter, 88.66% for white matter, 81.08% for cerebrospinal fluid, 95.65% for cerebrum, and 96.92% for intracranial cavity, currently resulting in the best overall ranking. The possibility of applying the same method to neonatal as well as adult images can be of great value in cross-sectional studies that include a wide age range.

  19. Methods to Increase Educational Effectiveness in an Adult Correctional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuster, Byron

    1998-01-01

    A correctional educator reflects on methods that improve instructional effectiveness. These include teacher-student collaboration, clear goals, student accountability, positive classroom atmosphere, high expectations, and mutual respect. (SK)

  20. Anxiety sensitivity in relation to quit day dropout among adult daily smokers recruited to participate in a self-guided cessation attempt.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Farris, Samantha G; Hogan, Julianna B D; Grover, Kristin W; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) has been implicated in a variety of aspects of smoking, including difficulties achieving and maintaining abstinence during tobacco cessation. However, research has yet to evaluate whether AS impacts premature termination of initiating a quit attempt. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to explore the extent to which AS was associated with tobacco cessation dropout, as indexed by attendance on the scheduled quit day visit. Participants included 84 adult daily cigarette smokers (61.7% male; Mage=34.6years, SD=13.9), who were recruited to participate in a self-guided quit attempt (an attempt to quit smoking without professional or pharmacological aid). Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of participant sex, race, current (past month) psychological disorder, cigarettes smoked per day, number of years as a regular smoker, and pre-quit levels of motivation to quit, AS significantly predicted increased odds of study dropout prior to attending the scheduled quit day. These findings suggest that AS may be a mechanism involved with challenges in the initiation of quitting. PMID:26896560

  1. Factors Important for Work Participation Among Older Workers with Depression, Cardiovascular Disease, and Osteoarthritis: A Mixed Method Study.

    PubMed

    Boot, Cécile R L; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Shaw, William S; van der Beek, Allard J; Deeg, Dorly J; Abma, Tineke

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to gain insight into differences and similarities in factors important for work participation in older (58-65 years) workers among three different chronic diseases: depression (D), cardiovascular disease (C), and osteoarthritis (O). Methods A mixed method design was used, with a qualitative part (in-depth interviews) with 14 patients with D, C or O and a quantitative part based on the 2002-2003 cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. We analysed and compared 3-year (response 93 %) predictors of paid work in 239 participants with D, C, or O using regression analyses. The qualitative findings were integrated with the quantitative findings aiming at complementarity. Results Common factors important for work participation were: working at baseline; male gender; lower age; partner with paid work; better physical and mental health; and higher mastery scores. The qualitative analyses added autonomy in work and provided contextual information regarding the perceived importance of working as factors important for participation in paid work. For D and C, work gave purpose in life and enhanced social contacts. Participation in work was perceived as necessary to structure life only for D. Conclusion Most factors important for work participation were similar for D, C, and O. However, the interviews revealed that for D, the context and the meaning attributed to these factors differed. PMID:26210996

  2. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk. PMID:26555155

  3. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted. PMID:23899931

  4. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Lien, Laura L; Steggell, Carmen D; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants' perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  5. A Mixed Methods Exploration of Family Involvement in Medical Care for Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Pepin, Renee; Mueser, Kim T.; Naslund, John A.; Rolin, Stephanie A.; Faber, Marjan J.; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received little attention. This study explored family involvement in medical care for older adults with SMI. Methods This mixed methods study involved analysis of quantitative data collected from older adults with SMI and cardiovascular risk (n=28) participating in a pilot study of an intervention designed to improve patient-centered primary care augmented by qualitative interviews with their relatives (n=13) to explore family involvement in medical care. Results Approximately 89% of older adults with SMI reported family involvement in at least one aspect of their medical care (e.g., medication reminders, medical decision making). However, many family members reported that they were rarely involved in their relative's medical visits, and most did not perceive a need to be involved during routine care. Family members identified obesity as their relative's primary health concern and many wanted guidance from providers on effective strategies for supporting weight loss. Conclusions Although many family members did not perceive a need to be involved in their relative's routine medical visits, they expressed interest in talking with providers about how to help their relative change unhealthy behaviors. Educating patients, families, and providers about the potential benefits of family involvement in medical care, including routine medical visits for persons with SMI and cardiovascular health risk may promote patient-and family-centered collaboration in this high-risk population. PMID:25377153

  6. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E.; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  7. Does Participation in Citizen Science Improve Scientific Literacy? A Study to Compare Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth; Rohlinger, Spencer; Crall, Alycia; Newman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a contextually sensitive instrument to assess the effect of invasive species monitoring training on the scientific literacy of citizen volunteers. The authors measured scientific literacy scores before and after 57 citizens participated in a 2-day event to learn to monitor invasive species with an instrument…

  8. Hematopoietic bone marrow cells participate in endothelial, but not epithelial or mesenchymal cell renewal in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Odörfer, Kathrin I; Egerbacher, Monika; Unger, Nina J; Weber, Karin; Jamnig, Angelika; Lepperdinger, Günter; Kleiter, Miriam; Sandgren, Eric P; Erben, Reinhold G

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which bone marrow (BM) contributes to physiological cell renewal is still controversial. Using the marker human placental alkaline phosphatase (ALPP) which can readily be detected in paraffin and plastic sections by histochemistry or immunohistochemistry, and in ultrathin sections by electron microscopy after pre-embedding staining, we examined the role of endogenous BM in physiological cell renewal by analysing tissues from lethally irradiated wild-type inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats transplanted (BMT) with unfractionated BM from ALPP-transgenic F344 rats ubiquitously expressing the marker. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analysis showed that the proportion of ALPP+ capillary endothelial cells (EC) profoundly increased from 1 until 6 months after BMT in all organs except brain and adrenal medulla. In contrast, pericytes and EC in large blood vessels were ALPP–. Epithelial cells in kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine and brain were recipient-derived at all time-points. Similarly, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, striated muscle and smooth muscle cells were exclusively of recipient origin. The lack of mesenchymal BM-derived cells in peripheral tissues prompted us to examine whether BMT resulted in engraftment of mesenchymal precursors. Four weeks after BMT, all haematopoietic BM cells were of donor origin by flow cytometric analysis, whereas isolation of BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) failed to show engraftment of donor MSC. In conclusion, our data show that BM is an important source of physiological renewal of EC in adult rats, but raise doubt whether reconstituted irradiated rats are an apt model for BM-derived regeneration of mesenchymal cells in peripheral tissues. PMID:21091631

  9. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  10. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  11. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  12. Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies

    PubMed Central

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Houtman, Irene L.; Joensuu, Matti; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers. PMID:22792154

  13. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  14. Upper-Extremity Dual-Task Function: An Innovative Method to Assess Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Najafi, Bijan; Reiman, Eric M.; Mager, Reine M.; Veldhuizen, Jaimeson K.; O’Connor, Kathy; Zamrini, Edward; Mohler, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in orchestrating simultaneous tasks (i.e., dual-tasking) have been associated with cognitive impairments in older adults. Gait tests have been commonly used as the motor task component for dual-task assessments; however, many older adults have mobility impairments or there is a lack of space in busy clinical settings. We assessed an upper-extremity function (UEF) test as an alternative motor task to study the dual-task motor performance in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥65 years) were recruited, and cognitive ability was measured using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA). Participants performed repetitive elbow flexion with their maximum pace, once single-task, and once while counting backward by one (dual-task). Single- and dual-task gait tests were also performed with normal speed. Three-dimensional kinematics was measured both from upper-extremity and lower-extremity using wearable sensors to determine UEF and gait parameters. Parameters were compared between the cognitively impaired and healthy groups using analysis of variance tests, while controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Correlations between UEF and gait parameters for dual-task and dual-task cost were assessed using linear regression models. Results: Sixty-seven older adults were recruited (age = 83 ± 10 years). Based on MoCA, 10 (15%) were cognitively impaired. While no significant differences were observed in the single-task condition, within the dual-task condition, the cognitively impaired group showed significantly less arm flexion speed (62%, d = 1.51, p = 0.02) and range of motion (27%, d = 0.93, p = 0.04), and higher speed variability (88%, d = 1.82, p < 0.0001) compared to the cognitively intact group, when adjusted with age, gender, and BMI. Significant correlations were observed between UEF speed parameters and gait stride velocity for dual-task condition (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001) and dual-task cost (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). Conclusion: We

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study on Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Lampe, Fiona C; Miltz, Ada; Gilson, Richard; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka; Scott, Christopher; Day, Sara; Clarke, Amanda; Anderson, Jane; O'Connell, Rebecca; Apea, Vanessa; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Gompels, Mark; Farazmand, Paymaneh; Allan, Sris; Mann, Susan; Dhar, Jyoti; Tang, Alan; Sadiq, S Tariq; Taylor, Stephen; Collins, Simon; Sherr, Lorraine; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Miners, Alec; Elford, Jonathan; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. Objective The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. Results Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. Conclusions The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population. PMID:27091769

  16. Solutions of radiative heat transfer in nonhomogeneous participating media using the quadrature method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.H.; Wu, C.Y.; Hsu, P.

    1996-12-31

    This work considers radiative heat transfer in a three-dimensional, rectangular, scattering medium exposed to diffuse radiation. Applying the quadrature method with singularity subtraction to the exact integral equations in terms of the moments of intensity can generate highly accurate solutions, and so the method is adopted in this work. The example solutions provided are for radiative equilibrium in homogeneous absorbing-emitting media, and for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous absorbing-scattering (isotropic and linearly anisotropic) media with non-reflecting surfaces. To validate the solutions, the present results are compared with the solutions obtained by the YIX method and other methods.

  17. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  18. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  19. Developing Electronic Data Methods Infrastructure to Participate in Collaborative Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Elisa L.; Klekar, Christopher; Cantu, Gabriela; Berryman, Candice; Garinger, Gina; Hall, Lauren; Kouznetsova, Maria; Kudyakov, Rustam; Masica, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Context: Collaborative networks support the goals of a learning health system by sharing, aggregating, and analyzing data to facilitate identification of best practices care across delivery organizations. This case study describes the infrastructure and process developed by an integrated health delivery system to successfully prepare and submit a complex data set to a large national collaborative network. Case Description: We submitted four years of data for a diverse population of patients in specific clinical areas: diabetes, chronic heart failure, sepsis, and hip, knee, and spine. The most recent submission included 19 tables, more than 376,000 unique patients, and almost 5 million patient encounters. Data was extracted from multiple clinical and administrative systems. Lessons Learned: We found that a structured process with documentation was key to maintaining communication, timelines, and quality in a large-scale data submission to a national collaborative network. The three key components of this process were the experienced project team, documentation, and communication. We used a formal QA and feedback process to track and review data. Overall, the data submission was resource intensive and required an incremental approach to data quality. Conclusion: Participation in collaborative networks can be time and resource intense, however it can serve as a catalyst to increase the technical data available to the learning health system. PMID:25848600

  20. How to find Chinese research participants: use of a phonologically based surname search method.

    PubMed

    Tjam, E Y

    2001-01-01

    The frequent use of non-representative, time-consuming and low hit rate sampling methods in the study of minority cultures is of concern. Given the increasing cultural diversity of the Canadian population and the growing Chinese population, a sampling method using phonological rules to distinguish Chinese surnames from non-Chinese ones was developed. Chinese surnames, transcribed according to their pronunciations, follow specific phonological rules. A flowchart was developed using the inclusion and exclusion criteria derived from these rules. Methods to validate Chinese surnames (identified from telephone directory) were external reference source, expert panel, and telephone interview. A total of 266 possible Chinese surnames were selected using the flowchart. External reference source validated 153 surnames, expert panel 53, and telephone interview 23. An overall hit rate of 86.1% (229/266) was achieved, reflecting the validity of the phonological criteria in identifying individuals with a Chinese surname from the general population. PMID:11338153

  1. Comparing the Push-Pull Versus Discard Blood Sample Method From Adult Central Vascular Access Devices.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dia

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the discard blood sampling method for central vascular access devices with the push-pull method. A comparative, within-subject design was used to evaluate 61 unique, paired blood samples from 1 adult outpatient oncology clinic. A 21-measure laboratory panel was conducted on each of the paired samples. Interpretation showed a small mean bias and excellent agreement between the methods. Blood samples obtained using the push-pull method were within clinically acceptable ranges. No hemolysis was noted by laboratory evaluation of 59 samples. PMID:27074989

  2. Profiling Young Children's Participation in Track and Field, Injuries Sustained and Prevention Methods Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Lyn; Mok, Magadalena

    1999-01-01

    Explored nature and extent of track and field injuries of 8- and 9-year-olds and their injury prevention methods. Found that about one-third had at least one injury. About one-fourth considered their injuries serious. Most serious injuries occurred during track and field events. There were no age or gender differences in injury rates. Injury…

  3. Learning by Doing: Teaching Research Methods through Student Participation in a Commissioned Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    For five years, a University of Brighton (England) social policy and administration program has incorporated a student research project into a required research methods course. The sponsored research project places considerable emphasis on student contributions to the research. These features are discussed in the context of one project, a patient…

  4. The three-factor structure of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale: fool's gold or true gold? A study in a sample of Italian adult non-clinical participants.

    PubMed

    Somma, Antonella; Fossati, Andrea; Patrick, Christopher; Maffei, Cesare; Borroni, Serena

    2014-10-01

    The major aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Italian translation of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) in a sample of 740 community dwelling adult participants. Hull method, minimum average partial analysis and quasi-inferential parallel analysis techniques were used to identify a three-factor solution that appeared broadly consistent with previous work. The three factors exhibited reliability coefficients >0.70, and the three-factor structure was adequately reproduced across gender, educational level and civil status strata (median congruence coefficients = 0.94, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively) and remained largely unchanged when the effect of participants' age was controlled for (median factor score correlation = 0.99). Although Factor 3 in our study was demarcated mainly by reverse-keyed items, the LSRP factors yielded meaningful relations with retrospective measures of antisocial behaviour in adolescence and HEXACO personality traits and were conceptually consistent with the triarchic model of psychopathy of Patrick, Fowles and Krueger (2009). PMID:25132649

  5. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. Objective The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. Design This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Methods Participants were children (6–8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Results Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11–25) was mainly ‘recreational’ (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than ‘active physical’ (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body

  6. Relationship between perceived stress and dietary and activity patterns in older adults participating in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Laugero, Kevin D.; Falcon, Luis M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research supports a relationship between psychological stress and chronic disease in Puerto Rican adults living in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Stress may affect health by influencing dietary and physical activity patterns. Therefore, perceived stress and two hypothesized mediators of stress-related food intake, insulin and cortisol, were examined for possible associations with dietary and activity patterns in >1300 Puerto Ricans (aged 45–75 years; 70% women) living in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and ANCOVA. Greater perceived stress was associated with lower fruit, vegetable, and protein intake, greater consumption of salty snacks, and lower participation in physical activity. Stress was associated with higher intake of sweets, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes. Cortisol and stress were positively associated in those without diabetes. Cortisol was associated with higher intake of saturated fat and, in those with diabetes, sweet foods. Independent of diabetes, perceived stress was associated with higher circulating insulin and BMI. Our findings support a link between stress, cortisol, and dietary and activity patterns in this population. For high-sugar foods, this relationship may be particularly important in those with type 2 diabetes. Longitudinal research to determine causal pathways for these identified associations is warranted. PMID:21070827

  7. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Kenneth; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2015-01-01

    A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h) with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM) source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period. PMID:26578903

  8. Social Learning in the Real-World: 'Over-Imitation' Occurs in Both Children and Adults Unaware of Participation in an Experiment and Independently of Social Interaction.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Andrew; Allan, Gillian; Devlin, Siobahn; Kseib, Natalie; Raw, Nicola; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation-the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions-occurs in a real-world context in which participants are unaware of being in an experiment. We disguised a puzzle-box task as an interactive item available to the public within a science engagement zone of Edinburgh Zoo. As a member of the public approached, a confederate acting as a zoo visitor retrieved a reward from the box using a sequence of actions containing both causally relevant and irrelevant elements. Despite the absence of intentional demonstration, or social pressure to copy, a majority of both child and even adult observers included all causally irrelevant actions in their reproduction. This occurred even though causal irrelevance appeared manifest because of the transparency of the puzzle-box. That over-imitation occurred so readily in a naturalistic context, devoid of social interaction and pressure, suggests that humans are opportunistic social learners throughout the lifespan, copying the actions of other individuals even when these actions are not intentionally demonstrated, and their causal significance is not readily apparent. The disposition to copy comprehensively, even when a mere onlooker, likely provides humans, irrespective of their age, with a powerful mechanism to extract maximal information from the social environment. PMID:27466806

  9. Social Learning in the Real-World: ‘Over-Imitation’ Occurs in Both Children and Adults Unaware of Participation in an Experiment and Independently of Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew; Allan, Gillian; Devlin, Siobahn; Kseib, Natalie; Raw, Nicola; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation—the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions—occurs in a real-world context in which participants are unaware of being in an experiment. We disguised a puzzle-box task as an interactive item available to the public within a science engagement zone of Edinburgh Zoo. As a member of the public approached, a confederate acting as a zoo visitor retrieved a reward from the box using a sequence of actions containing both causally relevant and irrelevant elements. Despite the absence of intentional demonstration, or social pressure to copy, a majority of both child and even adult observers included all causally irrelevant actions in their reproduction. This occurred even though causal irrelevance appeared manifest because of the transparency of the puzzle-box. That over-imitation occurred so readily in a naturalistic context, devoid of social interaction and pressure, suggests that humans are opportunistic social learners throughout the lifespan, copying the actions of other individuals even when these actions are not intentionally demonstrated, and their causal significance is not readily apparent. The disposition to copy comprehensively, even when a mere onlooker, likely provides humans, irrespective of their age, with a powerful mechanism to extract maximal information from the social environment. PMID:27466806

  10. Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cornuet, Mélanie; Kerhervé, Hélène; Damnée, Souad; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults’ uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to

  11. Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Karol A.; Galea, Mary P.; Said, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years) attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years). A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series), two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST), self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat). At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P < .001). The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < .001). Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = .005), gait speed (P = .017) and FSST time (P = .022). These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults. PMID:19553385

  12. Feldenkrais method balance classes improve balance in older adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Connors, Karol A; Galea, Mary P; Said, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years) attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years). A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series), two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST), self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat). At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P < .001). The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < .001). Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = .005), gait speed (P = .017) and FSST time (P = .022). These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults. PMID:19553385

  13. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  14. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  15. A Description of Older Adults' Participation in a Technology-Based Piano Program and Their Musical Skill Development, Perceptions of Personal Fulfillment, and Attitudes toward Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitak, Kirsten Nora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of Piano Wizard(TM) as a viable technological and instructional tool for older adults. Piano Wizard's applicability for seniors was determined by participants' musical skill development, perceptions of personal fulfillment, attitudes toward music learning, and opinions about the…

  16. Thymidine analog methods for studies of adult neurogenesis are not equally sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Leuner, Benedetta; Glasper, Erica R.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is often studied by labeling new cells with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and using immunohistochemical methods for their visualization. Using this approach, considerable variability has been reported in the number of new cells produced in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. We examined whether immunohistochemical methods, including BrdU antibodies from different vendors (Vector, BD, Roche, Dako, Novocastra, Accurate) and DNA denaturation pretreatments, alter the quantitative and qualitative patterns of BrdU labeling. We also compared the sensitivity and specificity of BrdU with two other thymidine analogs, iododeoxyuridine (IdU) and chlorodeoxyuridine (CldU). We found that the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats was dependent on the BrdU antibody used but was unrelated to differences in antibody penetration. Even at a higher concentration, some antibodies stained fewer cells (Vector, Novocastra). A sensitive BrdU antibody (BD) was specific for dividing cells; all BrdU-labeled cells stained for Ki67, an endogenous marker of cell proliferation. We also observed that DNA denaturation pretreatments affected the number of BrdU-labeled cells and staining intensity for a marker of neuronal differentiation, NeuN. Finally, we found that IdU and CldU, when used at molarities comparable to those that label the maximal number of cells with BrdU, are less sensitive. These data suggest that antibody and thymidine analog selection, as well as the staining procedure employed, can affect the number of newly generated neurons detected in the adult brain thus providing a potential explanation for some of the variability in the adult neurogenesis literature. PMID:19731267

  17. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length.

    PubMed

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined, aged from approximately six years to twenty-one years. The samples were aged according to two dental methods: Haavikko and Ubelaker. Regression formulae were constructed for aging according to their diaphyseal lengths both for individual long bones and combinations of upper and lower long bones. This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower age compared to this sample which increased until reaching a maximum of nearly five years and six months. When comparing the archaeological data to this study, the growth profile crossed over at 12.5 years with a maximum age difference before the cross point of two years and three months lower for the archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it has presented a possible solution for Danish sub-adult material when dental material is not available. PMID:22928354

  18. Reliability and validity of eight dental age estimation methods for adults.

    PubMed

    Soomer, Helena; Ranta, Helena; Lincoln, Michael J; Penttilä, Antti; Leibur, Edvitar

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of eight published dental age estimation methods for adults that may aid in victim identification. Age was calculated on 20 Caucasian teeth of known age according to the methods of Kvaal (for in situ and extracted teeth), Solheim (for in situ and sectioned teeth), Lamendin (for extracted teeth), Johanson (for sectioned teeth) and Bang (for extracted and sectioned teeth) by one independent observer. For each method, mean age error and standard error were assessed as the measures of accuracy and precision. In addition, method simplicity, requirements for tooth preparation and the equipment necessary were assessed and recommendations given for forensic use in various situations. Methods for sectioned teeth gave more reliable results when compared to methods for intact teeth. PMID:12570217

  19. Supervision of care networks for frail community dwelling adults aged 75 years and older: protocol of a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Dutch healthcare inspectorate (IGZ) supervises the quality and safety of healthcare in the Netherlands. Owing to the growing population of (community dwelling) older adults and changes in the Dutch healthcare system, the IGZ is exploring new methods to effectively supervise care networks that exist around frail older adults. The composition of these networks, where formal and informal care takes place, and the lack of guidelines and quality and risk indicators make supervision complicated in the current situation. Methods and analysis This study consists of four phases. The first phase identifies risks for community dwelling frail older adults in the existing literature. In the second phase, a qualitative pilot study will be conducted to assess the needs and wishes of the frail older adults concerning care and well-being, perception of risks, and the composition of their networks, collaboration and coordination between care providers involved in the network. In the third phase, questionnaires based on the results of phase II will be sent to a larger group of frail older adults (n=200) and their care providers. The results will describe the composition of their care networks and prioritise risks concerning community dwelling older adults. Also, it will provide input for the development of a new supervision framework by the IGZ. During phase IV, a second questionnaire will be sent to the participants of phase III to establish changes of perception in risks and possible changes in the care networks. The framework will be tested by the IGZ in pilots, and the researchers will evaluate these pilots and provide feedback to the IGZ. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Scientific Committee of the EMGO+institute and the Medical Ethical review committee of the VU University Medical Centre. Results will be presented in scientific articles and reports and at meetings. PMID:26307619

  20. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-09-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 {plus minus} 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 {plus minus} 0.76 and 7.39 {plus minus} 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 {plus minus} 2 and 122 {plus minus} 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 {plus minus} 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs.

  1. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  2. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Rodriguez, Theresa M.S.; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook’s Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 – 7/29/13), targeted by age (18–25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  3. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation. PMID:27283678

  4. Exploring the development of science self-efficacy in preservice elementary school teachers participating in a science education methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Amanda M.

    The demands of society's increasing dependence on science and technology call for our students to have a solid foundation in science education, starting in the earliest grades. However, elementary school teachers often lack the necessary experiences to deliver that education. This qualitative study seeks to explore the development of six preservice elementary teachers in a semester-long science methods course. The course consisted of many components; one in particular was a microteaching experience, which emerged as especially significant. The participants' experiences throughout the semester were studied primarily through the lens of self-efficacy, but were also examined considering learning theories and mental models. It was found that two participants in particular were self-directed learners and were able to construct for themselves a self-selected cognitive apprenticeship. Other findings include the significance of a microteaching experience on development of self-efficacy in science teaching and the role mental models may or may not play in development of self-efficacy in the science methods course. This study has implications both for preservice elementary education in science and in general.

  5. Method for the systematic reviews on occupational therapy and driving and community mobility for older adults.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of literature relevant to driving and community mobility for older adults are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the four questions that served as the focus for the systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy assessments and interventions for driving and community mobility for older adults. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review, a summary of the themes of the results, the strengths and limitations of the findings, and the implications for practice, education, and research are presented. PMID:25397760

  6. Tooth cleaning methods and their effectiveness among adults in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sarita, P T; Tuominen, R

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate how various population characteristics affect the choice of different tooth cleaning methods and to estimate their role in preventing occurrence of plaque, calculus and gingivitis among rural adults in Tanzania. Two hundred adults aged 20 years and over were interviewed and clinically examined for plaque, calculus and gingival bleeding. A high proportion (97.5%) of the subjects reported that they clean their teeth every day. Among them, 69.4% used only indigenous tooth cleaning methods, 16.3% only factory made toothbrushes and 14.3% both. Twigs (Chewing sticks) were the most commonly used indigenous tooth cleaning method, followed by charcoal. Together with age, educational and occupational status and tribal origin significantly affected the choice of tooth cleaning method. Men had more often visible plaque than women (OR = 2.84). However, other sociodemographic factors and the method of cleaning teeth were not significantly associated with the occurrence of plaque, calculus or gingival bleeding. PMID:1298964

  7. A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives and Peer Networks to Promote Walking among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Harkins, Kristin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Gonzales, Amy; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.; Asch, David A.; Heisler, Michele; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: Financial incentives and peer networks could be delivered through eHealth technologies to encourage older adults to walk more. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized trial in which 92 older adults with a computer and Internet access received a pedometer, daily walking goals, and weekly feedback on goal achievement. Participants…

  8. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  9. Learn to Read. A Project to Serve Functionally Illiterate English-Dominant Adults and Limited English Proficient Adults, Involving Instructors, Tutors and Students Interacting to Try New Approaches, Techniques and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    A 310 Project, Learn to Read, was conducted by Oakton Community College in suburban Chicago to teach reading to functionally illiterate and limited English speaking (LEP) adults using a variety of approaches. Participants included two groups. One group consisted of American-born adults who had basic oral competency but had failed to acquire…

  10. Addressing “Nature-Deficit Disorder”: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study of Young Adults Attending a Wilderness Camp

    PubMed Central

    Warber, Sara L.; DeHudy, Ashley A.; Bialko, Matthew F.; Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Rapid urbanization raises concern about chronic human health issues along with less frequent interaction with the natural world. “Nature-deficit disorder,” a nonclinical term, describes this potential impact on the well-being of youth. We conducted a mixed methods pilot study of young adults attending a four-week wilderness camp to investigate whether nature-based camp experiences would increase connection to nature and promote multiple dimensions of well-being. Methods. Participants completed precamp (n = 46) and postcamp (n = 36) online questionnaires including nature-related and holistic well-being measures. Differences were investigated using paired t-tests. Interviews (n = 16) explored camp experiences and social relations. Results. All nature-related measures—exposure, knowledge, skills, willingness to lead, perceived safety, sense of place, and nature connection—significantly increased. Well-being outcomes also significantly improved, including perceived stress, relaxation, positive and negative emotions, sense of wholeness, and transcendence. Physical activity and psychological measures showed no change. Interviews described how the wilderness environment facilitated social connections. Conclusion. Findings illustrate the change in nature relations and well-being that wilderness camp experiences can provide. Results can guide future research agendas and suggest that nature immersion experiences could address the risk of “nature-deficit disorder,” improve health, and prepare future environmental leaders. PMID:26788110

  11. Targeted Facebook Advertising is a Novel and Effective Method of Recruiting Participants into a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Methods Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertisements relating to general women’s health. From November 2013 to June 2015, targeted advertising campaigns were implemented to specifically recruit women who had not received the HPV vaccine. Consenting participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire and those who had ever had sexual intercourse were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab. The HPV vaccination status of participants was confirmed from the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Results The campaign comprised 10 advertisements shown between September 2011 and June 2015 which generated 55,381,637 impressions, yielding 23,714 clicks, at an overall cost of AUD $22,078.85. A total of 919 participants were recruited. A greater proportion of unvaccinated women (50.4%, 131/260) were recruited into the study following targeted advertising, compared with those recruited (19.3%, 127/659) prior to showing the modified advertisement (P<.001). A greater proportion of the total sample completed tertiary education and resided in inner regional Victoria, compared with National population census data (P<.001), but was otherwise representative of the general population. Conclusions Targeted Facebook advertising is a rapid and cost-effective way of recruiting young unvaccinated women into a HPV vaccine effectiveness study. PMID:27450586

  12. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  13. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  14. Protocol for a systematic review of evaluation research for adults who have participated in the ‘SMART recovery’ mutual support programme

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Hunt, David; Forbes, Erin; Kelly, John F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery) offers an alternative to predominant 12-step approaches to mutual aid (eg, alcoholics anonymous). Although the principles (eg, self-efficacy) and therapeutic approaches (eg, motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy) of SMART Recovery are evidence based, further clarity regarding the direct evidence of its effectiveness as a mutual aid package is needed. Relative to methodologically rigorous reviews supporting the efficacy of 12-step approaches, to date, reviews of SMART Recovery have been descriptive. We aim to address this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of the evidence for SMART Recovery in adults with problematic alcohol, substance and/or behavioural addiction, including a commentary on outcomes assessed, potential mediators, feasibility (including economic outcomes) and a critical evaluation of the methods used. Methods and analysis Methods are informed by the Cochrane Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. 6 electronic peer-reviewed and 4 grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for SMART Recovery literature (liberal inclusion criteria, not restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs), qualitative-only designs excluded). Eligible ‘evaluation’ articles will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis of the findings will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics, and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. When data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula (continuous outcomes) for

  15. Are two youth-focused interventions sufficient to empower youth with chronic health conditions in their transition to adult healthcare: a mixed-methods longitudinal prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Stewart, Deb; Cohen, Eyal; Hlyva, Oksana; Morrison, Andrea; Galuppi, Barb; Nguyen, Tram; Amaria, Khush; Punthakee, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess use, utility and impact of transition interventions designed to support and empower self-management in youth with chronic health conditions during transition into adult healthcare. Design A 4-year mixed-method prospective cohort study. Setting 2 academic paediatric hospitals (13 clinics) in Canada. Participants 50 adolescents (42% male; mean age 17.9±0.9 years; 20 underlying diagnoses) with transfer to adult care planned within 1 year. Interventions The Youth KIT (an organisational tool that includes goal setting activities); an online transition mentor. Main outcome measures Frequency of use, utility and impact of the transition interventions; goal achievement; post-transfer qualitative interviews with youth. Results 50 participants were enrolled during their last year of paediatric care; 36 (72%) were followed into adult care. All participants had access to the transition interventions from enrolment until the end of the study (exposure time: 12–47 months). Most youth (85%) reported using the medical/health section of the Youth KIT at least once; 20 (40%) participants engaged in chats with the mentor. The overall perceived utility of both interventions was modest; the Youth KIT received the highest ratings for ‘help with goal setting’: (mean (SD): 4.2 (2.3)) on a 7-point Likert scale. 45 (90%) participants set 294 transition goals. Goal achievement performance and satisfaction increased over time (p≤0.001). The qualitative evidence revealed reasons behind the variability in use and utility of the interventions, the interconnectedness of life-course and healthcare transitions, and the need for stronger partnerships between paediatric and adult healthcare systems. Conclusions Participants’ perceptions about the utility of the Youth KIT and the online mentor were modest. Transition supports need to be carefully tailored, timed and integrated into healthcare systems. Individualised goal setting may be an important

  16. USNRC/ANL participation in the Lotung, Taiwan Large-Scale Soil-Structure-Interaction experiment: Validation of analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    As part of an overall effort on the validation of seismic calculational methods, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Research (NRC/RES) is participating in a number of international cooperative experimental programs including the Large Scale Soil-Structure-Interaction (SSI) Experiment conducted in Lotung, Taiwan by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on behalf of NRC/RES coordinates the EPRI-NRC collaboration in these experiments. The primary objective for both NRC and EPRI in the Large Scale SSI experiment is the validation/evaluation of SSI analysis methods. In addition NRC/ANL also sponsored and carried out the vibration testing of the 1/4-scale containment model. This report presents the highlights of the NRC/ANL program approach for the validation of SSI methods which differs slightly in its implementation details from the approach taken by EPRI. Also described are the vibration experiments of the 1/4-scale containment and the results of a modal analysis of the test data. Finally an effort to determine the dynamic characteristics of the soil-structure system from the earthquake response data is outlined and preliminary results are discussed. 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  18. Using perceptual mapping methods to understand gender differences in perceived barriers and benefits of clinical research participation in urban minority HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Wolak, Caitlin; Greener, Judith; Tedaldi, Ellen; Nanavati, Aasit; Ruppert, Katey; Gordon, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Minority participation in HIV clinical trials research is critical to understanding the impact of medications or behavioral interventions, but little is known about gender differences in perceptions of participation. We surveyed 50 minority HIV+ patients from an urban clinic to assess perceived risks/benefits of clinical trial research participation and used innovative marketing methods to analyze results. Perceptual mapping and vector message-modeling, a method that creates 3-D models representing how groups conceptualize elements, were used to assess how male and female participants could be motivated to participate. Results showed men farther away from participation and more concerned with HIV disclosure and experimentation than women. Men expressed distrust of the medical system, doubted HIV's origin, and knew less about research implementation. Women were closer to participation in both behavior and medical trials and perceived medication issues as more significant, including fear of losing medication stability, medications not working, being in the placebo group, and experiencing side effects. Vector modeling shows that messages would need to focus on different aspects of clinical research for men and women and that interventions aimed at minority HIV+ patients to encourage clinical trial participation would need to be targeted to their unique perceptions. Understanding gender perceptions of HIV clinical research has significant implications for targeting messages to increase minority participation. PMID:26572215

  19. Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

  20. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  1. Stab wound injury of the zebrafish adult telencephalon: a method to investigate vertebrate brain neurogenesis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rebecca; Beil, Tanja; Strähle, Uwe; Rastegar, Sepand

    2014-01-01

    Adult zebrafish have an amazing capacity to regenerate their central nervous system after injury. To investigate the cellular response and the molecular mechanisms involved in zebrafish adult central nervous system (CNS) regeneration and repair, we developed a zebrafish model of adult telencephalic injury. In this approach, we manually generate an injury by pushing an insulin syringe needle into the zebrafish adult telencephalon. At different post injury days, fish are sacrificed, their brains are dissected out and stained by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization (ISH) with appropriate markers to observe cell proliferation, gliogenesis, and neurogenesis. The contralateral unlesioned hemisphere serves as an internal control. This method combined for example with RNA deep sequencing can help to screen for new genes with a role in zebrafish adult telencephalon neurogenesis, regeneration, and repair. PMID:25146302

  2. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  3. “Young people, adult worries”: RCT of an internet-based self-support method “Feel the ViBe” for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high. Since almost all children of the current generation have access to the internet, an online intervention will make help better available for this target group. In 2011, an internet-based self-support method for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence was developed in the Netherlands: “Feel the ViBe”. The intervention was developed in close collaboration with the target group. This article describes the protocol of the RCT to study the effectiveness of this intervention. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial using the method of minimization to randomize the participants in two parallel groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio, being an intervention group, having access to “Feel the ViBe” and usual care (UC), and a control group, having access to minimally enhanced usual care (mEUC) followed by access to the intervention after twelve weeks. Outcomes are measured with questionnaires on PTSD symptoms, mental health and sexual and reproductive health. Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) will be used to measure a direct effect of participating in the intervention. Data from a web evaluation questionnaire (WEQ), user statistics and qualitative analysis of online data will be used to support the findings. To compare results Cohen’s d effect sizes will be used. Discussion A RCT and process evaluation will test effectiveness and provide information of how the effects can be explained, how the intervention meets the expectation of participants

  4. Fast method of retrieving the asymmetry factor and scattering albedo from the maximum time-resolved reflectance of participating media.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong; Ren, Ya-Tao; Chen, Qin; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This research presents a parametric study of the time-resolved hemispherical reflectance of a semi-infinite plane-parallel slab of homogeneous, nonemitting, absorbing, and anisotropic scattering medium exposed to a collimated Gaussian pulse. The one-dimensional transient radiative transfer equation was solved by using the finite volume method. The internal reflection at the medium-air interface caused by the mismatch of the refractive indices was considered. In particular, this work focused on the maximum diffuse hemispherical reflectance. Three different optical regions were identified according to the dimensionless pulsewidth βctp. The correlation between the normalized maximum hemispherical reflectance and βctp was conformed to the Boltzmann function. The coefficients in the correlating functions of the match and mismatch refractive index cases were fitted as polynomial fitting functions of the single scattering albedo ω and Henyey-Greenstein asymmetric factor g. Thus, ω and g can be simultaneously reconstructed by the semi-empirical correlations without solving the forward model. In conclusion, the proposed method can potentially retrieve the asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo of participating media accurately and efficiently. PMID:26192689

  5. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  6. Changes in Training Opportunities in South Wales, 1945-1998: The Views of Key Informants. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Paul; Gorard, Stephen; Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines analysis of secondary…

  7. The Region of the Study [and] Outline Methodology of the Study. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 1 [and] Working Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John; Fevre, Ralph

    These two working papers are products of a regional study in industrial South Wales of the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines…

  8. Home and Away: The Decline of Informal Learning in South Wales, 1900-1997. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Furlong, John; Renold, Emma

    This study is part of a regional study in industrial South Wales on the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. The study combines contextual analysis of…

  9. Popular Ideas, Attitudes, and Value Patterns Affecting Participation in Adult Literacy Programs in Slum Communities of Turkey: The Case of Nato Yolu Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are nationwide literacy programs in Turkey in order to raise the literacy rate, the participation of illiterate individuals in these programs is not at a satisfactory level. This article is a study into the popular ideas, attitudes, and value patterns that negatively affect participation in literacy programs in a slum…

  10. A mixed methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian; McCargar, Linda; Witcher, Chad; Clark, Marianne; Stolp, Sean

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate television advertisements targeted at 55-70-year olds that promoted physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. Awareness of the campaign, perceived credibility of the source, intentions to visit a promoted website, and intentions to perform the healthy behaviors were evaluated using mixed methods research. Results from a population level survey (n=1600) showed low unprompted and prompted awareness of the campaign and no differences in intentions or behaviors among those who were aware of the campaign. Unprompted recall resulted in a very wide range of responses including the citation of many commercial advertisers. Qualitative themes that emerged from the focus groups included neutral, positive, and negative comments about the advertisements, source credibility, website considerations specific to seniors, and suggestions about appropriate advertising for older adults. This research showed that the increased attention paid to the advertisements was due in a large part to negative reactions to the character used in the advertisements. Another important finding was the government was not considered to be a credible source of health information. Finally, health promoters should be cautious about websites as the primary source of information, particularly for older adults. PMID:19493572

  11. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  12. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p < 0.05 significance level. Most had a bachelor's degree (31%) or some college (29%), about half were white, 66% were married, about 30% of households participated in assistance programs, and 82% were female. At program conclusion, participants significantly improved meal planning, prioritizing healthy meal choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes. PMID:26970294

  13. Learning beyond Competence to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The essence of progressive education today is a view of learning centered on participation. In adulthood, the quest to participate and the quest to learn may ultimately be regarded as one and the same. Research on the learning journeys of adults undertaking a basic computer course are used to support these ideas. The participants in this study…

  14. Comparability and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements for two different methods.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, J; Oñate-Celdrán, J; Samper-Mateo, P; Arense-Gonzalo, J J; Torres-Roca, M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, C; García-Escudero, D; Fontana-Compiano, L O; Eisenberg, M L; Swan, S H; Torres-Cantero, A M

    2016-07-01

    The distance from the genitals to the anus, anogenital distance, reflects androgen concentration during prenatal development in mammals. The use of anogenital distance in human studies is still very limited and the quality and consistency of measurements is an important methodological issue. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of adult male anogenital distance measurements by two different methods. All men were attending an outpatient clinic at a university hospital and underwent an andrological examination and completed a brief questionnaire. Two variants of anogenital distance [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS ) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGDAP )] by two methods (lithotomy or frog-legged position) were assessed in 70 men. Within and between coefficient of variations, intra-class correlation coefficients, two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, and scatter and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. The two methods produced similar values for AGDAP but different estimates for AGDAS . Nonetheless, the overall agreement (ICC ≥ 0.80) was acceptable for both measures. Therefore, both methods are internally consistent and adequate for epidemiological studies, and may be used depending on the available medical resources, clinical setting, and populations. PMID:27153294

  15. Development of methods for characterizing fetal and adult somatic mutations detected in human erythroid precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R.G.; Manchester, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The glycophorin A (GPA) assay was developed to quantify somatic mutations in humans by measuring the frequency of peripheral erythrocytes with mutant phenotypes that are presumed to be progeny of mutated erythroid precursor cells. This assay has been used to identify GPA variant cells in unexposed individuals at a frequency of {approximately}10 per million erythrocytes, and to demonstrate significant increases in variant frequency after mutagenic exposures. Characterization of the mutations responsible for these variant cells requires that the assay be modified to allow flow analysis and sorting of variant erythroid precursor cells that contain nucleic acids. Cord blood samples contain low levels of both reticulocytes and nucleated erythrocytes. We have developed enrichment methods using centrifugation that yield samples containing up to 30% nucleated erythrocytes, and immunomagnetic separation methods that yield samples containing up to 90% reticulocytes. Enrichment methods for these two cell types are also being developed for adult bone marrow samples. We have confirmed that enrichment and labeling with a nucleic acid-specific dye are compatible with GPA analysis of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and nucleated erythrocytes. Enriched samples have been successfully used for flow cytometric detection of GPA variant reticulocytes in cord blood. PCR-based analysis methods are being developed for molecular characterization of sorted variant cells at the mRNA level.

  16. A novel method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with insect pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Julio Cesar; Shokal, Upasana; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila has been established as an excellent genetic and genomic model to investigate host-pathogen interactions and innate immune defense mechanisms. To date, most information on the Drosophila immune response derives from studies that involve bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. However, immune reactions to insect parasitic nematodes are still not well characterized. The nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora live in symbiosis with the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, and they are able to invade and kill insects. Interestingly, Heterorhabditis nematodes are viable in the absence of Photorhabdus. Techniques for infecting Drosophila larvae with these nematodes have been previously reported. Here, we have developed a method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with Heterorhabditis nematodes carrying (symbiotic worms) or lacking (axenic worms) their associated bacteria. The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model. PMID:22546901

  17. Senior Nursing Students' Participation in a Community Research Project: Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Knowledge Concerning Drug Interactions Arising from Self-Medication in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neafsey, Patricia J.; Shellman, Juliette

    2002-01-01

    Of 13 nursing students in a community nursing clinical project, 7 worked with older adults who received instruction about drug interaction. Compared to the six whose patients did not receive instruction, these students achieved greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores related to drug interaction. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  18. Participation in Part-Time Special Education and Its Correlation with the Educational Paths, Self-Concepts and Strengths of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Risto, Hotulainen

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up study, written by Kristiina Lappalainen of the University of Eastern Finland and Hotulainen Risto of the University of Helsinki, investigated whether young adults designated as having part-time special education needs (PtSEN) during their comprehensive schooling had differentiated educational and vocational paths, perceived…

  19. Pilot Study to determine interest of adult civilian dependants of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weigh...

  20. "This Is the Beginning of My Life Educationally": Older (50+ Years) Working Class Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Scotland, through the Lens of Critical Educational Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on original research where the primary objective was to critically explore the learning experiences of older (50+ years) working class adults in the context of a new university. Semi-structured interviews with 10 older learners engaged in a range of study in a new university in the west of Scotland were utilised. This…

  1. Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

  2. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  3. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  4. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  5. [Detection and Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Adults with a Modified PCR Method].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yuka; Okamoto, Akira; Ohta, Michio

    2015-05-01

    Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonized in the pharynx of healthy carriers currently relies on conventional culture methods of direct plating with pharyngeal swab specimens. The accurate measurement of the carriage of pneumococci, however, has not been necessarily achieved with these methods due to low density colonization and contamination of numerous oral streptococci that express α-hemolysis. A PCR-based detection method of pneumococci-specific for lytA as well as PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae was recently developed and their effectiveness was confirmed. We modified the reaction conditions of these methods to improve the detection rate and applied them to the measurement of S. pneumoniae carried in healthy adults. Pharyngeal swab specimens obtained from 110 healthy volunteers over 40 and living in Nagoya were enriched for 5 hours with broth medium supplemented with rabbit serum and the template DNA for PCR was extracted from the mixed enriched culture. Of 110 specimens 36 (32.7%) were lytA-positive, the rate of which was much higher than the results of previous culture-based studies. The DNA template preparations were then used for PCR-based serotyping with primers specific for each of the types included in pneumococcal 23 valent vaccine (PPV23). We found that 28 out of 36 lytA-positive carriers were identified as being positive for the serotypes belonging to PPV23, although serotypes 6A and 6B were indistinguishable with the PCR method. The most frequent serotype was serotype 14, and serotypes 4, 18C, and 6A/B were also frequently identified. Five lytA-positive carriers were previously vaccinated with PPV23, and among them, 4 were positive for serotypes contained in PPV23. We recommend PCR-based identification and serotyping of S. pneumoniae in broth enrichment culture of pharyngeal swab specimens as a reliable method for the surveillance of healthy carriers with low density colonization. PMID:26552129

  6. Neighbourhood cohesion and mental wellbeing among older adults: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jane; Gale, Catharine R; Parsons, Samantha; Kuh, Diana

    2014-04-01

    There is now a body of evidence that demonstrates strong links between neighbourhood characteristics and mental health and wellbeing. There is an increasing interest in how this relationship varies for individuals of different ages. Understanding the link between neighbourhood and wellbeing for older adults is of particular significance, given the changing age structure of the population and the desire among policy makers and practitioners to promote healthy and active ageing. This paper provides further evidence on the nature and strength of the link between individual perceptions of neighbourhood belonging and mental wellbeing among those over age fifty using both qualitative and quantitative data from three British cohort studies. Between 2008 and 2011 quantitative data were collected from 10,312 cohort members, and 230 of them took part in qualitative biographical interviews. Quantitative analysis confirms that there is a moderate association between neighbourhood cohesion and wellbeing measured at the individual level in each of the three cohorts. This association persists after controlling for a range of covariates including personality. The association between neighbourhood cohesion and wellbeing is stronger for individuals in the older two cohorts than in the younger cohort. Using qualitative biographical interviews with 116 men and 114 women we illustrate how individuals talk about their sense of neighbourhood belonging. The importance of social participation as a mechanism for promoting neighbourhood belonging, and the use of age and life stage as characteristics to describe and define neighbours, is clear. In addition, the qualitative interviews point to the difficulties of using a short battery of questions to capture the varied and multi-dimensional nature of neighbourhood relations. PMID:24602970

  7. The Functional Fitness MOT Test Battery for Older Adults: Protocol for a Mixed-Method Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity (PA) brings many health benefits, but engaging people in higher levels of PA after their 60s is not straightforward. The Functional Fitness MOT (FFMOT) is a new approach which aims to raise awareness about the importance of components of fitness (strength, balance, flexibility), highlight benefits of PA, engages older people in health behavior change discussions, and directs them to local activity resources. This battery of tests combined with a brief motivational interview has not been tested in terms of feasibility or effectiveness. Objective To assess whether the FFMOT, provided in a health care setting, is appealing to older patients of a community physiotherapy service and to understand the views and perceptions of the older people undergoing the FFMOT regarding the intervention, as well as the views of the physiotherapy staff delivering the intervention. Secondary aims are to assess the feasibility of carrying out a phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial of the FFMOT, in the context of a community physiotherapy service, by establishing whether enough patients can be recruited and retained in the study, and enough outcome data can be generated. Methods A mixed-methods feasibility study will be conducted in two physiotherapy outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom. A total of 30 physically inactive, medically stable older adults over the age of 60 will be provided with an individual FFMOT, comprising a set of six standardized, validated, age-appropriate tests aimed at raising awareness of the different components of fitness. The results of these tests will be used to provide the participants with feedback on performance in comparison to sex and age-referenced norms. This will be followed by tailored advice on how to become more active and improve fitness, including advice on local opportunities to be more active. Subsequently, participants will be invited to attend a focus group to discuss barriers and motivators to

  8. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background For several decades, global public health efforts have focused on the development and application of disease control programs to improve child survival in developing populations. The need to reliably monitor the impact of such intervention programs in countries has led to significant advances in demographic methods and data sources, particularly with large-scale, cross-national survey programs such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although no comparable effort has been undertaken for adult mortality, the availability of large datasets with information on adult survival from censuses and household surveys offers an important opportunity to dramatically improve our knowledge about levels and trends in adult mortality in countries without good vital registration. To date, attempts to measure adult mortality from questions in censuses and surveys have generally led to implausibly low levels of adult mortality owing to biases inherent in survey data such as survival and recall bias. Recent methodological developments and the increasing availability of large surveys with information on sibling survival suggest that it may well be timely to reassess the pessimism that has prevailed around the use of sibling histories to measure adult mortality. Methods and Findings We present the Corrected Sibling Survival (CSS) method, which addresses both the survival and recall biases that have plagued the use of survey data to estimate adult mortality. Using logistic regression, our method directly estimates the probability of dying in a given country, by age, sex, and time period from sibling history data. The logistic regression framework borrows strength across surveys and time periods for the estimation of the age patterns of mortality, and facilitates the implementation of solutions for the underrepresentation of high-mortality families and recall bias. We apply the method to generate estimates of and trends in adult mortality, using the summary measure 45q

  9. Noninvasive methods, including transient elastography, for the detection of liver disease in adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Matthew D; Crotty, Pam; Fatovich, Linda; Wilson, Stephanie; Rabin, Harvey R; Myers, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver disease is the third leading cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, detection of CF-associated liver disease (CFLD) is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of noninvasive methods for the detection of CFLD with a focus on transient elastography (TE). METHODS: Patients at the Adult CF Clinic of Calgary and Southern Alberta (n=127) underwent liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by TE using the FibroScan (FS, Ecosens, France) M probe; aspartate amino-transferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FibroTest (FT) scores were also calculated. The diagnostic performance of these tools for the detection of CFLD (defined as two or more the following criteria: abnormal liver biochemistry, hepatomegaly or sonographic abnormalities other than steatosis) were compared using the area under ROC curves. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of the cohort was male. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range [IQR] 22 to 37 years) and body mass index 21 kg/m2 (IQR 19 kg/m2 to 23 kg/m2); 25% of patients were on ursodeoxycholic acid and 12% had undergone lung transplantation. The prevalence of CFLD was 14% (n=18). FS was successful in all patients; one (0.8%) patient had poorly reliable results (IQR/M >30% and LSM ≥7.1kPa). Compared with patients without CFLD (n=109), individuals with CFLD had higher median LSM according to FS (3.9 kPa [IQR 3.4 to 4.9 kPa] versus 6.4 kPa [IQR 4.4 to 8.0 kPa]), APRI (0.24 [IQR 0.17 to 0.31] versus 0.50 [IQR 0.22 to 1.18]) and FT scores (0.08 [IQR 0.05 to 1.5] versus 0.18 [IQR 0.11 to 0.35]; all P<0.05). Area under ROC curve for FS, APRI and FT for the detection of CFLD were 0.78 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.92), 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.90) (P not significant). At a threshold of >5.2 kPa, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of LSM according to FS for detecting CFLD were 67%, 83%, 40% and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FS, APRI and FT

  10. Childhood animal cruelty methods and their link to adult interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandy B; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has begun to establish a relationship between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. However, few studies have focused on the influence of animal cruelty methods on later interpersonal violence. In a replication of a study by Hensley and Tallichet (2009) and based on a sample of 180 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several retrospectively identified animal cruelty methods (drowned, hit, shot, kicked, choked, burned, and sex) and interpersonal violence committed against humans. Four out of 5 inmates reported hitting animals. Over one third of the sample chose to shoot or kick animals, while 1 in 5 had sex with them. Less then one fifth of the sample drowned or choked animals, while less than one sixth of the inmates burned animals. Regression analyses revealed that the age at which offenders began committing animal cruelty and having sex with animals were predictive of adult interpersonal violence. PMID:21282117

  11. Why carers use adult day respite: a mixed method case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers’ emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer’s expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. Methods A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the total population of carers from the organisation’s day respite service were approached. Fifty respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data through an interview survey. The conceptual framework was expanded to include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs during analysis. Results Carers prioritised benefits for and experiences of care-recipients when making day respite decisions. Respondents had high levels of trust in the service and perceived that the major benefits for care-recipients were around social interaction and meaningful activity with resultant improved well-being. Carers wanted day respite experiences to include all levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs from the provision of physiological care and safety through to the higher levels of belongingness, love and esteem. Conclusion The study suggests carers need to trust that care-recipients will have quality experiences at day respite. This study was intended as a preliminary stage for further research and while not generalizable it does highlight key considerations in carers’ use of day respite services. PMID:24906239

  12. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    PubMed

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  13. 38 CFR 52.110 - Participant assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.110 Participant... appropriateness of the adult day health care program for each participant. (b) Enrollment orders. The program... in the participant's physical, mental, or social condition. (3) Review of assessments....

  14. 38 CFR 52.110 - Participant assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.110 Participant... appropriateness of the adult day health care program for each participant. (b) Enrollment orders. The program... in the participant's physical, mental, or social condition. (3) Review of assessments....

  15. A Self-Advocacy Training Program for Students with Disabilities: Adult Outcomes and Advocacy Involvement One to Six Years after Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Eric Landon

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Statewide Youth Leadership Forum (TXYLF) provides self-advocacy training to high school youths with disabilities. TXYLF is an enhanced version of the Youth Leadership Forum (YLF) that is comprised of an initial five day training, a nine month support phase, regional YLFs, and the opportunity for participants to return to the five day…

  16. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  17. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ2 test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ2 test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of Professional Development: A Mixed Method Study of Adult Education Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jessica S.

    2010-01-01

    Adult education programs providing classes to students preparing for high school equivalency and learning English that demonstrate characteristics of learning organizations may be better able to thrive when confronted with less-than-ideal circumstances. Many of these programs organize adult educators into learning communities as the context for…

  19. Parental perceptions surrounding polio and self-reported non-participation in polio supplementary immunization activities in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Khowaja, Asif Raza; Khan, Sher Ali; Nizam, Naveeda; Omer, Saad Bin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess parent’s knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination, self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) targeting children aged < 5 years, and reasons for non-participation. Methods The mixed methods study began with a cross-sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan. A structured questionnaire was administered to assess parental knowledge of polio and participation in polio SIAs conducted in September and October 2011. Additionally, 30 parents of Pashtun ethnicity (a high-risk group) who refused to vaccinate their children were interviewed in depth to determine why. Descriptive and bivariate analyses by ethnic and socioeconomic group were performed for quantitative data; thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative interviews with Pashtun parents. Findings Of 1017 parents surveyed, 412 (41%) had never heard of polio; 132 (13%) did not participate in one SIA and 157 (15.4%) did not participate in either SIA. Among non-participants, 34 (21.6%) reported not having been contacted by a vaccinator; 116 (73.9%) reported having refused to participate, and 7 (4.5%) reported that the child was absent from home when the vaccinator visited. Refusals clustered in low-income Pashtun (43/441; 9.8%) and high-income families of any ethnic background (71/153; 46.4%). Low-income Pashtuns were more likely to not have participated in polio SIAs than low-income non-Pashtuns (odds ratio, OR: 7.1; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.47–14.5). Reasons commonly cited among Pashtuns for refusing vaccination included fear of sterility; lack of faith in the polio vaccine; scepticism about the vaccination programme, and fear that the vaccine might contain religiously forbidden ingredients. Conclusion In Karachi, interruption of polio transmission requires integrated and participatory community interventions targeting high-risk populations. PMID:23226894

  20. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population—and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients—there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality—the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)—with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and

  1. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population-and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients-there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality-the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)-with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and actigraphy). PMID

  2. Validation and User Evaluation of a Sensor-Based Method for Detecting Mobility-Related Activities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Geraedts, Hilde A. E.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Van Keeken, Helco G.; Zhang, Wei; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is essential for older adults to stay healthy and independent. However, daily physical activity is generally low among older adults and mainly consists of activities such as standing and shuffling around indoors. Accurate measurement of this low-energy expenditure daily physical activity is crucial for stimulation of activity. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a necklace-worn sensor-based method for detecting time-on-legs and daily life mobility related postures in older adults. In addition user opinion about the practical use of the sensor was evaluated. Twenty frail and non-frail older adults performed a standardized and free movement protocol in their own home. Results of the sensor-based method were compared to video observation. Sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement of sensor outcomes compared to video observation were calculated. Mobility was assessed based on time-on-legs. Further assessment included the categories standing, sitting, walking and lying. Time-on-legs based sensitivity, specificity and percentage agreement were good to excellent and comparable to laboratory outcomes in other studies. Category-based sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement were moderate to excellent. The necklace-worn sensor is considered an acceptable valid instrument for assessing home-based physical activity based upon time-on-legs in frail and non-frail older adults, but category-based assessment of gait and postures could be further developed. PMID:26361009

  3. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. Objective To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Results Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (P<.001). However, we identified international variations in both the cost-effectiveness of the various advertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Conclusions Recruitment of a

  4. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  5. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  6. Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in an Intergenerational Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study of Traditional and Returning Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Macela

    2012-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities are inundated with both traditional students and returning adult students, including baby boomers and retirees (Hardin, 2008). This study utilized a mixed methods research methodology to explore and analyze the perceptions of faculty members and students regarding the learning characteristics and learning…

  7. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  8. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons. PMID:27560175

  9. Genetic Methods to Identify and Manipulate Newly Born Neurons in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Imayoshi, Itaru; Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian neurogenesis is mostly completed by the perinatal period, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, many extensive studies have been performed on various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including proliferation and fate-specification of adult neural stem cells, and the migration, maturation and synaptic integration of newly born neurons. Furthermore, recent research has shed light on the intensive contribution of adult neurogenesis to olfactory-related and hippocampus-mediated brain functions. The field of adult neurogenesis progressed tremendously thanks to technical advances that facilitate the identification and selective manipulation of newly born neurons among billions of pre-existing neurons in the adult central nervous system. In this review, we introduce recent advances in the methodologies for visualizing newly generated neurons and manipulating neurogenesis in the adult brain. Particularly, the application of site-specific recombinases and Tet inducible system in combination with transgenic or gene targeting strategy is discussed in further detail. PMID:21562606

  10. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study

    PubMed Central

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, FK; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, SR; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Context: Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. Aims: To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8–18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Settings and Design: Clinical setting and computerized design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Results: Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Conclusions: Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research. PMID:26097317

  11. All Kinds of Minds: A Phenomenological Study of Adult Learners Living with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, James Bates

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe and better understand the meaning, structure, and essence of the experience of learning for adults labeled with learning disabilities as perceived by adults labeled with a "learning disability." Through a purposeful sampling method, six participants were chosen to participate in recorded…

  12. 2 CFR 3254.437 - What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB guidance at 2 CFR 180.435? 3254.437 Section 3254.437 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND...

  13. Methods of Teaching and Class Participation in Relation to Perceived Social Support and Stress: Modifiable Factors for Improving Health and Wellbeing among Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natvig, Gerd Karin; Albrektsen, Grethe; Qvarnstrom, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Investigates whether teaching methods and class participation are related to social support and stress. Presents the results of a questionnaire given to Norwegian adolescents (n=947), ages 13 to 15 years old. States that participatory activities may promote health because these activities prevent stress. Includes references. (CMK)

  14. A Mixed Methods Case Study: Understanding the Experience of Nebraska 4-H Participants Relative to Their Transition and Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walahoski, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods case study was designed to assess the preparedness of former Nebraska 4-H participants to successfully transition and adjust to college. The study also sought to understand the way that students' experiences in Nebraska 4-H may have influenced their readiness to transition to college. The initial quantitative stage of this…

  15. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  16. Employee Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarratt, Alex

    1975-01-01

    The article presents another approach to individual motivation--participative management--which concerns an emotional rather than financial commitment to the job through involvement and job satisfaction. The author favors within this approach: employee participation in decision-making, entitlement to information, and the establishment of…

  17. Evaluation of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Lee, Katie J; Taylor, Paul J; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Staatz, Christine E

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To examine the predictive performance of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Twenty full tacrolimus area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC0–12) profiles (AUCf) were collected from 20 subjects. Predicted tacrolimus AUC0–12 (AUCp) was calculated using the following: (i) 42 multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies (LSSs); (ii) five population pharmacokinetic (PK) models in the Bayesian forecasting program TCIWorks; and (iii) a Web-based consultancy service. Correlations (r2) between C0 and AUCf and between AUCp and AUCf were examined. Median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute percentage prediction error (MAPE) were calculated. RESULTS Correlation between C0 and AUCf was 0.53. Using the 42 LSS equations, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.54 to 0.99. The MPPE and MAPE were <15% for 29 of 42 equations (62%), including five of eight equations based on sampling taken ≤2 h post-dose. Using the PK models in TCIWorks, AUCp derived from only C0 values showed poor correlation with AUCf (r2 = 0.27–0.54) and unacceptable imprecision (MAPE 17.5–31.6%). In most cases, correlation, bias and imprecision estimates progressively improved with inclusion of a greater number of concentration time points. When concentration measurements at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h post-dose were applied, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, and MPPE and MAPE were <15% for all models examined. Using the Web-based consultancy service, correlation between AUCp and AUCf was 0.74, and MPPE and MAPE were 6.6 and 9.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Limited sampling methods better predict tacrolimus exposure compared with C0 measurement. Several LSSs based on sampling taken 2 h or less post-dose predicted exposure with acceptable bias and imprecision. Generally, Bayesian forecasting methods required inclusion of a concentration

  18. Development of a sensitive method to extract and detect low numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts from adult cattle faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wells, B; Thomson, S; Ensor, H; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2016-08-30

    Cryptosporidium transmission studies to date have concluded that adult cattle are not a significant source of oocysts contributing to clinical cryptosporidiosis in calves on farm. However current methods of sample processing have been optimised for calf faecal samples and may be less sensitive when used on adult samples due to lower numbers of oocysts and larger size of samples. A modified and novel method of oocyst extraction and concentration was developed and applied in an experiment involving spiking adult cattle faecal samples with known concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results showed an increased sensitivity of detection from 100oocysts/g of faecal sample using conventional protocols to 5oocysts/g using the newly developed method. As it is important to be able to accurately assess the contribution of adult ruminants to the transmission of Cryptosporidium, both on farm and in the environment, the development of the techniques described here is likely to make an important contribution to Cryptosporidium transmission studies in future and in subsequent control strategies aimed at the reduction of Cryptosporidium infection in calves on farm. PMID:27523933

  19. Screening for resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.: methods and categories of resistance.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2009-06-01

    Both nymphal and adult stages of several species of spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) are key economic pests of brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. Progress has been made in the characterization and development of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in brachiariagrasses. Essentially no attention has been given to screening germplasm for resistance to adults. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments was conducted to develop a methodology to screen for adult damage and to study categories of resistance to adult feeding damage. Six host brachiariagrass genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and four nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 6294, CIAT 36062, CIAT 36087, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). None of the nymph-resistant genotypes was antibiotic to adults. All four nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to A. varia and Z. carbonaria feeding damage. The levels of tolerance to adults of Z. carbonaria, a larger, more aggressive species, were lower. Of the four nymph-resistant genotypes, only CIAT 6294 and CIAT 36087 showed some tolerance to Z. carbonaria expressed as lower leaf damage scores, less chlorophyll loss, and lower functional plant loss indices. The fact that a genotype like SX01NO/0102, which is highly antibiotic to nymphs, is susceptible to adult damage suggests that mechanisms of resistance to the two spittlebug life stages may be independent. Results of these studies suggest a need to incorporate routine screening for tolerance to adult feeding damage as an additional selection criterion in the breeding scheme. PMID:19610452

  20. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  1. Adults with childhood-onset chronic conditions admitted to U.S. pediatric and adult intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jeffrey D; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Yoo, Erika J; Houtrow, Amy J; Boscardin, W John; Dudley, R Adams; Okumura, Megumi J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare demographics, intensive care units (ICU) admission characteristics, and ICU outcomes among adults with childhood-onset chronic conditions (COCC) admitted to U.S. pediatric and adult ICUs. Materials and Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analyses of 6,088 adults aged 19–40 years admitted in 2008 to 70 pediatric ICUs that participated in the Virtual Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Performance Systems and 50 adult ICUs that participated in Project IMPACT. Results COCC were present in 53% of young adults admitted to pediatric units, compared to 9% of those in adult units. The most common COCC in both groups were congenital cardiac abnormalities, cerebral palsy, and chromosomal abnormalities. Adults with COCC admitted to pediatric units were significantly more likely to be younger, have lower functional status, and be non-trauma patients than those in adult units. The median ICU length-of-stay was 2 days and the intensive care unit mortality rate was 5% for all COCC patients with no statistical difference between pediatric or adult units. Conclusions There are marked differences in characteristics between young adults with COCC admitted to PICUs and adult ICUs. Barriers to accommodating these young adults may be reasons why many such adults have not transitioned from pediatric to adult critical care. PMID:25466316

  2. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M.; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. Method As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents’ viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:24448222

  3. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity. PMID:24511898

  4. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Anne-Marie; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Christensen, Robin; Rasmussen, Lone Graasbøl; Hels, Ole; Belza, Anita; Raben, Anne; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Background Thermic effect of a meal (TEF) has previously been suggested to influence appetite. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an association between appetite and TEF. Second, to examine whether protein intake is associated with TEF or appetite. Design Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis on studies were performed at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Five randomized meal-test studies, with 111 participants, were included. The included studies measured energy expenditure (EE) in respiration chambers and pre- and postprandial appetite sensations using Visual Analog Scales (VAS). The primary meta-analysis was based on a generic-inverse variance random-effects model, pooling individual study Spearman's correlation coefficients, resulting in a combined r-value with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The I 2 value quantifies the proportion (%) of the variation in point estimates due to among-study differences. Results The IPD meta-analysis found no association between satiety and TEF expressed as the incremental area under the curve (TEFiAUC) (r=0.06 [95% CI −0.16 to 0.28], P=0.58; I 2=15.8%). Similarly, Composite Appetite Score (CAS) was not associated with TEFiAUC (r=0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to 0.28], P=0.45; I 2=0%). Posthoc analyses showed no association between satiety or CAS and TEF expressed as a percentage of energy intake (EI) (P>0.49) or TEF expressed as a percentage of baseline EE (P>0.17). When adjusting for covariates, TEFiAUC was associated with protein intake (P=0.0085). Conclusions This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence supporting an association between satiety or CAS and TEF at protein intakes ∼15 E% (range 11–30 E%). PMID:24376394

  5. Relationships between Leisure Participation and Quality of Life of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…

  6. Variables Associated with Communicative Participation in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Yorkston, Kathryn; Bamer, Alyssa; Britton, Deanna; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore variables associated with self-reported communicative participation in a sample (n = 498) of community-dwelling adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: A battery of questionnaires was administered online or on paper per participant preference. Data were analyzed using multiple linear backward stepwise regression. The…

  7. The Impact of an Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the Psychological Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Megan; Dack, Charlotte; Barker, Chris; Murray, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study assessed the impact of an internet-based, self-management intervention ("HeLP-Diabetes") on the psychological well-being of adults with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants were recruited from 3 general practices. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Access to HeLP-Diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in participants' diabetes-related distress (Z = 2.04, p = 0.04, and d = 0.28). No significant differences were found in emotional distress or self-efficacy. The qualitative data found that participants reported improvements including increased self-efficacy and support, better management of low mood, greater diabetes awareness, and taking the condition more seriously. Participants also reported making improvements to their eating habits, exercise routine, and medical management. Some negative experiences associated with using the intervention were mentioned including feelings of guilt for not using the intervention as suggested or not making any behavioral changes, as well as technical and navigational frustrations with the intervention. Internet-based self-management interventions may have the potential to decrease diabetes-related distress in people with type 2 diabetes. The qualitative data also suggests internet interventions can positively impact both psychological and behavioural outcomes of adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26682226

  8. The Impact of an Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the Psychological Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Megan; Dack, Charlotte; Barker, Chris; Murray, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study assessed the impact of an internet-based, self-management intervention (“HeLP-Diabetes”) on the psychological well-being of adults with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants were recruited from 3 general practices. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Access to HeLP-Diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in participants' diabetes-related distress (Z = 2.04, p = 0.04, and d = 0.28). No significant differences were found in emotional distress or self-efficacy. The qualitative data found that participants reported improvements including increased self-efficacy and support, better management of low mood, greater diabetes awareness, and taking the condition more seriously. Participants also reported making improvements to their eating habits, exercise routine, and medical management. Some negative experiences associated with using the intervention were mentioned including feelings of guilt for not using the intervention as suggested or not making any behavioral changes, as well as technical and navigational frustrations with the intervention. Internet-based self-management interventions may have the potential to decrease diabetes-related distress in people with type 2 diabetes. The qualitative data also suggests internet interventions can positively impact both psychological and behavioural outcomes of adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26682226

  9. The Effects of Adult Learning on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Cathie; Feinstein, Leon

    2005-01-01

    We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self-efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self-efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and…

  10. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  11. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  12. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  13. Listening to victims: use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

    2013-09-01

    Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. PMID:23796600

  14. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  15. Awareness, utilization, and determinants of using oral diseases prevention methods among Saudi adults – a clinic-based pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and utilization of methods to prevent oral diseases among a group of adult Saudis. Methodology An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting the clinics of the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam in 2015. The questionnaire assessed the background of the respondents, their dental history, awareness and use of a number of methods available to prevent oral diseases, sources of information about these methods and barriers against their use. Regression analysis was used to assess the factors affecting the use of these practices. Results Brushing was reported to be used by about 60% of respondents whereas fluoride and sealant were less prevalent (≤30%). Dentist was the most frequently reported source of information about preventive methods (60%) and about 40% cited cost and time as the main reasons why they did not use these preventive methods. Awareness and age were associated with using a greater number of the various preventive methods (odds regression coefficient ratio= 0.27 and 0.04). Conclusions Use of preventive methods is not prevalent among Saudi adults and it can be improved by more intensive efforts to increase the awareness of these methods, primarily through dentists. PMID:27004060

  16. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  17. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  18. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  19. Adult Development Researchers' Reflections on Using Multiple Research Methods with ABE/ESOL Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    A study followed for a year or more the internal experiences of learning and change of 41 adult basic education/English as a second language learners enrolled in these 3 programs: community college, family literacy site, and workplace site. It focused on learners' meanings as the starting point for exploration and used a developmental lens to…

  20. A Study of Perceptual and Attitudinal Change Within a Course on Adult Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menlo, Allen

    A study was made of personal changes in 50 graduate students in education, public health, social work, psychology, business administration, and public administration, and public administration who took a special 15-week university course in adult education methodology. Major course objectives were to help class members (1) to see themselves as…

  1. Research Methods and Research Questions for the Study of Person-Perception in Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joseph M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses three research questions pertinent to person-perception research: (1) identification of dimensions employed by adults in the process of interpersonal perception; (2) developmental changes in the content of expectations; and (3) developmental changes in the role expectations play in influencing behavior. Discusses implicit personality…

  2. Discrimination Skills Predict Effective Preference Assessment Methods for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, May S. H.; Nguyen, Duong; Yu, C. T.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between three discrimination skills (visual, visual matching-to-sample, and auditory-visual) and four stimulus modalities (object, picture, spoken, and video) in assessing preferences of leisure activities for 7 adults with developmental disabilities. Three discrimination skills were measured using the Assessment of…

  3. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  4. Adult Education in Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    International Adult Literacy Survey data show the average adult education participation in Nordic countries is 14% higher than in other industrialized nations. Public support for participation of the disadvantaged, an active labor market policy, and popular education are key characteristics. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/JOW)

  5. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  6. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  7. Child sexual abuse and adult religious life: challenges of theory and method.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ketan; Piotrowski, Caroline; Woodgate, Roberta L; Letourneau, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The religious consequences of child sexual abuse in adulthood remain relatively unexamined in the research literature, especially where abusers are not clergy. Some studies suggest child sexual abuse survivors may rely on religion as a source of support, though the majority document a decrease in religiosity. Given the propensity for psychological challenges among adult survivors with diminished spiritual coping, we are calling for increased research attention to religion in the context of child sexual abuse. The objectives of this article were to review the literature on intersections between child sexual abuse (perpetrated by nonclergy) and religiosity in adults and set forth relevant research approaches for future investigation. Findings revealed a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and theoretically informed approach to research may be needed. PMID:25255927

  8. Evaluation of a Stable Isotope Method to Mark Naturally-Breeding Larval Mosquitoes for Adult Dispersal Studies

    PubMed Central

    HAMER, GABRIEL L.; DONOVAN, DANIELLE J.; HOOD-NOWOTNY, REBECCA; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark–release–recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culexpipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either δ15N or δ13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772

  9. Contrast-Enhanced X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography as a Versatile Method for Anatomical Studies of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Fatemeh; Hong, Tony Liu Chi; Yeung, Kelvin; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lam, Yun Wah

    2016-08-01

    One attractive quality of zebrafish as a model organism for biological research is that transparency at early developmental stages allows the optical imaging of cellular and molecular events. However, this advantage cannot be applied to adult zebrafish. In this study, we explored the use of contrast-enhanced X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) on adult zebrafish in which the organism was stained with iodine, a simple and economical contrasting agent, after fixation. Tomographic reconstruction of the microCT data allowed the three-dimensional (3D) volumetric analyses of individual organs in adult zebrafish. Adipose tissues showed a higher affinity to iodine and were more strongly contrasted in microCT. As traditional histological techniques often involve dehydration steps that remove tissue lipids, iodine-contrasted microCT offers a convenient method for visualizing fat deposition in fish. Utilizing this advantage, we discovered a transient accumulation of lipids around the heart after ventricular amputation, suggesting a correlation between lipid distribution and heart regeneration. Taken together, microCT is a versatile technique that enables the 3D visualization of zebrafish organs, as well as other fish models, in their anatomical context. This simple method is a valuable new addition to the arsenal of techniques available to this model organism. PMID:27058023

  10. Assessment of physician and patient (child and adult) equivalent doses during renal angiography by Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Karimian, A; Nikparvar, B; Jabbari, I

    2014-11-01

    Renal angiography is one of the medical imaging methods in which patient and physician receive high equivalent doses due to long duration of fluoroscopy. In this research, equivalent doses of some radiosensitive tissues of patient (adult and child) and physician during renal angiography have been calculated by using adult and child Oak Ridge National Laboratory phantoms and Monte Carlo method (MCNPX). The results showed, in angiography of right kidney in a child and adult patient, that gall bladder with the amounts of 2.32 and 0.35 mSv, respectively, has received the most equivalent dose. About the physician, left hand, left eye and thymus absorbed the most amounts of doses, means 0.020 mSv. In addition, equivalent doses of the physician's lens eye, thyroid and knees were 0.023, 0.007 and 7.9E-4 mSv, respectively. Although these values are less than the reported thresholds by ICRP 103, it should be noted that these amounts are related to one examination. PMID:25063788

  11. Self-reported methods of cessation of adult male child abusers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Booxbaum, Amy; Burton, David L

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored the pre-arrest self-selected cessation attempts of sexual offenders (N = 109) who abused children and often others. Four participants were dropped because of invalid responding (N = 104). While 74.3% of sample participants reported attempts to decrease or stop their sexual offending prior to arrest, 56% out of 100 who responded to the cessation question reported that they were able to do so. Self-efficacy was examined as a potential predictive variable of cessation attempts and success of attempts; however, no relationship was found between self-efficacy and attempts. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:23330623

  12. Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Saudny, Helga; Leggee, Donna; Egeland, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. Design The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. Results The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Conclusion Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions. PMID:23166895

  13. Learning and Collaborating in the Adult Literacy Education Wiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed-methods study of the Adult Literacy Education Wiki. Two research questions framed the study: (1) What do participants report they have learned by contributing to the wiki? and (2) What is the nature of participation and collaboration in the wiki? A key finding of the study is that the wiki does not…

  14. Challenging Change: Transformative Education for Economically Disadvantaged Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland-Russell, Tara; Syrnyk, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a mixed-methods study of 13 participants in a Radical Humanities programme designed as a transformative learning space for low-income adults who have experienced barriers to learning. Using demographic questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews and course evaluations this study examined participants'…

  15. Accuracy of Step Recording in Free-Living Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara K.; Fields, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how accurately free-living adults record their pedometer steps on step logs. Researchers used three different methods to examine the accuracy of participant-recorded steps: tests of equivalence, correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Findings indicate that participant-recorded steps…

  16. Maximizing Classroom Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to maximize classroom participation in the English-as-a-Second-or-Foreign-Language classroom, and provides a classroom discussion method that is based on real-life problem solving. (Author/VWL)

  17. A Mobile Telehealth Intervention for Adults With Insulin-Requiring Diabetes: Early Results of a Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Justine; Hirani, Shashivadan

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of technology in health care delivery has grown rapidly in the last decade. The potential of mobile telehealth (MTH) to support patient self-management is a key area of research. Providing patients with technological tools that allow for the recording and transmission of health parameters to health care professionals (HCPs) may promote behavior changes that result in improved health outcomes. Although for some conditions the evidence of the effectiveness of MTH is clear, to date the findings on the effects of MTH on diabetes management remain inconsistent. Objective This study aims to evaluate an MTH intervention among insulin-requiring adults with diabetes to establish whether supplementing standard care with MTH results in improved health outcomes—glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), diabetes self-management behaviors, diabetes health care utilization, and diabetes self-efficacy and illness beliefs. An additional objective was to explore the acceptability of MTH and patients’ perceptions of, and experience, using it. Methods A mixed-method design consisting of a 9-month, two-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) was used in combination with exit qualitative interviews. Quantitative data was collected at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. Additional intervention fidelity data, such as participants’ MTH transmissions and contacts with the MTH nurse during the study, were also recorded. Results Data collection for both the quantitative and qualitative components of this study has ended and data analysis is ongoing. A total of 86 participants were enrolled into the study. Out of 86 participants, 45 (52%) were randomized to the intervention group and 36 (42%) to the control group. Preliminary data on MTH training sessions and MTH usage by intervention participants are presented in this paper. We expect to publish complete study results in 2015. Conclusions The range of data

  18. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  19. Distinct health behavior and psychosocial profiles of young adult survivors of childhood cancers: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Kincaid; Escoffery, Cam; Mertens, Ann C.; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We used a mixed-methods approach to examine health behavior profiles of young adult cancer survivors and characterize related sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Methods We conducted a mail-based survey assessing sociodemographics, cancer treatment, health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use, physical activity), healthcare provider interactions, and psychosocial factors (e.g., Profile of Moods States [POMS]) among 106 young adult survivors from a southeastern cancer center and semi-structured interviews among a subset of 26. Results A k-means cluster analysis using eight health behaviors yielded three distinct health behavior profiles: high risk (n = 25), moderate risk (n = 39), and low risk (n = 40). High risks had the highest current alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; physical activity; and number of sexual partners (p’s < 0.001). They had higher symptoms of POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Moderate risks had lowest physical activity (p < 0.05) but otherwise had moderate health behaviors. Low risks had the lowest alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and fewest sexual partners (p’s < 0.05). They had the lowest levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that cancer had a range of effects on health behaviors and variable experiences regarding how healthcare providers address these behaviors. Conclusions Assessing health behavior profiles, rather than individual health behaviors, is informative in characterizing young adult cancer survivors and targeting survivorship care. Implications for Cancer Survivors Young adult cancer survivors demonstrate distinct health behavior profiles and are differentially impacted by the experience of cancer. Healthcare providers should be consistently intervening to ensure that survivors understand their specific health risks. PMID:26688575

  20. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651619