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Sample records for adults performed significantly

  1. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Bekker, Evelijne M; de Roos, Marlise; Minova, Anita; Eijken, Erik J E; Kooij, J J Sandra; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kenemans, J Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2008-05-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance.

  2. Significance of Adult Pedestrian Torso Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestrian safety countermeasures. PMID:16179153

  3. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards.

  4. The adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis: an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Konefal, Sarah; Elliot, Mick; Crespi, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in mammals is predominantly restricted to two brain regions, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb (OB), suggesting that these two brain regions uniquely share functions that mediate its adaptive significance. Benefits of adult neurogenesis across these two regions appear to converge on increased neuronal and structural plasticity that subserves coding of novel, complex, and fine-grained information, usually with contextual components that include spatial positioning. By contrast, costs of adult neurogenesis appear to center on potential for dysregulation resulting in higher risk of brain cancer or psychological dysfunctions, but such costs have yet to be quantified directly. The three main hypotheses for the proximate functions and adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis, pattern separation, memory consolidation, and olfactory spatial, are not mutually exclusive and can be reconciled into a simple general model amenable to targeted experimental and comparative tests. Comparative analysis of brain region sizes across two major social-ecological groups of primates, gregarious (mainly diurnal haplorhines, visually-oriented, and in large social groups) and solitary (mainly noctural, territorial, and highly reliant on olfaction, as in most rodents) suggest that solitary species, but not gregarious species, show positive associations of population densities and home range sizes with sizes of both the hippocampus and OB, implicating their functions in social-territorial systems mediated by olfactory cues. Integrated analyses of the adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis will benefit from experimental studies motivated and structured by ecologically and socially relevant selective contexts. PMID:23882188

  5. Significant Adults in the Teacher-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    1972-01-01

    A primary goal of schooling is to create a teaching-learning atmosphere that facilitates growth and development. As significant adults in the lives of children, we should strive to be facilitators of learning rather than omnipotent persons who have all the knowledge that should be imparted to learners. (Author)

  6. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  7. Improving older adults' memory performance using prior task success.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M

    2013-06-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults' memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults' memory performance. Results suggest that older adults' memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience.

  8. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  9. The significance of low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, J C; Langer, F; Gross, A E

    1976-11-06

    A retrospective study of the practice of an orthopedic surgeon at a university teaching hospital was done to evaluate the significance of low back pain in older adults. All 259 patients in a 3-year period 50 years of age and over whose presenting complaint was low back pain or sciatica or both were identified and classified by final diagnosis. A comparison was similarly identified and classified. Systemic disease, particularly cancer, was much more prevalent in the older group. It was demonstrated that a simple screening routine consisting of measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and calcium would identify all cases of unsuspected malignant disease--that is, at least one of the values would be abnormal in every case.

  10. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  11. Prognotic significance of pretreatment proliferative activity in adult acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hart, J S; George, S L; Frei, E; Bodey, G P; Nickerson, R C; Freireich, E J

    1977-04-01

    A statistical analysis of the prognostic significance of eight pretreatment variables was undertaken for 71 previously untreated adult patients with acute leukemia seen at M.D. Anderson Hospital over a 5 1/2-year period. None of the patients had received any prior therapy. Nearly all of the patients (68 of the 71) were treated with 4- or 5-day courses of arabinosyl-cytosine alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide, vincristine (oncovin) and prednisone (COAP). The pretreatment variables studied were age at diagnosis, the percent labeling index of the bone marrow leukemic cells, diagnosis, the highest temperature prior to start of treatment, the marrow clot section cellularity and smear differential percent of blasts, percent absolute marrow leukemic cell infiltrate and absolute number of blasts X 10(3)/mm3 in the peripheral blood. Fifty-one patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and 20 patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using a statistical regression model approach, the only variables found to be of significant prognostic importance with respect to the probability of complete remission for AML patients were the pretreatment percent labeling index, the age of the patient and the highest temperature prior to start of treatment. Unlike AML, the initial percent labeling index did not appear to be of prognostic significance for ALL patients. AML patients with high labeling indices (larger than or equal to 9%) and young patients in general (especially those less than 40 years old) had the best remission rates. With respect to the length of complete remission and survival for all patients, the only important variables were the pretreatment percent labeling index and the age of the patient, respectively. Once in complete remission, an initially high labeling index was an unfavorable sign with respect to length of remission, regardless of the patient's diagnosis. The results of this study are supportive of studies in experimental systems

  12. [Significance of grandparents for young-adult grandchildren].

    PubMed

    Verschueren, K; Van Ranst, N; Marcoen, A

    1993-02-01

    Do young adult grandchildren find their grandparents important? What are the meanings that grandparents seem to have for these grandchildren? Those were the leading questions in the present study. Subjects were 239 university students (mean age: 19.5 years). They completed the Grandparents Meaning Scale, a recently developed 82-item instrument which probes for 11 a priori dimensions of meaning of grandparents for grandchildren: (I) Reliable alliance, (2) Affection and emotional support, (3) Reassurance of worth, (4) Practical and financial support, (5) Link with the past, (6) Acquaintance with aging, (7) Mentor and role-model, (8) Kinkeeper, (9) Mediator between children and parents, (10) Substitute caregiver, and (11) Distant figure. Subjects rated the importance and meaning of 222 grandmothers and 159 grandfathers. The results confirmed earlier findings. Young adult grandchildren generally found their grandparents important. Grandparents were valued because they provide their grandchildren with reassurance of worth and emotional support, and link their lives to the historical past. Grandmothers received higher scores than grandfathers on seven scales (1-4, 8-10). Grandfathers had higher scores on just two of the scales (5 and 11). Gender differences emerged with regard to the ratings of the grandmothers only. Girls had higher scores than boys on eight scales (1-3, 5, 7-10) and boys had a higher score on just one scale (11).

  13. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  14. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  15. College Student Performance on the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full…

  16. A Hybrid Actuation System Demonstrating Significantly Enhanced Electromechanical Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Xu, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer (EAP), an electrostrictive copolymer, and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal, has been developed. The system employs the contribution of the actuation elements cooperatively and exhibits a significantly enhanced electromechanical performance compared to the performances of the device made of each constituting material, the electroactive polymer or the ceramic single crystal, individually. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  17. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Olfactory Performance and Significance of Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887

  18. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the claims of the developers of the Adult Performance Level (APL) program to improve the teaching and testing of adults enrolled in federally supported adult basic education programs, identifies APL's theoretical problems, scrutinizes the technical aspects of its development, and evaluates the role of the U.S. Office of Education in these…

  19. Lobeline Effects on Cognitive Performance in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martin, Catherine A; Nuzzo, Paul A; Ranseen, John D; Kleven, Mark S; Guenthner, Greg; Williams, Yolanda; Walsh, Sharon L; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-08-21

    Objective: In preclinical studies, lobeline inhibited hyperactivity induced by nicotine and amphetamine, and improved performance and learning in studies utilizing radial-arm maze and spatial-discrimination water maze. This laboratory proof-of-concept study investigated lobeline as a treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults (31.11 ± 7.08 years). Method: Using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, the effects of lobeline (0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg, s.l.) and methylphenidate (0, 15, or 30 mg, p.o.) were assessed in nine volunteers with ADHD. Results: Evidence suggested that lobeline could modestly improve working memory in adults with ADHD, but no significant improvement in attention was observed. Lobeline administration was associated with mild adverse side effects (nausea). Conclusion: Further investigation of lobeline on working memory may be warranted.

  20. Lobeline Effects on Cognitive Performance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Catherine A.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Ranseen, John D.; Kleven, Mark S.; Guenthner, Greg; Williams, Yolanda; Walsh, Sharon L.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In preclinical studies, lobeline inhibited hyperactivity induced by nicotine and amphetamine, and improved performance and learning in studies utilizing radial-arm maze and spatial-discrimination water maze. This laboratory proof-of-concept study investigated lobeline as a treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults (31.11 ± 7.08 years). Method Using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, the effects of lobeline (0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg, s.l.) and methylphenidate (0, 15, or 30 mg, p.o.) were assessed in nine volunteers with ADHD. Results Evidence suggested that lobeline could modestly improve working memory in adults with ADHD, but no significant improvement in attention was observed. Lobeline administration was associated with mild adverse side effects (nausea). Conclusion Further investigation of lobeline on working memory may be warranted. PMID:23966351

  1. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  2. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  3. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  4. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Multiple Myeloma in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Emily J; Tuchman, Sascha A

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are plasma cell disorders of aging. The landscape of the diagnosis and management of MM and MGUS are rapidly changing. This article provides an updated understanding of the clinical presentation, evaluation, diagnosis, and management of older adults with MM and MGUS. Because most oncology providers are not formally trained in geriatric medicine, geriatricians play a key role in providing oncologists with a broader understanding of patient health status in the hope of improving outcomes for older adults with MM.

  5. Metacomprehension and Comprehension Performance in Younger and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, DeWayne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Metacomprehension Scale was completed by 30 younger and 30 older adults. Younger adults reported greater use of strategies to resolve comprehension failures and valued good comprehension more. The regulation dimension of metacomprehension was a reliable predictor of comprehension performance. (SK)

  6. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  7. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  8. Adult Competency Instructional Guide Based on Adult Performance Level Studies. Career Education for Adults. Consumer Economics Module. Health Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Developed at Auburn University, Alabama, and based on Adult Performance Level (APL) research conducted at the University of Texas, the two teaching modules for adult career education in this curriculum guide are for the health and for the consumer economics curriculum areas. Focus is on development of basic skills in communication, problem…

  9. Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Hatch, J P; Shinkai, R S; Sakai, S; Rugh, J D; Paunovich, E D

    2001-07-01

    Masticatory performance results from a complex interplay of direct and indirect effects, yet most studies employ univariate models. This study tested a multivariate model of masticatory performance for dentate subjects. Explanatory variables included number of functional tooth units, bite force, sex, age, masseter cross-sectional area, presence of temporomandibular disorders, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The population-based sample consisted of 631 dentate subjects aged 37-80 years. Covariance structure analysis showed that 68% of the variability in masticatory performance could be explained by the combined effects of the explanatory variables. Age and sex did not show a strong effect on masticatory performance, either directly or indirectly through masseter cross-sectional area, temporomandibular disorders, and bite force. Number of functional tooth units and bite force were confirmed as the key determinants of masticatory performance, which suggests that their maintenance may be of major importance for promoting healthful functional status.

  10. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  11. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Executive performance in older Portuguese adults with low education.

    PubMed

    Pavão Martins, Isabel; Maruta, Carolina; Freitas, Vanda; Mares, Inês

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of executive functions is essential in clinical diagnosis, yet there are limited data regarding the performance of participants with low education. We present results on several measures of executive functions obtained in community-dwelling adults with an overall low education and study the effect of this variable in each test. A sample of 479 adults (64% female, mean age 66.4 years) was assessed by a battery comprising 13 measures of executive function (Trail Making Test; Symbol Search; Matrix reasoning; Semantic and phonemic verbal fluencies; Stroop test; and digit spans). Tests' psychometric properties and the effects of age, gender, and education were studied across education levels within each age group. Tests showed good psychometric properties. Education explained more variance than age in the majority of measures, with lower educational levels being significantly associated to worse scores. Tables are presented with mean scores, standard deviation, and the value of extreme percentiles for younger (50-65, N = 232) and older (>65 years, N = 247) × education (0-3, 4, 5-9, and >9 years) subgroups. Education-adjusted norms are necessary for an adequate interpretation of test results. The present data may be useful for clinicians caring for populations with low literacy.

  13. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  14. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization.

  15. Significance of Anti-HLA Antibodies on Adult and Pediatric Heart Allograft Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Massimo; Marrari, Marilyn; Feingold, Brian; Zeevi, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    As methods for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antibody detection have evolved and newer solid phase assays are much more sensitive, the last 15 years has seen a renewed focus on the importance of HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant rejection. However, there is still much controversy regarding the clinical significance of antibody level as depicted by the mean fluorescence intensity of a patient’s neat serum. Emerging techniques, including those that identify antibody level and function, show promise for the detection of individuals at risk of allograft rejection, determination of the effectiveness of desensitization prior to transplant, and for monitoring treatment of rejection. Here, we review current publications regarding the relevance of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in adult and pediatric heart transplantation (HT) with graft survival, development of antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). The negative impact of DSA on patient and allograft survival is evident in adult and pediatric HT recipients. Many questions remain regarding the most appropriate frequency of assessment of pre- and posttransplant DSA as well as the phenotype of DSA memory vs. true de novo antibody using large multicenter adult and pediatric cohorts and state-of-the-art methodologies for DSA detection and characterization. PMID:28191005

  16. Haemodynamic correlates and prognostic significance of serum uric acid in adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oya, H; Nagaya, N; Satoh, T; Sakamaki, F; Kyotani, S; Fujita, M; Nakanishi, N; Miyatake, K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess haemodynamic correlates and prognostic significance of serum uric acid in adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome.
DESIGN—Retrospective observational study.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre.
PATIENTS—94 adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome who were diagnosed between September 1982 and July 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Serum uric acid was measured in all patients, together with clinical and haemodynamic variables related to mortality.
RESULTS—Serum uric acid was raised in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome compared with age and sex matched control subjects (7.0 v 4.7 mg/dl, p < 0.0001) and increased in proportion to the severity of New York Heart Association functional class. Serum uric acid was positively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r = 0.30, p = 0.0052) and total pulmonary resistance index (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with cardiac index (r = −0.50, p < 0.0001). During a mean follow up period of 97 months, 38 patients died of cardiopulmonary causes. Among various clinical, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables, serum uric acid remained predictive in multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves based on median serum uric acid showed that patients with high values had a significantly worse survival rate than those with low values (log-lank test: p = 0.0014 in male patients, p = 0.0034 in female patients).
CONCLUSIONS—Serum uric acid increases in proportion to haemodynamic severity in adult patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and is independently associated with long term mortality.


Keywords: Eisenmenger syndrome; prognosis; uric acid; haemodynamics PMID:10862589

  17. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and…

  18. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  19. An Examination of the Adult Performance Level Project and Its Effects upon Adult Literacy Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project, which developed and validated a series of objectives for adult functional competency free from school-based notions of literacy, is the most widely accepted approach to adult literacy and adult literacy education in the United States today. Yet a review of the project and its impact reveals that the APL…

  20. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua G. X.; Thein, Tun Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Pang, Junxiong; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188), and those without (n = 4,195). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization. Results On admission, female gender (p<0.001); temperature >38°C (p<0.001); nausea/vomiting (p = 0.009) and abdominal pain/tenderness (p = 0.005); lower systolic blood pressure (p<0.001); higher pulse rate (p<0.001); increased absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p<0.001); reduced absolute lymphocyte count (ALC; p<0.001), haematocrit percentage (p<0.001) and platelet count (p = 0.04), and increased prothrombin time (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with clinically significant bleeding on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that independent variables in the final model were female gender (aOR 2.85; 95% CI: 1.9–4.33); temperature >38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27–2.61), nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94–2.12), ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15–1.46), ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25–0.64), hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92–1.002) and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988–0.998). At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98). Conclusion Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant

  1. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions.

  2. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  3. Divided Attention in Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Strategy and Relatedness on Memory Performance and Secondary Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Guez, Jonathan; Kreuger, Sharyn

    2005-01-01

    Divided attention at encoding leads to a significant decline in memory performance, whereas divided attention during retrieval has relatively little effect; nevertheless, retrieval carries significant secondary task costs, especially for older adults. The authors further investigated the effects of divided attention in younger and older adults by…

  4. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  5. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  6. Relation of Everyday Activities of Adults to Their Prose Recall Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, G. Elizabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored connection between everyday activities of different aged adults (N=54) and their performance on prose recall task. Regression analyses showed that demographic variables of age, education, and verbal ability were best predictors of prose recall. Total time spent reading and other reading variables were also significantly correlated with…

  7. The Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Contingent Reinforcement Upon the Intelligence Test Performance of Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckart, George R.; Bass, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    It appears that contingent reinforcement may have an effect upon the intelligence test performance of black adults as evidenced by the consistent trend of the IQ scores in the direction of the proposed hypothesis. However, the primary analysis of the data revealed no statistically significant differences among treatment groups. (Author)

  8. From Grapheme to Phonological Output: Performance of Adults Who Stutter on a Word Jumble Task

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megann; Sussman, Harvey; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task. Method Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category) were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT). Results Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter), SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls. Conclusion Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter. PMID:26963917

  9. Effects of context expectation on prospective memory performance among older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Terrence K; Reese-Melancon, Celinda

    2017-01-01

    This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear. Participants' LDT response latencies were used to assess cost of the PM task to the ongoing task. Latencies were discernibly longer in the LDT block where the PM targets were expected compared to the block where they were not expected. The findings provide new information about how context can be used to support PM aging and suggest that contextual information can be equally beneficial for older and younger adults.

  10. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  11. Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

    This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

  12. Appendicular Fractures: A Significant Problem among Institutionalized Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, K. M.; Williams, J.; Womack, C.; Nayak, N. G.; Nasef, S.; Bush, A.; Tylavsky, F. A.; Carbone, L.

    2003-01-01

    This study found a high incidence of nontraumatic fractures in adults with developmental disabilities living in a state-run facility, a 7.3% incidence among 391 adults. Factors associated with fractures included use of antiepileptic medication. Although bone mineral density (BMD) by heel ultrasound did not predict fracture, values were much lower…

  13. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions.

  14. Influence of whole body vibration platform frequency on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham P; Maschette, Wayne E

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to progressively overload vibration platform frequency to describe sea-saw whole body vibration influence on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling older adults (aged 72 +/- 8 years) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (zero, one, 2, and 3 whole body vibration sessions per week). Quantifiers of neuromuscular performance such as the 5-Chair Stands test, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Tinetti test were recorded. Furthermore, Health-related quality of life was qualified with the SF-36 Health Survey. A 6-week whole body vibration intervention significantly improved the quantifiers of neuromuscular performance in a community-dwelling older adult sample. Whole body vibration was shown to significantly reduce time taken to complete the 5-Chair Stands test (p < 0.05) and the TUG test (p < 0.05). Tinetti test scores significantly improved (p < 0.05). as did all components of health-related quality of life (p < 0.05). Overall, progressively overloaded frequency elicited more beneficial improvement for the 3 whole body vibration sessions per week group. It was concluded that progressively overloaded frequency was effective in improving quantifiable measures of neuromuscular performance in the sample and that practitioners may confidently prescribe 3 whole body vibration sessions per week with more precise knowledge of the effects of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and health-related quality-of-life effects.

  15. Dual task performance in older adults: Examining visual discrimination performance whilst treadmill walking at preferred and non-preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Clarke, Neil D; Eyre, Emma L J; Wright, Sheila Leddington

    2016-04-01

    This study examined visual discrimination performance in a sample of older adults before, during and post treadmill walking at preferred walking speed and preferred walking speed +20%. Nine adults (6 females and 3 males) aged 60-77 years (mean age=67.1±5.7 years) undertook three trials each lasting 15 min, rest, walking at preferred speed and walking at preferred speed +20%. Pre, during and post each condition, participants undertook measures of visual-cognitive performance. There were no significant main effects or higher order interactions for condition (rest, vs. walking preferred speed, vs. walking preferred speed +20%) or time (pre, during, post) (all P>0.05). There was a significant condition X time interaction for response time (P=0.014, partial ɳ(2)=0.352). Post hoc analysis indicated that response times were significantly faster during exercise at preferred speed compared to pre exercise at preferred speed (P=0.042). Response times were significantly slower during walking at preferred speed +20% compared to pre exercise (P=0.002) and to post exercise (P=0.012). Response times were significantly faster during PSW compared to during rest (P=0.05), during PSW compared to during PSW20 (P=0.001) and significantly slower during PSW20 compared to during rest (P=0.001). Post PSW20 response times were significantly slower than post PSW (P=0.04). These results suggest that visual discrimination performance is facilitated when walking at preferred speeds but walking at 20% faster than preferred speed significantly impedes visual discrimination in older adults.

  16. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  17. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  18. Performance-intensity functions for normal-hearing adults and children using CASPA

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Ito, Rindy; Spratford, Merry; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Computer Aided Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA) is a clinical measure of speech recognition that uses ten-item, isophonemic word lists to derive performance-intensity (PI) functions for adult listeners. Because CASPA was developed for adults, the ability to obtain PI functions in children has not been directly evaluated. The current study sought to evaluate PI functions for adults and four age groups of children with normal hearing to compare speech recognition as a function of age using CASPA. Comparisons between age groups for scoring by words and phonemes correct were made to determine the relative benefits of available scoring methods in CASPA. Design Speech recognition using CASPA was completed with twelve adults and four age groups of children (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 year-olds), each with twelve participants. Results were scored by the percentage of words, phonemes, consonants and vowels correct. All participants had normal hearing and age-appropriate speech production skills. Results Adults had higher mean speech recognition scores than children in the 5-6 year-old and 7-8 year-old age groups when responses were scored by the percentage of words correct. However, only differences between the 5-6 year-olds and adults were statistically significant when responses were scored by the percentage of phonemes correct. Speech recognition scores decreased as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both children and adults. However, the magnitude of degradation at poorer SNRs did not vary between adults and children, suggesting that mean differences could not be explained by interference from noise. Conclusions Obtaining PI functions in noise using CASPA is feasible with children as young as 5 years-old. Statistically significant differences in speech recognition were observed between adults and the two youngest age groups of children when scored by the percentage of words correct. When results were scored by the percentage of phonemes

  19. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  20. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bradburn, Steven; McPhee, Jamie S; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods this cross-sectional study included 225 old (52% women, mean age: 74.4 ± 3.3 years) and 134 young (52% women, mean age: 23.4 ± 2.7 years) adult participants from the MyoAge project. Whole body bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood analyses included a panel of bone-related peptides (dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23), as well as serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D assays. A selection of cognitive domains (working memory capacity, episodic memory, executive functioning and global cognition) was assessed with a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Results adjusting for covariates and multiple testing revealed that plasma OC levels were positively associated with measures of executive functioning (β = 0.444, P < 0.001) and global cognition (β = 0.381, P = 0.001) in the older women. Discussion these correlative results demonstrate a positive association between OC, a factor known to regulate bone remodelling, with cognitive performance in older non-demented women. Further work should address possible mechanistic interpretations in humans. PMID:27515675

  1. Correlates of Virtual Navigation Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Korthauer, L.E.; Nowak, N.T.; Moffat, S.D.; An, Y.; Rowland, L.M; Barker, P.B.; Resnick, S.M.; Driscoll, I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence for deleterious effects of aging on place learning and memory, less is known about the trajectory and the putative neural mechanisms of these decrements. The virtual Morris Water Task (vMWT) is a human analog of a non-human spatial navigation task. The present study investigated longitudinal changes in place learning in 51 healthy, non-demented adults (age 30–83) who completed the vMWT and a neuropsychological battery at two time-points (interval= ~8 years). We also assessed cross-sectional associations between vMWT and brain structure, biochemical integrity, and standardized neuropsychological measures in a subset of 22 individuals who underwent MR imaging at follow-up. Despite no longitudinal decrement in vMWT performance, there were cross-sectional age differences on the vMWT favoring younger adults. Negative associations were observed between vMWT latency and gray matter volumes in the right hippocampus, bilateral thalamus, and right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and between vMWT latency and white matter fractional anisotropy in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus. Collectively, these results suggest a pattern of differences in the structural integrity of regions supporting successful navigation even in the absence of longitudinal performance decrements. PMID:26923408

  2. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made.

  3. Significant improvements in the practice patterns of adult related donor care in US transplant centers

    PubMed Central

    MBChB, Chloe Anthias; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kambl, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah M; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 FACT-JACIE Standards, resulting from the CIBMTR study, will have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, a follow-up survey of US transplant centers was conducted to assess practice changes since 2007, and investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of US RD transplants responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P<0.0001). However, this study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are described. PMID:26597080

  4. Effects of a heavy and a moderate resistance training on functional performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapotharakos, Vasilios I; Michalopoulos, Maria; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Godolias, George; Gourgoulis, Vasilios

    2005-08-01

    Resistance training can improve strength and functional performance, but there is little information about the effect of training intensity on functional performance in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of heavy (80% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and moderate (60% of 1RM) resistance training on functional performance in healthy, inactive older adults, ages 60-74 years. Volunteer subjects were assigned randomly to a control group (CS, n = 10), heavy resistance training group (HRT, n = 11), or moderate resistance training group (MRT, n = 12) and participated in 12 weeks of strength training, 3 times per week. Performance measurements included 1RM lower-body strength, chair-rising time, walking velocity, stair-climbing time, and flexibility. Significant differences between HRT and MRT were found for 1RM strength of the lower limbs after the training period. Functional performance improved similarly for both HRT and MRT after the training period. Functional performance can be improved significantly with either heavy or moderate resistance training, without significant differences in the effectiveness of the 2 training protocols.

  5. Functional impairment and cognitive performance in mood disorders: A community sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Amanda N; Cardoso, Taiane A; Jansen, Karen; Mondin, Thaíse C; Souza, Luciano D M; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Kapczinski, Flavio; Silva, Ricardo A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the global functioning and cognitive performance in a community sample of young adults with mood disorders versus community controls. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort study with a community sample. Data was collected from February 2012 to June 2014; specifically, at a mean of five years after the first phase, all young adults were invited to participate in a re-evaluation. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - PLUS (MINI-PLUS) was used for the diagnosis of mood disorders. The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess the global functioning, and cognitive performance, respectively. Were included 1258 subjects. Functional impairment was greater in subjects with bipolar disorder when compared to community controls, and there were no differences between major depressive disorder and community controls. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between young adults with mood disorders when compared to community controls. Functional impairment is a marker for bipolar disorder in young adults; however, gross cognitive impairment assessed by a screening test is not, possibly because cognition is impaired in more advanced stages of the disorder.

  6. Relationships of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performance of Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Beverly Kinsey

    2011-01-01

    Competent mathematical skills are needed in the workplace as well as in the college setting. Adults in Adult Basic Education classes and programs generally perform below high school level competency, but very few studies have been performed investigating the predictors of mathematical success for adults. The current study contributes to the…

  7. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  8. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Nokia, M S; Govindaraju, K P; Shors, T J

    2012-11-08

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, "moderate" amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4% ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08%, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning 2 days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40%. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain.

  9. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Megan L.; Nokia, Miriam S.; Govindaraju, Krishna P.; Shors, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, “moderate” amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4 % ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of two weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08 %, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning two days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40 %. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:22906480

  10. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  11. Bicuspid aortic valve aortopathy in adults: Incidence, etiology, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Michelena, Hector I; Della Corte, Alessandro; Prakash, Siddharth K; Milewicz, Dianna M; Evangelista, Artur; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2015-12-15

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart defect and is associated with an aortopathy manifested by dilatation of the ascending thoracic aorta. The clinical consequences of this aortopathy are the need for periodic monitoring of aortic diameters, elective prophylactic surgical aortic repair, and the occurrence of aortic dissection or rupture. This review describes the current knowledge of BAV aortopathy in adults, including incidence, pathophysiologic insights into its etiology, contemporary hypothesis-generating observations into its complications, and recommendations for monitoring and intervention.

  12. Adult Basic Education. Adult Performance Level Curriculum Handbook: Occupational Knowledge, Consumer Economics, Health and Safety, Government and Law, Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Mildred; Thomas, Claire

    Beginning with a brief project report, this curriculum guide is intended to enable teachers to work effectively with Adult Performance Level (APL) programs. The manual (1) clarifies the concept of APL, (2) describes the APL-ABE (Adult Basic Education) curriculum at Florida Junior College (FJC), (3) provides examples of effective lesson plans for…

  13. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  14. The effect of performing a dual-task on postural control and selective attention of older adults when stepping backward

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Chan, Vito Wai-Lok; Wong, Henry Hei; Yip, Tony Wai-Cheong; Lu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the postural control and cognitive performance of older adults when stepping backward with and without a concurrent cognitive task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young adults and twenty-eight older adults (mean age=21.3 ± 1.2 and 72.2 ± 5.7 years, respectively) were recruited. Participants were asked to step backward and then maintain a single-leg stance for 10 seconds with and without a concurrent auditory response task. The reaction time and error rate while performing the cognitive task were recorded. Postural stability after stepping back was measured in terms of total sway path and total sway area. [Results] The older subjects had significantly longer reaction times and higher error rates in both single- and dual-tasking. When dual-tasking, both groups had significantly longer reaction times than when single-tasking. Only the older adults showed significantly higher error rates. The older adults also had significantly longer total sway paths and larger total sway areas of single-leg stance after stepping back. Neither group showed a significant difference in total sway path and sway area between single- and dual-tasking. [Conclusion] Older adults have poorer cognitive performance and postural stability during both single- and dual-tasking. They tend to prioritize postural control over cognition in dual-tasking. PMID:27821940

  15. Etiologic significance of enlargement of the left atrial appendage in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.E.; Kelley, M.J.; Higgins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients with proven rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) and 31 patients with left atrial enlargement (LAE) of a nonrheumatic etiology. The latter group included patients with ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral valve prolapse, and congestive cardiomyopathy. Radiographic studies showed that enlargement of the left atrial appendage (LAAE) was present in 18 of 20 rheumatics but in only one of 31 nonrheumatics. There was no direct relationship between enlargement of the LAA and radiographic or echocardiographic left atrial size, degree of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), or presence of atrial fibrillation. It is postulated that rheumatic influammation of the LAA allows it to dilate out of proportion to the body of the left atrium. In the adult patient with radiographic findings of PVH, LAAE is a valuable and specific radiographic sign of rheumatic mitral valve disease.

  16. Clinical spectrum associated with MOG autoimmunity in adults: significance of sharing rodent MOG epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Armangue, Thaís; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Arrambide, Georgina; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sabater, Lidia; Téllez, Nieves; Midaglia, Luciana; Ariño, Helena; Peschl, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Blanco, Yolanda; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc; Saiz, Albert

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical spectrum associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in adult patients, and to assess whether phenotypic variants are dependent on recognition of rodent MOG epitopes. We retrospectively analyzed the features, course and outcome of 56 patients whose samples were investigated by brain tissue immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays using human and rodent MOG. The median age at symptom onset was 37 years (range 18-70); 35 patients (63 %) were female. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range 4-554), only 14 patients (25 %) developed a neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), 27 patients (47 %) retained the initial diagnosis of isolated optic neuritis, 7 (12 %) of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, and 2 (4 %) of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; 6 patients (11 %) developed atypical demyelinating syndromes (4 had relapsing episodes of short myelitis lesions which in one occurred with optic neuritis; 1 had relapsing brainstem symptoms, and 1 relapsing demyelinating encephalomyelitis). The course was frequently associated with relapses (71 %) and good outcome. Twenty-seven patients (49 %) had antibodies that recognized rodent MOG epitopes, and 9 of them (16 %) showed a myelin staining pattern in rodent tissue. Only the myelin staining pattern was linked to NMOSD (p = 0.005). In conclusion, MOG autoimmunity in adult patients associates with a clinical spectrum wider than the one expected for patients with suspected NMOSD and overall good outcome. Antibodies to rodent MOG epitopes do not associate with any phenotypic variant.

  17. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of

  18. The Artistic Infant Directed Performance: A Mycroanalysis of the Adult's Movements and Sounds.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Shifres, Favio

    2015-09-01

    Intersubjectivity experiences established between adults and infants are partially determined by the particular ways in which adults are active in front of babies. An important amount of research focuses on the "musicality" of infant-directed speech (defined melodic contours, tonal and rhythm variations, etc.) and its role in linguistic enculturation. However, researchers have recently suggested that adults also bring a multimodal performance to infants. According to this, some scholars seem to find indicators of the genesis of the performing arts (mainly music and dance) in such a multimodal stimulation. We analyze the adult performance using analytical categories and methodologies of analysis broadly validated in the fields of music performance and movement analysis in contemporary dance. We present microanalyses of an adult-7 month old infant interaction scene that evidenced structural aspects of infant directed multimodal performance compatible with music and dance structures, and suggest functions of adult performance similar to performing arts functions or related to them.

  19. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  20. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that “attentional” brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction—compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  1. Cortisol Reactivity and Performance Abilities in Social Situations in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed. PMID:24245731

  2. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  3. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  4. Impacts of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure on adult mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) swim performance.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal and geographic attributes of the Deepwater Horizon incident in 2010 likely exposed pelagic game fish species, such as mahi-mahi, to crude oil. Although much of the research assessing the effects of the spill has focused on early life stages of fish, studies examining whole-animal physiological responses of adult marine fish species are lacking. Using swim chamber respirometry, the present study demonstrates that acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of the water accommodated fraction of Deepwater Horizon crude oil results in significant swim performance impacts on young adult mahi-mahi, representing the first report of acute sublethal toxicity on adult pelagic fish in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. At an exposure concentration of 8.4 ± 0.6 µg L(-1) sum of 50 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; mean of geometric means ± standard error of the mean), significant decreases in the critical and optimal swimming speeds of 14% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.05), were observed. In addition, a 20% reduction in the maximum metabolic rate and a 29% reduction in aerobic scope resulted from exposure to this level of ΣPAHs. Using environmentally relevant crude oil exposure concentrations and a commercially and ecologically valuable Gulf of Mexico fish species, the present results provide insight into the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on adult pelagic fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2613-2622. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Analysis of the Distribution of Mucins in Adult Human Gastric Mucosa and Its Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mucins are complex composition of carbohydrates seen in the epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Normal distribution of such mucins in different part of the GIT and its alteration in various inflammatory, benign and malignant lesions of GIT has aroused interest in the field of histochemistry. Aim By applying variety of histochemical techniques an attempt has been made to draw a map of mucin secretion by the different epithelial cell types in different parts of the stomach. Materials and Methods Fifty samples were taken each from different parts of the stomach like fundus, body and pylorus, from dissected fresh specimens (total of 150 specimens). Tissue samples were subjected for routine process and studied for histological and different histochemical staining. Results Mucin pattern in adult predominantly secretes neutral mucosubstances. Surface epithelium shows predominant neutral mucin while cardiac and gastric glands with foveolar cells show moderate amount. Sialomucin is present in a few cells of the surface epithelium, foveolar cells and in most of the mucous neck cells. Small amount of sialomucin and sulphomucin are found in surface epithelial foveolar cells while traces of sulphomucin are found in deep foveolar cells. Mucous neck cells secrete both sulphomucin and sialomucin. Conclusion Normal gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric ulcers and malignant tumours of stomach secretes mucins which differ histochemically and biochemically from that of normal. Early recognition of such changes could be useful in recognizing the different type of carcinomas and their prognosis. PMID:27042436

  6. Night eating syndrome in young adults: delineation from other eating disorders and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone

    2012-12-30

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed.

  7. The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) the 2003 NAAL was America's most comprehensive assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). NAAL was a nationally representative…

  8. Assessing Adult Learner's Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…

  9. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2016-06-07

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  10. Adolescents in Institutional Care: Significant Adults, Resilience and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory states the importance of secure relationships with significant figures for the development of resilience and well-being. The institutional care context represents a particular environment where relationships beyond the family should be attended for. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship…

  11. Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity.

  12. The Significance of Prolonged and Saddleback Fever in Hospitalised Adult Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Tun-Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is gaining importance in Singapore with an increase in the number of cases and mortality in recent years. Although prolonged and saddleback fever have been reported in dengue fever, there are no specific studies on their significance in dengue. This study aims to examine the prevalence of prolonged and saddleback fever in dengue as well as their associations with dengue severity. A total of 2843 polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) confirmed dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of them were male with a median age of 34 years. Prolonged fever (fever > 7 days duration) was present in 572 (20.1%) of patients. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and severe dengue (SD) were significantly more likely to occur in patients with prolonged fever. Mucosal bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, rash, clinical fluid accumulation, hepatomegaly, nosocomial infection, leukopenia, higher neutrophil count, higher hematocrit, higher alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), higher creatinine, lower protein and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly associated with prolonged fever but not platelet count or prothrombin time (PT). Saddleback fever was present in 165 (5.8%). Although DHF and SD were more likely to occur in patients in those with saddleback fever, DSS was not. Compared with prolonged fever, saddleback fever did not show many significant associations except for diarrhea, abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, hematocrit and platelet change, and lower systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrates that prolonged fever may be associated with various warning signs and more severe forms of dengue (SD, DSS, DHF), while saddleback fever showed associations with DHF and SD but not DSS. The presence of prolonged or saddleback fever in dengue patients should therefore prompt

  13. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in cortical thickness between groups, a proxy for neurodegenerative tissue loss. Our results suggest that decreases in cortical surface area (a proxy for brain structural integrity) in right frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function. PMID:28101053

  14. Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

  15. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus.

  16. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  17. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  18. The Association between Unilateral Heel-Rise Performance with Static and Dynamic Balance in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D.; Wang, Man-Ying; Yu, Sean S-Y; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a measure of both strength and muscle endurance of the plantar flexors, the unilateral heel rise (UHR) test has been suggested as a method to evaluate balance capabilities in older adults. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between UHR performance with biomechanical measures of balance in seniors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-two older adults completed two testing sessions. The first visit included UHR performance; the second visit included dynamic and static motion analysis. RESULTS UHR performance was significantly associated with dynamic balance capability as measured by medial-lateral inclination angle during gait. As indicated by an analysis of center of pressure, there were significant associations between UHR performance and measures of static balance. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Balance is influenced by plantar flexor performance as measured by the UHR test. We therefore suggest incorporating the UHR test in analyses of balance in seniors. PMID:25457285

  19. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  1. Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation Causes Significant Gastrointestinal Side-Effects in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P.; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Objective Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (IV) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Results Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of IV iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74–3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus IV iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus IV iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%). Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028) showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Conclusions Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose. PMID:25700159

  2. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  3. Visual Performance of Adults with Prelingual Auditory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld, S.; Spiering, M.; Rotteveel, M.; van Beest, I.

    2004-01-01

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese…

  4. White matter fractional anisotropy predicts balance performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Doumas, Mihail; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-09-01

    Aging is characterized by brain structural changes that may compromise motor functions. In the context of postural control, white matter integrity is crucial for the efficient transfer of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular feedback in the brain. To determine the role of age-related white matter decline as a function of the sensory feedback necessary to correct posture, we acquired diffusion weighted images in young and old subjects. A force platform was used to measure changes in body posture under conditions of compromised proprioceptive and/or visual feedback. In the young group, no significant brain structure-balance relations were found. In the elderly however, the integrity of a cluster in the frontal forceps explained 21% of the variance in postural control when proprioceptive information was compromised. Additionally, when only the vestibular system supplied reliable information, the occipital forceps was the best predictor of balance performance (42%). Age-related white matter decline may thus be predictive of balance performance in the elderly when sensory systems start to degrade.

  5. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  6. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  7. The influence of various factors on the performance of repetition tests in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Jeong, Jin Ok; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-01

    A variety of internal and external factors influence speech perception performance following cochlear implantation (CI) in adult deaf patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speech perception performance during repetition testing according to various factors and to identify the predictive factors associated with postoperative speech perception. The performances on speech perception under audio-only conditions were examined over time in 61 adult patients with CI. Mono- and bi-syllable and sentence repetition testing, using both the Korean version of the Central Institute for the Deaf (K-CID) and the K-Western Aphasia Battery test (K-WAB), were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. To elucidate the effect that the etiology of deafness has on postoperative outcome, patients were divided into the following four groups: Prelingual hearing loss (HL) (n = 9), Meningitis (n = 6), Progressive HL (n = 31) and Sudden HL groups (n = 15). Moreover, the duration of HL and deafness was defined as follows: (1) "age of deafness onset: AoD", (2) "number of years between the onset of profound deafness and CI: DoD" and (3) "percentage of the patient's life with moderate-to-profound hearing loss before CI: PoL". DoD and PoL were significantly different between the four groups. Although AoD appeared to be associated with performance on the sentence repetition test before standardizing for education level and age (P = 0.015), there was no association after adjusting for these factors (P = 0.719). Only PoL showed a good correlation with performance on repetition testing after CI after adjusting for AoD and DoD. However, DoD was associated with speech perception performance on the sentence repetition test only. In addition, speech perception performance results in the Progressive and Sudden HL groups were improved over the Prelingual HL and Meningitis groups. The Meningitis group showed the poorest speech perception performance among postlingually

  8. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  9. A Novel Analytic Technique to Measure Associations Between Circulating Biomarkers and Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew J; Thompson, Dana K; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Kraus, Virginia B; Kraus, William E; Sullivan, Patrick; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Cohen, Harvey J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding associations between circulating biomarkers and physical performance across the adult life span could aid in better describing mechanistic pathways leading to disability. We hypothesized that high concentrations of circulating biomarkers would be associated with lower functioning across study populations representing the adult life span. The data were from four intervention and two observational studies with ages ranging 22-89 years. Biomarkers assayed included inflammatory, coagulation, and endothelial function markers. Physical performance was measured either by VO2peak (studies of young and middle-aged adults) or usual gait speed (studies of older adults). Partialled (by age, body mass index, race, and sex) and weighted common correlations were calculated between biomarkers and physical performance. Homogeneity of the associations was also assessed. Interleukin-6 (weighted r = -.22), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (weighted r = -.19), D-dimer (weighted r = -.16), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (weighted r = -.15), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (weighted r = -.14), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (weighted r = -.10) were all significantly inversely correlated with physical performance (p < .05). All significant correlations were homogeneous across studies. In summary, we observed consistent inverse associations between six circulating biomarkers and objective measures of physical performance. These results suggest that these serum biomarkers may be broadly applicable for detection, trajectory, and treatment monitoring of physical function across the life span or possibly for midlife predictors of functionally deleterious conditions.

  10. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  11. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. II. Effects on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, R C; Salomon, F; Wiles, C M; Hesp, R; Sönksen, P H

    1991-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency increases lean body mass and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. The functional significance of this was examined by incremental cycle ergometry in 24 GH-deficient adults treated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial with recombinant DNA human GH (rhGH) for 6 mo (0.07 U/kg body wt daily). Compared with placebo, the rhGH group increased mean maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) (+406 +/- 71 vs. +133 +/- 84 ml/min; P = 0.016) and maximal power output (+24.6 +/- 4.3 vs. +9.7 +/- 4.8 W; P = 0.047), without differences in maximal heart rate or ventilation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, vital capacity, and corrected CO gas transfer were within normal limits and did not change with treatment. Mean predicted VO2max, based on height and age, increased from 78.9 to 96.0% in the rhGH group (compared with 78.5 and 85.0% for placebo; P = 0.036). The anaerobic ventilatory threshold increased in the rhGH group (+159 +/- 39 vs. +1 +/- 51 ml/min; P = 0.02). The improvement in VO2max was noted when expressed per kilogram body weight but not lean body mass or thigh muscle area. We conclude that rhGH treatment in adults with GH deficiency improves and normalizes maximal exercise performance and improves submaximal exercise performance and that these changes are related to increases in lean body mass and muscle mass. Improved cardiac output may also contribute to the effect of rhGH on exercise performance.

  12. Reduced swim performance and aerobic capacity in adult zebrafish exposed to waterborne selenite.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anita J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2013-04-01

    Although dietary exposure of adult fish to organoselenium in contaminated aquatic ecosystems has been reported to bioaccumulate and cause larval deformities in offspring, subtle physiological effects produced through low level waterborne selenium exposure in fish such as swim performance and aerobic capacity have not been investigated. To evaluate potential effects of selenite on these responses, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 10 or 100 μg/L sodium selenite for 14 days. Upon completion of the exposure period, fish underwent two successive swim trials in a swim tunnel respirometer to determine critical swim speed (Ucrit), oxygen consumption (MO2), standard and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope (AS) and cost of transport (COT) followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Selenite exposure had a significant negative effect on Ucrit and aerobic capacity. Active metabolic rates and AS significantly decreased in both selenite exposure groups after the second swim trial. No significant effect was observed in MO2, standard metabolic rate, COT, triglyceride and glycogen levels, or condition factor between groups. These results suggest that aqueous selenite exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces adverse effects on aerobic capacity that can diminish endurance and maximum swim speeds, which may lower fish survivability.

  13. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  14. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  15. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  16. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  17. Free-field study on auditory localization and discrimination performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Freigang, Claudia; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Nitsche, Ines; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2014-04-01

    Localization accuracy and acuity for low- (0.375-0.75 kHz; LN) and high-frequency (2.25-4.5 kHz; HN) noise bands were examined in young (20-29 years) and older adults (65-83 years) in the acoustic free-field. A pointing task was applied to quantify accuracy, while acuity was inferred from minimum audible angle (MAA) thresholds measured with an adaptive 3-alternative forced-choice procedure. Accuracy decreased with laterality and age. From young to older adults, the accuracy declined by up to 23 % for the low-frequency noise band across all lateralities. The mean age effect was even more pronounced on MAA thresholds. Thus, age was a strong predictor for MAA thresholds for both LN and HN bands. There was no significant correlation between hearing status and localization performance. These results suggest that central auditory processing of space declines with age and is mainly driven by age-related changes in the processing of binaural cues (interaural time difference and interaural intensity difference) and not directly induced by peripheral hearing loss. We conclude that the representation of the location of sound sources becomes blurred with age as a consequence of declined temporal processing, the effect of which becomes particularly evident for MAA thresholds, where two closely adjoining sound sources have to be separated. While localization accuracy and MAA were not correlated in older adults, only a weak correlation was found in young adults. These results point to an employment of different processing strategies for localization accuracy and acuity.

  18. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-08

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized.

  19. Significant performance enhancement in continuous wave terahertz photomixers based on fractal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, H.; Heidarzadeh, H.; Rostami, A.; Rostami, G.; Dolatyari, M.

    2017-01-01

    A photoconductive fractal antenna significantly improves the performance of photomixing-based continuous wave (CW) terahertz (THz) systems. An analysis has been carried out for the generation of CW-THz radiation by photomixer photoconductive antenna technique. To increase the active area for generation and hence the THz radiation power we used interdigitated electrodes that are coupled with a fractal tree antenna. In this paper, both semiconductor and electromagnetic problems are considered. Here, photomixer devices with Thue-Morse fractal tree antennas in two configurations (narrow and wide) are discussed. This new approach gives better performance, especially in the increasing of THz output power of photomixer devices, when compared with the conventional structures. In addition, applying the interdigitated electrodes improved THz photocurrent, considerably. It produces THz radiation power several times higher than the photomixers with simple gap.

  20. Educator's Crock or Panacea: Implications of the Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    Adult performance level (APL) methodology, results, and conclusions are summarized. Taking exception to functional literacy accounting for an individuals level of income, education, and job status, the author questions the utilitarian value of an APL curriculum. (Author)

  1. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2017-02-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  2. Juvenile but not adult methamphetamine exposure improves performance in the Morris Water Maze in male rats.

    PubMed

    Moenk, Michael D; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    Early exposure to psychostimulants has been found to lead to long-lasting effects on cognitive processes. Our lab has previously reported that juvenile male rats administered methamphetamine showed improved performance in a spatial navigation task when tested in adulthood (McFadden and Matuszewich, 2007). What is not known, however, is if these effects are specific to the developing rat, or if a similar methamphetamine protocol given to adult rats would lead to an equally beneficial long-term change in spatial cognition. In the current study, male rats were given 1 daily injection of 2mg/kg methamphetamine or saline for 15 days during either preadolescence (PD20-34) or adulthood (PD70-84). Approximately 45 days after treatment, all rats then underwent 5 days of place training in the Morris water maze at a time when juvenile rats reached adulthood. Similar to previous findings, juvenile rats exposed to repeated methamphetamine displayed shorter latencies and distances to reach the platform throughout training compared to saline-treated rats. The juvenile rats treated with methamphetamine also swam shorter distances and had faster latencies to the hidden platform compared to adult methamphetamine-treated rats. There were no significant differences in rats treated in adulthood with methamphetamine compared to saline-treated rats. Likewise, there were no effects of prior methamphetamine treatment or age on matching-to-place trials or visible platform trials. Overall, the results show that repeated methamphetamine exposure can selectively improve spatial learning in adult male rats when administered during preadolescence, but does not significantly affect spatial learning when administered in adulthood. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate the unique susceptibility of the developing brain to drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity, as well as the long-term behavioral impact of exposure at critical ages.

  3. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  4. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  5. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  6. Visual performance of adults with prelingual auditory impairment.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Simon; Spiering, Mark; Rotteveel, Mark; van Beest, Ilja

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese ideographs (while influenced by preceding positive or negative facial expressions as prime pictures) by pressing "positive" or "negative" buttons. In Task 1, the controls had the faster responses. In Task 2, they showed the usual congruent priming effect during very short prime presentations. Participants with hearing loss showed this effect only during short and long prime presentation times; thus, they were not superior to the controls in picture recognition, instead showing (a) impaired processing of visual information or (b) impaired perceptual-motor skills regarding quick responses to visual information (or both).

  7. Drink Availability is Associated with Enhanced Examination Performance in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Chris; Gardner, Mark R.; Doherty, Sarah; Martin, Laura; Soares, Rute; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    While dehydration has negative effects on memory and attention, few studies have investigated whether drinking water can enhance cognitive performance, and none have addressed this in a real-world setting. In this study we explored the potential benefits of the availability of water for undergraduates. The exam performance of students who brought…

  8. Learning vs. Performance: Implications for the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John

    Goal setting is a dispositional trait that influences motivation to learn and to perform. Individuals with a Performing (or Proving) Goal Orientation are characterized by a desire to please authority figures, the belief that personal abilities are stable and unchanging, and a tendency to become frustrated and give up quickly when faced by…

  9. A peptide-retrieval strategy enables significant improvement of quantitative performance without compromising confidence of identification.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Shen, Shichen; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu; Qu, Jun

    2017-01-30

    Reliable quantification of low-abundance proteins in complex proteomes is challenging largely owing to the limited number of spectra/peptides identified. In this study we developed a straightforward method to improve the quantitative accuracy and precision of proteins by strategically retrieving the less confident peptides that were previously filtered out using the standard target-decoy search strategy. The filtered-out MS/MS spectra matched to confidently-identified proteins were recovered, and the peptide-spectrum-match FDR were re-calculated and controlled at a confident level of FDR≤1%, while protein FDR maintained at ~1%. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in both spectral count- and ion current-based methods. >60% increase of total quantified spectra/peptides was respectively achieved for analyzing a spike-in sample set and a public dataset from CPTAC. Incorporating the peptide retrieval strategy significantly improved the quantitative accuracy and precision, especially for low-abundance proteins (e.g. one-hit proteins). Moreover, the capacity of confidently discovering significantly-altered proteins was also enhanced substantially, as demonstrated with two spike-in datasets. In summary, improved quantitative performance was achieved by this peptide recovery strategy without compromising confidence of protein identification, which can be readily implemented in a broad range of quantitative proteomics techniques including label-free or labeling approaches.

  10. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  11. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  12. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  13. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  14. Influence of a visual-verbal Stroop test on standing and walking performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, B; Voelcker-Rehage, C; Regenbrecht, T; Mattes, K

    2016-03-24

    The dual task (DT) paradigm has been used to investigate decrements in balance performance while walking and standing in fall prevention studies with older adults. However, there are inconsistent findings whether balance performance decreases or increases in DT situations. Following different theoretical models (e.g. limited resource hypothesis or cross domain competition model), these inconsistent findings can be explained by task settings and task complexity. We compared DT performance in an executive control task (Stroop test) while standing and walking to analyze which theoretical model would fit our data best. Twenty-eight persons (>65 years) were examined under single task (ST) and DT conditions for standing (sway length and sway velocity) and walking (step length, step width (SW), peak forces of the heel, mid- and forefoot). SW increased from ST to DT conditions, and step length decreased significantly. Maximum forces of the forefoot were reduced whereas the maximum forces of the midfoot increased. Additionally, correct answers of the Stroop test decreased from the ST baseline condition to DT walking. No correlations were found between DT costs (performance decrements) of standing and walking. For both conditions (standing and walking), the limited resources hypothesis fits best. Moreover, not all modified gait variables could be defined as negative DT costs. Increased SW and decreased step length might be used to compensate influences on lateral stability while demands on motor-cognitive resources increase. Further, drawing conclusions from a standing task for walking conditions might lead to misinterpretations.

  15. Mental ability performance among adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Lambert, Michael C

    2009-06-01

    Aim and method The present university-based outpatient clinic, cross-sectional study assessed cognitive performance in a sample of 137 adults, with the primary objective of determining differences in cognitive performance as a function of gender and hypertension status in a type 2 diabetes cohort.Results Approximately 64% of the sample was 65 years old and younger, and 50 subjects had > 13 years of education. Global mental ability scores were relatively similar by age grouping, and higher-ordered cognitive functioning and reading literacy were strongly correlated, r (98) = 0.62, P < 0.01. Approximately 30% of the sample posted global mental ability scores in the slow learner range on tasks measuring attention, immediate memory and verbal reasoning. Males achieved higher cognitive functioning scores compared to females on multiple mental ability tasks. The presence of hypertension was associated with significantly worse cognitive performance compared to those subjects without hypertension, t = 2.11, P = 0.03. Approximately 57% of the hypertension group was classified as mild cognitive impaired.Conclusion While approximately half of the general population can be expected to demonstrate an average range of performance on cognitive ability measures, such an expectation could be inappropriately generalised to persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, even among those who were high school educated.

  16. Mental ability performance among adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method The present university-based outpatient clinic, cross-sectional study assessed cognitive performance in a sample of 137 adults, with the primary objective of determining differences in cognitive performance as a function of gender and hypertension status in a type 2 diabetes cohort. Results Approximately 64% of the sample was 65 years old and younger, and 50 subjects had > 13 years of education. Global mental ability scores were relatively similar by age grouping, and higher-ordered cognitive functioning and reading literacy were strongly correlated, r (98) = 0.62, P < 0.01. Approximately 30% of the sample posted global mental ability scores in the slow learner range on tasks measuring attention, immediate memory and verbal reasoning. Males achieved higher cognitive functioning scores compared to females on multiple mental ability tasks. The presence of hypertension was associated with significantly worse cognitive performance compared to those subjects without hypertension, t = 2.11, P = 0.03. Approximately 57% of the hypertension group was classified as mild cognitive impaired. Conclusion While approximately half of the general population can be expected to demonstrate an average range of performance on cognitive ability measures, such an expectation could be inappropriately generalised to persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, even among those who were high school educated. PMID:22477898

  17. MATRICS cognitive consensus battery (MCCB) performance in children, adolescents, and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nitzburg, George C.; DeRosse, Pamela; Burdick, Katherine E.; Peters, Bart D.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia suggest that cognitive deficits may be observed during childhood and adolescence, long before the onset of psychotic symptoms. Elucidating the trajectory of normal cognitive development during childhood and adolescence may therefore provide a basis for identifying specific abnormalities related to the development of schizophrenia. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), which was designed for use in clinical trials targeting cognitive deficits most common in schizophrenia, may provide a mechanism to understand this trajectory. To date, however, there is no performance data for the MCCB in healthy children and adolescents. The present study sought to establish performance data for the MCCB in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Methods The MCCB was administered to a community sample of 190 healthy subjects between the ages of 8 and 23 years. All MCCB domain scores were converted to T-scores using sample means and standard deviations and were compared for significant performance differences between sex and age strata. Results Analyses revealed age effects following quadratic trends in all MCCB domains, which is consistent with research showing a leveling off of childhood cognitive improvement upon approaching late adolescence. Sex effects after controlling for age only presented for one MCCB domain, with males exhibiting well-known spatial reasoning advantages. Conclusions Utilizing this performance data may aid future research seeking to elucidate specific deficits that may be predictive of later development of SZ. PMID:24321710

  18. Injection temperature significantly affects in vitro and in vivo performance of collagen-platelet scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M P; Abreu, E L; Mastrangelo, A; Murray, M M

    2009-07-01

    Collagen-platelet composites have recently been successfully used as scaffolds to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing in large animal models. These materials are typically kept on ice until use to prevent premature gelation; however, with surgical use, placement of a cold solution then requires up to an hour while the solution comes to body temperature (at which point gelation occurs). Bringing the solution to a higher temperature before injection would likely decrease this intra-operative wait; however, the effects of this on composite performance are not known. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the temperature of the gel at the time of injection would significantly decrease the time to gelation, but would not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the composite or its ability to support functional tissue repair. Primary outcome measures included the maximum elastic modulus (stiffness) of the composite in vitro and the in vivo yield load of an ACL transection treated with an injected collagen-platelet composite. In vitro findings were that injection temperatures over 30 degrees C resulted in a faster visco-elastic transition; however, the warmed composites had a 50% decrease in their maximum elastic modulus. In vivo studies found that warming the gels prior to injection also resulted in a decrease in the yield load of the healing ACL at 14 weeks. These studies suggest that increasing injection temperature of collagen-platelet composites results in a decrease in performance of the composite in vitro and in the strength of the healing ligament in vivo and this technique should be used only with great caution.

  19. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  20. Simulated driving performance of adults with ADHD: comparisons with alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Camarillo, Daniel; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2008-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to experience driving-related problems, which suggests that they may exhibit poorer driving performance. However, direct experimental evidence of this hypothesis is limited. The current study involved 2 experiments that evaluated driving performance in adults with ADHD in terms of the types of driving decrements typically associated with alcohol intoxication. Experiment 1 compared the simulated driving performance of 15 adults with ADHD to 23 adult control participants, who performed the task both while sober and intoxicated. Results showed that sober adults with ADHD exhibited decrements in driving performance compared to sober controls, and that the profile of impairment for the sober ADHD group did in fact resemble that of intoxicated drivers at the blood alcohol concentration level for legally impaired driving in the United States. Driving impairment of the intoxicated individuals was characterized by greater deviation of lane position, faster and more abrupt steering maneuvers, and increased speed variability. Experiment 2 was a dose-challenge study in which 8 adults with ADHD and 8 controls performed the driving simulation task under 3 doses of alcohol: 0.65g/kg, 0.45g/kg, and 0.0g/kg (placebo). Results showed that driving performance in both groups was impaired in response to alcohol, and that individuals with ADHD exhibited generally poorer driving performance than did controls across all dose conditions. Together the findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD might impair driving performance in such a manner as to resemble that of an alcohol intoxicated driver. Moreover, alcohol might impair the performance of drivers with ADHD in an additive fashion that could considerably compromise their driving skill even at blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit.

  1. Performance characteristics of countercurrent separation in analysis of natural products of agricultural significance.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-01-09

    A standard test mix consisting of 21 commercially available natural products of agricultural significance, termed the GUESSmix, was employed to measure the countercurrent chromatography performance characteristics of a very popular quaternary solvent system family made up of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat). The polarity range of the GUESSmix combined with the elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography (EECCC) technique and the newly developed reciprocal symmetry (ReS) and reciprocal shifted symmetry (ReSS) plots allow liquid-liquid distribution ratios ( K D) to be plotted for every compound eluted on a scale of zero to infinity. It was demonstrated that 16 of the 21 GUESSmix compounds are found in the optimal range of resolution (0.25 < K(D) < 16) of at least one HEMWat solvent system. The HEMWat solvent systems represented by the ratios 4:6:5:5, 4:6:4:6, and 3:7:4:6 possess the most densely populated optimal ranges of resolution for this standard mix. ReS plots have been shown to reveal the symmetrical reversibility of the EECCC method in reference to K(D) = 1. This study lays the groundwork for evaluation and comparison of solvent system families proposed in the literature, as well as the creation of new solvent system families with desired performance characteristics.

  2. Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Created by Site-Specific Heteroatom Substitution with Significantly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zu, Lianhai; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Chengliang; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Jinhu; Yang, Shihe

    2016-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires that have been extensively studied are typically in a crystalline phase. Much less studied are amorphous semiconductor nanowires due to the difficulty for their synthesis, despite a set of characteristics desirable for photoelectric devices, such as higher surface area, higher surface activity, and higher light harvesting. In this work of combined experiment and computation, taking Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) as an example, we propose a site-specific heteroatom substitution strategy through a solution-phase ions-alternative-deposition route to prepare amorphous/crystalline Si-incorporated ZGO nanowires with tunable band structures. The substitution of Si atoms for the Zn or Ge atoms distorts the bonding network to a different extent, leading to the formation of amorphous Zn1.7Si0.3GeO4 (ZSGO) or crystalline Zn2(GeO4)0.88(SiO4)0.12 (ZGSO) nanowires, respectively, with different bandgaps. The amorphous ZSGO nanowire arrays exhibit significantly enhanced performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting, such as higher and more stable photocurrent, and faster photoresponse and recovery, relative to crystalline ZGSO and ZGO nanowires in this work, as well as ZGO photocatalysts reported previously. The remarkable performance highlights the advantages of the ZSGO amorphous nanowires for photoelectric devices, such as higher light harvesting capability, faster charge separation, lower charge recombination, and higher surface catalytic activity.

  3. Memory monitoring performance and PFC activity are associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Beevers, Christopher G.; McGeary, John E.; Schnyer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults show extensive variability in cognitive performance, including episodic memory. A portion of this variability could potentially be explained by genetic factors. Recent literature shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in memory processes, as enhancements of brain serotonin have led to memory improvement. Here, we have begun to explore genetic contributions to the performance and underlying brain activity associated with source memory monitoring. Using a source recognition memory task during fMRI scanning, this study offers evidence that older adults who carry a short allele (S-car) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the SLC6A4 gene show specific deficits in source memory monitoring relative to older adults who are homozygous for the long allele (LL). These deficits are accompanied by less neural activity in regions of prefrontal cortex that have been shown to support accurate memory monitoring. Moreover, while the older adult LL group’s behavioral performance does not differ from younger adults, their brain activation reveals evidence of compensatory activation that likely supports their higher performance level. These results provide preliminary evidence that the long-allele homozygous profile is cognitively beneficial to older adults, particularly for memory functioning. PMID:22705442

  4. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  5. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  6. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-02

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  7. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption in Older and Younger Adults: Perceived Impairment Versus Psychomotor Performance*

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Ceballos, Natalie A.; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Perceived impairment and psychomotor performance following acute alcohol administration in older (ages 50-74, n = 42; 22 male) and younger (ages 25-35, n = 26; 12 male) adults were investigated in this study. Method: Double-blind, placebo-controlled alcohol administration techniques were designed to produce peak levels of breath alcohol concentration consistent with an episode of social drinking (40 mg/100 ml). Behavioral measures (Trail Making Test, Forms A and B), as well as measures of self-reported perceived intoxication and impairment, were administered on the ascending and descending limbs at common time points after beverage ingestion. Results: Results indicated that psychomotor performance differences did not parallel self-reported levels of perceived impairment. Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited performance deficits on the ascending limb while simultaneously reporting less perceived impairment. Conversely, on the descending limb, older adults who received alcohol reported more perceived impairment than did those who received placebo, although psychomotor performance between these two groups of older drinkers did not differ. For younger participants, a moderate dose of alcohol facilitated performance on the ascending limb; however, these differences were not reflected on the descending limb. Conclusions: These results reinforce the common knowledge that self-reported measures may not provide an accurate reflection of performance outcomes and, importantly, that older adults may be impaired even under a moderate dose of alcohol, although they may not be aware (i.e., report) of this impairment. PMID:19261236

  8. Field Significance of Performance Measures in the Context of Regional Climate Model Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to rigorously evaluate the skill of dynamically downscaled global climate simulations. We investigate a dynamical downscaling of the ERA-Interim reanalysis using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with the NOAH land surface model within the scope of EURO-CORDEX. WRF has a horizontal resolution of 11° and contains the following physics: the Yonsei university atmospheric boundary layer parameterization, the Morrison two-moment microphysics, the Kain-Fritsch-Eta convection and the Community Atmosphere Model radiation schemes. Daily precipitation is verified over Germany for summer and winter against high-resolution observation data from the German weather service for the first time. The ability of WRF to reproduce the statistical distribution of daily precipitation is evaluated using metrics based on distribution characteristics. Skill against the large-scale ERA-Interim data gives insight into the potential, additional skill of dynamical downscaling. To quantify it, we transform the absolute performance measures to relative skill measures against ERA-Interim. Their field significance is rigorously estimated and locally significant regions are highlighted. Statistical distributions are better reproduced in summer than in winter. In both seasons WRF is too dry over mountain tops due to underestimated and too rare high and underestimated and too frequent small precipitations. In winter WRF is too wet at windward sides and land-sea transition regions due to too frequent weak and moderate precipitation events. In summer it is too dry over land-sea transition regions due to underestimated small and too rare moderate precipitations, and too wet in some river valleys due to too frequent high precipitations. Additional skill relative to ERA-Interim is documented for overall measures as well as measures regarding the spread and tails of the statistical distribution, but not regarding mean seasonal precipitation. The added

  9. Health literacy and medication administration performance by caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Steven R.; LeRoy, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure health literacy (HL) of caregivers of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDDs); to determine the association between HL and a medication administration task (MAT) assessment; and to identify caregiver characteristics associated with higher HL and MAT scores. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Southeastern Michigan. Participants Caregivers, aged 18 years or older, who provided supportive care of adults with IDDs. Interventions Survey and demonstration. Main Outcome Measures Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); a MAT assessment consisting of interpretation of five sets of medication instructions followed by demonstration of understanding using a pill box; and a survey of caregivers' demographics, medication-related experiences, education, characteristics of persons for whom they provide care, and care-related activities performed. Results A total of 47 caregivers provided data. Caregivers had a mean age of 45.7 ± 14.6 years; 41 (87.2%) were women and 38 (80.9%) had education beyond high school. Caregivers were involved in obtaining medication from pharmacies, reminded the person with IDD to take medications and/or administered them to the person, documented medication and health information, and accompanied persons with IDD to physician offices. Most did not conduct monitoring procedures. The STOFHLA mean score was 34.5 ± 2.5 (median, 35; range, 22–36), while the MAT mean score was 12.0 ± 2.2 (median, 12; range, 6–15). Compared with family caregivers, direct support staff more frequently had undergone some medication training and had other people with whom they could discuss medication questions, but they had worked with the person with IDD a significantly shorter amount of time. No significant differences in STOFHLA and MAT scores between the family caregivers and direct support staff were observed. Caregiver education was significantly correlated with the STOFHLA score. MAT scores were not

  10. Similar Subgroups Based on Cognitive Performance Parse Heterogeneity in Adults With ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Hoogman, Martine; Onnink, A. Marten H.; van Rooij, Daan; von Rhein, Daniel; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Norris, David G.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize heterogeneity in adults with ADHD we aimed to identify subgroups within the adult ADHD spectrum, which differ in their cognitive profile. Method Neuropsychological data from adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy control participants (n = 132) were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting six cognitive factors were correlated across participants to form networks. We used a community detection algorithm to cluster these networks into subgroups. Results Both the ADHD and control group separated into three profiles that differed in cognitive performance. Profile 1 was characterized by aberrant attention and inhibition, profile 2 by increased delay discounting, and profile 3 by atypical working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion Our findings suggest that qualitative differences in neuropsychological performance exist in both control and ADHD adult individuals. This extends prior findings in children with and without ADHD and provides a framework to parse participants into well-defined subgroups. PMID:26374770

  11. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target).

  12. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  13. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  14. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  15. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  16. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  17. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  18. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  19. Manual Asymmetries in the Performance of Sequential Movement by Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby

    1985-01-01

    Movement-sequencing deficits and possible manual-performance asymmetries in right-handed adolescents and adults with Downs syndrome were examined. Although Ss with Down syndrome showed no hand differences in tapping performance, they evidenced the same transfer of training asymmetries as did Ss without Down syndrome, suggesting that both the Down…

  20. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  1. Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

    PubMed

    Montory, Jaime A; Pechenik, Jan A; Diederich, Casey M; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

  2. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  3. Effects of diurnal variation and caffeine consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Momjian, Ani J; Wong, Keri K

    2011-03-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample that was tested early in the day, and any TOVA administered after 1:00 p.m. will be flagged as potentially invalid. Whereas the testing time recommendations make sense for pediatric samples, it is unclear whether they are appropriate for young adults in college, who typically show significant phase delay in their diurnal rhythms. In addition, many college students consume large amounts of caffeine, and it is unclear how caffeine consumption affects TOVA performance. The current study examined the impact of time of day, self-reported diurnal preference, and caffeine consumption on TOVA performance in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with healthy college students. There was evidence of diurnal variation on average response time and impulsivity but not on overall ADHD score, with participants tested in the afternoon responding faster but making more commission errors than did participants tested in the morning. Caffeine consumption led to significantly faster response times, but only for participants who typically consumed relatively little caffeine. We conclude that the TOVA can be administered to young adults outside the recommended time constraints without compromising the validity of test score interpretation but that the caffeine consumption of participants should be closely monitored.

  4. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life.

  5. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on driving performance in adults with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Mekary, Saïd; Bélanger, Mathieu; Johnson, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to decreases in driving performance and an increased crash risk. Regular exercise has been linked to improved driving performance among healthy adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program and driving performance among individuals with CVD. Twenty-five individuals, including 12 cardiac adults and 13 healthy adults, took part in this study. Simulated driving performance was assessed using a standardized demerit-based scoring system at 0 and 12 weeks. Cardiac participants completed a 12-week CR program between evaluations. At baseline, cardiac participants had a higher number of demerit points than healthy adults (120.9±38.1 vs. 94.7±28.3, P=0.04). At follow-up, there was an improvement in both groups' driving evaluations, but the improvement was greater among the cardiac group such that there was no longer a difference in driving performance between both groups (94.6±30 vs. 86.9±34.8, P=0.51). Participation in an aerobic exercise-based CR program appears to lead to improvements in simulated driving performances of individuals with CVD.

  6. Associations between hurtful weight-related comments by family and significant other and the development of disordered eating behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-10-01

    Research has found that weight-teasing is associated with disordered eating in adolescents. This study expands on the existing research by examining associations between hurtful weight comments by family and a significant other and disordered eating in young adults. Data come from 1,902 young adults (mean age 25) who completed surveys in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Correlations were examined between receiving hurtful comments from family and significant others, and four disordered eating behaviors in young adulthood, adjusting for prior disordered eating and prior teasing. Disordered eating behaviors were common in young adulthood, and were associated with hearing hurtful weight-related comments from family members and a significant other, for both females and males. Disordered eating prevention activities, which include messages about the potential harm associated with hurtful weight-related comments, should be expanded to address young adults, and programs may want to target relationship partners.

  7. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  8. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years) were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25). Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45) had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55) had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92) and severe (score 31–62). There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01) and moderate (P=0.01) cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural damage mechanism. Conclusion This study found significant associations among trace elements, anti-GADAs, and cognitive function in older adults. The homeostatic balance of trace elements should be recommended among older adults for better cognitive

  9. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michael A; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types.

  10. Maurice Gee's Brilliant Borrowings of Maurice Gee and Significant Others: Realism and Postmodernism in Gee's Books for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rij, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the work of one of New Zealand's most acclaimed writers, Maurice Gee, and the use of his children's fiction as an experimental ground for postmodernist techniques further developed in his writing for adults. In particular, it considers Gee's borrowings of his own and others' non-fictional and fictional material, to produce…

  11. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  12. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10–20 min sleep) or long nap (50–70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  13. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  14. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bento-Torres, N V O; Bento-Torres, J; Tomás, A M; Costa, V O; Corrêa, P G R; Costa, C N M; Jardim, N Y V; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2017-03-23

    Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61-84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  15. Effects of diurnal variation on the Test of Variables of Attention performance in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bienstock, Solomon W; Qiang, Judy Kexin

    2012-03-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. Continuous performance tests are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. TOVA norms are based on a morning administration, and any TOVA administered after 1:00 p.m. is flagged as potentially invalid. Whereas the testing time recommendations make sense for pediatric samples, it is unclear whether they are appropriate for young adults, who typically show significant phase delay in their diurnal rhythms. The current study explores the impact of time of day on TOVA performance in young adults with ADHD. Participants were randomly assigned to either morning or afternoon administration. We found no significant diurnal variation in TOVA performance. We also found no interaction between diurnal preference and time of day of administration. Night owls endorsed more inattention symptoms on a self-report measure than more intermediate individuals but actually made significantly fewer omission (inattention) errors on the TOVA. Self-reported symptoms of inattention showed moderate, significant correlations with various TOVA performance indices. Self-reported symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, however, showed no relationship to TOVA performance. These results suggest that the TOVA can be administered to adults with ADHD outside of the hours recommended in the manual without significantly compromising the interpretative validity of test score interpretation. Thus, a TOVA report that is consistent with ADHD should not be dismissed simply because it was administered in the late afternoon.

  16. Range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance in older adults with normal, pronated, and supinated feet

    PubMed Central

    Justine, Maria; Ruzali, Dhiya; Hazidin, Ezzaty; Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli; Manaf, Haidzir

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [−1 to −4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity. PMID:27134384

  17. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  18. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, T; Waaler, E; Lindström, T; Bölte, S; Jokinen, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adults were allocated to treatment (51 with ADHD and their 57 significant others). Feasibility was evaluated regarding suitability of the intervention at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and treatment completion. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated per protocol from baseline to post-intervention (n = 41 adults with ADHD and 40 significant others). In a feasibility analysis, the intervention was judged to be a suitable treatment option for 94.5 % of all individuals with a primary diagnosis of ADHD at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. In total, 43 out of 51 allocated individuals with ADHD (84.3 %) completed the intervention. The corresponding figures for their significant others were 42 out of 57 (73.7 %). Knowledge about ADHD increased, and both the quality of relationships and psychological well-being improved from baseline to post-intervention in all participants. The significant others reported a reduction in the subjective burden of care, such as worry and guilt. The objective burden of care (such as financial problems) did not change. The findings support the potential value of psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. An ongoing randomized controlled trial will generate further evidence concerning the PEGASUS program.

  19. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  20. Young adult born neurons enhance hippocampal dependent performance via influences on bilateral networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Tseng, Hua-an; Desai, Mitul; Bucklin, Mark E; Mohammed, Ali I; Robinson, Nick TM; Boyden, Edward S; Rangel, Lara M; Jasanoff, Alan P; Gritton, Howard J; Han, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis supports performance in many hippocampal dependent tasks. Considering the small number of adult-born neurons generated at any given time, it is surprising that this sparse population of cells can substantially influence behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that heightened excitability and plasticity may be critical for the contribution of young adult-born cells for certain tasks. What is not well understood is how these unique biophysical and synaptic properties may translate to networks that support behavioral function. Here we employed a location discrimination task in mice while using optogenetics to transiently silence adult-born neurons at different ages. We discovered that adult-born neurons promote location discrimination during early stages of development but only if they undergo maturation during task acquisition. Silencing of young adult-born neurons also produced changes extending to the contralateral hippocampus, detectable by both electrophysiology and fMRI measurements, suggesting young neurons may modulate location discrimination through influences on bilateral hippocampal networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22429.001 PMID:27914197

  1. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Requirements for Sanitary Surveys Performed by Epa § 141.723 Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Requirements for Sanitary Surveys Performed by Epa § 141.723 Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of...

  3. For the Arts To Have Meaning...A Model of Adult Education in Performing Arts Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitinoja, L.; Heimlich, J. E.

    A model of adult education appears to function in the outreach programs of three Columbus (Ohio) performing arts organizations. The first tier represents the arts organization's board of trustees, and the second represents the internal administration of the company. Two administrative bodies are arbitrarily labelled as education and marketing,…

  4. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  6. Physiological Indicators of Stress and Intellectual Performance among Anxious Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Older adults (n=27) concerned about declining cognitive functioning performed cognitive tasks, completed questionnaires, and were given measures of anxiety and physiological change. Negative correlations appeared between level of cortisol, a stress-related hormone, and self-efficacy on measures of fluid intelligence. Epstein-Barr virus levels were…

  7. An Acute Bout of Exercise Improves the Cognitive Performance of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Liam; Addamo, Patricia K; Selva Raj, Isaac; Borkoles, Erika; Wyckelsma, Victoria; Cyarto, Elizabeth; Polman, Remco C

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that an acute bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits, but it is largely unknown what the optimal mode and duration of exercise is and how cognitive performance changes over time after exercise. We compared the cognitive performance of 31 older adults using the Stroop test before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 min after a 10 and 30 min aerobic or resistance exercise session. Heart rate and feelings of arousal were also measured before, during, and after exercise. We found that, independent of mode or duration of exercise, the participants improved in the Stroop Inhibition task immediately postexercise. We did not find that exercise influenced the performance of the Stroop Color or Stroop Word Interference tasks. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive performance and, in particular, the more complex executive functioning of older adults.

  8. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  9. Crossing the Finish Line: Helping Adults with Significant College Credit Get Back on Track to a College Degree. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all states are grappling with the question of how to boost college attainment to meet workforce needs with the resources available. For many states, that task is complicated by the fact that the young adult population is projected neither to grow nor decline over the next several years. There is a significant opportunity, however, for…

  10. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  11. Anaerobic cycling performance characteristics in prepubescent, adolescent and young adult females.

    PubMed

    Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.

  12. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  13. MOF Thin Film-Coated Metal Oxide Nanowire Array: Significantly Improved Chemiresistor Sensor Performance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ming-Shui; Tang, Wen-Xiang; Wang, Guan-E; Nath, Bhaskar; Xu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for combining metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks is proposed to design new materials for sensing volatile organic compounds, for the first time. The prepared ZnO@ZIF-CoZn core-sheath nanowire arrays show greatly enhanced performance not only on its selectivity but also on its response, recovery behavior, and working temperature.

  14. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  15. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  16. Performing Movement Sequences with Knowledge of Results under Different Visual Conditions in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Van Gyn, Geraldine

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the learning of movement sequences in 10 adults with Down syndrome (DS) under two visual information conditions. Although DS individuals were significantly slower than neurologically typical participants, mean reaction and movement times were not affected by the visual information condition in either group. DS individuals…

  17. The cosmological and performative significance of a Thai cult of healing through meditation.

    PubMed

    Tambiah, S J

    1977-04-01

    A cult of healing through meditation that was observed in Bangkok, Thailand in 1974 is described, and the cult is interpreted in terms of two axes, the cosmological and the performative, and the dialectical, reciprocal and complementary relations between them. The various ramifications of the cosmology are discussed--the categorization of the cosmos itself as a hierarchical scheme, the relations between man and non-human forms of existence, the ideas concerning power and its manner of acquisition and use, the relation between power and restraint, etc. The epistemological basis of the cult, which attempts cure through meditation, and the features of the ritual as they contribute to its performative efficacy are highlighted. The essay concludes by suggesting that there is a single scheme (episteme) underlying religious ideas and applications of knowledge such as meditation, medicine, alchemy, and astrology.

  18. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  19. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70 children who stutter (CWS) and 45 children who do not stutter (CWNS). The children repeated the clapping task yearly for up to 5 years. We used a synchronization-continuation rhythmic timing paradigm. Two analyses were completed: a cross-sectional analysis of data from the children in the initial year of the study (ages 4;0 [years;months] to 5;11) compared clapping performance between CWS and CWNS. A second, multiyear analysis assessed clapping behavior across the ages 3;5–9;5 to examine any potential relationship between clapping performance and eventual persistence or recovery of stuttering. Results Preschool CWS were not different from CWNS on rates of clapping or variability in interclap interval. In addition, no relationship was found between bimanual motor timing performance and eventual persistence in or recovery from stuttering. The disparity between the present findings for preschoolers and those of Olander et al. (2010) most likely arises from the smaller sample size used in the earlier study. Conclusion From the current findings, on the basis of data from relatively large samples of stuttering and nonstuttering children tested over multiple years, we conclude that a bimanual motor timing deficit is not a core feature of early developmental stuttering. PMID:27391252

  20. Significant Returns in Engagement and Performance with a Free Teaching App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical research shows that teaching methods other than traditional lectures may result in better outcomes. However, lecture remains the dominant method in economics, likely due to high implementation costs of methods shown to be effective in the literature. In this article, the author shows significant benefits of using a teaching app for…

  1. Performance Feedback, Paraeducators, and Literacy Instruction for Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westover, Jennifer M.; Martin, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge…

  2. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children’s school performance

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children’s academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. Method State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005–12. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Results Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., mother’s educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. Conclusion While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much—but not all—of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  3. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  4. GC-MS metabolomic analysis reveals significant alterations in cerebellar metabolic physiology in a mouse model of adult onset hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis K; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I

    2011-02-04

    Although adult-onset hypothyroidism (AOH) has been connected to neural activity alterations, including movement, behavioral, and mental dysfunctions, the underlying changes in brain metabolic physiology have not been investigated in a systemic and systematic way. The current knowledge remains fragmented, referring to different experimental setups and recovered from various brain regions. In this study, we developed and applied a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics protocol to obtain a holistic view of the cerebellar metabolic physiology in a Balb/cJ mouse model of prolonged adult-onset hypothyroidism induced by a 64-day treatment with 1% potassium perchlorate in the drinking water of the animals. The high-throughput analysis enabled the correlation between multiple parallel-occurring metabolic phenomena; some have been previously related to AOH, while others implicated new pathways, designating new directions for further research. Specifically, an overall decline in the metabolic activity of the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid cerebellum was observed, characteristically manifested in energy metabolism, glutamate/glutamine metabolism, osmolytic/antioxidant capacity, and protein/lipid synthesis. These alterations provide strong evidence that the mammalian cerebellum is metabolically responsive to AOH. In light of the cerebellum core functions and its increasingly recognized role in neurocognition, these findings further support the known phenotypic manifestations of AOH into movement and cognitive dysfunctions.

  5. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  6. Host plant flowering increases both adult oviposition preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhudong; Scheirs, Jan; Heckel, David G

    2010-04-01

    Most adult Lepidoptera feed on nectar, whereas caterpillars consume mainly structural tissue such as leaves, stems, flowers, and/or fruits. This may result in behavioral trade-offs in which search time for high-quality oviposition sites suitable for larval food is restricted by adult foraging needs. Here we report on the preference for and performance on flowering and nonflowering host plants of the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa armigera to explore whether there are such behavioral trade-offs between moth and their caterpillars offpsring. We found that the adult moths have a strong oviposition preference for flowering tobacco and sunflower plants. Young caterpillars preferred to feed on the inflorescences. Adult-realized fecundity was almost 10 times higher when ovipositing on flowering plants. Weight at pupation, which is correlated with potential future fecundity of the caterpillars, was also higher when feeding on flowers. We found no evidence for a behavioral trade-off and conclude that a general preference for flowers by Helicoverpa armigera is highly beneficial from a nutritional perspective for both adults and larvae. The results suggest that the manipulation of flowering plants for the attraction of oviposition is relevant to pest control of this polyphagous species.

  7. The effect of arm action on the vertical jump performance in children and adult females.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.

  8. Effects of Gait Self-Efficacy and Lower-Extremity Physical Function on Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Diane K; Banducci, Sarah E; Daugherty, Ana M; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Porter, Gwenndolyn C; Burzynska, Agnieszka; Shen, Sa; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Despite evidence of self-efficacy and physical function's influences on functional limitations in older adults, few studies have examined relationships in the context of complex, real-world tasks. The present study tested the roles of self-efficacy and physical function in predicting older adults' street-crossing performance in single- and dual-task simulations. Methods. Lower-extremity physical function, gait self-efficacy, and street-crossing success ratio were assessed in 195 older adults (60-79 years old) at baseline of a randomized exercise trial. During the street-crossing task, participants walked on a self-propelled treadmill in a virtual reality environment. Participants crossed the street without distraction (single-task trials) and conversed on a cell phone (dual-task trials). Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized associations independent of demographic and clinical covariates. Results. Street-crossing performance was better on single-task trials when compared with dual-task trials. Direct effects of self-efficacy and physical function on success ratio were observed in dual-task trials only. The total effect of self-efficacy was significant in both conditions. The indirect path through physical function was evident in the dual-task condition only. Conclusion. Physical function can predict older adults' performance on high fidelity simulations of complex, real-world tasks. Perceptions of function (i.e., self-efficacy) may play an even greater role. The trial is registered with United States National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01472744; Fit & Active Seniors Trial).

  9. Effects of Gait Self-Efficacy and Lower-Extremity Physical Function on Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Banducci, Sarah E.; Daugherty, Ana M.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Porter, Gwenndolyn C.; Burzynska, Agnieszka; Shen, Sa; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Despite evidence of self-efficacy and physical function's influences on functional limitations in older adults, few studies have examined relationships in the context of complex, real-world tasks. The present study tested the roles of self-efficacy and physical function in predicting older adults' street-crossing performance in single- and dual-task simulations. Methods. Lower-extremity physical function, gait self-efficacy, and street-crossing success ratio were assessed in 195 older adults (60–79 years old) at baseline of a randomized exercise trial. During the street-crossing task, participants walked on a self-propelled treadmill in a virtual reality environment. Participants crossed the street without distraction (single-task trials) and conversed on a cell phone (dual-task trials). Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized associations independent of demographic and clinical covariates. Results. Street-crossing performance was better on single-task trials when compared with dual-task trials. Direct effects of self-efficacy and physical function on success ratio were observed in dual-task trials only. The total effect of self-efficacy was significant in both conditions. The indirect path through physical function was evident in the dual-task condition only. Conclusion. Physical function can predict older adults' performance on high fidelity simulations of complex, real-world tasks. Perceptions of function (i.e., self-efficacy) may play an even greater role. The trial is registered with United States National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01472744; Fit & Active Seniors Trial). PMID:28255557

  10. A unique form of light-load training improves steadiness and performance on some functional tasks in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Enoka, R M; Suzuki, S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning Movement Load (BML) training is a unique form of light-load training that comprises a lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle actions about multiple degrees of freedom. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of BML training at improving the performance of old adults on four functional tasks and to identify some of the neuromuscular adaptations that contributed to these gains. Healthy old adults (67.5 ± 5.23 years) were randomly assigned to either a BML training group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 7). The training group exercised with a 30% of the one repetition-maximum (1-RM) load and performed five to seven sets of 15 repetitions, three times per week for 8 weeks. BML training increased maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force significantly for the knee extensors (31.6%), but not the elbow flexors (9.8%), and improved the steadiness of isometric contractions (10%, 30%, and 65% MVC forces). Training-associated changes in times for ascending and descending stairs and one-legged balance, but not the chair rise, were predicted by changes in selected combinations of MVC force and steadiness. The attributes of BML training that enabled it to elicit functionally meaningful adaptations in the neuromuscular system of older adults should be explored with more mechanistic studies.

  11. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Rachel F.; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer’s disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. Methods 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Results Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. Discussion We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD. PMID:27832173

  12. Reference values of total serum IgE and their significance in the diagnosis of allergy in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Carosso, Aurelia; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Migliore, Enrica; Antò, Josep Maria; DeMarco, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Allergic sensitization mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the basis of allergic diseases, and elevated total IgE, in spite of some well-known limitations, is frequently included as a diagnostic criterion for allergic diseases. The reference value of total IgE (IgE-t) in the literature (1.5-144 kU/l) was established almost 2 decades ago. The aim of this study was to establish IgE-t reference values, establishing an updated cutoff value able to identify atopic subjects, defined as a positive CAP-radioallergosorbent test to at least one of a panel of common allergens, among young European adults. The study included 6,670 subjects from 10 Western European countries within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. IgE-t and specific IgE (IgE-s) were measured for the main inhalant allergens; IgE-s in class 0 for all allergens (66.2%) characterized non-atopy. The reference values were estimated by means of linear regression using a 50% random subsample of non-atopic subjects. Two non-atopic subsamples were examined so that one subsample could be used to establish reference IgE-t values, and these values were compared to those in the second non-atopic subsample to validate the findings. Sensitivity and specificity for atopy were assessed on the other 50% of non-atopic and on all atopic subjects. The 95th percentile of IgE-t reference values in non-smokers was 148 kU/l in women and 169 kU/l in men, while it was 194 and 220 kU/l in female and male smokers, respectively: serum IgE-t above the 95th percentile identifies <32% and above the 99th percentile <20% of atopic adults (low sensitivity), but a serum IgE-t below the 95th percentile identifies >90% and below the 99th percentile identifies >95% of non-atopic adults (good specificity). Due to the adequate specificity, IgE-t values exceeding the normal limits confirm a suspected atopic status; however, because of the low sensitivity, values below the cutoff seem not to exclude an atopic status

  13. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    PubMed

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P <0.02) and kidney transplants (night = 16.8% vs day = 6.4%, P <0.01), as well as higher overall mortality (P = 0.028) and morbidity (P <0.0001). There is little direct evidence in the literature demonstrating the effect of sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a

  14. Using ballistocardiography to measure cardiac performance: a brief review of its history and future significance.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Emelie; MacQuarrie, David; Neary, John Patrick

    2012-11-01

    Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a non-invasive technology that has been used to record ultra-low-frequency vibrations of the heart allowing for the measurement of cardiac cycle events including timing and amplitudes of contraction. Recent developments in BCG have made this technology simple to use, as well as time- and cost-efficient in comparison with other more complicated and invasive techniques used to evaluate cardiac performance. Recent technological advances are considerably greater since the advent of microprocessors and laptop computers. Along with the history of BCG, this paper reviews the present and future potential benefits of using BCG to measure cardiac cycle events and its application to clinical and applied research.

  15. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  16. The significance of orbital anatomy and periocular wrinkling when performing laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Pardo, L; Benedetto, A V; García-Solana, L; Torrens, J

    2000-03-01

    Knowledge of orbital anatomy and the interaction of muscle contractions, gravitational forces and photoagingis fundamental in understanding the limitations of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing when rejuvenating the skin of the periocular area. Laser resurfacing does not change the mimetic behavior of the facial muscles nor does it influence gravitational forces. When resurfacing periocular tissue, the creation of scleral show and ectropion are a potential consequence when there is an over zealous attempt at improving the sagging malar fat pad and eyelid laxity by performing an excess amount of laser passes at the lateral portion of the lower eyelid. This results in an inadvertent widening of the palpebral fissure due to the lateral pull of the Orbicularis oculi. Retrospectively, 85 patients were studied, who had undergone periorbital resurfacing with a CO2 laser using anew treatment approach. The Sharplan 40C CO2 Feather Touchlaser was programmed with a circular scanning pattern and used just for the shoulders of the wrinkles. A final laser pass was performed with the same program over the entire lower eyelid skin surface, excluding the outer lateral portion (e.g. a truncated triangle-like area),corresponding to the lateral canthus. Only a single laser pass was delivered to the lateral canthal triangle to avoid widening the lateral opening of the eyelid, which might lead to the potential complications of scleral show and ectropion. When the area of the crows' feet is to be treated, three passes on the skin of this entire lateral orbital surface are completed by moving laterally and upward toward the hairline. Patients examined on days 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, and one year after laser resurfacing showed good results. At two months after treatment, the clinical improvement was rated by the patient and physician as being "very good" in 81 of the 85 patients reviewed. These patients underwent laser resurfacing without complications. The proposed technique of

  17. Authoring experience: the significance and performance of storytelling in Socratic dialogue with rehabilitating cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect in philosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experience to illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participants is the traditional point of departure for the dialogical exchange. However, narrating is much more than a beginning point or the skeletal framework of events and it deserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impacts the conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article we show how the narrative aspect became a rich resource for the compassionate bond between participants and how their stories cultivated the abstract reflection in the group. In addition, the aim of the article is to reveal the different layers in the performance of storytelling, or of authoring experience. By picking, poking and dissecting an experience through a collaborative effort, most participants had their initial experience existentially refined and the chosen concept of which the experience served as an illustration transformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientation post cancer.

  18. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-01-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g−1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg−1 at 1 A g−1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors. PMID:26494197

  19. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-23

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g(-1) with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg(-1) at 1 A g(-1). The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  20. Collection and determination of nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Shehri, S; Henman, M; Charles, B G; Cowley, D; Shaw, P N; Liley, H; Tomarchio, A; Punyadeera, C; Duley, J A

    2013-07-15

    Saliva contains a number of biochemical components which may be useful for diagnosis/monitoring of metabolic disorders, and as markers of cancer or heart disease. Saliva collection is attractive as a non-invasive sampling method for infants and elderly patients. We present a method suitable for saliva collection from neonates. We have applied this technique for the determination of salivary nucleotide metabolites. Saliva was collected from 10 healthy neonates using washed cotton swabs, and directly from 10 adults. Two methods for saliva extraction from oral swabs were evaluated. The analytes were then separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limits of detection for 14 purine/pyrimidine metabolites were variable, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0μM. Recovery of hydrophobic purine/pyrimidine metabolites from cotton tips was consistently high using water/acetonitrile extraction (92.7-111%) compared with water extraction alone. The concentrations of these metabolites were significantly higher in neonatal saliva than in adults. Preliminary ranges for nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva are reported. Hypoxanthine and xanthine were grossly raised in neonates (49.3±25.4; 30.9±19.5μM respectively) compared to adults (4.3±3.3; 4.6±4.5μM); nucleosides were also markedly raised in neonates. This study focuses on three essential details: contamination of oral swabs during manufacturing and how to overcome this; weighing swabs to accurately measure small saliva volumes; and methods for extracting saliva metabolites of interest from cotton swabs. A method is described for determining nucleotide metabolites using HPLC with photodiode array or MS/MS. The advantages of utilising saliva are highlighted. Nucleotide metabolites were not simply in equilibrium with plasma, but may be actively secreted into saliva, and this process is more active in neonates than adults.

  1. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children. PMID:23762836

  2. Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term "bilateral deficit" (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20-30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61-3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults.

  3. Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61–3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults. PMID:25695770

  4. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  5. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  6. Association between educational status and dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.

  7. Clinical significance of high c-MYC and low MYCBP2 expression and their association with Ikaros dysfunction in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; Guo, Xing; Li, Jianyong; Hartman, Melanie; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua

    2015-12-08

    Increased expression of c-MYC is observed in both Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2) is a probable E3 ubiquitin ligase and its function in leukemia is unknown. IKZF1 deletion is associated with the development and poor outcome of ALL. Here, we observed significant high c-MYC expression and low MYCBP2 expression in adult ALL patients. Patients with high c-MYC expression and/or low MYCBP2 expression had higher WBC counts and a higher percentage of CD34+ or CD33+ cells, as well as splenomegaly, liver infiltration, higher BM blasts, and lower CR rate. Ikaros bound to the regulatory regions of c-MYC and MYCBP2, suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in ALL cells. Expression of c-MYC mRNA was significantly higher in patients with IKZF1 deletion; conversely MYCBP2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in those patients. A CK2 inhibitor, which acts as an Ikaros activator, also suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in an Ikaros (IKZF1) dependent manner in the ALL cells. In summary, our data indicated the correlation of high c-MYC expression, low MYCBP2 expression and high c-MYC plus low MYCBP2 expression with high-risk factors and proliferation markers in adult ALL patients. Our data also revealed an oncogenic role for an Ikaros/MYCBP2/c-MYC axis in adult ALL, providing a mechanism of target therapies that activate Ikaros in adult ALL.

  8. Frontal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentrations Are Associated With Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Edden, Richard A.E.; Puts, Nicolaas A.J.; Harris, Ashley D.; Chen, Huaihou; Garcia, Amanda M.; Seider, Talia R.; Lamb, Damon G.; Williamson, John B.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain’s principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging. We hypothesized that participants with higher GABA concentrations in the frontal cortex would exhibit superior cognitive function and that previously reported age-related decreases in cortical GABA concentrations continue into old age. METHODS We measured GABA concentrations in frontal and posterior midline cerebral regions using a Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) 1H-MRS approach in 94 older adults without history or clinical evidence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia (mean age, 73 years). We administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment to assess cognitive functioning. RESULTS Greater frontal GABA concentrations were associated with superior cognitive performance. This relation remained significant after controlling for age, years of education, and brain atrophy. GABA concentrations in both frontal and posterior regions decreased as a function of age. CONCLUSIONS These novel findings from a large, healthy, older population indicate that cognitive function is sensitive to cerebral GABA concentrations in the frontal cortex, and GABA concentration in frontal and posterior regions continue to decline in later age. These effects suggest that proton MRS may provide a clinically useful method for the assessment of normal and abnormal age-related cognitive changes and the associated physiological contributors. PMID:28217759

  9. Performance of Interleukin-27 as a Sepsis Diagnostic Biomarker in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hector R.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Kangelaris, Kirsten N.; Lahni, Patrick; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We recently identified interleukin-27 (IL-27) as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in children. Here we assess IL-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Methods IL-27 and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured from plasma samples in three groups: no sepsis (n = 78), pulmonary source of sepsis (n = 66), and non-pulmonary source of sepsis (n = 43). Receiver operating characteristic curves and classification and regression tree methodology were used to evaluate biomarker performance. Results IL-27 did not discriminate effectively between sepsis and sterile SIRS in unselected patients. The highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95% C.I. 0.60 – 0.80) for IL-27 in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. A decision tree incorporating IL-27, PCT, and age had an AUC of 0.79 (0.71 – 0.87) in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. Compared to children with sepsis, adults with sepsis express less IL-27. Conclusions IL-27 performed overall poorly in this cohort as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker. Combining IL-27, PCT, and age reasonably estimated the risk of sepsis in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. IL-27 may be a more reliable sepsis diagnostic biomarker in children than in adults. PMID:24848949

  10. Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Stephanie M.; Buckley, Timothy P.; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students’ non-optimal time of day – early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams. PMID:27895607

  11. The simulated gambling paradigm applied to young adults: an examination of university students' performance.

    PubMed

    Caroselli, Jerome Silvio; Hiscock, Merrill; Scheibel, Randall S; Ingram, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Simulated gambling tasks have become popular as sensitive tools for identifying individuals with real-time impairment in decision making. Various clinical samples, especially patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, perform poorly on these tasks. The patients typically persist in choosing risky (disadvantageous) card decks instead of switching to safer (advantageous) decks. In terms of Damasio's (1994) somatic marker hypothesis, the poor performance stems from defective integration of emotional and rational aspects of decision making. Less information is available about performance in healthy populations, particularly young adults. After administering a computerized gambling task to 141 university students, we found that individuals in this population also tend to prefer disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks. The results indicate that performance is governed primarily by the frequency of positive outcomes on a trial-by-trial basis rather than by the accumulation of winnings in the longer term. These findings are discussed in light of the cognitive literature pertaining to the simulated gambling paradigm.

  12. Changes in Cognitive Performance Are Associated with Changes in Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Hall, Martica H; Nebes, Robert D; Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sleep features associated with cognition in older adults and examined whether sleep changes following insomnia treatment were associated with cognitive improvements. Polysomnography and cognition (recall, working memory, and reasoning) were assessed before and after an insomnia intervention (Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia [BBTI] or information control [IC]) in 77 older adults with insomnia. Baseline wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO) was associated with recall. Greater NREM (nonrapid eye movement) delta power and lower NREM sigma power were associated with greater working memory and reasoning. The insomnia intervention did not improve performance. However, increased absolute delta power and decreased relative sigma power were associated with improved reasoning. Findings suggest that improvements in executive function may occur with changes in NREM architecture.

  13. Performance-Based Funding in Adult Education: Issues and Formula Design Options for Oregon. Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA), Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-220) requires states to document whether or not adult education service providers are improving the quality of their instructional services. To reward effective providers, a number of states have adopted performance-based funding (PBF)…

  14. Co-Constructional Task Analysis: Moving beyond Adult-Based Models to Assess Young Children's Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of young children's thinking competence in task performances has typically followed the novice-to-expert regimen involving models of strategies that adults use when engaged in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and decision-making. Socio-constructivists argue for a balanced pedagogical approach between the adult and child that…

  15. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  16. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  17. Community perceptions on the significant extension of life: an exploratory study among urban adults in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mair; Bartlett, Helen P; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D

    2009-02-01

    Some researchers in the field of ageing claim that significant extension of the human lifespan will be possible in the near future. While many of these researchers have assumed that the community will welcome this technology, there has been very little research on community attitudes to life extension. This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study of community attitudes to life extension across age groups and religious boundaries. There were 57 individual interviews, and 8 focus groups (totalling 72 focus group participants) conducted with community members in Brisbane, Australia. Community attitudes to life extension were more varied and complex than have been assumed by some biogerontologists and bioethicists. While some participants would welcome the opportunity to extend their lives others would not even entertain the possibility. This paper details these differences of opinion and reveals contrasting positions that reflect individualism or social concern among community members. The findings also highlight the relationship between Christianity, in particular belief in an afterlife, and attitudes to life extension technology. Overall, the study raises questions about the relationship between interest in life extension, the medicalisation of ageing and the increasing acceptability of enhancement technologies that need to be addressed in more representative samples of the community.

  18. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  19. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

    2009-11-15

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging.

  20. Effects of moderate zinc deficiency on cognitive performance in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Massaro, T F; Mohs, M; Fosmire, G

    1982-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to establish a dietary zinc level which approximates a moderate deficiency in the young adult rat and to determine if a concurrent zinc deficiency affects cognitive performance. Male rats were fed varying levels of zinc in diet throughout a 17-day period. The lowest dietary level that depressed serum and bone zinc without influencing food consumption or body weight gains was observed to be 5.8 microgram Zn/g diet. Young adult rats maintained on either a zinc adequate (24.4 microgram Zn/g) or low-zinc (5.3 microgram Zn/g) diet were tested in a modified Skinner Box involving tests of visual, auditory, association, and discrimination learning. No differences were observed in the visual discrimination performance of the zinc deficient animals when compared with control counterparts. Deficits in the ability to transfer a learned association between visual and auditory stimuli were observed, however, in the deficient group during the transfer test phase. The latter performed better during the final auditory discrimination task in transferring a learned food-relevant cue.

  1. Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

  2. The role of switching, inhibition and working memory in older adults' performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2009-05-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults.

  3. Effects of chronic dietary selenomethionine exposure on repeat swimming performance, aerobic metabolism and methionine catabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jith K; Wiseman, Steve; Giesy, John P; Janz, David M

    2013-04-15

    In a previous study we reported impaired swimming performance and greater stored energy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after chronic dietary exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet). The goal of the present study was to further investigate effects of chronic exposure to dietary SeMet on repeat swimming performance, oxygen consumption (MO2), metabolic capacities (standard metabolic rate [SMR], active metabolic rate [AMR], factorial aerobic scope [F-AS] and cost of transport [COT]) and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes in adult zebrafish. Fish were fed SeMet at measured concentrations of 1.3, 3.4, 9.8 or 27.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) for 90 d. At the end of the exposure period, fish from each treatment group were divided into three subgroups: (a) no swim, (b) swim, and (c) repeat swim. Fish from the no swim group were euthanized immediately at 90 d and whole body triglycerides, glycogen and lactate, and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes were determined. Individual fish from the swim group were placed in a swim tunnel respirometer and swimming performance was assessed by determining the critical swimming speed (U(crit)). After both Ucrit and MO2 analyses, fish were euthanized and whole body energy stores and lactate were determined. Similarly, individual fish from the repeat swim group were subjected to two U(crit) tests (U(crit-1) and U(crit-2)) performed with a 60 min recovery period between tests, followed by determination of energy stores and lactate. Impaired swim performance was observed in fish fed SeMet at concentrations greater than 3 μg Se/g in the diet. However, within each dietary Se treatment group, no significant differences between single and repeat U(crits) were observed. Oxygen consumption, SMR and COT were significantly greater, and F-AS was significantly lesser, in fish fed SeMet. Whole body triglycerides were proportional to the concentration of SeMet in the diet. While

  4. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  5. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference.

  6. Low and moderate doses of acute ethanol do not impair spatial cognition but facilitate accelerating rotarod performance in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Chin, Vivien S; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2012-03-14

    Adolescents and adult rodents have differing sensitivities to the acute effects of ethanol on a variety of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Often, these differences are revealed using high ethanol doses and consequently little is known about these age-related effects using lower ethanol doses. We sought to determine if low-dose ethanol produces differential effects on cognition and motor behavior in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (postnatal day PD 30-32) and adult (PD 70-72) male Sprague Dawley rats were trained on the standard version of the Morris Water Maze (MWM) for 5 days or received 5 training trials on an accelerating rotarod (ARR). Adolescents learned the location of the submerged platform in the MWM significantly slower than adults during training and, acute ethanol administration (0.5 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg, or 1.0 g/kg) 30 min before testing did not impair spatial memory in either age group. On the ARR test, adolescent rats spent significantly more time on the rotarod compared to adults and, alcohol exposure (1.0 g/kg) significantly increased ARR performance 30 min following administration. Our findings address the utility of investigating low and moderate doses of ethanol during different developmental stages in rats.

  7. Manipulation of glycemic response with isomaltulose in a milk-based drink does not affect cognitive performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dye, Louise; Gilsenan, Mary B; Quadt, Frits; Martens, Vanessa E G; Bot, Arjen; Lasikiewicz, Nicola; Camidge, Diana; Croden, Fiona; Lawton, Clare

    2010-04-01

    Previous research suggests that glucoregulation and nutrient interventions, which alter circulating glucose, impact cognitive function. To examine the effect of modulating glycemic response using isomaltulose on cognitive function 24 healthy male adult participants consumed energy and macronutrient-matched milk-based drinks containing 50 g isomaltulose, 50 g sucrose or a water control in a counterbalanced within-subject design. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously in 12 subjects and all provided 9 capillary measures on each test day. A 30-min cognitive test battery was administered before and twice (+35 and +115 min) after drink ingestion. Immediate, delayed, recognition, verbal and working memory, and psychomotor performance were assessed. Glycemic profiles induced by the drinks differed significantly during the first but not the second post-drink test battery. Neither administration of the sucrose nor isomaltulose drinks produced consistent effects on verbal or working memory, or psychomotor performance. This study used isomaltulose as an investigative tool to lower glycemic response. Importantly, it demonstrates a lack of effect of modulating glucose on cognitive performance based on reliable, continuously measured glycemia. It refutes the hypothesis that glycemia is associated with cognitive performance and questions the suggestion that isomaltulose has an effect on cognitive performance.

  8. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  9. Quality of life and auditory performance in adults with asymmetric hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vannson, Nicolas; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier; Marx, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between binaural hearing deficits and quality of life. The study included 49 adults with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL), and 11 adult normal-hearing listeners (NHL) served as controls. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) were assessed with the French Matrix Test. Quality of life was evaluated with the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) and the Glasgow Health Status Inventory. Speech recognition in noise was significantly poorer for AHL subjects [-0.12 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in dichotic (with speech presented to the poorer ear and noise to the better ear), -1.72 dB in diotic and -6.84 dB in reverse-dichotic conditions] compared to NHL (-4.98 dB in diotic and -9.58 dB in dichotic conditions). Scores for quality-of-life questionnaires were significantly below norms. Significant correlations were found between the SRT for the dichotic condition and the SSQ total score (r = -0.38, p = 0.01), and pure-tone average thresholds for both groups.

  10. Association of Vascular Health and Neurocognitive Performance in Overweight Adults with High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between vascular health, including flow-mediated dilation (FMD), intima medial thickness (IMT), and neurocognitive performance in a sample of 124 sedentary, middle-aged adults with high blood pressure (SBP 130–159 mmHg or DBP 85–99 mmHg) who were overweight or obese (body mass index 25.0 – 39.99 kgs/m2). Patients completed a neuropsychological test battery including measures of Executive Function and Psychomotor Speed, along with measures of IMT and FMD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between vascular measures and neurocognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and cerebrovascular risk factors. Higher levels of FMD predicted better Executive Function (b = 0.90, P = .045). Greater IMT tended to be associated with slower Psychomotor Speed (b = −0.82, P = .084), with the effect attenuated after controlling for FMD. Impaired FMD is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning among overweight adults with high blood pressure. PMID:21229433

  11. Self-Reported Sleep Quality Predicts Poor Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia R.; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sleep quality and cognitive performance in older adults, controlling for common medical comorbidities. Participants were community volunteers who, while not selected on the basis of their sleep, did report substantial variability in sleep quality. Good and poor sleepers differed on tests of working memory, attentional set shifting, and abstract problem solving but not on processing speed, inhibitory function, or episodic memory. Poor sleep was also associated with increased depressive symptomatology but only for functional symptoms (e.g., decreased concentration) and not for mood (e.g., sadness). The relationships between sleep quality and cognition were not explained by confound factors such as cerebrovascular disease, depression, or medication usage. Sleep problems may contribute to performance variability between elderly individuals but only in certain cognitive domains. PMID:19204069

  12. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  13. Associations between Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Test Performance among Older Adults from Six Middle Income Countries: Results from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Gildner, Theresa E.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in sleep architecture are common among older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends using population-based samples from non-Western societies. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to test several hypotheses related to sleep patterns and cognitive function. Methods: Data were drawn from the first wave of the World Health Organization's study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE), a longitudinal study using samples of older adults (≥ 50 years old) in 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Mexico). Self-report data provided information on sleep quality and sleep duration over the previous 2 nights, and 5 cognitive tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, and verbal fluency) were used to create a composite z-score of cognitive performance. Results: Individuals with intermediate sleep durations (> 6-9 h/night) exhibited significantly higher cognitive scores than individuals with short sleep (0-6 h/night; p < 0.001) or long sleep duration (> 9 h/night; p < 0.001). Self-reported sleep quality was positively correlated with cognitive z-score (p < 0.05). Significant sex differences were observed; men generally had higher sleep quality and cognitive scores, while women reported longer sleep durations. Discussion: This study documented positive correlations between cognitive scores and sleep quality, and between cognitive z-scores and intermediate sleep duration. These findings are clinically important given the growing rates of dementia and aging populations globally. Citation: Gildner TE, Liebert MA, Kowal P, Chatterji S, Snodgrass JJ. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive test performance among older adults from six middle income

  14. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  15. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y; Kann, Sarah J; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults' use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test - RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia.

  16. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  17. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  18. Performance of the DIDGET Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Children, Teens, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Larry C; Parkes, Joan L; Pardo, Scott; Schachner, Holly C; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane; Bailey, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the performance of the DIDGET® blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) in the hands of its intended users: children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. Methods Finger stick capillary blood samples were tested in duplicate by subjects (with parent/guardian assistance, if needed) and health care professionals using the DIDGET BGMS, and results were compared with those obtained using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer. Modified venous blood samples (i.e., glycolyzed or spiked with glucose) were used to analyze meter performance under extreme glucose concentrations. Accuracy was assessed using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines (i.e., 95% of meter results within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values). Results A total of 123 subjects aged 4 to 24 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The DIDGET meter achieved accuracy according to ISO 15197:2003 criteria: >97% of meter results were within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values. Regression analyses showed a high degree of correlation between meter and YSI results: coefficient of determination (R2) = 98.2% for all samples combined and 97.2% for capillary samples only. Clinical accuracy for combined samples was demonstrated by Parkes consensus error grid analyses; 100% of meter results were in zone A (98.5%) or zone B (1.5%). There was no difference in performance or accuracy across age subsets. Hematocrit values did not affect meter blood glucose results. Conclusion The DIDGET BGMS provided accurate test results across all age ranges in children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. PMID:22027310

  19. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  20. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  1. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  2. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  3. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  4. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  5. A Longitudinal Study in Adults with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for Individual Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Strube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective…

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Framework for Providing Patient- and Family-Centered Audiological Care for Older Adults and Their Significant Others.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families.

  7. The dimensions and role of commensality: A theoretical model drawn from the significance of communal eating among adults in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Giacoman, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    This article examines the significance of communal eating among adults from Santiago, Chile, by elaborating on a theoretical model for commensality that is based on empirical material. Based on this objective, 24 group interviews were conducted in Santiago with family members, coworkers, and friends who shared meals with one another. The results showed that the practice of commensality strengthens the cohesion among the members of a group, providing an interactive space in which communal belonging is symbolized and shared norms are respected. However, eating together also is assigned an ambiguous value: On the one hand, commensality is viewed as positive in enabling connections with others. On the other hand, participating in commensality can be viewed as negative, causing tensions depending on the characteristics of the commensal group and the context.

  8. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847

  9. Performance pay improves engagement, progress, and satisfaction in computer-based job skills training of low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training program for low-income, unemployed adults. Participants worked on typing and keypad programs for 7 months. Participants randomly assigned to Group A (n = 23) earned hourly and productivity pay on the typing program (productivity pay), but earned only equalized hourly pay on the keypad program (hourly pay). Group B (n = 19) participants had the opposite contingencies. Participants worked more on, advanced further on, and preferred their productivity pay program. These results show that monetary incentives can increase performance in a job-skills training program, and indicate that payment in adult education programs should be delivered contingent on performance in the training program instead of simply on attendance.

  10. Neurologic effects of solvents in older adults. (UW retired worker study). Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.E.

    1993-11-12

    The possibility that previous occupational exposure to solvents might be associated with clinically significant neurological dysfunction in older adults was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Subjects included 67 painters, 22 aerospace painters and fuel cell sealers, and a comparison group of 126 carpenters. All subjects had retired from regular employment at least 1 year prior to the study. As measured by semiquantitative exposure index, the cumulative histories of lifetime occupational solvent exposure were on the average comparable in the two exposed study groups, painters and aerospace workers. The carpenters differed from the other groups in solvent exposure by several orders of magnitude. The painters had a significantly higher history of consuming alcoholic beverages than did the other two study groups. The painters had a significantly higher score on the Beck Depression Inventory, a measure of current depressive symptoms. The painters reported significantly more general neurologic symptoms than did the other two groups. The aerospace workers showed much greater evidence of possible adverse effects from former solvent exposure on current neuropsychological function than did the painters when determined by reasoning and memory tests, memory visual motor speed and motor tests. No evidence of persistent effects on liver or renal excretory function was seen in solvent exposed subjects.

  11. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  12. Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure alters anxiety and passive avoidance test performance in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Maiko; Irie, Kaoru; Morohoshi, Kaori; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Masatoshi; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Imai, Hideki; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2009-10-01

    Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), one of the most widely used preservatives, exhibits estrogenic activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of maternal IBP treatment on the emotional behavior and learning performance in mature offspring. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with IBP via a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Consequently, the offspring were exposed to IBP during gestation through the placentae, and before weaning through the milk. Male and female offspring were tested for emotional behavior in an open field and in an elevated plus maze at five and six weeks old, respectively. IBP-exposed male (but not female) rats spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. At 11 weeks old, all females were gonadectomized and treated chronically with 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol by Silastic capsules; all males were kept intact. They were tested for learning performance in a passive avoidance test and a Morris water maze. IBP exposure impaired the performance of males in the passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that male rats are more affected by early exposure to IBP than female rats. IBP affects their adult behavior including anxiety and learning abilities.

  13. Unwanted sex among young adults in the US: The role of physical disability and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between unwanted sexual experiences and both physical disability and cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of young adults. We used data from 11,878 participants (ages 26–32) in Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regressions determined associations between physical disability and level of cognitive performance (using a modified Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and the odds of experiencing physically forced and non-physically coerced sex. Approximately 24% of females and 4% of males reported unwanted sexual experiences. Compared to respondents without disabilities, females with a physical disability had greater odds of experiencing forced sex (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.08), while males with a physical disability had greater odds of coerced sex (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.52). Compared to those with average cognitive performance scores, females with scores above 110 had slightly higher odds of coerced sex (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.03–1.41). Further research on pathways underlying these associations is needed to inform prevention efforts. PMID:21602209

  14. Assessing Articulatory Speed Performance as a Potential Factor of Slowed Speech in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Corder, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve our understanding about the underlying factors of aging-related speaking rate decline, the authors sought to determine if lip and jaw speeds are physiologically constrained in older adults. Method: Thirty-six female--10 young adults (ages 22-27 years), 9 middle-aged adults (ages 45-55 years), 10 young-old adults (65-74 years),…

  15. Academic Performance and the Practice of Self-Directed Learning: The Adult Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khiat, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The practice of self-directed learning is important to adult students as it allows them to learn effectively while juggling work, family and other commitments. This study set out to examine the self-directed learning characteristics present in the adult students' study process at the case university. The relationship between the adult students'…

  16. Territory of Guam Adult Education Programs. Performance Report. Fiscal Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Agency for Vocational and Adult Education.

    The 1992 activities in support of the goals described in the Guam State Plan for Adult Education focused on curriculum development and evaluation. Three major programs offered 48 daytime and 101 evening classes for students at 6 sites. The primary components of the adult education instructional programs were adult high school, General Educational…

  17. Correlation Between Caregiver Reports of Physical Function and Performance-based Measures in a Cohort of Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.

  18. Effect of Indoor Temperature on Physical Performance in Older Adults during Days with Normal Temperature and Heat Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Stotz, Anja; Beyer, Nina; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A.; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klenk, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed. Baseline assessment of gait speed was used to create two subgroups (lower versus higher gait speed) based on frailty criteria. The strongest effect of increasing temperature on habitual gait speed was observed in the subgroup of adults with higher gait speed (−0.087 m/s per increase of 10 °C; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.136; −0.038). The strongest effects on timed chair-rise and balance performance were observed in the subgroup of adults with lower gait speed (2.03 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: 0.79; 3.28) and −3.92 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: −7.31; −0.52), respectively). Comparing results of physical performance in absentia of a heat wave and during a heat wave, habitual gait speed was negatively affected by heat in the total group and subgroup of adults with higher gait speed, chair-rise performance was negatively affected in all groups and balance was not affected. The study provides arguments for exercise interventions in general for older adults, because a better physical fitness might alleviate impediments of physical capacity and might provide resources for adequate adaptation in older adults during heat stress. PMID:28216585

  19. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Cognition and dual-task performance in older adults with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Andrade, Larissa Pires; Beinotti, Fernanda; Borges, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with neurodegenerative diseases usually experience significant functional deficits. Older adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may suffer from both motor and cognitive impairments, making them especially vulnerable to poor dual-task performance. Objective To analyze the dual-task cost of walking in subjects with PD and AD exposed to motor and cognitive distracters. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 126 older adults comprising three groups: PD (n=43), AD (n=38), and control (n=45). The subjects were evaluated using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test administered with motor and cognitive distracters. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cognition as a covariant factor was used to test the possible main effects of dual-task on motion. A 5% threshold for significance was set, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The partial eta square (n2p) analysis was included to estimate the magnitude of effect. Results Examining the effects for dual-task, ANOVA revealed the main effect for group×task interactions (F=13.09; P=0.001; n2p =0.178), for task (F=8.186; P=0.001; n2p =0.063) but not for group (F=2.954; P=0.056; n2p =0.047). Cognition applied as a covariant factor indicated interference on dual-tasks (F=30.43; P=0.001; n2p =0.201). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that dual-task interference is a particularly noticeable problem in PD and AD, affecting subjects’ ability to appropriately adapt to environmental challenges. PMID:25092996

  1. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  2. Performance of several simple, noninvasive models for assessing significant liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianghua; Xu, Cheng; He, Dengming; Li, Maoshi; Zhang, Huiyan; Wu, Quanxin; Xiang, Dedong; Wang, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the performance of several simple, noninvasive models comprising various serum markers in diagnosing significant liver fibrosis in the same sample of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with the same judgment standard. Methods A total of 308 patients with CHB who had undergone liver biopsy, laboratory tests, and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) at the Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, China between March 2010 and April 2014 were retrospectively studied. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under ROC curves (AUROCs) were used to analyze the results of the models, which incorporated age-platelet (PLT) index (API model), aspartate transaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR model), AST to PLT ratio index (APRI model), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) to PLT ratio index (GPRI model), GGT-PLT-albumin index (S index model), age-AST-PLT-ALT index (FIB-4 model), and age-AST-PLT-ALT-international normalized ratio index (Fibro-Q model). Results The AUROCs of the S index, GPRI, FIB-4, APRI, API, Fibro-Q, AAR, and LSM for predicting significant liver fibrosis were 0.726 (P < 0.001), 0.726 (P < 0.001), 0.621 (P = 0.001), 0.619 (P = 0.001), 0.580 (P = 0.033), 0.569 (P = 0.066), 0.495 (P = 0.886), and 0.757 (P < 0.001), respectively. The S index and GPRI had the highest correlation with histopathological scores (r = 0.373, P < 0.001; r = 0.372, P < 0.001, respectively) and LSM values (r = 0.516, P < 0.001; r = 0.513, P < 0.001, respectively). When LSM was combined with S index and GPRI, the AUROCs were 0.753 (P < 0.001) and 0.746 (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion S index and GPRI had the best diagnostic performance for significant liver fibrosis and were robust predictors of significant liver fibrosis in patients with CHB for whom transient elastography was unavailable. PMID:26088852

  3. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  4. The effect of adding core stability training to a standard balance exercise program on sit to stand performance in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Cathy; Lanovaz, Joel; Oates, Alison; Craven, Bruce; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sit to stand (STS) performance between older adults in a nine-week training program focusing on core stability exercises to enhance balance and postural control (EB) versus standard balance (SB) exercises. Repetitions in 30 s (STSreps) and kinematic performance (vertical and horizontal momentum, and margin of stability) were measured pre and postintervention in 23 older adults with at least one fall risk factor. Although both groups combined improved STSreps (P = .001) and vertical momentum (.008), a significant between-group difference was observed for completers only (MANCOVA of posttest group differences, with pretest scores as covariates; P = .04). EB demonstrated a greater but nonsignificant improvement in vertical momentum (P = .095). In conclusion, core stability training added to SB did not result in STS reps improvement. Compliance may modify these results and future larger sample studies should evaluate the impact of core stability training on STS biomechanics.

  5. Acquisition Performance by Mentally Retarded Children and Young Adults on Complex Benchwork Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kevin P.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the capacity of younger handicapped children to learn a benchwork assembly, 18 children (mean age 12.7) were taught a complex worksample, and various acquisition measures were compared with the performance of 60 older subjects on the same task. Only one significant difference was found between all measures of acquisition. (Author/CL)

  6. Effects of underwater treadmill training on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Sandra L.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the effects of underwater treadmill training (UTT) on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Design Pre-test and post-test design. Setting Exercise physiology laboratory. Participants Adult volunteers with iSCI (n = 11). Intervention Participants completed 8 weeks (3 × /week) of UTT. Each training session consisted of three walks performed at a personalized speed, with adequate rest between walks. Body weight support remained constant for each participant and ranged from 29 to 47% of land body weight. Increases in walking speed and duration were staggered and imposed in a gradual and systematic fashion. Outcome measures Lower-extremity strength (LS), balance (BL), preferred and rapid walking speeds (PWS and RWS), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and daily step activity (DSA). Results Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in LS (13.1 ± 3.1 to 20.6 ± 5.1 N·kg−1), BL (23 ± 11 to 32 ± 13), PWS (0.41 ± 0.27 to 0.55 ± 0.28 m·s−1), RWS (0.44 ± 0.31 to 0.71 ± 0.40 m·s−1), 6MWD (97 ± 80 to 177 ± 122 m), and DSA (593 ± 782 to 1310 ± 1258 steps) following UTT. Conclusion Physical function and walking ability were improved in adults with iSCI following a structured program of UTT featuring individualized levels of body weight support and carefully staged increases in speed and duration. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential of UTT in persons with physical disabilities and diseases that would benefit from weight-supported exercise. PMID:24969269

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins affect lifespan and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Yan; Wan, Pin-Jun; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Being delivered as sprays or expressed in plant, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline proteins (Cry toxins) display insecticidal activities against numerous Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran larvae. Comparative study of toxicities of Bt Cry toxins between larvae and adults may afford important new insights into the interactions of the toxins with receptor proteins in host insect, and represent intriguing targets for the control of insect pests. However, the effectiveness of Bt Cry toxins in insect adults has paid less attention. In the present article, the effectiveness of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca on lifespans and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) adults were evaluated by in vivo experiments. Considering transgenic plants express modified, truncated versions of cry genes yielding active toxin fragment, we used activated Bt toxins at the concentration of 500, 100, and 20 microg/ml in a 10% sucrose aquous solution. At the highest concentration, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca shortened 48.1 and 48.9% of H. armigera female lifespan, and 43.5 and 38.5% of S. exigua female lifespan, and they reduced 37.8 and 40.3%, and 50.5 and 47.4% of H. armigera and S. exigua male lifespans respectively. Bt toxins negatively affected copulation. Exposure to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca greatly reduced 50.0 and 46.8%, and 58.7 and 57.3% spermatophore acceptance by H. armigera and S. exigua females, respectively. Similarly, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca exposure decreased 40.0 and 50.3%, and 61.3 and 60.0% of spermatophore transfer by H. armigera and S. exigua males, respectively. Moreover, exposure females rather than males to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca significantly dropped 57.5 and 57.5% of the number of eggs laid by H. armigera, and 35.4 and 45.8% of the number of egg masses deposited by S. exigua. In contrast, both Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca did not negatively influence the egg hatchability. At the middle and the lowest concentrations, however

  8. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  9. Dynamic expression of the polysialyltransferase in adult rat hippocampus performing an olfactory associative task.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Christine; Migliorati, Martine; Gilbert, Valérie; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Chaillan, Franck A; Truchet, Bruno; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Roman, François S

    2014-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is associated with polysialic acid (PSA), and its function is highly dependent on the extent of polysialylation through the activity of two polysialyltransferases, sialyltransferase-X (STX) and polysialyltransferase (PST). PSA-NCAM plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The involvement of STX and PST during mnesic processes was assessed in the adult rat hippocampus. We investigated whether different levels in learning and memory using an olfactory associative task influenced STX and PST gene expression in the hippocampus using semiquantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, NCAM polysialylation and cell proliferation were quantified in the dentate gyrus of a "Learning and Memory" group using immunohistochemistry. We found that only the expression level of PST mRNA increased with learning performance and returned to an initial level when learned associations were consolidated in long-term memory, while STX mRNA levels remained unchanged. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increase in PSA on NCAM but not by cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Our results suggest a different involvement for STX and PST in neural plasticity: while STX is probably involved in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, PST could play a key role in synaptic plasticity of mature neural networks. The expression of the STX and PST genes could, therefore, be useful markers of neurobiological plasticity in the brain, allowing to follow chronological events in limbic and cortical structures related first to learning and memory processes (for PST) and, second, to adult neurogenesis processes (for STX).

  10. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  11. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  12. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  13. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference = 1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT

  14. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xianghao

    2016-01-28

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3} and 10 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3}, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  15. Influence of Omega-3 (N3) Index on Performance and Wellbeing in Young Adults after Heavy Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, Peter; Capodice, Jillian; Hebert, Kathleen; Swenson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the associations between the tissue levels of omega-3 (N3), also known as the Omega-3 Index (N3 Index), on various clinical and quality of life outcomes in healthy young adults after heavy eccentric exercise.. To ensure an adequate number of participants with an elevated N3 index would be available for comparison to those with a lower N3 Index, a subgroup of the study participants received N3 dietary supplementation (2.7 g·d-1) for 30 days prior to the performance of the heavy eccentric exercise. The remaining participants received a placebo supplement for the same 30-day period. After 30 days of supplementation, participants performed an eccentric exercise routine and were then measured at baseline (time 0), 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96 hours respectively on the following outcomes; C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase. Blood lactate levels were analyzed immediately after the exercise. Functional measurements of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), extension and torque were also analyzed. Quality of life (QOL) was measured by the quantitative questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). Safety monitoring and analysis of adverse events was continuous throughout the study. Differences as demonstrated by a reduction in pain following eccentric exercise was experienced at both 72 and 96 hour time points in subjects with a higher N3 Index however there were no differences in extension or strength between the two groups. There was a significant difference in blood lactate levels (p = 0.0309) and improved emotional stability, reflected by the POMS questionnaire, in subjects with a higher N3 Index level. There was a statistically significant difference in CRP levels in subjects with a higher N3 Index level at 24 hours and a trend toward significance over 96 hours. There were no significant differences in creatine kinase levels and no reported adverse events. Subjects with a higher Omega-3 (N3) Index

  16. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

  17. Performance of a New Rapid Immunoassay Test Kit for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Significant Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Marsha E.; DiNello, Robert K.; Geisberg, Mark; Abbott, April; Roberts, Pacita L.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in clinical practice and most commonly caused by Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative uropathogens. We tested RapidBac, a rapid immunoassay for bacteriuria developed by Silver Lake Research Corporation (SLRC), compared with standard bacterial culture using 966 clean-catch urine specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory in an urban academic medical center. RapidBac was performed in accordance with instructions, providing a positive or negative result in 20 min. RapidBac identified as positive 245/285 (sensitivity 86%) samples with significant bacteriuria, defined as the presence of a Gram-negative uropathogen or Staphylococcus saprophyticus at ≥103 CFU/ml. The sensitivities for Gram-negative bacteriuria at ≥104 CFU/ml and ≥105 CFU/ml were 96% and 99%, respectively. The specificity of the test, detecting the absence of significant bacteriuria, was 94%. The sensitivity and specificity of RapidBac were similar on samples from inpatient and outpatient settings, from male and female patients, and across age groups from 18 to 89 years old, although specificity was higher in men (100%) compared with that in women (92%). The RapidBac test for bacteriuria may be effective as an aid in the point-of-care diagnosis of UTIs especially in emergency and primary care settings. PMID:26063858

  18. Accuracy of Subcutaneous Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Critically Ill Adults: Improved Sensor Performance with Enhanced Calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W.; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L.; Burnstein, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle® Navigator® (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. Subjects and Methods: In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m2; mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6–19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1–6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. Results: In total, 1,060 CGM–ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122–213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Conclusions: Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non–critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements. PMID:24180327

  19. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  20. The clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of MN1 gene and MN1-associated microRNA expression in adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lili; Li, Man; Liu, Yan; Cen, Jiangnong; Chen, Zixing; Zhen, Xiao; Xie, Xiaobao; Cao, Xiangshan; Gu, Weiying

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of the meningioma 1 (MN1) gene and MN1-associated microRNA expression in Chinese adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The expression level of MN1, microRNA-20 (miR-20a), and microRNA-181b (miR-181b) in bone marrow mononuclear cells was measured in 158 newly diagnosed AML patients and 20 cases of normal healthy donors by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. All AML patients significantly overexpressed MN1 at the level of 0.01983 (P < 0.001) compared with normal controls. High MN1 expression was associated with spleen involvement (P = 0.037), NPM1 wild type (P = 0.001), lower miR-20a expression levels (P = 0.015), and higher miR-181b expression levels (P = 0.035). MiR-20a (P = 0.029) and miR-181b (P = 0.017) overexpressed in the bone marrow cells of patients with certain subtypes of AML compared with healthy donors. High MN1 expressers had lower complete remission (CR) rates and shorter overall survival (OS) within the Southwest Oncology Group classification. In multivariable models, high MN1 expression was associated with worse CR rates (P = 0.01), relapse-free survival (RFS; P = 0.02), and OS (P = 0.02); high miR-20a expression was associated with higher CR rates (P = 0.008) and longer OS (P = 0.04), whereas high miR-181b expression was associated with lower CR rates (P = 0.03), and shorter RFS (P = 0.045) and OS (P = 0.017). High MN1 expression confers worse prognosis in Chinese adult patients with de novo AML. MN1 gene and MN1-associated microRNAs provide clinical prognosis of AML patients and may refine their molecular risk classification.

  1. Prognostic Significance of the European LeukemiaNet Standardized System for Reporting Cytogenetic and Molecular Alterations in Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Marcucci, Guido; Nicolet, Deedra; Maharry, Kati S.; Becker, Heiko; Whitman, Susan P.; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Schwind, Sebastian; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Pettenati, Mark J.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Baer, Maria R.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Moore, Joseph O.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic significance of the international European LeukemiaNet (ELN) guidelines for reporting genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods We analyzed 1,550 adults with primary AML, treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B first-line trials, who had pretreatment cytogenetics and, for cytogenetically normal patients, mutational status of NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3 available. We compared complete remission (CR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) among patients classified into the four ELN genetic groups (favorable, intermediate-I, intermediate-II, adverse) separately for 818 younger (age < 60 years) and 732 older (age ≥ 60 years) patients. Results The percentages of younger versus older patients in the favorable (41% v 20%; P < .001), intermediate-II (19% v 30%; P < .001), and adverse (22% v 31%; P < .001) genetic groups differed. The favorable group had the best and the adverse group the worst CR rates, DFS, and OS in both age groups. Both intermediate groups had significantly worse outcomes than the favorable but better than the adverse group. Intermediate-I and intermediate-II groups in older patients had similar outcomes, whereas the intermediate-II group in younger patients had better OS but not better CR rates or DFS than the intermediate-I group. The prognostic significance of ELN classification was confirmed by multivariable analyses. For each ELN group, older patients had worse outcomes than younger patients. Conclusion The ELN classification clearly separates the genetic groups by outcome, supporting its use for risk stratification in clinical trials. Because they have different proportions of genetic alterations and outcomes, younger and older patients should be reported separately when using the ELN classification. PMID:22987078

  2. Trade-offs of host use between generalist and specialist Helicoverpa sibling species: adult oviposition and larval performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhudong; Scheirs, Jan; Heckel, David G

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to the question of the relative importance of female behaviour versus larval feeding capacities in determining the host range of herbivorous insects. Host-use trade-offs displayed by generalist and specialist sister species of the genus Helicoverpa were evaluated to examine the relationship between maternal choice and offspring performance. The prediction of optimal oviposition theory, that females will choose to lay eggs on plants on which their offspring perform best as larvae, was tested by measuring oviposition preference and larval performance of Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta on tobacco, sunflower, and hot pepper. These two measures were more highly correlated in the specialist H. assulta. Both species exhibited the same oviposition preference ranking: tobacco > sunflower > hot pepper. H. armigera larvae preferred sunflower, followed by tobacco and hot pepper; while H. assulta larvae preferred tobacco to sunflower and hot pepper, consistent with their mothers' oviposition preference. Duration of the total period from egg to adult emergence for each species was significantly shorter on the host plant preferred by the larvae. H. assulta had shorter larval duration and higher relative growth rate than H. armigera on tobacco and hot pepper, and vice versa for sunflower, indicating species differences in host utilization. Thus, while only the specialist H. assulta displayed the predicted optimal oviposition pattern, females of both species show the least preference for the plant on which their offspring perform worst. Selection for optimal oviposition may be stronger on the specialist, which has fewer choices and lower lifetime fecundity than the generalist.

  3. Expert-novice differences in performance skills and problem representations of youth and adults during tennis competition.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S L

    1999-09-01

    Expert and novice tennis players selected from three different age groups (i.e., 10-11 years, 12-13 years, and collegiate adults) were examined for differences in performance skills (i.e., behavioral analyses of video recordings) and problem representations (i.e., verbal report analyses of tape recordings) during matched competition. Factorial analyses of variance on behavioral measures indicated that experts' performances exhibited higher levels of decision and execution than novices, regardless of age. Kruskal-Wallis tests on verbal report measures indicated that experts generated more total, varied, and sophisticated condition and action concepts than novices. Within experts, adults accessed more sophisticated problem representations than youth. Both current event and action plan profiles guided and mediated adult experts' response selections and executions, respectively. Youth experts primarily used action plan profiles to guide their response selections. Novices, regardless of age, accessed weak problem representations.

  4. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures.

  5. HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

    2013-09-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.

  6. The promise and performance of HMOs in improving outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E H

    1996-10-01

    In summary, the promise of HMOs in caring for older adults far exceeds their performance to date. Until recently they had neither the motivation nor the knowledge to revamp their delivery systems to better needs of older, chronically ill patients. Market pressures and skyrocketing costs have provided the motivation. Physicians and researchers trained in epidemiology and health services research from programs such as that at UCLA are providing the knowledge. Based on the literature and experience described above, HMOs with the characteristics supportive of population-based care can put into place an approach to geriatric care likely to improve outcomes if they heed their patients and professionals rather than their accountants. These organizations will give highest priority to preserving function and will be guided by explicit clinical guidelines. Care will be rendered by organized primary care teams supported by systematic self-management approaches, standardized interventions for key risk factors, clinically useful computer systems, and available geriatric expertise. It will require a small revolution as old approaches, roles, and relationships will not go quietly. We are in the early phases of this revolution, and it's not too late to join us on the barricades.

  7. Effects of high-speed power training on muscle performance and braking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Stephen P; Gibson, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT) improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs) were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n = 25; 3 sets of 12-14 repetitions), slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n = 25; 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions), or control (CON: n = 22; stretching) 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40-90% 1RM; P < 0.05) and improved braking speed (P < 0.05). Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P < 0.05). Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST.

  8. Upper lifting performance of healthy young adults in functional capacity evaluations: a comparison of two protocols.

    PubMed

    IJmker, S; Gerrits, E H; Reneman, M F

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the concurrent validity of test results of upper lifting tasks of the Ergo-Kit FCE and the Isernhagen Work Systems (IWS) FCE. Seventy-one healthy young adults performed 5 upper lifting tests with at least 5 min of rest in between. The lifting tests included 3 standard protocols and 2 modified protocols. Three criteria for concurrent validity were established: 1) Pearson correlation higher than .75, 2) nonsignificant two-tailed t test, and 3) mean difference smaller than 5 kg. The results showed that none of the criteria were met for the standard protocols. For the modified protocols criteria 2 and 3 were not met. Individual differences larger than 10 kg were found for both standard and modified protocols. It was concluded that the standard protocols for upper lifting tasks of the Ergo-Kit FCE and the IWS FCE do not meet the criteria for concurrent validity and can, therefore, not be used interchangeably.

  9. Physical Demand Profiles of Hatha Yoga Postures Performed by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salem, George J.; Yu, Sean S.-Y.; Samarawickrame, Sachithra; Azen, Stanley P.; Greendale, Gail A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical demands placed upon the musculoskeletal system by individual postures may allow experienced instructors and therapists to develop safe and effective yoga programs which reduce undesirable side effects. Thus, we used biomechanical methods to quantify the lower extremity joint angles, joint moments of force, and muscle activities of 21 Hatha yoga postures, commonly used in senior yoga programs. Twenty older adults, 70.7 years ± 3.8 years, participated in a 32-wk yoga class (2 d/wk) where they learned introductory and intermediate postures (asanas). They then performed the asanas in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data was collected over three seconds while the participants held the poses statically. Profiles illustrating the postures and including the biomechanical data were then generated for each asana. Our findings demonstrated that Hatha yoga postures engendered a range of appreciable joint angles, JMOFs, and muscle activities about the ankle, knee, and hip, and that demands associated with some postures and posture modifications were not always intuitive. They also demonstrated that all of the postures elicited appreciable rectus abdominis activity, which was up to 70% of that induced during walking. PMID:24282431

  10. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  11. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.

  12. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  13. Smoking is associated with lower performance in WAIS-R Block Design scores in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Katiane L S; Bau, Claiton H D; Grevet, Eugenio H; Sousa, Nyvia O; Garcia, Christiane R; Victor, Marcelo M; Fischer, Aline G; Salgado, Carlos A I; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

    2008-04-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predisposed to smoking, but the neuropsychological correlates of this association have not been elucidated so far. The present study evaluates possible associations between cognitive performance and smoking and other comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) patients were evaluated in the adult ADHD outpatient clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV criteria and interviews were performed with the Portuguese version of K-SADS-E for ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder. Axis I psychiatric comorbidities were evaluated with the SCID-IV and the cognitive performance with the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The evaluation of the influence of the WAIS-R scores on each dependent variable was performed with logistic regression analyses. Lower scores in the Block Design subtest of WAIS-R were associated with smoking and the presence of anxiety disorder. These results suggest that a subgroup of ADHD patients with lower Block Design subtest scores may be at increased risk of smoking as a cognitive enhancement. Our findings also confirmed the previously suggested association between anxiety and lower Block Design scores.

  14. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  15. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  16. The Influence of Reading and Writing Habits Associated with Education on the Neuropsychological Performance of Brazilian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…

  17. No Evidence for Improved Associative Memory Performance Following Process-Based Associative Memory Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, Martin; Eschen, Anne; Lövdén, Martin; Martin, Mike; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Studies attempting to improve episodic memory performance with strategy instructions and training have had limited success in older adults: their training gains are limited in comparison to those of younger adults and do not generalize to untrained tasks and contexts. This limited success has been partly attributed to age-related impairments in associative binding of information into coherent episodes. We therefore investigated potential training and transfer effects of process-based associative memory training (i.e., repeated practice). Thirty-nine older adults (Mage = 68.8) underwent 6 weeks of either adaptive associative memory training or item recognition training. Both groups improved performance in item memory, spatial memory (object-context binding) and reasoning. A disproportionate effect of associative memory training was only observed for item memory, whereas no training-related performance changes were observed for associative memory. Self-reported strategies showed no signs of spontaneous development of memory-enhancing associative memory strategies. Hence, the results do not support the hypothesis that process-based associative memory training leads to higher associative memory performance in older adults. PMID:28119597

  18. The Effects of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction on Reading Performance of Adult ESL Learners with Limited English and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…

  19. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  20. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  1. Evaluating Websites for Older Adults: Adherence to "Senior-Friendly" Guidelines and End-User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, T. A.; Chaparro, B. S.; Halcomb, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Older adults in the US are the fastest-growing demographic, and also the largest-growing group of internet users. The aim of this research was to evaluate websites designed for older adults in terms of (1) how well they adhere to "senior-friendly" guidelines and (2) overall ease of use and satisfaction. In Experiment I, 40 websites…

  2. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  3. Teaching Writing to Adults: Strategies and Concepts for Improving Learner Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert F.

    Theoretical and practical guidance is provided to anyone involved in teaching, curriculum development, or program planning for writing instruction for adult students. A broad range of situations in which adults learn to write are explored. Three parts include 13 chapters on the following topics: (1) understanding the distinctiveness of adult…

  4. Route Learning and Shortcut Performance in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Study with Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K.; Sockeel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A [double big arrow] B and A [double big arrow] C) until they reached a…

  5. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  6. Longitudinal alterations to brain function, structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults: A fMRI-DTI study.

    PubMed

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A; Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T

    2015-05-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that older adults tend to have different frontal cortex activation patterns, poorer brain structure, and lower task performance than younger adults. However, relationships between longitudinal changes in brain function, brain structure, and cognitive performance in older adults are less well understood. Here we present the results of a longitudinal, combined fMRI-DTI study in cognitive normal (CN) older adults. A two time-point study was conducted in which participants completed a task switching paradigm while fMRI data was collected and underwent the identical scanning protocol an average of 3.3 years later (SD=2 months). We observed longitudinal fMRI activation increases in bilateral regions of lateral frontal cortex at time point 2. These fMRI activation increases were associated with longitudinal declines in WM microstructure in a portion of the corpus callosum connecting the increasingly recruited frontal regions. In addition, the fMRI activation increase in the left VLPFC was associated with longitudinal increases in response latencies. Taken together, our results suggest that local frontal activation increases in CN older adults may in part reflect a response to reduced inter-hemispheric signaling mechanisms.

  7. Longitudinal Alterations to Brain Function, Structure, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: a fMRI-DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Hakun, Jonathan G.; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that older adults tend to have different frontal cortex activation patterns, poorer brain structure, and lower task performance than younger adults. However, relationships between longitudinal changes in brain function, brain structure, and cognitive performance in older adults are less well understood. Here we present the results of a longitudinal, combined fMRI-DTI study in cognitive normal (CN) older adults. A two time-point study was conducted in which participants completed a task switching paradigm while fMRI data was collected and underwent the identical scanning protocol an average of 3.3 years later (SD = 2 months). We observed longitudinal fMRI activation increases in bilateral regions of lateral frontal cortex at time point 2. These fMRI activation increases were associated with longitudinal declines in WM microstructure in a portion of the corpus callosum connecting the increasingly recruited frontal regions. In addition, the fMRI activation increase in the left VLPFC was associated with longitudinal increases in response latencies. Taken together, our results suggest that local frontal activation increases in CN older adults may in part reflect a response to reduced inter-hemispheric signaling mechanisms. PMID:25862416

  8. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.

  9. Number comparison and number ordering as predictors of arithmetic performance in adults: Exploring the link between the two skills, and investigating the question of domain-specificity.

    PubMed

    Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Mahony, Eileen; McCormack, Teresa

    2016-11-08

    Recent evidence has highlighted the important role that number-ordering skills play in arithmetic abilities, both in children and adults. In the current study, we demonstrated that number comparison and ordering skills were both significantly related to arithmetic performance in adults, and the effect size was greater in the case of ordering skills. Additionally, we found that the effect of number comparison skills on arithmetic performance was mediated by number-ordering skills. Moreover, performance on comparison and ordering tasks involving the months of the year was also strongly correlated with arithmetic skills, and participants displayed similar (canonical or reverse) distance effects on the comparison and ordering tasks involving months as when the tasks included numbers. This suggests that the processes responsible for the link between comparison and ordering skills and arithmetic performance are not specific to the domain of numbers. Finally, a factor analysis indicated that performance on comparison and ordering tasks loaded on a factor that included performance on a number line task and self-reported spatial thinking styles. These results substantially extend previous research on the role of order processing abilities in mental arithmetic.

  10. Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M; Diviak, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n = 65) and nonusing controls (NU, n = 65) on several laboratory measures of impulsive behavior, as well as on a measure of episodic memory commonly impacted by cannabis use. The CU group performed more poorly than the NU group on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Immediate Recall and Delayed Recall. No significant differences were observed on the measures of impulsive behavior (i.e., Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Go-Stop Task; Monetary Choice Questionnaire; Balloon Analogue Risk Task). We examined relationships between neurocognitive performance and symptoms of cannabis use disorder symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV CUD) among the CU group, which revealed that poorer IGT performance was associated with more symptoms of DSM-IV CUD. Our results show poorer memory performance among young adult cannabis users than among healthy controls, but no differences on measures of impulsive behavior. However, performance on a specific type of impulsive behavior (i.e., poorer decision making) was associated with more cannabis use disorder symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that decision-making deficits may be more strongly associated with problems experienced from cannabis use, rather than solely being a consequence of cannabis use, per se.

  11. Escitalopram reduces attentional performance in anxious older adults with high-expression genetic variants at serotonin 2A and 1B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Doré, Peter M.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults are among the most vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of psychotropic medications and, therefore, the personalization of psychotropic treatment based on adverse drug reactions in this demographic is of great importance. We examined changes on neuropsychological tests of attention attributable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in anxious older adults. We also examined whether variation in serotonin receptor genes was associated with reduced attentional performance with SSRIs. We examined change from pre- to post-treatment in two attention measures – digit span and coding – in 133 adults aged ≥60 yr with generalized anxiety disorder in a 12-wk trial of escitalopram vs. placebo. We also examined attentional change in relation to genetic variability in four central serotonin receptors: the serotonin transporter and serotonin 1A, 2A and 1B receptors. Digit span scores were significantly lowered in patients receiving escitalopram relative to placebo, indicating reduced attentional performance attributable to the SSRI. Individuals with high-transcription variants in the receptors 5-HTR2A rs6311 and 5-HTR1B rs11568817 had greater reductions in attention with SSRI treatment compared to placebo. We conclude that SSRIs reduce attention in older adults, particularly in those with high-expression genetic variants at the serotonin 2A and 1B receptors. Analysing neuropsychological changes with SSRIs in relation to genetic variation in the serotonin system may be a useful strategy for detecting subgroups of older adults who are more susceptible to side-effects of SSRIs. These results, if confirmed, could lead to the personalization of SSRI use to reduce adverse neurocognitive effects. PMID:22717018

  12. Escitalopram reduces attentional performance in anxious older adults with high-expression genetic variants at serotonin 2A and 1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Lenze, Eric J; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Doré, Peter M; Pollock, Bruce G; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    Older adults are among the most vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of psychotropic medications and, therefore, the personalization of psychotropic treatment based on adverse drug reactions in this demographic is of great importance. We examined changes on neuropsychological tests of attention attributable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in anxious older adults. We also examined whether variation in serotonin receptor genes was associated with reduced attentional performance with SSRIs. We examined change from pre- to post-treatment in two attention measures - digit span and coding - in 133 adults aged ≥60 yr with generalized anxiety disorder in a 12-wk trial of escitalopram vs. placebo. We also examined attentional change in relation to genetic variability in four central serotonin receptors: the serotonin transporter and serotonin 1A, 2A and 1B receptors. Digit span scores were significantly lowered in patients receiving escitalopram relative to placebo, indicating reduced attentional performance attributable to the SSRI. Individuals with high-transcription variants in the receptors 5-HTR2A rs6311 and 5-HTR1B rs11568817 had greater reductions in attention with SSRI treatment compared to placebo. We conclude that SSRIs reduce attention in older adults, particularly in those with high-expression genetic variants at the serotonin 2A and 1B receptors. Analysing neuropsychological changes with SSRIs in relation to genetic variation in the serotonin system may be a useful strategy for detecting subgroups of older adults who are more susceptible to side-effects of SSRIs. These results, if confirmed, could lead to the personalization of SSRI use to reduce adverse neurocognitive effects.

  13. Maximal strength training improves bone mineral density and neuromuscular performance in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Carlsen, Trude; Aas, Elisabeth; Hoff, Jan; Stunes, Astrid K; Syversen, Unni

    2014-10-01

    -Exercise guidelines highlight maximizing bone mass early in life as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis. Which intervention is most effective for this purpose remains unclear. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of high acceleration, maximal strength training (MST), in young adult women. Thirty healthy women (22 ± 2 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and a control group (CG). The TG completed 12 weeks of squat MST, executed at 85-90% of maximal strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), emphasizing progressive loading and high acceleration in the concentric phase. The CG was encouraged to follow the American College of Sports Medicine's exercise guidelines for skeletal health. Measurements included bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dynamic and isometric rate of force development (RFD), and squat 1RM. Serum levels of type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX), and sclerostin were analyzed by immunoassays. In the TG, lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased by 2.2 and 1.0%, whereas serum P1NP increased by 26.2%. Dynamic RFD and 1RM improved by 81.7 and 97.7%, and isometric RFD improved by 38% at 100 milliseconds. These improvements were significantly greater than those observed in the CG. Within the CG, dynamic RFD and 1RM increased by 27.2 and 12.9% while no other significant changes occurred. These findings suggest that squat MST may serve as a simple, time-efficient strategy to optimize peak bone mass in early adulthood.

  14. Map learning and the alignment effect in young and older adults: how do they gain from having a map available while performing pointing tasks?

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Muffato, Veronica; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate age-related differences between young and older adults in the impact of a map being available or not while performing aligned and counter-aligned pointing tasks. In the first study, 19 young adults (aged 20-30) and 19 young-old adults (aged 65-74) studied a map and performed a pointing task. In the second, three groups of adults, 19 of them young (aged 20-30), 19 young-old (aged 65-74), and 19 old-old (aged 75-84), studied a map and performed a pointing task, first with the map available, and then without it. The results of both studies showed that young and older adults' performance was similar in aligned pointing, while the young performed better than the older adults in counter-aligned pointing. Analyzing the types of error, results showed that older adults made more counter-aligned pointing errors than young adults, both with and without the map. Having the map available improved all participants' performance, however. Finally, visuo-spatial working memory was found to sustain pointing performance in all age groups and map conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that older adults are specifically susceptible to the alignment effect-making more counter-aligned errors-regardless of whether or not they have a map available while performing pointing tasks.

  15. Significance of ground-water chemistry in performance of North Sahara Tube wells in Algeria and Tunisia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Jones, Blair F.

    1972-01-01

    Nine ground-water samples from the principal shallow and deep North Sahara aquifers of Algeria and Tunisia were examined to determine the relation of their chemical composition to corrosion and mineral encrustation thought to be contributing to observed decline in well capacities within a UNESCO/UNDP Special Fund Project area. Although the shallow and deep waters differ significantly in certain quality factors, all are sulfochloride types with corrosion potentials ranging from moderate to extreme. None appear to be sufficiently supersaturated with troublesome mineral species to cause rapid or severe encrustation of filter pipes or other well parts. However, calcium carbonate encrustation of deep-well cooling towers and related irrigation pipes can be expected because of loss of carbon dioxide and water during evaporative cooling. Corrosion products, particularly iron sulfide, can be expected to deposit in wells producing waters from the deep aquifers. This could reduce filterpipe openings and increase casing roughness sufficiently to cause significant reduction in well capacity. It seems likely, however, that normal pressure reduction due to exploitation of the artesian systems is a more important control of well performance. If troublesome corrosion and related encrustation are confirmed by downhole inspection, use of corrosion-resisting materials, such as fiber-glass casing and saw-slotted filter pipe (shallow wells only), or stainless-steel screen, will minimize the effects of the waters represented by these samples. A combination of corrosion-resisting stainless steel filter pipe electrically insulated from the casing with a nonconductive spacer and cathodic protection will minimize external corrosion of steel casing, if this is found to be a problem. However, such installations are difficult to make in very deep wells and difficult to control in remote areas. Both the shallow waters and the deep waters examined in this study will tend to cause soil

  16. Convergent validity and sex differences in healthy elderly adults for performance on 3D virtual reality navigation learning and 2D hidden maze tasks.

    PubMed

    Tippett, William J; Lee, Jang-Han; Mraz, Richard; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Snyder, Peter J; Black, Sandra E; Graham, Simon J

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed the convergent validity of a virtual environment (VE) navigation learning task, the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), and selected traditional neuropsychological tests performed in a group of healthy elderly adults (n = 24). The cohort was divided equally between males and females to explore performance variability due to sex differences, which were subsequently characterized and reported as part of the analysis. To facilitate performance comparisons, specific "efficiency" scores were created for both the VE navigation task and the GMLT. Men reached peak performance more rapidly than women during VE navigation and on the GMLT and significantly outperformed women on the first learning trial in the VE. Results suggest reasonable convergent validity across the VE task, GMLT, and selected neuropsychological tests for assessment of spatial memory.

  17. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity.

  18. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  19. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed.

  20. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  1. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  2. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water.

  3. Communicative Competence and Metalinguistic Ability: Performance by Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Woodyatt, Gail C.

    2007-01-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as…

  4. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-03-30

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  5. Sex-comparative study of mouse cerebellum physiology under adult-onset hypothyroidism: The significance of GC-MS metabolomic data normalization in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maga-Nteve, Christoniki; Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Margarity, Marigoula; Klapa, Maria I

    2017-01-15

    A systematic data quality validation and normalization strategy is an important component of the omic profile meta-analysis, ensuring comparability of the profiles and exclusion of experimental biases from the derived biological conclusions. In this study, we present the normalization methodology applied on the sets of cerebellum gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles of 124days old male and female animals in an adult-onset-hypothyroidism (AOH) mouse model before combining them into a sex-comparative analysis. The employed AOH model concerns the monitoring of the brain physiology of Balb/cJ mice after eight-week administration of 1%w/v KClO4 in the drinking water, initiated on the 60th day of their life. While originating from the same animal study, the tissues of the two sexes were processed and their profiles acquired and analyzed at different time periods. Hence, the previously published profile set of male mice was first re-annotated based on the presently available resources. Then, after being validated as acquired under the same analytical conditions, both profiles sets were corrected for derivatization biases and filtered for low-confidence measurements based on the same criteria. The final normalized 73-metabolite profiles contribute to the currently few available omic datasets of the AOH effect on brain molecular physiology, especially with respect to sex differentiation. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated one (unknown) and three (succinate, benzoate, myristate) metabolites with significantly higher and lower, respectively, cerebellum concentration in the hypothyroid compared to the euthyroid female mice. The respective numbers for the males were two and 24. Comparison of the euthyroid cerebellum metabolic profiles between the two sexes indicated 36 metabolites, including glucose, myo- and scyllo-inositol, with significantly lower concentration in the females versus the males. This implies that the female mouse cerebellum has been

  6. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  7. Significance of Literacy in the Performance of Students in the First Year of the Nottingham Medical Course

    PubMed Central

    Olson, I. A.; Diack, H.; Harrold, Pamela J.

    1973-01-01

    The “literacy” of a fresh intake of medical students as measured by standardized vocabulary tests has been measured and correlated with examination performance during the first year. Although most students lacked an upper social class upbringing, medical parents, or a classical education, the group performed to a high standard in the tests, comparable with an English honours intake. On the other hand, there appears to be no correlation between an extensive working vocabulary and the ability to perform well in any aspect of the course, apart from the community studies. A qualification in Latin confers no advantage at all on the aspiring doctor. PMID:4685320

  8. Presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents in young and old adults when performing force and position control.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Stéphane; Maerz, Adam H; Enoka, Roger M

    2010-02-01

    The present work investigated presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) when young and old adults exerted a wrist extension force either to support an inertial load (position control) or to achieve an equivalent constant torque against a rigid restraint (force control) at 5, 10, and 15% of the maximal force. H reflexes were evoked in the ECR by stimulating the radial nerve above the elbow. A conditioning stimulus was applied to the median nerve above the elbow to assess presynaptic inhibition of homonymous Ia afferents (D1 inhibition) or at the wrist (palmar branch) to assess the ongoing presynaptic inhibition of heteronymous Ia afferents that converge onto the ECR motor neuron pool (heteronymous Ia facilitation). The young adults had less D1 inhibition and greater heteronymous Ia facilitation during the position task (79 and 132.1%, respectively) compared with the force task (69.1 and 115.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). In contrast, the old adults exhibited no difference between the two tasks for either D1 inhibition ( approximately 72%) or heteronymous Ia facilitation ( approximately 114%). Contraction intensity did not influence the amount of D1 inhibition or heteronymous Ia facilitation for either group of subjects. The amount of antagonist coactivation was similar between tasks for young adults, whereas it was greater in the position task for old adults (P = 0.02). These data indicate that in contrast to young adults, old adults did not modulate presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents when controlling the position of a compliant load but rather increased coactivation of the antagonist muscle.

  9. Performance on a strategy set shifting task in rats following adult or adolescent cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Kathleen M.; Barlow, Nicole; Tassin, David H.; Brisotti, Madeline F.; Jordan, Chloe J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuropsychological testing is widespread in adult cocaine abusers, but lacking in teens. Animal models may provide insight into age-related neuropsychological consequences of cocaine exposure. Objectives Determine whether developmental plasticity protects or hinders behavioral flexibility after cocaine exposure in adolescent vs. adult rats. Methods Using a yoked-triad design, one rat controlled cocaine delivery and the other two passively received cocaine or saline. Rats controlling cocaine delivery (1.0 mg/kg) self-administered for 18 sessions (starting P37 or P77), followed by 18 drug-free days. Rats next were tested in a strategy set shifting task, lasting 11–13 sessions. Results Cocaine self-administration did not differ between age groups. During initial set formation, adolescent-onset groups required more trials to reach criterion and made more errors than adult-onset groups. During the set shift phase, rats with adult-onset cocaine self-administration experience had higher proportions of correct trials and fewer perseverative + regressive errors than age-matched yoked-controls or rats with adolescent-onset cocaine self-administration experience. During reversal learning, rats with adult-onset cocaine experience (self-administered or passive) required fewer trials to reach criterion and the self-administering rats made fewer perseverative + regressive errors than yoked-saline rats. Rats receiving adolescent-onset yoked-cocaine had more trial omissions and longer lever press reaction times than age-matched rats self-administering cocaine or receiving yoked-saline. Conclusions Prior cocaine self-administration may impair memory to reduce proactive interference during set shifting and reversal learning in adult-onset but not adolescent-onset rats (developmental plasticity protective). Passive cocaine may disrupt aspects of executive function in adolescent-onset but not adult-onset rats (developmental plasticity hinders). PMID:24800898

  10. Influence of socio-demographic characteristics on DRS-2 performance in Spanish-speaking older adults.

    PubMed

    Strutt, Adriana M; Ayanegui, Ingrid G; Scott, Bonnie M; Mahoney, Marita L; York, Michele K; San Miguel Montes, Liza E

    2012-08-01

    The present study compared the performance of English- and Spanish-speaking healthy controls (HCs) on the Spanish translation of the Dementia Rating Scale-Second edition (ST-DRS-2) and examined the classification accuracy of the ST-DRS-2 and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with an age- and education-matched clinical sample. In contrast to previous findings with English-speakers, a stronger relationship was observed between ST-DRS-2 Total scores and education than with age, and despite being matched on both of these variables, English-speaking HCs significantly out-performed their Spanish-speaking counterparts on the ST-DRS-2. The greatest between-group difference was found on the Memory subscale, wherein the majority of errors committed by Spanish-speaking HCs were significantly related to level of acculturation. ST-DRS-2 Total and Memory subscale scores produced greater classification accuracy than the MMSE; however, ST-DRS-2 Total scores yielded the greatest corresponding rates of sensitivity and specificity. Normative data are provided and recommended to improve the ST-DRS-2's diagnostic accuracy with Spanish-speakers.

  11. Significant impact on cathode performance of lithium-ion batteries by precisely controlled metal oxide nanocoatings via atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifei; Liu, Jian; Meng, Xiangbo; Tang, Yongji; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Yang, Jinli; Hu, Yuhai; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-02-01

    LiCoO2 in the commercial lithium ion batteries has been suffering from its poor cycling performance at high cutoff voltages. In this study, we employ an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique to surface-modify a LiCoO2 material with various thickness-controlled metal oxide (TiO2, ZrO2 and Al2O3) coatings to improve its battery performance. The effects of the metal oxide coatings on the electrochemical performance of LiCoO2 electrode are studied in detail. It is demonstrated that a uniform and dense coating via the ALD route on LiCoO2 powder can lower the battery performance due to an obvious decrease in lithium diffusion and electron transport with the coating layers. In contrast, it is revealed that a direct coating on prefabricated LiCoO2 electrodes performs much better than a coating on LiCoO2 powders. It is further disclosed that the improved electrochemical performance of coated LiCoO2 electrode is highly dependent on the coating materials. Of the three coating materials, the Al2O3 coating results in the best cycling stability while the ZrO2 coating contributes to the best rate capability. It is thus suggested that the coating materials are functionally specific, and for the best improvement of a cathode, a particular coating material should be sought.

  12. The Relative Utility of Three English Language Dominance Measures in Predicting the Neuropsychological Performance of HIV+ Bilingual Latino/a Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Caitlin; Rentería, Miguel Arce; Fuentes, Armando; Coulehan, Kelly; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Rosario, Ana; Monzones, Jennifer; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the disproportionate impact of neurologic disorders such as HIV on racial/ethnic minorities, neuropsychologists are increasingly evaluating individuals of diverse linguistic backgrounds. This study compares the utility of two brief and one comprehensive language measure to account for variation in English neuropsychological performance within a bilingual population. Method Sixty-two HIV+ English/Spanish bilingual Latino adults completed three language measures in English and Spanish: Self-Reported Language Ability; Verbal Fluency (FAS/PMR); and the Woodcock Munoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R). All participants also completed an English language neuropsychological (NP) battery. Results It was hypothesized that the comprehensive English/Spanish WMLS-R language dominance index (LDI) would be significantly correlated with NP performance, as well as the best predictor of NP performance over and above the two brief language measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, the WMLS-R LDI was not significantly correlated to NP performance, whereas the easily administered Verbal Fluency and Self-Report LDIs were each correlated with global NP performance and multiple NP domains. After accounting for Verbal Fluency and Self-Report LDI in a multivariate regression predicting NP performance, the WMLS-R LDI did not provide a unique contribution to the model. Conclusions These findings suggest that the more comprehensive WMLS-R does not improve understanding of the effects of language on NP performance in an HIV+ bilingual Latino population. PMID:26934820

  13. Machine learning identification of EEG features predicting working memory performance in schizophrenia and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jason K.; Bi, Jinbo; Jiang, Ruhua; Kenney, Joshua G.; Chen, Chi-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background With millisecond-level resolution, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording provides a sensitive tool to assay neural dynamics of human cognition. However, selection of EEG features used to answer experimental questions is typically determined a priori. The utility of machine learning was investigated as a computational framework for extracting the most relevant features from EEG data empirically. Methods Schizophrenia (SZ; n = 40) and healthy community (HC; n = 12) subjects completed a Sternberg Working Memory Task (SWMT) during EEG recording. EEG was analyzed to extract 5 frequency components (theta1, theta2, alpha, beta, gamma) at 4 processing stages (baseline, encoding, retention, retrieval) and 3 scalp sites (frontal-Fz, central-Cz, occipital-Oz) separately for correctly and incorrectly answered trials. The 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) method was used to build EEG classifiers of SWMT trial accuracy (correct vs. incorrect; Model 1) and diagnosis (HC vs. SZ; Model 2). External validity of SVM models was examined in relation to neuropsychological test performance and diagnostic classification using conventional regression-based analyses. Results SWMT performance was significantly reduced in SZ (p < .001). Model 1 correctly classified trial accuracy at 84 % in HC, and at 74 % when cross-validated in SZ data. Frontal gamma at encoding and central theta at retention provided highest weightings, accounting for 76 % of variance in SWMT scores and 42 % variance in neuropsychological test performance across samples. Model 2 identified frontal theta at baseline and frontal alpha during retrieval as primary classifiers of diagnosis, providing 87 % classification accuracy as a discriminant function. Conclusions EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma’s role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. Tests of model performance and cross

  14. The Association of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms with Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; O’Hara, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive deficits. Although co-existing anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with deficits in 3 cognitive domains, reductions in inhibition were solely attributed to anxiety. Findings suggest an excess cognitive load on inhibitory ability in normal older adults reporting mild anxiety. PMID:19485667

  15. Adult brains don't fully overcome biases that lead to incorrect performance during cognitive development: an fMRI study in young adults completing a Piaget-like task.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Spiess, Jeanne; Zago, Laure; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amélie; Turbelin, Marie-Renée; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier; Joliot, Marc

    2009-03-01

    A current issue in developmental science is that greater continuity in cognition between children and adults may exist than is usually appreciated in Piaget-like (stages or 'staircase') models. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at the behavioural level, but never at the brain level. Here we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for the first time, that adult brains do not fully overcome the biases of childhood. More specifically, the aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate whether the perceptual bias that leads to incorrect performance during cognitive development in a Piaget-like task is still a bias in the adult brain and hence requires an executive network to overcome it. Here, we compared two numerical-judgment tasks, one being a Piaget-like task with number-length interference (called 'INT') and the other being a control task with number-length covariation ('COV'). We also used a colour-detection task to control for stimuli numerosity, spatial distribution, and frequency. Our behavioural results confirmed that INT remains a difficult task for young adults. Indeed, response times were significantly higher in INT than in COV. Moreover, we observed that only in INT did response times increase linearly as a function of the number of items. The fMRI results indicate that the brain network common to INT and COV shows a large rightward functional asymmetry, emphasizing the visuospatial nature of these two tasks. When INT was compared with COV, activations were found within a right frontal network, including the pre-supplementary motor area, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus, which probably reflect detection of the number/length conflict and inhibition of the 'length-equals-number' response strategy. Finally, activations related to visuospatial and quantitative processing, enhanced or specifically recruited in the Piaget-like task, were found in bilateral posterior areas.

  16. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  17. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  18. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  19. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  20. Adult Socialization: The Effects of Aspiration Upon Role Performance in Rehabilitation Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    This paper is concerned with the dynamics of the adult socialization process. The general hypothesis is: the level of aspiration of a patient is positively associated with his socialization (his rehabilitation) outcome. Subjects were 105 patients with spinal cord injuries or amputations. The two aspects of socialization considered in the study are…

  1. A Comparison of Spelling Performance across Young Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Gregg, Noel; McLain, Lisa; Bellair, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed 2,056 spelling errors produced by 130 young adults (65 with dyslexia, 65 typically achieving), which came from two sources: a standardized spelling test and an impromptu essay-writing task. Students with dyslexia exhibited higher spelling error rates across both tasks. To characterize the inaccurate spelling…

  2. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  3. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata develop in brood cells constructed in cavities by adult females. Pre-pupal bees diapause over winter and resume development as temperatures (Ta) increase in spring. While many insects are tolerant of suboptimal Ta in their overwintering stages, insects that initiate active develo...

  4. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  5. Performance Review: Postsecondary Adult Vocational Programs. Report Years 1989-90 through 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document describes the number of enrollees, graduates and placements connected with Postsecondary Adult Vocational Education (PSAV) programs at Miami-Dade Community College, and in the Florida Community College System. Data for Miami-Dade relate mostly to the 1994-95 through 1997-98 timeframe, while Florida system data span 1989-90 through…

  6. Impact of Vapor Pressure Deficit on the Performance of Bemisia tabaci: Adult, Nymphal, and Egg Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a serious global pest with varying population dynamics among different ecosystems. An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of adults, nymphs and eggs of B. tabaci. The insects were reared...

  7. Interregional cerebral metabolic associativity during a continuous performance task (Part I): healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Willis, Mark W; Benson, Brenda E; Ketter, Terence A; Kimbrell, Tim A; George, Mark S; Speer, Andrew M; Herscovitch, Peter; Post, Robert M

    2008-10-30

    One emerging hypothesis regarding psychiatric illnesses is that they arise from the dysregulation of normal circuits or neuroanatomical patterns. In order to study mood disorders within this framework, we explored normal metabolic associativity patterns in healthy volunteers as a prelude to examining the same relationships in affectively ill patients (Part II). We applied correlational analyses to regional brain activity as measured with FDG-PET during an auditory continuous performance task (CPT) in 66 healthy volunteers. This simple attention task controlled for brain activity that otherwise might vary amongst affective and cognitive states. There were highly significant positive correlations between homologous regions in the two hemispheres in thalamic, extrapyramidal, orbital frontal, medial temporal and cerebellar areas. Dorsal frontal, lateral temporal, cingulate, and especially insula, and inferior parietal areas showed less significant homologous associativity, suggesting more specific lateralized function. The medulla and bilateral thalami exhibited the most diverse interregional associations. A general pattern emerged of cortical regions covarying inversely with subcortical structures, particularly the frontal cortex with cerebellum, amygdala and thalamus. These analytical data may help to confirm known functional and neuroanatomical relationships, elucidate others as yet unreported, and serve as a basis for comparison to patients with psychiatric illness.

  8. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone.

  9. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  10. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  11. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K; Pinkston, James B; Flores, Jose M; Friedmann, David R; Jones, Callie B; Roland, J Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting University cochlear implant center. Participants The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years) cochlear implant recipients (n=7). Measurements A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7) after cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline) between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70%) of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25%) subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%), post-CI performance improved compared to a patient’s own performance before implantation. Of these, nine (45%) showed moderate or pronounced improvement. Overall, improvements were largest in the verbal and memory domains. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant relationship between speech perception and cognitive function over time. Five neurocognitive tests were predictive of improved speech perception following implantation. Conclusion Comprehensive neurocognitive testing of elderly women demonstrated areas of improvement in cognitive function and auditory

  12. Prognostic significance of bcl-2 protein expression in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Hermine, O; Haioun, C; Lepage, E; d'Agay, M F; Briere, J; Lavignac, C; Fillet, G; Salles, G; Marolleau, J P; Diebold, J; Reyas, F; Gaulard, P

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the expression of bcl-2 protein in intermediate and high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and its clinical and prognostic significance. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of bcl-2 expression in tumoral tissue sections of 348 patients with high or intermediate grade NHL. These patients were uniformly treated with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP) in the induction phase of the LNH87 protocol. Fifty eight cases were excluded due to inadequate staining. Of the 290 remaining patients, 131 (45%) disclosed homogeneous positivity (high bcl-2 expression) in virtually all tumor cells, whereas 65 (23%) were negative and 94 (32%) exhibited intermediate staining. High bcl-2 expression was more frequent in B-cell NHL (109 of 214, 51%) than in T-cell NHL (6 of 35, 17%) (P = .0004), and was heterogeneously distributed among the different histological subtypes. Further analysis was performed on the 151 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (centroblastic and immunoblastic) to assess the clinical significance and potential prognostic value of bcl-2 expression in the most frequent and homogeneous immunohistological subgroup. High bcl-2 expression, found in 44% of these patients (67 of 151), was more frequently associated with III-IV stage disease (P = .002). Reduced disease-free survival (DFS) (P < .01) and overall survival (P < .05) were demonstrated in the patients with high bcl-2 expression. Indeed, the 3-year estimates of DFS and overall survival were 60% and 61%, respectively (high bcl-2 expression) versus 82% and 78%, respectively (negative/intermediate bcl-2 expression). A multivariate regression analysis confirmed the independent effect of bcl-2 protein expression on DFS. Thus bcl-2 protein expression, as demonstrated in routinely paraffin-embedded tissue, appears to be predictive of poor DFS, in agreement with the role of bcl-2 in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. It might be considered as a new

  13. Communicative competence and metalinguistic ability: performance by children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Woodyatt, Gail C

    2007-09-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) using DSM-IV language criterion. Hierarchical cluster analyses of individuals with ASD identified subgroups within the spectrum. The use of developmental language history as an identifying marker in autism is questioned. The findings suggest that comprehensive language assessments on individuals with ASD can provide clinically relevant information regarding the heterogeneity of language skills within the autistic spectrum.

  14. Route learning and shortcut performance in adults with intellectual disability: a study with virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K; Sockeel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A ⇔ B and A ⇔ C) until they reached a learning criterion. Then, they were placed at B and were asked to find the shortest way to C (B ⇔ C, five trials). Participants in both groups could learn the routes, but most of the participants with intellectual disability could not find the shortest route between B and C. However, the results also revealed important individual differences within the intellectual disability group, with some participants exhibiting more efficient wayfinding behaviour than others. Individuals with intellectual disability may differ in the kind of spatial knowledge they extract from the environment and/or in the strategy they use to learn routes.

  15. Anthropomorphic Interfaces on Automation Trust, Dependence, and Performance inYounger and Older Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    design of decision aids targeting particular groups of users. We presented scenarios involving a decision aid (a smartphone “app”) for diabetes ...a specific diabetes -related dilemma. Because our dependent variable (trust) was a social judgment about a situation, a factorial survey was an...Another limitation is the use of a diabetes scenario. Although none of the participants in our study reported having diabetes , older adults may be

  16. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  17. The influence of range of motion versus application of force on vertical jump performance in prepubescent girls and adult females.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether during childhood, the parameters for the range of motion had more influence on vertical jump height than parameters for application of force. Counter-movement jumps performed by 36 girls aged between 5 and 8 years and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that the parameters for the range of motion had more influence on jump height than the parameters for application of force. This was demonstrated by standardised coefficients for range of motion which were higher than the standardised coefficients for application of force. Although this trend was observed in both groups, the influence of the range of motion was relatively greater in prepubescent girls than in adult females. The present results suggest that prepubescent girls increased their jump height by increasing the range of motion over which force is applied.

  18. Brain training in older adults: evidence of transfer to memory span performance and pseudo-Matthew effects.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Siné; House, Becky

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of 'brain training' using the Nintendo DS Brain Training program were examined in two groups of older adults; the cognitive performance of an experimental group (n = 21) who were asked to use the Nintendo DS regularly over a 6-week period was compared with the control group (n = 20). Groups were matched on age (mean age = 74 years), education, computer experience, daily activities (time spent reading or watching television), and initial scores of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Analyses revealed that improvements were primarily in the Digit Span Test, specifically Digits Backwards. Although the Brain Training package appeared to have some efficacy, other factors such as perceived quality of life and perceived cognitive functioning were at least equally important in determining training outcomes. The implications of these findings for cognitive training are discussed.

  19. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  20. Relevance of nerve conduction velocity in the assessment of balance performance in older adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yun; Chen, Shih-Ching; Peng, Chih-Wei; Kang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Chun-Lung; Chou, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chien-Hung

    2017-03-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and balance performance in older adults with diabetes. Methods Twenty older adults with diabetes were recruited to evaluate the NCV of their lower limbs and balance performance. The balance assessments comprised the timed up and go (TUG) test, Berg balance scale (BBS), unipedal stance test (UST), multidirectional reach test (MDRT), maximum step length (MSL) test and quiet standing with eyes open and closed. The relationship between NCV and balance performance was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficients, and the balance performances of the diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were compared by using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results The NCV in the lower limbs exhibited a moderate to strong correlation with most of the balance tests including the TUG (r = -0.435 to -0.520, p < 0.05), BBS (r = 0.406-0.554, p < 0.05), UST (r = 0.409-0.647, p < 0.05) and MSL (r = 0.399-0.585, P < 0.05). In addition, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy had a poorer TUG (p < 0.05), BBS (p < 0.01), UST (p < 0.05) and MSL performance (p < 0.05) compared with those without peripheral neuropathy (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed that a decline in peripheral nerve conduction in the lower limb is not only an indication of nerve dysfunction, but may also be related to the impairment of balance performance in patients with diabetes. Implications for Rehabilitation Nerve conduction velocity in the lower limbs of diabetic older adults showed moderate to strong correlations with most of the results of balance tests, which are commonly used in clinics. Decline in nerve conduction velocity of the lower limbs may be related to the impairment of balance control in patients with diabetes. Diabetic older adults with peripheral neuropathy exhibited greater postural instability than those without peripheral

  1. A virtual water maze revisited: Two-year changes in navigation performance and their neural correlates in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2017-02-01

    Age-related declines in spatial navigation are associated with deficits in procedural and episodic memory and deterioration of their neural substrates. For the lack of longitudinal evidence, the pace and magnitude of these declines and their neural mediators remain unclear. Here we examined virtual navigation in healthy adults (N=213, age 18-77 years) tested twice, two years apart, with complementary indices of navigation performance (path length and complexity) measured over six learning trials at each occasion. Slopes of skill acquisition curves and longitudinal change therein were estimated in structural equation modeling, together with change in regional brain volumes and iron content (R2* relaxometry). Although performance on the first trial did not differ between occasions separated by two years, the slope of path length improvement over trials was shallower and end-of-session performance worse at follow-up. Advanced age, higher pulse pressure, smaller cerebellar and caudate volumes, and greater caudate iron content were associated with longer search paths, i.e. poorer navigation performance. In contrast, path complexity diminished faster over trials at follow-up, albeit less so in older adults. Improvement in path complexity after two years was predicted by lower baseline hippocampal iron content and larger parahippocampal volume. Thus, navigation path length behaves as an index of perceptual-motor skill that is vulnerable to age-related decline, whereas path complexity may reflect cognitive mapping in episodic memory that improves with repeated testing, although not enough to overcome age-related deficits.

  2. Self-Reported vs. Performance-Based Assessments of a Simple Mobility Task among Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Roedersheimer, Kyle M.; Pereira, Greg F.; Jones, Christopher W.; Braz, Valerie A.; Mangipudi, Sowmya A.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the mobility of independently-living older adults is essential in determining whether they may be safely discharged home from the emergency department (ED). We assessed the accuracy of self-reported ability to complete a simple mobility task among older ED patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older who were neither nursing home residents nor critically ill conducted in two academic EDs. Consenting participants were asked whether they could get out of bed, walk 10 feet, turn around, and get back in bed without assistance, and if not, whether they could perform this task with a cane, walker, or human assistance. Each participant was then asked to perform the task and was provided with a mobility device or human assistance as needed. Results Of 272 patients who met eligibility criteria and answered the physical task question, 161 (59%) said they could do the task unassisted, 45 (17%) said they could do it with a cane or walker, 21 (8%) said they could do it with human assistance, and 45 (17%) said they would be unable to do it even with human assistance. Among those who said they could do the task either with or without assistance and who were subsequently willing to attempt the task (N=172), discrepancies between self-reported ability and actual performance were common. Of those who said they could perform the task without assistance, 12% required some assistance or were unable to complete the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with a cane or walker, 48% required either human assistance or were unable to perform the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with human assistance, 24% were unable to perform the task even with human assistance. Conclusion In this sample of older adults receiving care in the ED, the accuracy of their self-reported ability to perform a simple mobility task was poor, particularly for those who reported some need

  3. Single and repeated sevoflurane or desflurane exposure does not impair spatial memory performance of young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kilicaslan, Alper; Belviranli, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel; Nurullahoglu Atalik, Esra

    2013-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics are known to disturb the spatial memory in aged rodents, but there is insufficient information on their effects on young adult rodents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single and repeated exposure to desflurane and sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions in young adult mice. Balb/c mice (2 months old) were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 8). The groups with single inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 4 h, respectively. The groups with repeated inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 2 h a day during 5 consecutive days. Spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze 24 h after exposure. In the learning phase, the parameters associated with finding the hidden platform and swimming speed, and in the memory phase, time spent in the target quadrant and the adjacent quadrants, were assessed and compared between the groups. In the 4-day learning process, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean latency to platform, mean distance traveled and average speed (P > 0.05). During the memory-test phase, all mice exhibited spatial memory, but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of time spent in the target quadrant (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia did not impair acquisition learning and retention memory in young adult mice.

  4. Enhancing Cognitive Functioning in Healthly Older Adults: a Systematic Review of the Clinical Significance of Commercially Available Computerized Cognitive Training in Preventing Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejal M; Weinborn, Michael; Verdile, Giuseppe; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-03-01

    Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed. Therefore, in this review, we report the characteristics of commercially available brain training programs, critically assess the number and quality of studies evaluating the empirical evidence of these programs for promoting brain health in healthy older adults, and discuss underlying causal mechanisms. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and each program's website for relevant studies reporting the effects of computerized cognitive training on cognitively healthy older adults. The evidence for each program was assessed via the number and quality (PEDro score) of studies, including Randomized Control Trials (RCTs). Programs with clinical studies were subsequently classified as possessing Level I, II or III evidence. Out of 18 identified programs, 7 programs were investigated in 26 studies including follow-ups. Two programs were identified as possessing Level I evidence, three programs demonstrated Level II evidence and an additional two programs demonstrated Level III evidence. Overall, studies showed generally high methodological quality (average PEDro score = 7.05). Although caution must be taken regarding any potential bias due to selective reporting, current evidence supports that at least some commercially available computerized brain training products can assist in promoting healthy brain aging.

  5. Correlation between functional mobility and cognitive performance in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Borges, Sheila de Melo; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2016-12-09

    Association between cognitive impairment and gait performance occurs in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under "divided attention" conditions, leading to a greater risk of falls. We studied 36 controls, 42 MCI, and 26 mild AD patients, using the Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) under four conditions: TUG single - TUG1; TUG cognitive - TUG2; TUG manual -TUG3; TUG cognitive and manual - TUG4. Cognition was assessed using the MMSE, SKT, Exit25, and TMT (A and B). We found significant correlations between cognitive scores and TUG2 [r values (MMSE: -0.383, TMT-A: 0.430, TMT-B: 0.386, Exit25: 0.455, SKT: 0.563)] and TUG4 [(MMSE: -0.398, TMT-A: 0.384, TMT-B: 0.352,Exit25: 0.466, SKT: 0.525)] in the AD group, and between all TUG modalities and SKT in MCI and AD. Our results revealed that functional mobility impairment in cognitive dual tasks correlated to cognitive decline in AD patients and to attention and memory impairment in MCI.

  6. Concave Pit-Containing Scaffold Surfaces Improve Stem Cell-Derived Osteoblast Performance and Lead to Significant Bone Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cusella-De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Laino, Gregorio; Piattelli, Adriano; Pacifici, Maurizio; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2007-01-01

    Background Scaffold surface features are thought to be important regulators of stem cell performance and endurance in tissue engineering applications, but details about these fundamental aspects of stem cell biology remain largely unclear. Methodology and Findings In the present study, smooth clinical-grade lactide-coglyolic acid 85:15 (PLGA) scaffolds were carved as membranes and treated with NMP (N-metil-pyrrolidone) to create controlled subtractive pits or microcavities. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the NMP-treated membranes contained: (i) large microcavities of 80–120 µm in diameter and 40–100 µm in depth, which we termed primary; and (ii) smaller microcavities of 10–20 µm in diameter and 3–10 µm in depth located within the primary cavities, which we termed secondary. We asked whether a microcavity-rich scaffold had distinct bone-forming capabilities compared to a smooth one. To do so, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp were seeded onto the two types of scaffold and monitored over time for cytoarchitectural characteristics, differentiation status and production of important factors, including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that the microcavity-rich scaffold enhanced cell adhesion: the cells created intimate contact with secondary microcavities and were polarized. These cytological responses were not seen with the smooth-surface scaffold. Moreover, cells on the microcavity-rich scaffold released larger amounts of BMP-2 and VEGF into the culture medium and expressed higher alkaline phosphatase activity. When this type of scaffold was transplanted into rats, superior bone formation was elicited compared to cells seeded on the smooth scaffold. Conclusion In conclusion, surface microcavities appear to support a more vigorous osteogenic response of stem cells and should be used in the design of therapeutic substrates to improve bone repair and

  7. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  8. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  9. [Why should an abdominal CT scan be performed for suspected appendicitis in the adult patient? Lessons from ten clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Pautrat, K; Soyer, P; Pocard, M

    2009-10-01

    Ten years after its introduction, the contribution and indications for computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of appendicitis remain the subject of controversy among surgeons. Many argue that CT is frequently superfluous and costly, results in excessive radiation exposure, and delays surgical treatment. On our service, we perform 150 to 180 adult appendectomies annually. We feel that CT helps us to avoid unnecessary appendectomy, to clear up diagnostic uncertainty, and, most importantly, to guide the choice of surgical approach. We illustrate our experience through ten clinical cases in which the use of preoperative imaging has resulted in improved care.

  10. Effects of instructed focus and task difficulty on concurrent walking and cognitive task performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Valerie E; Janke, Alexis A; Shumway-Cook, Anne

    2010-11-01

    Dual task paradigms can be used to examine the interactions between cognition and the control of posture and gait. Measuring and interpreting changes in dual task performance is challenging, however, because many factors can influence performance. This study examined the effects of instructed focus and walking task difficulty, and the interaction between these factors, on dual task performance in healthy young adults. Fifteen participants performed a cognitive task while walking with either a usual base or a narrow base of support. Participants were instructed to focus on either the cognitive task or walking. Trade-offs both within and between tasks were assessed using the modified attention allocation index and the performance operating characteristic. Instructed focus influenced both the cognitive task and walking. Performance on the cognitive task was faster with instructions to focus on the cognitive task, and walking was faster (and more accurate in the narrow-base condition) with instructions to focus on walking. Walking task difficulty did not affect cognitive performance but did affect walking, with faster walking in the usual-base versus narrow-base condition. There was evidence of an interaction, with greater effects of instructed focus on the cognitive task during usual versus narrow-base walking. These results support the idea that the ability to flexibly shift attention allocation and task performance in response to instructions depends on the difficulty of the postural control task. The modified attention allocation index and the performance operating characteristic were instrumental in fully characterizing trade-offs between and within tasks in order to understand dual task performance changes. A clearer understanding of the factors that affect dual task walking and the interactions between these factors has important implications for the assessment of dual task performance in both clinical and research settings.

  11. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants—even the experienced writers—were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our

  12. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of oral pain and eating problems among adult and senior Spaniards in the national survey performed in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio; Llodra, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain and chewing difficulties have been identified as the strongest predictors of oral disadvantage. The aim of this study is to analyze and quantify the sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors modulating the oral pain and eating difficulties reported by Spanish adults and elderly Spanish people in the last National Oral Health Survey performed in 2010. Material and Methods Data concerning pain and chewing difficulties were acquired on a Likert‑scale format from a representative sample of the Spanish general population with ages between 35-44 years (n=391) and 65‑74 years (n=405). Risk factors were identified using bivariate analysis, after which the crude association between risk factors (sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical) and outcome variables (pain and eating problems) was assessed by adjusted odds ratios, calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results Eating problems and oral pain were mainly associated with prosthetic and caries treatment needs as clinical predictors, but female sex was also seen to be a relevant and significant risk factor for suffering pain and eating restrictions. Paradoxically, after taking into account all the aforementioned predictors, the adults had an almost two‑fold higher risk of reporting pain or eating difficulties than the elderly subjects. Conclusions In agreement with the results from the last national oral health survey, prosthetic and caries treatment needs should be considered key factors in determining the oral well‑being of the Spanish population. In sociodemographic terms, the women and adults were seen to be at a significantly higher risk of suffering pain and eating restrictions. Key words: Oral pain, eating difficulties, oral health‑related quality of life, epidemiological studies, self‑assessment. PMID:25858078

  13. The Relationship between Older Adults' Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking

  14. "Keep on Truckin'" Literacy Program [for Adults]: Performance Report; Teacher's Handbook; Final External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

    This document is composed of a performance report, a teacher's handbook, and an evaluation report of a workplace literacy program to prepare drivers for the Commercial Drivers' License examination. The performance report addresses actual accomplishments of five objectives. It identifies the number and characteristics of project participants who…

  15. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  16. Selective Maintenance of Motor Performance in Older Adults from Long-Lasting Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascal, Juliana Bayeux; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Decline of motor performance in older individuals affects their quality of life. Understanding the contribution of sport-related training in advanced ages might help to attenuate motor performance decay as one gets older. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent to which long-lasting training in running or sport-specific skills…

  17. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  18. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population, and to compare it with the existing Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and probability of survival (PS09) score. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2005 and 2010 from seven trauma centers and registries in Europe and the United States of America was performed. We compared the BIG score with TRISS and PS09 scores in a population of blunt and penetrating trauma patients. We then assessed the discrimination ability of all scores via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared the expected mortality rate (precision) of all scores with the observed mortality rate. Results In total, 12,206 datasets were retrieved to validate the BIG score. The mean ISS was 15 ± 11, and the mean 30-day mortality rate was 4.8%. With an AUROC of 0.892 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.879 to 0.906), the BIG score performed well in an adult population. TRISS had an area under ROC (AUROC) of 0.922 (0.913 to 0.932) and the PS09 score of 0.825 (0.915 to 0.934). On a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score had an AUROC result of 0.920 (0.898 to 0.942) compared with the PS09 score (AUROC of 0.921; 0.902 to 0.939) and TRISS (0.929; 0.912 to 0.947). Conclusions The BIG score is a good predictor of mortality in the adult trauma population. It performed well compared with TRISS and the PS09 score, although it has significantly less discriminative ability. In a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score performed better than in a population with blunt trauma. The BIG score has the advantage of being available shortly after admission and may be used to predict clinical prognosis or as a research tool to risk stratify trauma

  19. Stability of handwriting performance following injury-induced hand-dominance transfer in adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yancosek, Kathleen E; Mullineaux, David R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify stability of nondominant handwriting kinematics and legibility in participants with functional loss of the previously dominant hand. Twelve adult volunteers provided two handwriting samples 6 weeks apart. Handwriting tasks (Compose a Sentence, Copy Alphabet, Copy Date, Copy Sentence, and Draw Circles) were performed in cursive writing on standard white, lined paper taped to a digitizer to record kinematic and kinetic variables of velocity, displacement, force, and on-paper time. Results showed minimal performance variability within subjects and marked variability between subjects, as well as variability between tasks for all participants. Stylistic stability of the handwriting samples was assessed by two independent evaluators. These evaluators matched all handwriting samples at test to retest times with 89%-100% accuracy, suggesting value in the "whole" handwriting sample and emphasizing the idiosyncratic nature of handwriting. Results suggest that handwriting skill stability in the previously nondominant hand varies across subjects and task demands.

  20. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  1. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

  2. The effects of performing a one-legged bridge with hip abduction and use of a sling on trunk and lower extremity muscle activation in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuju; Bak, Jongwoo; Cho, Minkwon; Chung, Yijung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs of healthy adults during a one-legged bridge exercise using a sling, and with the addition of hip abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy individuals participated in this study (14 males and 13 females). The participants were instructed to perform the bridge exercises under five different conditions. Trunk and lower limb muscle activation of the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured using surface electromyography. Data analysis was performed using the mean scores of three trials performed under each condition. [Results] There was a significant increase in bilateral EO and contralateral GM with the one-legged bridge compared with the one-legged bridge with sling exercise. Muscle activation of the ipsilateral GM and BF was significantly less during the one-legged bridge exercise compared to the one-legged bridge with sling exercise, and was significantly greater during the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of the contralateral GM and BF was significantly greater with the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the general bridge exercise. [Conclusion] With the one-legged bridge with hip abduction, the ipsilateral EO, GM and BF muscle activities were significantly greater than those of the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of all trunk and contralateral lower extremity muscles increased with the bridge with sling exercises compared with general bridge exercises. PMID:27799708

  3. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  4. Sweet potato resistance to Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): larval performance adversely effected by adult's preference to tuber for food and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Yasuda, K; Sakai, T; Ichinose, K

    2014-08-01

    The preferences of the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), to tubers of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), for food and for oviposition were evaluated, and correlated to sweet potato's resistance to immatures. Adults (parent) were released in a plastic box containing tubers of sweet potato cultivars and maintained for 5 d, after which the adults on each tuber were counted. All adults were then removed and each tuber was maintained separately. New adults that emerged from the tubers were counted. Cultivars were grouped by cluster analyses using the number of parent adults on the tubers and the number of new adults emerging from the tubers, adjusted for the weight of each tuber. Cultivars were divided into five groups: average level of preference, preferred, preferred for oviposition but not for food, preferred for food but not for oviposition, and not preferred. New adults from the first two groups took less time to eclose than those from the other groups, and their body size was smaller. In a second experiment, one to five cultivars were selected from each group and inoculated each tuber with 10 weevil eggs on each cultivar. Although the proportion of eclosed adults was not significantly different between cultivars, the time to eclosion was shorter and body size was smaller on preferred cultivars. The selection of tubers by parent adults was not linearly related with larval development, and did not reduce the survival of the immatures.

  5. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: Their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Depue, Brendan E.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control. PMID:20399622

  6. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Brendan E; Burgess, Gregory C; Willcutt, Erik G; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T

    2010-05-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control.

  7. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

  8. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.

  9. Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation affects physical performance evaluated by acute exhaustive swimming exercise in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, G; Lisboa, P C; Koury, J C; Boaventura, G; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

    2012-02-01

    Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring, which could negatively affect exercise performance. We evaluated the effects of maternal hypoprolactinemia in late lactation on physical performance in adult progeny. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1 mg per day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation and offspring were followed until 180 days old. Physical performance was recorded in untrained rats at 90 and 180 days by an acute exhaustive swimming test (exercise group-Ex). At day 90, BRO offspring showed higher visceral fat mass, higher plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lower total antioxidant capacity, higher liver glycogen, lower glycemia, and normal insulinemia. Although thyroid hormones (TH) levels were unchanged, mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) activity was lower in muscle and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). At this age, BRO-Ex offspring showed higher exercise capacity, lower blood lactate, higher serum T3, and higher muscle and BAT mGPD activities. At day 180, BRO offspring showed central obesity, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, and lower EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle glycogen with unaltered plasma oxidative stress markers. This group showed no alteration of exercise capacity or blood lactate. After exercise, EDL and liver glycogen were lower, while T3 levels, BAT and muscle mGPD activities were normalized. Liver glycogen seem to be related with higher exercise capacity in younger BRO offspring, while the loss of this temporary advantage maybe related to the hypothyroidism and insulin resistance developed with age.

  10. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  11. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  12. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic/Latino Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…

  13. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  14. Relationship between cognition and gait performance in older adults receiving physical therapy interventions in the home.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Susan L; Marchetti, Gregory F; Ellis, Jennifer; Otis, Laurie; Asiri, Faisal; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Persons undergoing physical therapy home services often have difficulty with mobility and gait. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between gait and a rating of cognitive functioning in persons undergoing home-care physical therapy services. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 11,601) seen by a home-care agency between 2007 and 2008 were included in the retrospective analysis, and 10,953 (mean +/- standard deviation age 83.2 +/- 7.1; 31%) met the criteria of being able to ambulate independently or with an assistive device. All patients attempted to perform the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance plus either the Performance Oriented Measurement Assessment (POMA) or the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). Mental function was scored as part of the Outcome and Assessment Information Set. A multivariate model with adjustment for age and sex identified gait performance as measured by the DGI to be independently associated with the likelihood that a patient required cognitive prompting (p = 0.03). Both the DGI and POMA scores were independently associated with requiring assistance/dependence with cognitive tasks. There was a strong relationship between cognition and gait performance in persons undergoing physical therapy interventions in the home. Changes in gait may be related to cognitive decline.

  15. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  16. The gold standard of dental care for the adult performance horse.

    PubMed

    Foster, David L

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the primary odontogenic problems of the mature performance horse, including wolf teeth; hooks; overbite, overjet, underjet, and wry bite; equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis; infundibular caries; and secondary oral problems. It outlines the author's methods of taking the history, oral examination, and use of diagnostic nerve blocks.

  17. Association of Functional Impairments and Co-Morbid Conditions with Driving Performance among Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Peggy P.; Babulal, Ganesh M.; Stout, Sarah H.; Johnson, Anne M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Roe, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between key functional impairments, co-morbid conditions and driving performance in a sample of cognitively normal older adults. Design Prospective observational study Setting The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Washington University at St. Louis Participants Individuals with normal cognition, 64.9 to 88.2 years old (N = 129), with a valid driver’s license, who were currently driving at least once per week, and who had participated in longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Measurements Static visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, physical frailty measures, motor skills, total medical conditions, and the modified Washington University Road Test. Results When controlling for age, race, gender, APOE, and education the total number of medical conditions was unassociated with both road test scores (pass vs. marginal + fail) and the total driver error count. There were marginal associations of our measure of physical frailty (p = 0.06) and contrast sensitivity score (p = 0.06) with total driving error count. Conclusion Future research that focuses on older adults and driving should consider adopting measures of physical frailty and contrast sensitivity, especially in samples that may have a propensity for disease impacting visual and/or physical function (e.g. osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s, eye disorders, advanced age >80 years, etc.). PMID:28005921

  18. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  19. Larval Performance and Adult Attraction of Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) in a Native and an Introduced Crop.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patricia C; Keil, Clifford B; Stevenson, Philip C; Mina, Diego; Samaniego, Servio; Peralta, Eduardo; Mazon, Nelson; Chancellor, Timothy C B

    2017-02-01

    Delia platura Meigen is an important pest in crops around the world. Its host range includes almost 50 species, and it can develop in soil organic matter. In Ecuador, D. platura is a serious problem for the crop, Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (Chocho), and it also attacks broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). After broccoli is harvested, crop residue is mixed with soil or collected and stored close to Chocho fields. The objectives of this study were to determine the adaptive responses of larvae reared on different hosts and whether D. platura females are preferentially attracted to germinating L. mutabilis seeds or broccoli residue. Accordingly, larval performance and attraction of female D. platura reared on broccoli residue and L. mutabilis seeds were evaluated. The number of larvae, pupae, and adults were higher when reared on broccoli. Conversely, pupal weight was higher and time from larva to pupa, pupa to adult, and total life cycle were longer in flies reared on L. mutabilis. Although D. platura developed more quickly on broccoli, L. mutabilis was also a good host since pupae were heavier compared with flies reared on broccoli. Delia platura females reared on broccoli preferred broccoli residue to L. mutabilis in an olfactometer. Volatiles from broccoli residue in soil may attract D. platura females and stimulate oviposition on L. mutabilis seeds. Environmentally benign production of L. mutabilis crops with minimal insecticide applications may require the elimination of fresh broccoli residue as fertilizer in soils where L. mutabilis is cultivated.

  20. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL-Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-17

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))(-18)) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R²) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R² = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = -0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  1. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  2. Preschool child and adult lateralisation and performance in emotion and language tasks.

    PubMed

    Barth, Joan M; Boles, David B; Giattina, Anna Alberson; Penn, Caryn E

    2012-01-01

    A total of 34 undergraduate students from the University of Alabama and 34 preschool children completed measures assessing lateralisation and competency in emotion and language processing in order to examine the developmental time course of the underlying lateralised processes. Results indicate different developmental time courses for lateralisation in dichotic words and chimeric faces tasks, and provide some support for the developmental models of Boles, Barth, and Merrill (2008) concerning the relationship between lateralisation and performance.

  3. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  4. Attentional focus influences postural control and reaction time performances only during challenging dual-task conditions in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The dual-task paradigm has previously been used to investigate the attentional demands associated with postural control. Previous studies have identified both the focus of attention and the difficulty of a postural task as potential factors influencing dual-task performance. The aim of this study was to examine how the instructed focus of attention influences dual-task performance during quiet standing tasks of various levels of difficulty. Thirteen young adults participated in two testing sessions consisting of standing as still as possible on a force platform in different postural conditions, while simultaneously performing a simple reaction time (RT) task. Postural task difficulty was manipulated by various combinations of three bases of support (feet together, tandem and single leg) and two visual conditions (eyes opened and closed). Participants were instructed to focus on either their balance or their RT performance, depending on the testing session. When comparing postural control with respect to session focus, anterior-posterior sway velocity decreased with the addition of the simple RT task when the focus was on balance, but only during the more difficult dual-task conditions. In contrast, sway area and medial-lateral sway velocity did not change between the two instructed focus sessions. Participants responded faster in all dual-task conditions when focusing on RT performance than on balance. The modified attention allocation index indicated that participants' ability to modulate their allocation of attentional resources to respond positively to instruction was more pronounced in the most challenging postural condition. The present findings could have important implications for the interpretation of dual-task performance in both clinical and research settings.

  5. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT.

  6. Separation of adult chains of abnormal haemoglobin: Identification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yapo, Paul Angoué; Datté, Jacques Y; Yapo, Ayekoé; Wachman, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Rare abnormal haemoglobin (Hb) often poses a problem in the diagnosis of relative electrophoresis mobility. The rare neutral Hbs interact with the Hb S and thus can increase the severity of sickle cell anaemia. In the present study, we investigated the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) as a method for the identification of neutral or unstable Hb, and compared it with the well-known techniques urea-triton electrophoresis (UT) and isoelectrofocusing (IEF). The results of our experiments showed that Bucuresti Hb was separated without ambiguity by RP-HPLC. To date, no other electrophoresis techniques have been able to isolate this Hb. We also examined the Hb Nouakchott, which was the most hydrophobic Hb. Moreover, the adult and foetal chains of globins (especially the Agamma(t) and Agamma(i) chains) were quantified on the same chromatogram.

  7. Influence of Planning Time and First-Move Strategy on Tower of Hanoi Problem-Solving Performance of Mentally Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In two experiments using a computer-interfaced problem, planning time of 50 retarded young adults was as long as or longer than that of higher performing nonretarded children. In neither group was there a reliable correlation between planning time and performance. There were group differences in preferred strategies, possibly associated with…

  8. The effect of visual field condition on kinetic in upper extremities and e.m.g in lower extremities while performing reaching in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyekang; Kang, Youngeun; Yoo, Minah; Lee, Bomjin; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Joongsook; Han, Dongwook; Oh, Taeyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study was to investigate mean velocity and angle of shoulder joint, activation of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius according to both eyes, dominant eye and non-dominant eye condition during reaching task in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Our research recruited 24 participants (male 11, female 13) in Silla University. Participants were performed reaching out movement by conditions of both eye, dominants eye, non-dominants eye. The target was placed at 45 degree diagonal direction and distance far away 130% of their arm length. Kinetic analysis of the upper extremities was investigated by QUALISYS 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activation were measured by EMG during reaching tasks. The collected data were statistically processed using the SPSS for win version 20.0. [Results] There was a significant difference of shoulder joint velocity of flexion, abduction and internal rotation according to visual field condition during reaching tasks. There was no significant difference of shoulder joint angle and muscle activation according to visual field conditions during reaching tasks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, visual field has an influence on shoulder joint velocity. Therefore, the visual field may be to play an important role in reach performance. PMID:28210047

  9. Mortality in active adults age 70-79 years in relation to performance in a long-distance corridor walk.

    PubMed

    Singer, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted the source study to determine if a brisk corridor walk of 400 meters could be used to classify the performance of active older adults and relate this performance to mortality and other outcomes over a 6-year follow-up. The cohort consisted of 3075 adults resident in designated ZIP codes in Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn, participating in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Out of this cohort, 395 subjects were excluded after evaluation revealed abnormal vital signs or ECG findings, recent cardiac symptoms, recent surgery, recent chest pain, shortness of breath or fainting. Another 356 subjects were unable to complete the 400-meter walk. The 2324 subjects who completed the walk were divided into quartiles according to the time in seconds required for completion (the overall time required ranged widely from 201 to 942 seconds). These 3 groups were designated as "excluded," "stopped," and "completed." Outcomes reported for the 3075 subjects in the total cohort included mortality, new cardiovascular disease events, mobility limitation, and mobility disability. Cardiovascular events were reported for the 2234 subjects (73% of the total) who were free of cardiovascular disease at entry. Results in the article were given in tables and figures and included numbers of entrants, exposures, and events, annual event rates and hazard ratios with SDs. Out of the 3075 entrant subjects, 430 died in the 6 years of follow-up (FU). Excess mortality measured as excess death rate (EDR) was much higher in the excluded and stopped groups (about 22 per 1000 per year) compared with an EDR of 6.4 per 1000 in the completed group. The corresponding mortality ratios (MR), designated as a hazard ratio in the article were about 220% and 135%. Results for comparative morbidity are also given in this abstract.

  10. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults.

  11. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  12. Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

    2011-12-01

    Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged.

  13. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  14. Social Perception and WAIS-IV Performance in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…

  15. Virtual Simulation in Leadership Development Training: The Impact of Learning Styles and Conflict Management Tactics on Adult Learner Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Adult learners can develop leadership skills and competencies such as conflict management and negotiation skills. Virtual simulations are among the emerging new technologies available to adult educators and trainers to help adults develop various leadership competencies. This study explored the impact of conflict management tactics as well as…

  16. Dipstick proteinuria level is significantly associated with pre-morbid and in-hospital functional status among hospitalized older adults: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with functional decline, whether proteinuria alone is associated with functional statuses over the course of acute illnesses independent of CKD is unclear. During 2014, we prospectively enrolled non-dialysis patients aged ≥65 years, and all participants underwent spot dipstick urinalysis on admission, divided into 3 groups according to the results (none, trace to 1 + , and 2 + or higher); functional status was evaluated using the pre-morbid and in-hospital Barthel index (BI) scores. Of 136 community-dwelling elderly patients enrolled (age 80.7 ± 8.2 years, with 19% having CKD), 17%, 57%, and 26% had no, trace to 1 + , or 2 + or higher proteinuria. Overall pre-morbid, on-admission, and on-discharge BI scores were 50.4 ± 41.9, 38.6 ± 31.8, and 38.7 ± 35.3, respectively with significant negative correlations with proteinuric severity on admission. Finally, multivariate linear stepwise regression analysis with backward variable selection found that dipstick proteinuric severity was significantly associated with pre-morbid, on-admission, and on-dischrage BI scores (p = 0.048, <0.01, and <0.01, respectively), independent of diabetes and CKD. This relationship between dipstick proteinuric levels and functional status of hospitalized elderly suggests an under-recognized association. Prospective evaluation of long-term outcome is needed. PMID:28176820

  17. Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test performance of elderly healthy adults and clinical neurology patients.

    PubMed

    Henry, Matthias; Merten, Thomas; Wolf, Simone Andrea; Harth, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to provide independent data on the specificity of the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT; Green, 2008 ), a new test that combines conventional decision making based on cutoffs with profile analyses in order to identify invalid test performance and to reduce false positive classifications. The results of 65 bona fide neurological patients (with 21 of them meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, core criteria for dementia) were compared to 50 healthy volunteers. One patient was wrongly classified as malingering, resulting in a specificity of 98.5% for neurological patients and 100% for controls. A total of 13 patients with dementia (62%), 6 patients without dementia (14%), and 1 healthy participant exhibited a dementia profile in the NV-MSVT. While these results confirm the high specificity of the NV-MSVT for the classification insufficient effort, its sensitivity has to be verified by independent research data.

  18. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  19. Breeder and Batch-Dependent Variability in the Acquisition and Performance of a Motor Skill in Adult Long-Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryan, Amber J.; Allred, Rachel P.; Maldonado, Monica A.; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Reaching tasks are popular tools for investigating the neural mechanisms of motor skill learning and recovery from brain damage in rodents, but there is considerable unexplained variability across studies using these tasks. We investigated whether breeder, batch effects, experimenter, time of year, weight and other factors contribute to differences in the acquisition and performance of a skilled reaching task, the single pellet retrieval task, in adult male Long-Evans hooded rats. First, we retrospectively analyzed task acquisition and performance in rats from different breeding colonies that were used in several studies spanning a three year period in our laboratory. Second, we compared reaching variables in age-matched rats from different breeders that were trained together as a batch by the same experimenters. All rats had received daily training on the reaching task until they reached a criterion of successful reaches per attempt. We found significant breeder-dependent differences in learning rate and final performance level. This was found even when age-matched rats from different breeders were trained together by the same experimenters. There was also significant batch-to-batch variability within rats from the same breeder trained by the same experimenter. Other factors, including weight, paw preference and the experimenter, were not as strong or consistent in their contributions to differences across studies. The breeder and batch effects found within the same rat strain may reflect genetic and environmental influences on the neural substrates of motor skill learning. This is an important consideration when comparing baseline performance across studies and for controlling variability within studies. PMID:21664381

  20. The Effects of a Short-Term Novel Aquatic Exercise Program on Functional Strength and Performance of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, H Scott; Lehman, Marie Attanasi; Veacock, Danielle; Korkuch, Larua

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a short-term novel multidimensional aquatic exercise program on functional abilities of healthy older adults. Twenty-six men and women (mean age 76.33 ± 5.55 years) were recruited and assigned to an aquatic- (n = 15) or land-based (n = 11) training group. The aquatic training group completed a multidimensional water exercise program that incorporated resistance training, functional exercise movements and rudimentary aquatic plyometric activities. The active control group participated in a supervised land-based fitness program. Each exercise intervention was conducted over an 8-week period (16 sessions of 30 - 40 minutes) with the training load progression adjusted equally between groups using the 6 - 20 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE). Prior to and immediately following the intervention, both groups were evaluated with select components of the Senior Fitness Test. The 30-second chair stand, 30-second arm curl, and 8 foot up and go were selected as measures of strength and functional abilities. The results of an independent t-test indicated that the control and experimental groups were matched for functional abilities prior to the intervention. A 2 (group) × 2 (time) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with repeated measures revealed significant differences in the pre- to post-testing measures for the aquatic training program for the arm curl (p < 0.01) and the 8 foot up and go (p = 0.02). Analysis of the active control revealed no pre-post differences for any measure. Thus, a short-term aquatic exercise program with multidimensional intervention strategies will significantly enhance functional abilities in older adults when compared to a functionally matched active control group.

  1. Prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus in nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified: A Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) study.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Jehan; Emile, Jean-François; Mounier, Nicolas; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Petrella, Tony; Bouabdallah, Reda; Berger, Françoise; Delmer, Alain; Coiffier, Bertrand; Reyes, Félix; Gaulard, Philippe

    2006-12-15

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are rare and have a dismal prognosis. The most frequent subtype is PTCL, unspecified. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been detected in around 40% of cases, but its prognostic significance is not fully established. Lymph node samples from 110 patients with PTCL, unspecified included in LNH87 and LNH93 trials were available. EBV status was studied by EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). EBER-ISH showed positive cells in 45 (41%) of 110 patients. Pretreatment characteristics were comparable between positive and negative cases, except for male sex (80% versus 60%, respectively, P = .02). Only 50% of patients achieved complete remission with a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 21% and 30%, respectively. EBER-ISH positivity was the sole factor linked with worse EFS, with a 5-year probability of 11% for positive patients. In univariate analysis, factors affecting OS were EBER-ISH positivity, high LDH level, and age older than 60 years. In multivariate analysis, EBER-ISH was associated with a worse OS in the elderly population. Time-dependent analysis showed that the negative impact of EBV was essentially seen in the first 2 years following diagnosis. These results warrant further studies regarding pathogenesis and specific treatment approaches for EBV-associated PTCL patients.

  2. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  3. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI.

  4. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  5. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms.

  6. Modulation of motorcortical excitability by methylphenidate in adult voluntary test persons performing a go/nogo task.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Johannes; Dueck, A; Gierow, W; Zamorski, H; Heinicke, S; Heinrich, H; Hoeppner, J; Klauer, T; Reis, O; Haessler, F

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the interaction between motorcortical excitability (short interval cortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation and long interval cortical inhibition), different requirement conditions [choice reaction test (CRT), attention/go/nogo], and their pharmacological modulation by methylphenidate (MPH) in normal healthy adults (n = 31) using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. MPH was administered in a dosage of 1 mg/kg body weight, maximum 60 mg. Additionally, serum level and clearance of MPH were controlled. The statistical analysis of variance revealed a significant three-way interaction of 2 (MPH) x 3 (CRT) x 6 (ISI) predicting motor evoked potential amplitudes (P = 0.032, MPH none and full dose, n = 31). In order to compare effects of dosage an additional between-subjects factor (half vs. full MPH dose) was introduced. None of the interactions involving this between-subject factor reached statistical significance. Exploring interactions with MPH only, a 3 (MPH none, half and full dose) x 3 (CRT) x 6 (ISI) analysis of variance revealed significant two-way interactions for MPH x ISI (P = 0.040) and condition x ISI (P < 0.001, n = 18). Effects observed for MPH were strongest on facilitatory processes, weaker for intracortical inhibition. In sum, MPH seems to interact via striato-thalamo-cortical pathways with original motorcortical processes (ISI), to a lesser extent with task-dependent or behavioral parameters (CRT).

  7. Prognostic significance of T-cell phenotype in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Gisselbrecht, C; Gaulard, P; Lepage, E; Coiffier, B; Brière, J; Haioun, C; Cazals-Hatem, D; Bosly, A; Xerri, L; Tilly, H; Berger, F; Bouhabdallah, R; Diebold, J

    1998-07-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have been generally reported to have a worse prognosis than B-cell lymphomas (BCL). Because of their heterogeneity and scarcity, the outcomes of the different histological subtypes have not been compared. From October 1987 to March 1993, 1,883 patients with diffuse aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) included in the LNH87 protocol could be assessed for both morphology and immunophenotyping. Among them, 288 (15%) had PTCL and 1,595 (85%) had BCL. According to the Kiel classification, most PTCL were classified as angioimmunoblastic (AIL; 23%), pleomorphic medium and large T-cell (PML; 49%), or anaplastic large cell (ALCL; 20%) lymphomas. Comparing PTCL with BCL patients, the former had more disseminated disease (78% v 58%), B symptoms (57% v 40%), bone marrow involvement (31% v 17%), skin involvement (21% v 4%), and increased beta2-microglobulin (50% v 34%), whereas BCL patients had more bulky disease (41% v 26%). According to the International Prognostic Index (IPI), PTCL and BCL scores were, respectively: 0 factors, 13% and 15%; 1 factor, 17% and 22%; 2 factors, 24% and 25%; >/=3 factors, 45% and 37% (P = .09). For BCL and PTCL, respectively, complete remission rates were 63% and 54% (P = .004); the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 53% and 41% (P = .0004) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 42% and 33% (P < . 0001). Comparison of the different histological subtypes of lymphoma showed that the 5-year OS rate for T-ALCL (64%) was superior to those of other PTCL (35%) as well as diffuse large B-cell (53%) NHL. When multivariate analysis was applied using the IPI score as one factor, nonanaplastic PTCL remained an independent parameter (P = . 0004). Although the poor prognosis of non-ALCL PTCL could be due in part to the presence of adverse prognostic factors at diagnosis, this study shows that the T-cell phenotype is an independent significant factor, which should be incorporated into the definition of prognostic

  8. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy – Observational study and randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Bettina; Tini, Gabrielo M.; Fachinger, Patrick; Graber, Sereina M.; Irani, Sarosh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL). Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP). The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients. Methods The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h), with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin’ Sticks) before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure). Results Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group). The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007) after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001). In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046) whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501). Conclusions Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure. Trial registration ISRCTN11128866 PMID:28158212

  9. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  10. Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Mary Ann; Taymans, Juliana M.

    2002-01-01

    An emerging theme in professional development for adult literacy program staff over the past decade has been the topic of learning disabilities (LD). As adult educators have come to recognize that the effects of LD can play a significant role in the performance and retention of adult learners, many have sought answers to the following questions:…

  11. The effect of single-task and dual-task balance exercise programs on balance performance in adults with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Konak, H E; Kibar, S; Ergin, E S

    2016-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious disease characterized by muscle weakness in the lower extremities, shortened length of trunk, and increased dorsal kyphosis leading to poor balance performance. Although balance impairment increases in adults with osteoporosis, falls and fall-related injuries have been shown to occur mainly during the dual-task performance. Several studies have shown that dual-task performance was improved with specific repetitive dual-task exercises.

  12. Influence of age and cognitive performance on resting-state brain networks of older adults in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Jockwitz, Christiane; Caspers, Svenja; Lux, Silke; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jütten, Kerstin; Lenzen, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Reid, Andrew; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Shah, N Jon; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Aging leads to global changes in brain structure and cognitive performance, with reorganization of functional brain networks. Importantly, these age-related changes show higher inter-individual variability in older subjects. To particularly address this variability is a challenge for studies on lifetime trajectories from early to late adulthood. The present study therefore had a dedicated focus on late adulthood to characterize the functional connectivity in resting-state networks (RSFC) in relation to age and cognitive performance in 711 older adults (55-85 years) from the 1000BRAINS project. The executive, left and right frontoparietal resting-state (RS) networks showed age-related increases in RSFC. However, older adults did not show changes in RSFC in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, lower performance in working memory (WM) was associated with higher RSFC in the left frontoparietal RS network. The results suggest age-related compensatory increases in RSFC which might help to maintain cognitive performance. Nevertheless, the negative correlation between RSFC and WM performance hints at limited cognitive reserve capacity in lower performing older adults. Consequently, the current results provide evidence for a functional reorganization of the brain until late adulthood that might additionally explain parts of the variability of cognitive abilities in older adults.

  13. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  14. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using adult mice with multiple genotoxicity assays concurrently performed as a combination test.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using young adult rats with repeated administrations has been investigated by employing a new method without partial hepatectomy or in situcollagenase perfusion as the repeated dose liver MN (RDLMN) assay by Narumi et al. (2012). In our study, in order to investigate the possibility of the RDLMN assay using young adult mice instead of rats and the feasibility of employing some genotoxicity assays along with the RDLMN assay as a combination test, two genotoxic carcinogens (N,N-diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) and cisplatin (CIS)) and a nongenotoxic carcinogen (phenobarbital sodium (PHE)) were administered to mice for 15 or 29 days. Then, the liver MN assay, peripheral blood (PB) MN assay and comet assay using the liver and kidney were concurrently performed as a combination test. DEN showed positive responses to all endpoints except MN induction in PB after 15 days of repeat administration. A cross-linking agent, CIS, showed MN induction in liver after 29 days of repeat administration, and in PB after 15 and 29 days of repeat administration, although the comet assay yielded negative responses for both organs at both sampling times. PHE yielded negative responses for all endpoints. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RDLMN assay using mice is a feasible method to be integrated into the general repeated toxicity test along with the combination assays, i.e., comet assay or PB MN assay, which would help in risk assessment for carcinogenicity by comparing the results of combination assays with each other.

  15. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Árias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  16. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability.

  17. Resistance exercise performance variability at submaximal intensities in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Grosicki, Gregory J; Miller, Michael E; Marsh, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the variability in the number of repetitions completed at submaximal loads in three resistance tasks in older (N=32, 16 female, 74.3±5.4 years) and younger (N=16, 8 female, 22.8±1.8 years) men and women. One repetition maximum (1RM) was determined on two separate visits on three tasks: leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), and bicep curl (BC). Subjects then completed repetitions to failure on each of the three tasks during two visits, a minimum of 48 hours apart, at either 60% 1RM or 80% 1RM. High reliability for all 1RM assessments was observed. Greater muscular strength was observed in younger compared to older men and women on all tasks (P<0.05). At both 60% and 80% 1RM, considerable interindividual variability was observed in the number of repetitions completed. However, the average number of repetitions completed by younger and older men and women at 60% and 80% 1RM in each of the three tasks was similar, with the only significant difference occurring between younger and older men at 80% 1RM on the leg press (P=0.0258). We did not observe any abnormal blood pressure responses to either the 1RM testing or maximal repetition testing sessions. Considerable interindividual variability was observed in the number of repetitions completed by younger and older men and women at relative intensities typical of resistance training programs. Practitioners should give consideration to individual variability when attempting to maximize the benefits of resistance training. PMID:24465127

  18. In Vivo Hemodynamic Performance Evaluation of Novel Electrocardiogram-Synchronized Pulsatile and Nonpulsatile Extracorporeal Life Support Systems in an Adult Swine Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Izer, Jenelle M; Clark, Joseph B; Patel, Sunil; Pauliks, Linda; Kunselman, Allen R; Leach, Donald; Cooper, Timothy K; Wilson, Ronald P; Ündar, Akif

    2015-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a novel electrocardiogram (ECG)-synchronized pulsatile extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system for adult partial mechanical circulatory support for adequate quality of pulsatility and enhanced hemodynamic energy generation in an in vivo animal model. The secondary aim was to assess end-organ protection during nonpulsatile versus synchronized pulsatile flow mode. Ten adult swine were randomly divided into a nonpulsatile group (NP, n = 5) and pulsatile group (P, n = 5), and placed on ECLS for 24 h using an i-cor system consisting of an i-cor diagonal pump, an iLA membrane ventilator, an 18 Fr femoral arterial cannula and a 23/25 Fr femoral venous cannula. Trials were conducted at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min using nonpulsatile or pulsatile mode (with assist ratio 1:1). Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. To the best of our knowledge, the oxygenator and circuit pressure drops were the lowest for any available system in both groups. The ECG-synchronized i-cor ECLS system was able to trigger pulsatile flow in the porcine model. After 24-h ECLS, energy equivalent pressure, surplus hemodynamic energy, and total hemodynamic energy at preoxygenator and prearterial cannula sites were significantly higher in the P group than those in the NP group (P < 0.05). Urine output was higher in P versus NP (3379 ± 443 mL vs. NP, 2598 ± 1012 mL), and the P group seemed to require less inotropic support, but both did not reach statistical significances (P > 0.05). The novel i-cor system performed well in the nonpulsatile and ECG-synchronized pulsatile mode in an adult animal ECLS model. The iLA membrane oxygenator had an extremely lower transmembrane pressure gradient and excellent gas exchange capability. Our findings suggest that ECG-triggered pulsatile ECLS provides superior end-organ protection with improved renal function and systemic vascular

  19. Effects of ramp slope on physiological characteristic and performance time of healthy adults propelling and pushing wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Oh; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Myoung Hee; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants' pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs.

  20. Oogenesis-flight syndrome in crickets: age-dependent egg production, flight performance, and biochemical composition of the flight muscles in adult female Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Matthias W

    2007-08-01

    Age-dependent changes in flight performance, biochemical composition of flight muscles, and fresh mass of the flight muscles and ovaries were analysed in adult female two-spotted crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus. After the final moult the flight muscle mass increased significantly to a maximum at days 2 and 3. On day 2 the highest flight activity was also observed. Between days 2 and 3 the ovary weight started to rapidly increase due to vitellogenic egg growth, which continued at a high rate until day 10. With the onset of ovarial growth, flight performance decreased and the flight muscles started to histolyse. A high correlation between flight muscle mass and the content of protein, lipid, glycogen, and free carbohydrate in the flight muscle indicated that energy-rich substrates from the degrading flight muscles were used to fuel oogenesis, although flight muscle histolysis can provide only a small fraction of the substrates needed for egg production. In general, there was a clear trade-off between egg production and flight ability. Surprisingly, however, some females possessed well-developed ovaries but displayed no signs of flight muscle histolysis. This observation was corroborated by flight experiments which revealed that, although most flying females had small ovaries, some of them carried an appreciable amount of mature eggs, and thus, somehow managed to evade the oogenesis-flight syndrome.

  1. Relationship of Medication Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) performance to neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral adherence in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Patton, Doyle E; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald; Cattie, Jordan E; Heaton, Robert K; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    While performance-based tests of everyday functioning offer promise in facilitating diagnosis and classification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), there remains a dearth of well-validated instruments. In the present study, clinical correlates of performance on one such measure (i.e., Medication Management Test-Revised; MMT-R) were examined in 448 HIV+ adults who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Significant bivariate relationships were found between MMT-R scores and demographics (e.g., education), hepatitis C co-infection, estimated premorbid IQ, neuropsychological functioning, and practical work abilities. MMT-R scores were not related to HIV disease severity, psychiatric factors, or self-reported adherence among participants with a broad range of current health status. However, lower MMT-R scores were strongly and uniquely associated with poorer adherence among participants with CD4 T cell counts <200. In multivariate analyses, MMT-R scores were predicted by practical work abilities, estimated premorbid functioning, attention/working memory, learning, and education. Findings provide overall mixed support for the construct validity of the MMT-R and are discussed in the context of their clinical and research implications for evaluation of HAND.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-02-05

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement.

  3. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  4. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  5. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion

  6. Executive function is independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke: implications for falls prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Pang, Marco; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among stroke survivors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 63 adults who suffered a mild stroke >1 year prior to the study, aged > or =50 years. Results Cognitive flexibility was independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke, after accounting for age, quadriceps strength of the paretic side and current physical activity level. Conclusions Clinicians may need to consider cognitive function when assessing and treating impaired balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke. PMID:17143004

  7. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  8. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Perform Multiple Step, Job Tasks in a Generalized Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ortega-Hurndon, Fanny

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to perform complex, multiple step, job tasks in a generalized setting. A multiple probe design across three job tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  9. To What Extent Can Arm-Hand Skill Performance--of Both Healthy Adults and Children-Be Recorded Reliably Using Multiple Bodily Worn Sensor Devices?

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Seelen, Henk A M; Timmermans, Annick A A; Schnackers, Marlous L A P; Eerden, Annet; Smeets, Rob J E M; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J M

    2015-07-01

    Neurological patients often encounter arm-hand problems in daily life. Bodily worn sensors may be used to assess actual performance by quantifying specific movement patterns associated with specific activities. However, signal reliability during activities of daily living should be determined first. The aim is to determine to what extent standardized arm-hand skill performance of both healthy adults and healthy children can be recorded reliably using a combination of multiple sensor devices. Thirty adults (aged > 50 years) and thirty-two children (aged between 6-18 years) performed the activities drinking, eating and combing five times in a standardized setting. Sensor devices, each containing a triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer were attached to the arms, hands and trunk of the participants. Within-subject and between-subject reliability of the signal patterns amongst skill repetitions was determined by calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Median reliability was good to very good for all activities performed (both within and between subjects). Regarding within-subject reliability (instruction-condition), median ICCs ranged between 0.76-0.90 and 0.68-0.92 for the adults and children, respectively. For between-subject reliability (instruction-condition), median ICCs ranged 0.75-0.86 and 0.61-0.90 for the adults and children, respectively. It can be concluded that the above-mentioned sensor system can reliably record activities of daily living in a standardized setting.

  10. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  11. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  12. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition: Is the Verbal/Performance Discrepancy Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the implied and theoretical structures of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). Results using the standardization sample of 2,450 adults and adolescents indicate that the WAIS-III provides an excellent measure of the four-factor model and a general factor, but they do not support the construct…

  13. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. Methods IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. Results The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. Conclusions The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings. PMID:23283063

  14. Twelve-Week Exercise Influences Memory Complaint but Not Memory Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Enzo; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Aquino, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-03-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-weeks intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). Statistical analysis showed that the three experimental groups significantly improved MAC-Q scores in comparison with control group (p <.05). The variation of MAC-Q scores and the variations of Rey and Prose memory tests scores were not correlated. These results indicate that the 12-week interventions exclusively influenced memory complaint but not memory performance. Further investigations are needed to understand the relation between memory complaint and memory performance, and the factors that can influence this relationship.

  15. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Latzel, M; Büttner, P; Sarau, G; Höflich, K; Heilmann, M; Chen, W; Wen, X; Conibeer, G; Christiansen, S H

    2017-02-03

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device's active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 [Formula: see text] alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments-chemical etching and alumina deposition-reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  16. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latzel, M.; Büttner, P.; Sarau, G.; Höflich, K.; Heilmann, M.; Chen, W.; Wen, X.; Conibeer, G.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device’s active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 {nm} alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments—chemical etching and alumina deposition—reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  17. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  18. The effects of acclimation to reversed seasonal temperatures on the swimming performance of adult brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Day, N; Butler, P J

    2005-07-01

    Adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) were acclimatised to and maintained at seasonal temperatures (5 degrees C in winter; 15 degrees C in summer) and acclimated to reversed seasonal temperatures (15 degrees C in winter; 5 degrees C in summer) while exposed to the natural (i.e. seasonally variable) photoperiod. The mean critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) of animals acclimatised to the seasonal temperatures were similar, but more than 30% greater than those for fish acclimated to the reversed seasonal temperatures. The lower values of U(crit) that accompanied acclimation to reversed seasonal temperatures appeared largely to result from the inability of white muscle to function maximally, since the concentrations of lactate and ammonia in white muscle of fish swum to U(crit) at reversed seasonal temperatures were significantly lower than those in fish swum at seasonal temperatures. These observations, together with biochemical and morphometric attributes of muscle tissue, suggest that swimming ability is influenced, at least in part, by seasonal factors other than temperature. These data have important implications for the design of experiments using fish that experience predictable, usually seasonal, changes in their natural environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, changes in water levels, etc.).

  19. Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Indlekofer, F; Piechatzek, M; Daamen, M; Glasmacher, C; Lieb, R; Pfister, H; Tucha, O; Lange, K W; Wittchen, H U; Schütz, C G

    2009-07-01

    Regular use of illegal drugs is suspected to cause cognitive impairments. Two substances have received heightened attention: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC or 'cannabis'). Preclinical evidence, as well as human studies examining regular ecstasy consumers, indicated that ecstasy use may have negative effects on learning, verbal memory and complex attentional functions. Cannabis has also been linked to symptoms of inattention and deficits in learning and memory. Most of the published studies in this field of research recruited participants by means of newspaper advertisements or by using word-of-mouth strategies. Because participants were usually aware that their drug use was critical to the research design, this awareness may have caused selection bias or created expectation effects. Focussing on attention and memory, this study aimed to assess cognitive functioning in a community-based representative sample that was derived from a large-scale epidemiological study. Available data concerning drug use history allowed sampling of subjects with varying degrees of lifetime drug experiences. Cognitive functioning was examined in 284 young participants, between 22 and 34 years. In general, their lifetime drug experience was moderate. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, including measures for verbal learning, memory and various attentional functions. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cognitive functioning and lifetime experience of drug use. Ecstasy and cannabis use were significantly related to poorer episodic memory function in a dose-related manner. For attentional measures, decrements of small effect sizes were found. Error measures in tonic and phasic alertness tasks, selective attention task and vigilance showed small but significant effects, suggesting a stronger tendency to experience lapses of attention. No indication for differences in

  20. The clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of AID, miR-181b, and miR-155 expression in adult patients with de novo B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangquan; Cao, Yang; Dong, Weimin; Lin, Yan; Wang, Qi; Wu, Wei; Hua, Xiaoying; Ling, Yun; Xie, Xiaobao; Hu, Shaoyan; Cen, Jiannong; Gu, Weiying

    2017-01-31

    This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, miR-181b and miR-155 expression in de novo adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Results showed that AID and miR-155 expression were higher in B-ALL patients than healthy controls, while miR-181b expression was lower in B-ALL patients. In addition, Ph(+) B-ALLs had higher AID expression than Ph(-) B-ALLs, and its high expression was associated with BCR-ABL. Moreover, B-ALL patients with AID(high) or miR-181b(low) expression had a shorter overall survival (OS). AID(high) with miR-181b(low), AID(high) with miR-155(low), miR-181b(low), miR-155(low), AID(high) with miR-181b(low) and miR-155(low) expression were associated with shorter OS. Combination of the three molecules are more accurate predictors for unfavorable OS compared with univariate group. Therefore, AID, miR-181b and miR-155 provide clinical prognosis of adult de novo B-ALL patients and may refine their molecular risk classification.

  1. PROLONGED PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH REPETITION LOW FORCE TASK INDUCES BONE ADAPTATION IN YOUNG ADULT RATS, BUT LOSS IN MATURE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14–18 mo of age) and 14 young adult (2.5–6.5 mo of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone