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Sample records for adults performed worse

  1. The outcome of lumbar disc herniation surgery is worse in old adults than in young adults.

    PubMed

    Strömqvist, Fredrik; Strömqvist, Björn; Jönsson, Bo; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - The outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been thoroughly evaluated in middle-aged patients, but less so in elderly patients. Patients and methods - With validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and using SweSpine (the national Swedish Spine Surgery Register), we analyzed the preoperative clinical status of LDH patients and the 1-year postoperative outcome of LDH surgery performed over the period 2000-2012. We included 1,250 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) and 12,840 young and middle-aged patients (aged 20-64). Results - Generally speaking, elderly patients were referred for LDH surgery with worse PROM scores than young and middle-aged patients, they improved less by surgery, they experienced more complications, they had inferior 1-year postoperative PROM scores, and they were less satisfied with the outcome (with all differences being statistically significant). Interpretation - Elderly patients appear to have a worse postoperative outcome after LDH surgery than young and middle-aged patients, they are referred to surgery with inferior clinical status, and they improve less after the surgery. PMID:27391663

  2. The outcome of lumbar disc herniation surgery is worse in old adults than in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Strömqvist, Fredrik; Strömqvist, Björn; Jönsson, Bo; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose The outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been thoroughly evaluated in middle-aged patients, but less so in elderly patients. Patients and methods With validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and using SweSpine (the national Swedish Spine Surgery Register), we analyzed the preoperative clinical status of LDH patients and the 1-year postoperative outcome of LDH surgery performed over the period 2000–2012. We included 1,250 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) and 12,840 young and middle-aged patients (aged 20–64). Results Generally speaking, elderly patients were referred for LDH surgery with worse PROM scores than young and middle-aged patients, they improved less by surgery, they experienced more complications, they had inferior 1-year postoperative PROM scores, and they were less satisfied with the outcome (with all differences being statistically significant). Interpretation Elderly patients appear to have a worse postoperative outcome after LDH surgery than young and middle-aged patients, they are referred to surgery with inferior clinical status, and they improve less after the surgery. PMID:27391663

  3. Memory Deficit is Associated with Worse Functional Trajectories Among Older Adults in Low Vision Rehabilitation for Macular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Sanders, Linda L.; Potter, Guy G.; Cousins, Scott W.; Ansah, Deidra; McConnell, Eleanor; Pieper, Carl F.; Landerman, Lawrence; Steffens, David C.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Older adults with macular disease are at increased risk of memory decline and incident dementia. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) aims to preserve independence in people with irreversible vision loss, but comorbid memory problems could limit the success of rehabilitation. This study examined whether performance on a brief memory test is related to functional outcomes among older patients undergoing LVR for macular disease. Design Observational cohort study of patients receiving outpatient LVR Setting Academic center Participants 91 seniors (average age 80.1 years) with macular disease Measurements Memory was assessed at baseline with a 10-word list; memory deficit was defined as immediate recall of ≤ two words. Vision-related function was measured with the 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25)administered at baseline and during subsequent interviews (mean length of follow up = 115 days). Linear mixed models (LMMs) were constructed to compare average trajectories of four VFQ-25 subscales: near activities, distance activities, dependency, and role difficulty. Results The 29.7% of patients with memory deficit tended to decline in ability to accomplish activities that involve near vision. Controlling for age, sex, and education, the functional trajectory of participants with memory deficit differed significantly from that of participants with better memory (p=0.002), who tended to report improvements in ability to accomplish near activities. Conclusion Among older adults receiving LVR for macular disease, those with memory deficit experienced worse functional trajectories in their ability to perform specific visually mediated tasks. A brief memory screen may help explain variability in rehabilitation outcomes and identify patients who might require special accommodations. PMID:23126548

  4. "A Rusty Person is Worse than Rusty Iron"--Adult Education and the Development of Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Lalage

    In order for adult education to be successfully applied in other countries, it is important that an understanding of the people's traditional background and educational attitudes is acquired. A continuing educator must also be a continuing learner. In Africa, education is considered a continuing or recurrent process throughout life serving to…

  5. Chemical labyrinthectomy for the worse ear of adult Nigerians with bilateral Meniere's disease: preliminary report of treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Olusesi, A D; Hassan, S B; Oyeyipo, Y; Ukwuije, U C; Oyeniran, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of variable titration, low-dose intratympanic gentamycin (ITG) into the worse affected ear of patients with bilateral Meniere's disease (MD). It is a prospective analytic case series conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital in a developing economy and a tertiary care otologic private ENT clinic. Patients with MD who failed or are intolerant to medical treatment were recruited based on the criteria of definite MD and bilateral ear involvement. 0.75 cc of low-dose (40 mg/ml) buffered gentamycin was injected into the worse affected ear and patients followed up every 2 months, and the regime repeated only if subjective vertigo persists. The patient's age, sex, duration of MD symptom, ear first affected, ear selected for ITG, pure tone threshold at each visit, duration of caloric response (in seconds) for the injected ear, status of tinnitus in both ipsilateral (injected) and contralateral ears, total number of injections before last follow-up, and time since last follow-up are entered into the study protocol and analyzed. Nine patients with a mean age of 45 years and mean duration of symptoms of 59 months were treated. The mean total number of injections was 2.8 with a mean follow-up period of 34 months. Three cases showed drop in pure tone average threshold (2.5-7.5 dB) while an increase in threshold was noted in six cases (2.5-5 dB). All cases demonstrated decrease in duration of response to iced water caloric stimulation in ipsilateral ear, and 4/9 of contralateral ear. The variable titration method using low-dose intratympanic gentamycin directed at worse ear of adult Nigerians with bilateral Meniere's disease appears to be highly effective. More studies are needed.

  6. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  7. Medication cost problems among chronically ill adults in the US: did the financial crisis make a bad situation even worse?

    PubMed

    Piette, John D; Rosland, Ann Marie; Silveira, Maria J; Hayward, Rodney; McHorney, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    A national internet survey was conducted between March and April 2009 among 27,302 US participants in the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. Respondents reported behaviors related to cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) and the impacts of medication costs on other aspects of their daily lives. Among respondents aged 40-64 and looking for work, 66% reported CRN in 2008, and 41% did not fill a prescription due to cost pressures. More than half of respondents aged 40-64 and nearly two-thirds of those in this group who were looking for work or disabled reported other impacts of medication costs, such as cutting back on basic needs or increasing credit card debt. More than one-third of respondents aged 65+ who were working or looking for work reported CRN. Regardless of age or employment status, roughly half of respondents reporting medication cost hardship said that these problems had become more frequent in 2008 than before the economic recession. These data show that many chronically ill patients, particularly those looking for work or disabled, reported greater medication cost problems since the economic crisis began. Given links between CRN and worse health, the financial downturn may have had significant health consequences for adults with chronic illness. PMID:21573050

  8. People with chronic facial pain perform worse than controls at a facial emotion recognition task, but it is not all about the emotion.

    PubMed

    von Piekartz, H; Wallwork, S B; Mohr, G; Butler, D S; Moseley, G L

    2015-04-01

    Alexithymia, or a lack of emotional awareness, is prevalent in some chronic pain conditions and has been linked to poor recognition of others' emotions. Recognising others' emotions from their facial expression involves both emotional and motor processing, but the possible contribution of motor disruption has not been considered. It is possible that poor performance on emotional recognition tasks could reflect problems with emotional processing, motor processing or both. We hypothesised that people with chronic facial pain would be less accurate in recognising others' emotions from facial expressions, would be less accurate in a motor imagery task involving the face, and that performance on both tasks would be positively related. A convenience sample of 19 people (15 females) with chronic facial pain and 19 gender-matched controls participated. They undertook two tasks; in the first task, they identified the facial emotion presented in a photograph. In the second, they identified whether the person in the image had a facial feature pointed towards their left or right side, a well-recognised paradigm to induce implicit motor imagery. People with chronic facial pain performed worse than controls at both tasks (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task P < 0·001; left/right judgment task P < 0·001). Participants who were more accurate at one task were also more accurate at the other, regardless of group (P < 0·001, r(2)  = 0·523). Participants with chronic facial pain were worse than controls at both the FEEL emotion recognition task and the left/right facial expression task and performance covaried within participants. We propose that disrupted motor processing may underpin or at least contribute to the difficulty that facial pain patients have in emotion recognition and that further research that tests this proposal is warranted.

  9. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Taylor, Amy M; Barkus, Christopher; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2016-04-01

    A common strategy when searching for cognitive-enhancing drugs has been to target the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), given its putative role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Evidence in favour of this approach has come primarily from studies with rodents using behavioural assays like the Morris water maze. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of the synaptic NMDAR. Inhibiting DAO could therefore provide an effective and viable means of enhancing cognition, particularly in disorders like schizophrenia, in which NMDAR hypofunction is implicated. Indirect support for this notion comes from the enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and facilitated water maze acquisition of ddY/Dao(-) mice, which lack DAO activity due to a point mutation in the gene. Here, in Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice, we report both better and worse water maze performance, depending on the radial distance of the hidden platform from the side wall of the pool. Dao(-/-) mice displayed an increased innate preference for swimming in the periphery of the maze (possibly due to heightened anxiety), which facilitated the discovery of a peripherally located platform, but delayed the discovery of a centrally located platform. By contrast, Dao(-/-) mice exhibited normal performance in two alternative assays of long-term spatial memory: the appetitive and aversive Y-maze reference memory tasks. Taken together, these results question the proposed relationship between DAO inactivation and enhanced long-term associative spatial memory. They also have generic implications for how Morris water maze studies are performed and interpreted. PMID:26833794

  10. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Taylor, Amy M; Barkus, Christopher; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2016-04-01

    A common strategy when searching for cognitive-enhancing drugs has been to target the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), given its putative role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Evidence in favour of this approach has come primarily from studies with rodents using behavioural assays like the Morris water maze. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of the synaptic NMDAR. Inhibiting DAO could therefore provide an effective and viable means of enhancing cognition, particularly in disorders like schizophrenia, in which NMDAR hypofunction is implicated. Indirect support for this notion comes from the enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and facilitated water maze acquisition of ddY/Dao(-) mice, which lack DAO activity due to a point mutation in the gene. Here, in Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice, we report both better and worse water maze performance, depending on the radial distance of the hidden platform from the side wall of the pool. Dao(-/-) mice displayed an increased innate preference for swimming in the periphery of the maze (possibly due to heightened anxiety), which facilitated the discovery of a peripherally located platform, but delayed the discovery of a centrally located platform. By contrast, Dao(-/-) mice exhibited normal performance in two alternative assays of long-term spatial memory: the appetitive and aversive Y-maze reference memory tasks. Taken together, these results question the proposed relationship between DAO inactivation and enhanced long-term associative spatial memory. They also have generic implications for how Morris water maze studies are performed and interpreted.

  11. Is It Really Worse to Have Public Health Insurance than to Have No Insurance at All? Health Insurance and Adult Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Using prospective cohort data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the extent to which health insurance coverage and the source of that coverage affect adult health. While previous research has shown that privately insured nonelderly individuals enjoy better health outcomes than their uninsured counterparts, the…

  12. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  13. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards. PMID:26809162

  14. "K"-Means May Perform as well as Mixture Model Clustering but May Also Be Much Worse: Comment on Steinley and Brusco (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2011-01-01

    Steinley and Brusco (2011) presented the results of a huge simulation study aimed at evaluating cluster recovery of mixture model clustering (MMC) both for the situation where the number of clusters is known and is unknown. They derived rather strong conclusions on the basis of this study, especially with regard to the good performance of…

  15. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  16. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  17. Modification of Concept Identification Performance in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo Ann Clawson; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A sequential training procedure combining operant and cumulative learning hierarchy principles was found effective in reducing the decrement in concept identification performance typically observed in older adults. (JMB)

  18. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  19. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  20. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  1. Relationship Between Performance and Interest in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Thomas P.

    Focusing on readability and interest factors of instructional materials for adult education, the study examined the possible relationships between performance and expressed interest in individual reading passages and in categories of passages. Passages on one of three levels of difficulty were administered to 180 adult education students from…

  2. Computer Technology: For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    Computer technology ought to be among the most helpful and useful of any technology, but if it is not treated with care, the society will be worse off for it. The Federal Privacy Act of 1974 established the Privacy Protection Study Commission whose business started in June, 1975. In examination of the private sector, the commission's…

  3. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children’s school performance

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children’s academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. Method State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005–12. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Results Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., mother’s educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. Conclusion While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much—but not all—of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  4. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  5. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  6. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile. PMID:24525641

  7. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PMID:24128076

  8. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  9. Spelling Performance of Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Arvaniti, Evmorfia K.; Dimitriadi, Despina I.; Gkoutsioudi, Vasiliki G.; Zantali, Christina I.

    2009-01-01

    Visual processes undoubtedly play an important role in print reading as well as in spelling. In the present study we intend to compare the spelling performance of visually impaired individuals (both individuals who are blind and individuals with low vision) with that of their fully sighted peers. An analysis of errors (misspelled words and…

  10. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  11. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity. PMID:25956761

  12. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity.

  13. Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.

    PubMed

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-02-01

    Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure.

  14. How feelings of stereotype threat influence older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Bhattacharyya, Sudipa; Horhota, Michelle; Tam, Raymond; Hasher, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than for older adults and was higher in the impression formation than memorization condition, but was not different for older adults in the two instruction conditions. These results also showed that age differences in memory performance were mediated by participants' feelings of stereotype threat, such that age was positively related to stereotype threat and stereotype threat was negatively related to memory performance. These data demonstrate that concerns about being negatively stereotyped influence age differences in memory performance, and that the effects of these feelings on performance are not easily reduced by reframing the task instructions. PMID:16036721

  15. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  16. Catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Annerbrink, Kristina; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2005-07-01

    The catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, we examined the effect of a Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in cognition (executive functions and visuospatial ability) in adulthood and old age. The participants were 292 nondemented men (initially aged 35-85 years) from a random sample of the population (i.e., the Betula study) tested at two occasions with a 5-year interval. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of three indicators of executive functions (verbal fluency, working memory, and Tower of Hanoi). Associations between COMT, age, executive functioning, and visuospatial (block design) tasks were examined using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Carriers of the Val allele (with higher enzyme activity) compared with carriers of the Met/Met genotype (with low enzyme activity) performed worse on executive functioning and visuospatial tasks. Individuals with the Val/Val genotype declined in executive functioning over the 5-year period, whereas carriers of the Met allele remained stable in performance. An Age x COMT interaction for visuospatial ability located the effect for middle-aged men only. This COMT polymorphism is a plausible candidate gene for executive functioning and fluid intelligence in nondemented middle-aged and older adults. PMID:16102234

  17. Capacity Differences Reflected in the Recall Performance of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, Mary S.

    Recent theories in cognitive psychology have emphasized the role of capacity requirements in encoding tasks. To examine the notion that age-related differences in the recall performance reflect differences in cognitive capacity, 80 adults (40 undergraduates, and 40 senior citizens) recalled newspaper advertisements under free recall and cued…

  18. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  19. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  20. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  1. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  2. Attribution and Self-Evaluation of Continuous Performance Test Task Performance in Medicated and Unmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrilleaux, Katie; Advokat, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if adults with ADHD differed from children with ADHD, in assessing their performance on the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: ADHD-diagnosed adults (n = 13) and adults without ADHD (n = 17) were tested twice on the CPT and then completed self-evaluation and attribution surveys. Results: Nonmedicated…

  3. Is dying young worse than dying old?

    PubMed

    Jecker, N S; Schneiderman, L J

    1994-02-01

    In contemporary Western society, people experience the deaths of older and younger persons differently. We are disposed to feel that the death of a small child is a greater injustice than the death of an older adult, and we experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret or bitterness when a very young person dies. This article examines these responses critically to determine whether they are backed by ethical considerations that reason can discern and defend. We contrast contemporary attitudes with those of ancient Greece and show the relevance that different attitudes toward death have for health care decision making.

  4. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  5. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  6. Relationships of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performance of Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Beverly Kinsey

    2011-01-01

    Competent mathematical skills are needed in the workplace as well as in the college setting. Adults in Adult Basic Education classes and programs generally perform below high school level competency, but very few studies have been performed investigating the predictors of mathematical success for adults. The current study contributes to the…

  7. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  8. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  9. Poorer Heart Attack Victims, Especially Women, Fare Worse: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161722.html Poorer Heart Attack Victims, Especially Women, Fare Worse: Study Doctors need ... 2016 THURSDAY, Oct. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Younger heart attack survivors who struggle to afford health care and ...

  10. Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159505.html Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men: Study They need to be ... June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who survive cardiac arrest are less likely than men to get aggressive, ...

  11. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Strong, Judith A.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Method Data were collected from 116 young adults (18–25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. Results MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy’s impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption. PMID:26231032

  12. What Non-Readers or Beginning Readers Need To Know: Performance-Based ESL Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brod, Shirley

    The guide provides adult literacy teachers with background information in adult learning and the performance-based approach to literacy education. The first section reviews theory and research on adult learning, including the factors affecting learning (language background, expectations, gender, learning styles and modes, age and health,…

  13. Cautiousness and Visual Selective Attention Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Rush, Michael C.

    Older adults are significantly slower than young adults in the naming response in the Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Hypotheses attempting to explain this age-related difference in a perceptual-cognitive task have included orthogenic principle, response-competition, and cautiousness. This study examines whether there are any significant…

  14. The Relationship between P3 Amplitude and Working Memory Performance Differs in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older healthy adults during performance on an n-back task with two loads (0- and 1-back) and two versions (identity and integrated). Young adults showed a typical P3 amplitude pattern with a parietal-maximum. Compared to young adults, the P3 amplitude of older adults was characterized by frontal hyperactivity coupled with posterior hypoactivity. Moreover, P3 amplitude in young and older adults varied with working memory performance efficiency. Among young adults, more efficient performance correlated with a larger P3 amplitude at parietal sites. In contrast, a higher P3 amplitude at midline electrode sites in older adults correlated with less efficient performance. Particularly, the enhanced frontal midline EEG activity in older adults during working memory performance seems to reflect inefficient use of neural resources due to frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:23667658

  15. The relationship between P3 amplitude and working memory performance differs in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M; Maurits, Natasha M

    2013-01-01

    While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older healthy adults during performance on an n-back task with two loads (0- and 1-back) and two versions (identity and integrated). Young adults showed a typical P3 amplitude pattern with a parietal-maximum. Compared to young adults, the P3 amplitude of older adults was characterized by frontal hyperactivity coupled with posterior hypoactivity. Moreover, P3 amplitude in young and older adults varied with working memory performance efficiency. Among young adults, more efficient performance correlated with a larger P3 amplitude at parietal sites. In contrast, a higher P3 amplitude at midline electrode sites in older adults correlated with less efficient performance. Particularly, the enhanced frontal midline EEG activity in older adults during working memory performance seems to reflect inefficient use of neural resources due to frontal lobe dysfunction.

  16. Differences Among Patients That Make Their Tinnitus Worse or Better

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Richard S.; Ji, Haihong; Coelho, Claudia; Gogel, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to identify activities that influence tinnitus and to determine if conditional probabilities exist among such variables. Method Two hundred fifty-eight patients were asked the following two questions: “When you have your tinnitus, which of the following makes it worse?” and “Which of the following reduces your tinnitus?” Results Things that made tinnitus better included noise (31%) and relaxation (15%). Things that made tinnitus worse included being in a quiet place (48%), stress (36%), being in a noisy place (32%), and lack of sleep (27%). Almost 6% of patients suggested coffee/tea and 4% said certain foods made their tinnitus worse. Conditional probabilities indicated that for those whose tinnitus is not worse in quiet, it is usually not reduced by noise. For those whose tinnitus is not worse in noise, it is usually not reduced in quiet. Conclusion There are dramatic differences among patients. Such differences need to be considered in planning treatments. PMID:26649850

  17. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  18. ABCs or 123s? The independent contributions of literacy and numeracy skills on health task performance among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; Curtis, Laura M.; O’Conor, Rachel; Federman, Alex D.; Wolf, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between literacy and numeracy and their association with health task performance. Methods Older adults (n = 304) completed commonly used measures of literacy and numeracy. Single factor literacy and numeracy scores were calculated and used to predict performance on an established set of health self-management tasks, including: (i) responding to spoken information; (ii) comprehension of print and (iii) multimedia information; and (iv) organizing and dosing medication. Total and sub-scale scores were calculated. Results Literacy and numeracy measures were highly correlated (rs = 0.68; ps < 0.001). In multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and comorbidity, lower literacy (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) and numeracy (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) were independently associated with worse overall task performance and all sub-scales (literacy range, β = 0.23–0.45, ps < 0.001; numeracy range, β = 0.31–0.41, ps < 0.001). Multivariable analyses with both constructs entered explained more variance in overall health task performance compared with separate literacy and numeracy models (8.2% and 10% respectively, ps < 0.001). Conclusion Literacy and numeracy were highly correlated, but independent predictors of health task performance. These skill sets are complementary and both are important for health self-management. Practice implications Self-management interventions may be more effective if they consider both literacy and numeracy skills rather than focusing on one specific ability. PMID:25936579

  19. Can executive control be influenced by performance feedback? Two experimental studies with younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Drueke, Barbara; Boecker, Maren; Mainz, Verena; Gauggel, Siegfried; Mungard, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Executive control describes a wide range of cognitive processes which are critical for the goal-directed regulation of stimulus processing and action regulation. Previous studies have shown that executive control performance declines with age but yet, it is still not clear whether different internal and external factors—as performance feedback and age—influence these cognitive processes and how they might interact with each other. Therefore, we investigated feedback effects in the flanker task in young as well as in older adults in two experiments. Performance feedback significantly improved executive performance in younger adults at the expense of errors. In older adults, feedback also led to higher error rates, but had no significant effect on executive performance which might be due to stronger interference. Results indicate that executive functions can be positively influenced by performance feedback in younger adults, but not necessarily in older adults. PMID:22529793

  20. The disruptive - and beneficial - effects of distraction on older adults' cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults' decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction can actually facilitate older adults' performance when the distraction is congruent with the target information. For example, congruent distraction can speed response times, increase reading comprehension, benefit problem solving, and reduce forgetting in older adults. We review data showing that incongruent distraction can harm older adults' performance, as well as evidence suggesting that congruent distraction can play a supportive role for older adults by facilitating processing of target information. Potential applications of distraction processing are also discussed.

  1. Policy to Performance: State ABE Transition Systems Report. Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Policy to Performance project was funded in 2009 to build the capacity of state adult basic education (ABE) staff to develop and implement policies and practices that would support an ABE transition system. Policy to Performance states were selected though a competitive process. State adult education…

  2. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    PubMed

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy. PMID:27156177

  3. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    PubMed

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy.

  4. Do Adult Phenotypes Reflect Selection on Juvenile Performance? A Comparative Study on Performance and Morphology in Lizards.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Lopez-Darias, Marta; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Cornette, Raphaël; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Brandt, Renata

    2016-09-01

    When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues may constrain performance during early ontogenetic stages. However, juveniles must feed before they can become reproductively active adults and as such the adult phenotype may be the result of an ontogenetic filter imposing selection on juvenile phenotype and performance. Here we present ontogenetic data on head morphology and bite force for different lizard species. We test whether adults reflect selection on juveniles by comparing slopes of growth trajectories before and after sexual maturity in males and females and by examining the variance in head morphology and bite force in juveniles versus adults. Finally, we also present the first results of a selection study where animals were measured, marked and released, and recaptured the subsequent year to test whether head morphology and bite force impact survival. PMID:27400973

  5. Visual Performance of Adults with Prelingual Auditory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld, S.; Spiering, M.; Rotteveel, M.; van Beest, I.

    2004-01-01

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese…

  6. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  7. Design for a Performance Based Adult Education Community Coordinating Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    A plan is described for a project to establish an adult education coordinating and change agency in the New Haven, Connecticut area to coordinate activities of existing organizations; provide a research staff to establish a computerized data base; disseminate information and provide technological services to local agencies; set up a communications…

  8. Hammond Workforce 2000: Literacy for Older Adults. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond Public Library, IN.

    From October 1993 to September 1994, a project provided equipment and materials to extend literacy efforts to older adults at the Hammond Public Library, Indiana. Notebook computers containing user-friendly software, used in coordination with the local Laubach Literacy Program, as well as books, audiocassettes, videocassettes, and BiFolkal media…

  9. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  10. Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle–Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; La Rue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle–aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease–sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, gray matter volume, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were acquired in 372 participants at baseline and a consecutive subset of 121 individuals ~4 years later. Voxel-based morphometry and tensor-based morphometry were used, respectively, to test the association of insulin resistance with baseline brain volume and progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS Higher insulin resistance predicted less gray matter at baseline and 4 years later in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortices, precuneus, and other parietal gyri. A region-of-interest analysis, independent of the voxel-wise analyses, confirmed that higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle–aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe. PMID:23069842

  11. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  12. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  13. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  14. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  15. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  16. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  17. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  18. Comparison of Pediatric and Adult Tonsillectomies Performed by Thermal Welding System

    PubMed Central

    Ersözlü, Tolga; Yıldırım, Yavuz Selim; Sarica, Selman

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare pediatric and adult age groups in terms of postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by thermal welding system (TWS). Method. The study consisted of 213 patients, of whom 178 were children and 35 were adults. The mean age of the pediatric patients (81 girls and 97 females) was 6.7 ± 2.4 years (range 3–13 years) and the mean age of the adults (20 males and 15 females) was 21.8 ± 7.07 years (range 15–41 years). All of the patients were evaluated in terms of postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by TWS. Results. Bleeding was detected in the late postoperative period in 11 pediatric and 7 adult patients and of them 2 pediatric and 3 adult patients controlled under general. Postoperative bleeding was significantly less prevalent in the pediatric age group compared to the adult age group (P = 0.04). Likewise, postoperative pain was significantly less prevalent in the pediatric age group as compared to the adult age group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Both postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by TWS were more prevalent in the adult age group compared to the pediatric age group. PMID:24369468

  19. Neural correlates associated with successful working memory performance in older adults as revealed by spatial ICA.

    PubMed

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M; Maurits, Natasha M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in the more complex task condition. This 'BOLD-performance' relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition [corrected].Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly.

  20. Symbol-string sensitivity and adult performance in lexical decision.

    PubMed

    Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Cooper, Charity; Hansen, Peter C; Cornelissen, Piers L

    2005-09-01

    In this study of adult readers, we used a symbol-string task to assess participants' sensitivity to the position of briefly presented, non-alphabetic but letter-like symbols. We found that sensitivity in this task explained a significant proportion of sample variance in visual lexical decision. Based on a number of controls, we show that this relationship cannot be explained by other factors including: chronological age, intelligence, speed of processing and/or concentration, short term memory consolidation, or fixation stability. This approach represents a new way to elucidate how, and to what extent, individual variation in pre-orthographic visual and cognitive processes impinge on reading skills, and the results suggest that limitations set by visuo-spatial processes constrain visual word recognition. PMID:16098378

  1. Learning vs. Performance: Implications for the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John

    Goal setting is a dispositional trait that influences motivation to learn and to perform. Individuals with a Performing (or Proving) Goal Orientation are characterized by a desire to please authority figures, the belief that personal abilities are stable and unchanging, and a tendency to become frustrated and give up quickly when faced by…

  2. Drink Availability is Associated with Enhanced Examination Performance in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Chris; Gardner, Mark R.; Doherty, Sarah; Martin, Laura; Soares, Rute; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    While dehydration has negative effects on memory and attention, few studies have investigated whether drinking water can enhance cognitive performance, and none have addressed this in a real-world setting. In this study we explored the potential benefits of the availability of water for undergraduates. The exam performance of students who brought…

  3. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  4. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  5. Early venous thromboembolic events are associated with worse prognosis in patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kourelis, Taxiarchis V.; Wysokinska, Ewa M; Wang, Yi; Yang, Ping; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are a leading cause of death in cancer patients. We hypothesized that early VTE (EVTE, within 3 months of diagnosis) in patients with lung cancer (LC) are associated with worse overall survival (OS). Materials and methods We identified 727 patients with LC between 1998 and 2011. Late VTE (LVTE) were defined as VTE occurring after 3 months from LC diagnosis. Advance disease (AD) was defined as patients with Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and non-advanced disease (non-AD) was defined as ≤ Stage III NSCLC or limited stage SCLC. Results Out of 727 patients included in our review, 617 patients had NSCLC (85%), 94 (13%) SCLC, and 16 (2%) low grade neuroendocrine tumors. Ninety five patients (13%) experienced VTE, 44 (6%) experienced an EVTE and 49 (7%) had a LVTE. Patients with an EVTE had worse OS when compared to all other patients (medians 4 vs. 17 months, p < 0.0001). EVTE were associated with worse OS in patients with non-AD (medians 12 vs. 42 months, p = 0.01) and AD (medians 4 vs. 6 months, p = 0.02). When considering patients with NSCLC only, in a multivariate model that included age, stage, performance status > 2, administration of chemotherapy and Charlson comorbidity index, EVTE were an independent predictor of increased mortality (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6–3.3). Conclusions EVTE are associated with worse OS, irrespective of stage of the disease. Our findings underscore the need for an efficient preventive strategy for VTE among patients with lung cancer. PMID:25453848

  6. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables.

  7. Drawing to remember: external support of older adults' eyewitness performance.

    PubMed

    Dando, Coral J

    2013-01-01

    Although healthy aging is accompanied by a general decline in memory functioning, environmental support at retrieval can improve older adults' (+65 years) episodic remembering. Despite those over the age of 65 years representing a growing proportion of the population, few environmental retrieval support methods have been empirically evaluated for use with older witnesses and victims of crime. Here, the efficacy of a novel retrieval technique, the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context, is compared with a standard Mental Reinstatement of Context and a no support control (Control). Fifty-one participants witnessed an unexpected live event, and 48 hours later were interviewed using one of three aforementioned techniques. In line with predictions emanating from cognitive theories of aging and the environmental support hypothesis, participants in the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context condition recalled significantly more correct information and fewer inaccurate items. The Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context technique appears to scaffold memory retrieval in an age-appropriate manner during a post-event interview, possibly by encouraging more effortful retrieval and reducing dual-task load. As such, this procedure offers an effective alternative to current approaches, adding to the toolbox of techniques available to forensic and other interviewers.

  8. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues. PMID:26208404

  9. Adult performance on the Southern California Kinesthesis and Tactile Perception Tests.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y T; Nelson, D L

    1981-12-01

    Researchers and clinicians working with various adult populations have no practical, complete, reliable, and valid method of measuring the tactile and kinesthetic functions of their clients. This study gathers preliminary normative information on the performance of adults on the Southern California Kinesthesia and Tactile Tests. Fifty-one normal men and women with a mean age of 26 years were administered the Kinesthesia, Manual Form Perception, Finger Indentification, Graphesthesia, Localization of Tactile Stimuli, and Double Tactile Stimuli Tests in the order in which they were standardized. Test-retest reliability was studied in 41 of these subjects. Results indicated that the assessment of normal adults was hampered by ceiling effects and by low reliability, but that these six tests might well serve a useful function in discriminating between relatively severe dysfunction and normal function in adults. Suggestions were made toward the development of new measurement instruments specifically designed for adults.

  10. A Reanalysis of Cognitive-Functional Performance in Older Adults: Investigating the Interaction Between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Ávila, Rafaela T.; Cintra, Marco T. G.; Diniz, Breno S.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive-functional impairment in normal aging older adults (NA). However, less is known about this effect on people with mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We investigated this relationship along with the NA-MCI-AD continuum by reanalyzing a previously published dataset. Participants (N = 274) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of Executive Function, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Visuospatial Abilities, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. MANOVA, logistic regression and chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between depression and cognitive-functional performance in each group. In the NA group, depressed participants had a lower performance compared to non-depressed participants in all cognitive and functional domains. However, the same pattern was not observed in the MCI group or in AD. The results suggest a progressive loss of association between depression and worse cognitive-functional performance along the NA-MCI-AD continuum. PMID:26858666

  11. NCSALL Study Circle Guide: Performance Accountability in Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2000

    2000-01-01

    This guide provides step-by-step instructions to facilitate a multi-session study circle for practitioners on the topic of accountability. Practitioners will read and analyze research and discuss how to apply it in their classrooms and programs. In the first session, the Study Circle group will examine the concept of performance accountability in…

  12. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  13. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target).

  14. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  15. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  16. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  17. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; p<0.01). Moreover, the initial increase in SFA vascular conductance from rest to exercise was positively correlated with the change in walking speed for all adults (rho=0.41, p=0.005). In conclusion, these results suggest that calf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. PMID:24786722

  18. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  19. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  20. Fates worse than death: the role of valued life activities in health-state evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ditto, P H; Druley, J A; Moore, K A; Danks, J H; Smucker, W D

    1996-09-01

    One hundred eight college students (Study 1) and 109 elderly adults (Study 2) rated 28 health impairments for the quality of life perceived to be possible in that state, the extent to which the state was perceived as a fate better or worse than death, and the extent to which the state was perceived to interfere with the ability to engage in the activities each individual valued most in life. States perceived most negatively were those perceived to interfere most with valued life activities. For any given health state, evaluations were more negative the more the state was perceived by individuals as likely to interfere with engagement in their valued life activities. Implications of these results for end-of-life medical decision making in general and the use of advance medical directives in particular are discussed. PMID:8891712

  1. Goal-setting, self-efficacy, and memory performance in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    West, R L; Thorn, R M

    2001-01-01

    Research in field and laboratory settings has shown that goals lead to improved self-efficacy and performance, especially when individuals also receive positive feedback. The present study extended goal-setting theory to examine self-set goals and feedback in relation to younger and older adults' memory performance and self-efficacy. Following a baseline recall trial, participants completed three shopping list recall trials. Half of the participants were instructed to set goals for the three experimental trials, and half in each goal condition received performance feedback after each trial. Young adults' self-efficacy, clustering, and recall exceeded that of older adults. Goal setting increased self-efficacy for younger but not older adults, and it did not affect performance. Younger adults and participants in the feedback condition increased their goals across trials, as did participants for whom feedback indicated success. These data provide a first look at the motivational impact of feedback and self-set recall goals in memory aging. Additional study is needed to understand the interactive effects of type of feedback, memory task difficulty, and type of goal setting at different ages.

  2. From Grapheme to Phonological Output: Performance of Adults Who Stutter on a Word Jumble Task

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megann; Sussman, Harvey; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task. Method Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category) were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT). Results Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter), SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls. Conclusion Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter. PMID:26963917

  3. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

  4. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10–20 min sleep) or long nap (50–70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  5. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10-20 min sleep) or long nap (50-70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  6. When two heads are better than one and when they can be worse: The amplification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher

    2015-10-01

    According to the self-consistency model (Koriat, 2012a), confidence judgments in the responses to 2-alternative forced-choice items are correlated with the consensuality of the responses rather than with their correctness: For consensually correct (CC) items, for which the majority response is correct, accuracy is higher for the correct answer than for the wrong answer, whereas for consensually wrong items (CW), confidence is higher for the wrong answer. Assuming that group decisions are dominated by the more confident members, a maximum confidence slating (MCS) algorithm that was applied to virtual dyads outperformed the better member for CC items, but yielded worse performance than the worse member for CW items (Koriat, 2012b). We examined whether group deliberation also amplifies the tendencies that are exhibited by individual decisions, or rather improves performance for both CC and CW items. A perceptual task and a general-information task yielded very similar results. MCS applied to the individual decisions yielded a similar amplification as in Koriat (2012b), but dyadic interaction accentuated this amplification further. Thus, group deliberation had an added effect over confidence-based judgments, possibly due to the exchange of arguments within a dyad, but both confidence slating and group deliberation affected performance in the same direction, improving accuracy when individual accuracy was better than chance, but impairing it when individual accuracy was below chance. Notably, for CW items, group interaction not only impaired accuracy but also enhanced confidence in the erroneous decisions. The mechanisms underlying consensual amplifications were discussed.

  7. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  8. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults.

  9. For the Arts To Have Meaning...A Model of Adult Education in Performing Arts Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitinoja, L.; Heimlich, J. E.

    A model of adult education appears to function in the outreach programs of three Columbus (Ohio) performing arts organizations. The first tier represents the arts organization's board of trustees, and the second represents the internal administration of the company. Two administrative bodies are arbitrarily labelled as education and marketing,…

  10. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  11. The Relationship of Group Structure, Task Performance, and Leadership Recognition Among Adult Basic Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gordon A.

    A study investigated the relationship between group structure and leader recognition and compared task performance with group structure and leader recognition to obtain a better understanding of the adult basic education participant. Fifteen women were randomly assigned to three groups and each given a list of six symbols. Their task was to…

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  13. Performance of Mentally Retarded Adults on the Tower of Hanoi Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waeber, Alexandre; Lambert, Jean-Luc

    1987-01-01

    The study examined cognitive strategies of 21 moderately and severely retarded adults in a simplified Tower of Hanoi problem. Modification of the basic problem by reducing the number of rules and presenting the goal configuration resulted in successful performance during the first training session by 13 subjects. (DB)

  14. Load Modulation of BOLD Response and Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Irene E.; Preuschhof, Claudia; Li, Shu-Chen; Nyberg, Lars; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) performance have rarely been related to individual differences in the functional responsivity of the WM brain network. By neglecting person-to-person variation, comparisons of network activity between younger and older adults using functional imaging techniques often confound differences in activity…

  15. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  16. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

  17. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in home-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tuntland, Hanne; Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Langeland, Eva; Espehaug, Birgitte; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) is an occupational therapy instrument designed to help participants identify, prioritize, and evaluate performance of important occupations. Objective To investigate the validity, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility of the COPM when used by various health professions in home-dwelling older adults receiving reablement. Reablement is a new form of multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation for older adults experiencing functional decline. Participants and methods The sample of 225 participants, mean age 80.8 years, who were in need of rehabilitation for various health conditions were included in the study. Data collection was conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks follow-up. The COSMIN guidelines and recommendations for evaluating methodological quality were followed. Results Content validity, construct validity, and feasibility were found to be adequate. Responsiveness, however, was moderate. Functional mobility was the most frequently prioritized occupational category of all. Regarding interpretability, the minimal important change was 3.0 points and 3.2 points for performance and satisfaction, respectively. The older adults reported that COPM was a useful and manageable instrument. The majority of the occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and nurses reported that they had the required expertise to conduct the COPM assessments. Conclusion The results support the multidisciplinary use of the COPM in clinical practice and research in a home-dwelling, heterogeneous population of older adults. Based on the findings, 3 points are recommended as a cutoff point to distinguish between older adults who have a minimal important change in COPM performance and COPM satisfaction and those who have not.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in home-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tuntland, Hanne; Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Langeland, Eva; Espehaug, Birgitte; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) is an occupational therapy instrument designed to help participants identify, prioritize, and evaluate performance of important occupations. Objective To investigate the validity, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility of the COPM when used by various health professions in home-dwelling older adults receiving reablement. Reablement is a new form of multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation for older adults experiencing functional decline. Participants and methods The sample of 225 participants, mean age 80.8 years, who were in need of rehabilitation for various health conditions were included in the study. Data collection was conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks follow-up. The COSMIN guidelines and recommendations for evaluating methodological quality were followed. Results Content validity, construct validity, and feasibility were found to be adequate. Responsiveness, however, was moderate. Functional mobility was the most frequently prioritized occupational category of all. Regarding interpretability, the minimal important change was 3.0 points and 3.2 points for performance and satisfaction, respectively. The older adults reported that COPM was a useful and manageable instrument. The majority of the occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and nurses reported that they had the required expertise to conduct the COPM assessments. Conclusion The results support the multidisciplinary use of the COPM in clinical practice and research in a home-dwelling, heterogeneous population of older adults. Based on the findings, 3 points are recommended as a cutoff point to distinguish between older adults who have a minimal important change in COPM performance and COPM satisfaction and those who have not. PMID:27621647

  20. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions.

  1. Does strategic memory training improve the working memory performance of younger and older adults?

    PubMed

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; De Beni, Rossana

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of strategic training on the performance of younger and older adults in an immediate list-recall and a working memory task. The experimental groups of younger and older adults received three sessions of memory training, teaching the use of mental images to improve the memorization of word lists. In contrast, the control groups were not instructed to use any particular strategy, but they were requested to carry out the memory exercises. The results showed that strategic training improved performance of both the younger and older experimental groups in the immediate list recall and in the working memory task. Of particular interest, the improvement in working memory performance of the older experimental group was comparable to that of the younger experimental group.

  2. Moderators of and Mechanisms underlying Stereotype Threat Effects on Older Adults' Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Thomas M.; Hinson, Joey T.; Hodges, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that negative stereotypes about aging may have a detrimental influence on older adults' memory performance. This study sought to determine whether stereotype-based influences were moderated by age, education, and concerns about being stigmatized. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on memory performance were also explored. The memory performance of adults aged 60 to 70 years and 71 to 82 years was examined under conditions designed to induce or eliminate stereotype threat. Threat was found to have a greater impact on performance in the young-old than in the old-old group, whereas the opposite was observed for the effects of stigma consciousness. In both cases, the effects were strongest for those with higher levels of education. Further analyses found little evidence in support of the mediating roles of affective responses or working memory. The only evidence of mediation was found with respect to recall predictions, suggesting a motivational basis of threat effects on performance. These findings highlight the specificity of stereotype threat effects in later adults as well as possible mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:19280445

  3. Augmenting mirror visual feedback-induced performance improvements in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Rjosk, Viola; Sehm, Bernhard; Steele, Christopher J; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that age-related behavioral alterations are not irreversible but are subject to amelioration through specific training interventions. Both training paradigms and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can be used to modulate age-related brain alterations and thereby influence behavior. It has been shown that mirror visual feedback (MVF) during motor skill training improves performance of the trained and untrained hands in young adults. The question remains of whether MVF also improves motor performance in older adults and how performance improvements can be optimised via NIBS. Here, we sought to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) can be used to augment MVF-induced performance improvements in manual dexterity. We found that older adults receiving a-tDCS over the right primary motor cortex (M1) during MVF showed superior performance improvements of the (left) untrained hand relative to sham stimulation. An additional control experiment in participants receiving a-tDCS over the right M1 only (without MVF/motor training of the right hand) revealed no significant behavioral gains in the left (untrained) hand. On the basis of these findings, we propose that combining a-tDCS with MVF might be relevant for future clinical studies that aim to optimise the outcome of neurorehabilitation. PMID:25912048

  4. Better or Worse than Expected? Aging, Learning, and the ERN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppinger, Ben; Kray, Jutta; Mock, Barbara; Mecklinger, Axel

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age differences in error processing and reinforcement learning. We were interested in whether the electrophysiological correlates of error processing, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the feedback-related negativity (FRN), reflect learning-related changes in younger and older adults. To do so, we applied a probabilistic…

  5. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  6. Thermal acclimation of locomotor performance in tadpoles and adults of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R S; James, R S; Johnston, I A

    2000-03-01

    Among amphibians, the ability to compensate for the effects of temperature on the locomotor system by thermal acclimation has only been reported in larvae of a single species of anuran. All other analyses have examined predominantly terrestrial adult life stages of amphibians and found no evidence of thermal acclimatory capacity. We examined the ability of both tadpoles and adults of the fully aquatic amphibian Xenopus laevis to acclimate their locomotor system to different temperatures. Tadpoles were acclimated to either 12 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 4 weeks and their burst swimming performance was assessed at four temperatures between 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Adult X. laevis were acclimated to either 10 degrees C or 25 degrees C for 6 weeks and their burst swimming performance and isolated muscle performance was determined at six temperatures between 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Maximum swimming performance of cold-acclimated X. laevis tadpoles was greater at cool temperatures and lower at the highest temperature in comparison with the warm-acclimated animals. At the test temperature of 12 degrees C, maximum swimming velocity of tadpoles acclimated to 12 degrees C was 38% higher than the 30 degrees C-acclimation group, while at 30 degrees C, maximum swimming velocity of the 30 degrees C-acclimation group was 41% faster than the 12 degrees C-acclimation group. Maximum swimming performance of adult X. laevis acclimated to 10 degrees C was also higher at the lower temperatures than the 25 degrees C acclimated animals, but there was no difference between the treatment groups at higher temperatures. When tested at 10 degrees C, maximum swimming velocity of the 10 degrees C-acclimation group was 67% faster than the 25 degrees C group. Isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibres from adult X. laevis acclimated to 10 degrees C produced higher relative tetanic tensions and decreased relaxation times at 10 degrees C in comparison with animals acclimated to 25 degrees C

  7. Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

  8. Autonomic regulation predicts performance on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Jetha, Michelle K; Goldberg, Joel O; Schmidt, Louis A

    2012-12-01

    Although executive functions have been associated with autonomic regulatory capacity in healthy adults, there appear to be no reports of these relations in adults with schizophrenia to date. We tested whether baseline autonomic regulation was associated with performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in a group of 42 stable community outpatients with schizophrenia. Patients exhibited faster resting heart rates and lower respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) than age-matched controls, consistent with previous research. Patients also completed relatively few WCST categories and made many perseverative errors, replicating prior studies. Within the patient group, relatively better WCST performance was associated with slower resting heart rate and higher RSA, suggesting that inefficient executive and autonomic functioning in schizophrenia may be linked. WCST performance and autonomic regulatory capacity were further reduced in a subset of patients receiving clozapine, but relations between WCST performance and autonomic regulatory parameters did not differ from those of other patients. Findings extend the neurovisceral integration model of autonomic regulation to adults with schizophrenia and attest to the reliability of the model.

  9. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  10. Neurobehavioral Performance in Young Adults Living on a 28-h Day for 6 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Wang, Wei; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Scheuermaier, Karine D.; Cain, Sean W.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Performance on many cognitive tasks varies with time awake and with circadian phase, and the forced desynchrony (FD) protocol can be used to separate these influences on performance. Some performance tasks show practice effects, whereas the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) has been reported not to show such effects. We aimed to compare performance on the PVT and on an addition test (ADD) across a 6-week FD study, to determine whether practice effects were present and to analyze the circadian and wake-dependent modulation of the 2 measures. Design and Setting: A 47-day FD study conducted at the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eleven healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 years, 2 women). Measurements and Results: For 2 baseline days and across 6 weeks of FD, we gave a test battery (ADD, PVT, self-rating of effort and performance) every 2 hours. During FD, there was a significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in ADD performance (more correct calculations completed), whereas PVT performance (mean reaction time, fastest 10% reaction times, lapses) significantly (P < 0.0001) declined week by week. Subjective ratings of PVT performance indicated that subjects felt their performance improved across the study (P < 0.0001), but their rating of whether they could have performed better with greater effort did not change across the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The decline in PVT performance suggests a cumulative effect of sleep loss across the 6-week study. Subjects did not accurately detect their declining PVT performance, and a motivational factor could not explain this decline. Citation: Lee JH; Wang W; Silva EJ; Chang AM; Scheuermaier KD; Cain SW; Duffy JF. Neurobehavioral performance in young adults living on a 28-h day for 6 weeks. SLEEP 2009;32(7):905-913. PMID:19639753

  11. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Pillai, Sharmila GK; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. Methods One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Results Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=−0.33), and FRT (r=−0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). Conclusion The

  12. Vomiting and Hyponatremia Are Risk Factors for Worse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized Due to Nonsurgical Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Idan; Israel, Ariel; Carmel-neiderman, Narin n.; Kliers, Iris; Gringauz, Irina; Dagan, Amir; Lavi, Bruno; Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After initial evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), many patients complaining of abdominal pain are classified as suffering from nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP). Clinical characteristics and risk factors for worse prognosis were not published elsewhere. Characterizing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized due to NSAP and identifying predictor variables for worse clinical outcomes. We made a retrospective cohort analysis of patients hospitalized due to NSAP compared to matched control patients (for age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index) hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons in a ratio of 1 to 10. We further performed in-group analysis of patients admitted due to NSAP in order to appreciate variables (clinical and laboratory parameters) potentially associated with worse clinical outcomes. Overall 23,584 patients were included, of which 2144 were admitted due to NSAP and 21,440 were matched controls. Patients admitted due to NSAP had overall better clinical outcomes: they had lower rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality (2.8% vs 5.5% and 7.9% vs 10.4% respectively, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). They also had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (3.9 vs 6.2 days, P < 0.001). Rates of re-hospitalization within 30-days were not significantly different between study groups. Among patients hospitalized due to NSAP, we found that vomiting or hyponatremia at presentation or during hospital stay were associated with worse clinical outcomes. Compared to patients hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons, the overall prognosis of patients admitted due to NSAP is favorable. The combination of NSAP with vomiting and hyponatremia is associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:27057886

  13. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  14. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  15. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  16. Hippocampal (subfield) volume and shape in relation to cognitive performance across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Winterburn, Julie L; Felsky, Daniel; Pipitone, Jon; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2015-08-01

    Newer approaches to characterizing hippocampal morphology can provide novel insights regarding cognitive function across the lifespan. We comprehensively assessed the relationships among age, hippocampal morphology, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in 137 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (18-86 years of age). They underwent MRI, cognitive assessments and genotyping for Apolipoprotein E status. We measured hippocampal subfield volumes using a new multiatlas segmentation tool (MAGeT-Brain) and assessed vertex-wise (inward and outward displacements) and global surface-based descriptions of hippocampus morphology. We examined the effects of age on hippocampal morphology, as well as the relationship among age, hippocampal morphology, and episodic and working memory performance. Age and volume were modestly correlated across hippocampal subfields. Significant patterns of inward and outward displacement in hippocampal head and tail were associated with age. The first principal shape component of the left hippocampus, characterized by a lengthening of the antero-posterior axis was prominently associated with working memory performance across the adult lifespan. In contrast, no significant relationships were found among subfield volumes and cognitive performance. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal shape plays a unique and important role in hippocampal-dependent cognitive aging across the adult lifespan, meriting consideration as a biomarker in strategies targeting the delay of cognitive aging.

  17. Moderators of and mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Hinson, Joey T; Hodges, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that negative stereotypes about aging may have a detrimental influence on older adults' memory performance. This study sought to determine whether stereotype-based influences were moderated by age, education, and concerns about being stigmatized. Possible mechanisms underlying these influences on memory performance were also explored. The memory performance of adults aged 60 to 70 years and 71 to 82 years was examined under conditions designed to induce or eliminate stereotype threat. Threat was found to have a greater impact on performance in the young-old than in the old-old group, whereas the opposite was observed for the effects of stigma consciousness. In both cases, the effects were strongest for those with higher levels of education. Further analyses found little evidence in support of the mediating roles of affective responses or working memory. The only evidence of mediation was found with respect to recall predictions, suggesting a motivational basis of threat effects on performance. These findings highlight the specificity of stereotype threat effects in later adulthood as well as possible mechanisms underlying such effects.

  18. Association between educational status and dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.

  19. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  20. Changes in Cognitive Performance Are Associated with Changes in Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Hall, Martica H; Nebes, Robert D; Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sleep features associated with cognition in older adults and examined whether sleep changes following insomnia treatment were associated with cognitive improvements. Polysomnography and cognition (recall, working memory, and reasoning) were assessed before and after an insomnia intervention (Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia [BBTI] or information control [IC]) in 77 older adults with insomnia. Baseline wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO) was associated with recall. Greater NREM (nonrapid eye movement) delta power and lower NREM sigma power were associated with greater working memory and reasoning. The insomnia intervention did not improve performance. However, increased absolute delta power and decreased relative sigma power were associated with improved reasoning. Findings suggest that improvements in executive function may occur with changes in NREM architecture.

  1. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings. PMID:25520209

  2. For Better or Worse: Young Adults' Opportunity Beliefs and Motivational Self-Regulation during Career Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' motivational self-regulatory system is challenged as they cross the transition from school to work. Using data from a longitudinal study of participants approaching and crossing university graduation (n = 140), we examine the ways in which individuals' motivational strategies reflect and direct their career-related opportunity field.…

  3. Absence of cross-limb transfer of performance gains following ballistic motor practice in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Mark R; Schmidt, Matthew W; Garry, Michael I; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of cross-limb transfer, in which unilateral strength training can result in bilateral strength gains, has recently been tested for ballistic movements. Performance gains associated with repetitive motor practice, and the associated transfer, occur within a few minutes. In this study, young and older adults were trained to perform ballistic abductions of their dominant (right) index finger as quickly as possible. Performance was assessed bilaterally before, during, and after this training. Both groups exhibited large performance gains in the right hand as a result of training (P < 0.001; young 84% improvement, older 70% improvement), which were not significantly different between groups (P = 0.40). Transcranial magnetic stimulation revealed that the performance improvements were accompanied by increases in excitability, together with decreases in intracortical inhibition, of the projections to both the trained muscle and the homologous muscle in the contralateral limb (P < 0.05). The young group also exhibited performance improvements as a result of cross-limb transfer in the left (untrained) hand (P < 0.005), equivalent to 75% of the performance increase in the trained hand. In contrast, there were no significant performance gains in the left hand for the older group (P = 0.23). This was surprising given that the older group exhibited a significantly greater degree of mirror activity than the young group (P < 0.01) in the left first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) during right hand movements. Our findings suggest that older adults exhibit a reduced capacity for cross-limb transfer, which may have implications for motor rehabilitation programs after stroke.

  4. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  5. The Ecology of Human Performance Framework: A Model for Identifying and Designing Appropriate Accommodations for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Winnie; Gilbert, Mary Pat; Parker, Kathy

    This paper proposes a model framework, The Ecology of Human Performance (EHP) framework, for organizing adult basic education to utilize the skills of occupational therapists. The paper also includes two responses to the proposed framework by Janet S. Stotts and Cheryl Keenan. Reasons for the inclusion of occupational therapy in adult education…

  6. "Watch up!": A Study of Verbal Routines in Adult Second Language Performance. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarcella, Robin C.

    This report shows that verbal routines are not easily acquired by adult second language learners and it identifies some of the specific problems they have in acquiring routines. Empirical data concerning the role of verbal routines, (that is, fixed expressions which have been acquired as memorized wholes), in adult second language performance are…

  7. Co-Constructional Task Analysis: Moving beyond Adult-Based Models to Assess Young Children's Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of young children's thinking competence in task performances has typically followed the novice-to-expert regimen involving models of strategies that adults use when engaged in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and decision-making. Socio-constructivists argue for a balanced pedagogical approach between the adult and child…

  8. Goal Setting as a Facilitator of Work Performance of Retarded Adults and College Students Differing in Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David C.; Warren, Sue Allen

    One experiment investigated the relationship of goal setting and locus of control to the work performance of mentally retarded adults and a second experiment was a semi-replication study done on college adults. Two main effects were studied: (1) Method of goal setting (whether a worker set his own goal, had a goal set by a supervisor, or simply…

  9. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  10. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  11. Instructions and skill level influence reliability of dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Grewal, Gurtej; Najafi, Bijan; Ballard, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the trial-to-trial repeatability of dual-task performance and establish the minimal detectable change (MDC95) of gait-related dual-task interference. Thirty-one healthy young adults (22.5, SD 2.1 years) performed texting and walking tasks in isolation (single-task) and in combination (dual-task). The dual-task was repeated with three different instructional sets regarding how attention should be prioritized (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in two different environments (low-distraction, high-distraction). Participants performed two trials for each condition. Trial-to-trial repeatability of gait speed, texting speed, texting accuracy, and the relative dual-task effects (DTE) on each was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement. MDC95 scores were also computed for each performance measure. Among young adults, reliability of gait speed in a challenging dual-task situation is excellent, even in a high-distraction environment. In the absence of specific task prioritization instructions, changes in dual-task gait speed greater than 0.15m/s or 11.9% DTE represent real change. Reliability of the more novel, non-gait task has poor to good reliability. Dual-task effects are more reliable when participants are given specific instructions about how to prioritize their attention. The findings also suggest that reliability of dual-task performance in a novel or challenging task is greater when individuals are more skilled at the task. Implications for clinical assessment of dual-task performance are discussed. PMID:25891529

  12. The Impact of Moderate Intensity Physical Activity on Cardiac Structure and Performance in Older Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suboc, Tisha B.; Strath, Scott J.; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Harmann, Leanne; Couillard, Allison; Malik, Mobin; Haak, Kristoph; Knabel, Daniel; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary aging leads to adverse changes in vascular function and cardiac performance. We published improvements in vascular function with moderate intensity physical activity (PA) in continuous bouts. Whether moderate intensity PA also impacts cardiac structure and cardiovascular performance of the aging left ventricle (LV) is unknown. Methods We recruited and analyzed results from 102 sedentary older adults ages ≥ 50 from a randomized controlled trial with 3 study groups: control (group 1), a pedometer-only intervention (group 2), or a pedometer with an interactive website employing strategies to increase habitual physical activity (PA, group 3) for 12 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed prior to and following the 12 week intervention period to assess cardiac morphology, left ventricular (LV) systolic performance, LV diastolic function, arterial and LV ventricular elastance. Step count and PA intensity/distribution were measured by pedometer and accelerometer. Results We found no significant changes in cardiac morphology. Further, we found no improvement in the aforementioned cardiac functional parameters. Comparing those who achieved the following benchmarks to those who did not showed no significant changes in cardiac structure or performance: 1)10,000 steps/day, 2) ≥ 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity, or 3) moderate intensity PA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes for ≥ 20 minutes/day Conclusions In sedentary older adults, increasing moderate intensity PA to currently recommend levels does not result in favorable changes in LV morphology or performance over 12 weeks. More prolonged exposure, higher PA intensity, or earlier initiation of PA may be necessary to see benefits. PMID:25530947

  13. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  14. Physical predictors of cognitive performance in healthy older adults: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Scherder, Erik J A; Wieling, Martijn B; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Geuze, Reint H; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender.

  15. Adult progenitor cell transplantation influences contractile performance and calcium handling of recipient cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon; Stagg, Mark A; Fukushima, Satsuki; Soppa, Gopal K R; Siedlecka, Urszula; Youssef, Samuel J; Suzuki, Ken; Yacoub, Magdi H; Terracciano, Cesare M N

    2009-04-01

    Adult progenitor cell transplantation has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure, but the mechanisms effecting functional improvements remain unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in failing hearts treated with cell transplantation, the mechanical properties and excitation-contraction coupling of recipient cardiomyocytes are altered. Adult rats underwent coronary artery ligation, leading to myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. After 3 wk, they received intramyocardial injections of either 10(7) green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive bone marrow mononuclear cells or 5 x 10(6) GFP-positive skeletal myoblasts. Four weeks after injection, both cell types increased ejection fraction and reduced cardiomyocyte size. The contractility of isolated GFP-negative cardiomyocytes was monitored by sarcomere shortening assessment, Ca(2+) handling by indo-1 and fluo-4 fluorescence, and electrophysiology by patch-clamping techniques. Injection of either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts normalized the impaired contractile performance and the prolonged time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient observed in failing cardiomyocytes. The smaller and slower L-type Ca(2+) current observed in heart failure normalized after skeletal myoblast, but not bone marrow cell, transplantation. Measurement of Ca(2+) sparks suggested a normalization of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak after skeletal myoblast transplantation. The increased Ca(2+) wave frequency observed in failing myocytes was reduced by either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts. In conclusion, the morphology, contractile performance, and excitation-contraction coupling of individual recipient cardiomyocytes are altered in failing hearts treated with adult progenitor cell transplantation. PMID:19181964

  16. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  17. Does adult ADHD interact with COMT val (158) met genotype to influence working memory performance?

    PubMed

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Guhn, Anne; Müller, Laura D; Reichert, Susanne; Heupel, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Jacob, Christian P

    2015-03-01

    Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype have been linked to altered dopaminergic transmission and possible impairment in frontal lobe functioning. This study offers an investigation of a possible interaction between ADHD diagnosis and COMT genotype on measures of working memory and executive function. Thirty-five adults with ADHD, who were recruited from the ADHD outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, and thirty-five matched healthy controls completed the Digit Span test and the Stroop Color Word Test. While there were no main effects of ADHD or COMT, the two factors interacted on both Digit Span subtests with the two groups' met/met carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Forward subtest and the val/val carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Backward subtest. Findings provide preliminary support for a differential impact of COMT genotype on working memory measures in adult patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls.

  18. Occupational therapy interventions to improve driving performance in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Golisz, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive and visual function, motor function, driving skills, self-regulation and self-awareness, and the role of passengers and family involvement in the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 29 studies were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) educational interventions including family education, (2) cognitive-perceptual training, (3) interventions addressing physical fitness, (4) simulator training, and (5) behind-the-wheel training. Outcome measures used in the studies included changes in knowledge through speed of processing, physical and cognitive skills predicted to reduce crash risk, simulated driving, and real-world driving. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve older driver performance.

  19. Context, ability, and performance: comparison of competitive athletics among mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded adults.

    PubMed

    Levine, H G; Langness, L L

    1983-03-01

    Setting demands and performance characteristics were compared for mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded basketball players similar in age, playing experience, and general skill level. Observational research was used to study organizational and interactional aspects of competitive games and to record individual and team playing statistics. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess levels of anxiety. Results show that even though the retarded adults studied were ostensibly playing under "normal" conditions, the games were demonstrably different from those played by nonretarded players in terms of physical setting, rules, coaching, and officiating. Retarded players performed under these conditions with significantly higher levels of anxiety and diminished team effectiveness. The broader consequences of competition in the lives of retarded players was examined.

  20. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  1. Dual-task performance in older adults during discrete gait perturbation.

    PubMed

    Nnodim, Joseph O; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2016-04-01

    The dual-task (motor and cognitive) performance of eight older adults (72.0 ± 6.4 years; 5 female; 3 male) was evaluated. Vocal choice reaction times (cognitive task) were measured at standstill as well as during unperturbed and perturbed gait (motor task). The perturbation was administered using customized shoes instrumented to lower a small (18.4 mm high) aluminum flap suddenly under the medial or lateral forefoot during a single swing phase of 12 of 30 gait trials. The ankle inverted or everted an average of 10 or 9 degrees, respectively, depending on the flap deployed. Medial and lateral perturbations were randomized between the left and right feet. The results show that vocal choice reaction time was significantly prolonged by gait, both perturbed (614.7 ± 80.2 ms) and unperturbed (529.9 ± 119.3 ms), compared to standstill (332.8 ± 76.5 ms; p = 0.0015). Further, the prolongation associated with gait perturbation was significant, compared to that with unperturbed gait (p = 0.016). The kinematics of the first post-perturbation (recovery) step, with or without concomitant vocal choice reaction task performance, was not significantly different from those of the average step during unperturbed gait. We conclude that in healthy older adults, the requirement to respond to a gait challenge resulted in deterioration in the performance of a concurrent cognitive task as indicated by significant prolongation of response time in the vocal choice reaction task. In contrast, performance of the motor task was not adversely affected.

  2. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  3. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  4. The Effects of Eight-Month Physical Activity Intervention on Vigilance Performance in Adult Obese Population.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Cristina; Ballester, Rafael; Sanchis, Carlos; Llorens, Francesc; Martín, Marta; Pablos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We aim to analyze the effects of an 8-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and vigilance performance in an adult obese population. We conducted an 8-month physical activity intervention based on dance and rhythmic activities. The weekly frequency was 2 sessions of 1 hr per day. Training sessions were divided into 3 phases: a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of dance and rhythmic activities, and 10 min to cool-down. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness, participants performed a modified version of the 6-min walk test from the Senior Fitness Test battery (Larsson & Mattsson, 2001; Rikli & Jones, 1999). Vigilance performance was measured by means of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Two measurements were performed immediately before and after the intervention. The results revealed that participants improved their cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and vigilance performance after the intervention. All in all, findings contribute new empirical evidence to the field that investigates the benefits of physical activity intervention on cognitive processes in obese population.

  5. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupts aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1-throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  6. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  7. Does injury compensation lead to worse health after whiplash? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Gargett, Susan; Sterling, Michele

    2012-06-01

    One might expect that injury compensation would leave injured parties better off than they would otherwise have been, yet many believe that compensation does more harm than good. This study systematically reviews the evidence on this "compensation hypothesis" in relation to compensable whiplash injuries. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, CCTR, Lexis, and EconLit were searched from the date of their inception to April 2010 to locate longitudinal studies, published in English, comparing the health outcomes of adults exposed/not exposed to compensation-related factors. Studies concerning serious neck injuries, using claimants only, or using proxy measures of health outcomes were excluded. Eleven studies were included. These examined the effect of lawyer involvement, litigation, claim submission, or previous claims on pain and other health outcomes. Among the 16 results reported were 9 statistically significant negative associations between compensation-related factors and health outcomes. Irrespective of the compensation-related factor involved and the health outcome measured, the quality of these studies was similar to studies that did not find a significant negative association: most took some measures to address selection bias, confounding, and measurement bias, and none resolved the potential for reverse causality bias that arises in the relationship between compensation-related factors and health. Unless ambiguous causal pathways are addressed, one cannot draw conclusions from statistical associations, regardless of their statistical significance and the extent of measures to address other sources of bias. Consequently, there is no clear evidence to support the idea that compensation and its related processes lead to worse health.

  8. Accelerometer Adherence and Performance in a Cohort Study of US Hispanic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Deng, Yu; Marshall, Simon J.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Esliger, Dale W.; Davis, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study described participant adherence to wearing the accelerometer and accelerometer performance in a cohort study of adults. Methods From 2008-2011, 16,415 United States (US) Hispanic/Latino adults age 18-74 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Immediately following the baseline visit, participants wore an Actical accelerometer for one week. This study explored correlates of accelerometer participation and adherence, defined as wearing it for at least 3 of a possible days for >=10 hours/day. Accelerometer performance was assessed by exploring the number of different values of accelerometer counts/minute for each participant. Results Overall, 92.3% (n=15,153) had at least one day with accelerometer data and 77.7% (n=12,750) were adherent. Both accelerometer participation and adherence were higher among participants who were married or partnered, reported a higher household income, were first generation immigrants, or reported lower sitting time. Participation was also higher among those with no stair limitations. Adherence was higher among participants who were male, older, employed or retired, not US born, preferred Spanish over English, reported higher work activity or lower recreational activity, and those with a lower body mass index. Among the sample that met the adherence definition, the maximum recorded count/minute was 12,000, and there were a total of 5,846 different counts/minute. On average, participants had 112.5 different counts/minute over 6 days (median 106, interquartile range 91-122). The number of different counts/minute were higher among men, younger ages, normal weight, and those with higher accelerometer assessed physical activity. Conclusion Several correlates differed between accelerometer participation and adherence. These characteristics could be targeted in future studies to improve accelerometer wear. The performance of the accelerometer provided insight into creating a more accurate non

  9. Performance and Safety of an Integrated Portable Extracorporeal Life Support System for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alwardt, Cory M.; Wilson, Donald S.; Alore, Michelle L.; Lanza, Louis A.; DeValeria, Patrick A.; Pajaro, Octavio E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is indicated when conventional measures fail to support a patient during cardiac or respiratory failure. Due to the complicated nature of ECMO, patients often require transport to a tertiary care center. This study retrospectively compared the performance of the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system with a previously used ECMO circuit when transporting adult patients on venoarterial ECMO between facilities. Two ECMO circuits were compared for performance: 1) the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system and 2) the “standard” circuit consisting of a Thoratec CentriMag centrifugal pump, Maquet Quadrox-D oxygenator, and a Terumo CDI-500 in-line blood gas analyzer. After analyzing data from 16 patients (eight patients supported with each ECMO system), no differences in patient demographics, percentage of patients successfully weaned from ECMO, percentage of patients surviving to discharge, duration supported on the initial ECMO system, or total duration of ECMO were noted. No patient deaths were related to circuit failure or circuit disruptions in either group. Analysis of the performance of the ECMO circuits and the resulting patient status showed few significant differences between ECMO groups (Cardiohelp™ vs. standard circuit) and time points (the first 8 hours vs. a 24-hour time point). The statistically significant differences were not concerning in terms of appropriate medical support or patient safety. Of interest, the transmembrane pressure was significantly lower for the Cardiohelp™ module vs. the standard oxygenator during the first 8 hours (20.1 [5.3] vs. 37.1 [7.1] mmHg; p < .001) and at 24 hours (21.3 [3.8] vs. 34.8 [7.9] mmHg; p = .001). The Cardiohelp™ portable life support system provides safe and reliable support for adult patients on ECMO during interhospital patient transport as compared to the standard circuit. PMID:26390678

  10. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  11. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  12. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  13. Regulation of abortion services -- for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Cates, W; Gold, J; Selik, R M

    1979-09-27

    Legal abortions are being limited in the United States by restricting public funds and regulating the conditions for performing an abortion. These regulations require a woman's informed consent to a major surgical operation, a detailed description of anatomic and physiologic fetal characteristics, a 24-hour waiting period after the counseling, parental notification if the woman is under 18 years old, restriction of hypertonic saline or hypersmolar urea agents, and hospitalization for an obortion after 12 weeks gestation. These regulations, however, may create more psychologic reactions to terminating the pregnancy by describing fetal morphology; delays may increase the risk of morbidity and mortality; and requiring hospitalization after 12 weeks of gestation increases costs and unnecessarily uses hospital beds. In addition, complications from illegal abortions may increase if the regulations lead women to seek abortions from persons other than physicians. These regulations in affect in some areas tend to bias continuation of an unwanted pregnancy and may ultimately endanger rather than protect women seeking an abortion. PMID:481469

  14. Reduced swim performance and aerobic capacity in adult zebrafish exposed to waterborne selenite.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anita J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2013-04-01

    Although dietary exposure of adult fish to organoselenium in contaminated aquatic ecosystems has been reported to bioaccumulate and cause larval deformities in offspring, subtle physiological effects produced through low level waterborne selenium exposure in fish such as swim performance and aerobic capacity have not been investigated. To evaluate potential effects of selenite on these responses, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 10 or 100 μg/L sodium selenite for 14 days. Upon completion of the exposure period, fish underwent two successive swim trials in a swim tunnel respirometer to determine critical swim speed (Ucrit), oxygen consumption (MO2), standard and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope (AS) and cost of transport (COT) followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Selenite exposure had a significant negative effect on Ucrit and aerobic capacity. Active metabolic rates and AS significantly decreased in both selenite exposure groups after the second swim trial. No significant effect was observed in MO2, standard metabolic rate, COT, triglyceride and glycogen levels, or condition factor between groups. These results suggest that aqueous selenite exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces adverse effects on aerobic capacity that can diminish endurance and maximum swim speeds, which may lower fish survivability.

  15. Effects of tryptophan depletion on the performance of an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard M; Rilling, James K; Sanfey, Alan G; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Rogers, Robert D

    2006-05-01

    Adaptive social behavior often necessitates choosing to cooperate with others for long-term gains at the expense of noncooperative behaviors giving larger immediate gains. Although little is know about the neural substrates that support cooperative over noncooperative behaviors, recent research has shown that mutually cooperative behavior in the context of a mixed-motive game, the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), is associated with increased neural activity within reinforcement circuitry. Other research attests to a role for serotonin in the modulation of social behavior and in reward processing. In this study, we used a within-subject, crossover, double-blind design to investigate performance of an iterated, sequential PD game for monetary reward by healthy human adult participants following ingestion of an amino-acid drink that either did (T+) or did not (T-) contain l-tryptophan. Tryptophan depletion produced significant reductions in the level of cooperation shown by participants when playing the game on the first, but not the second, study days. This effect was accompanied by a significantly diminished probability of cooperative responding given previous mutually cooperative behavior. These data suggest that serotonin plays a significant role in the acquisition of socially cooperative behavior in human adult participants, and suggest novel hypotheses concerning the serotonergic modulation of reward information in socially cooperative behavior in both health and psychiatric illness.

  16. Echocardiographic Predictors of Worse Outcome After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Abreu, José Sebastião; Lima, José Wellington O.; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula M.; Rocha Neto, Almino Cavalcante; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Goés, Camilla Viana A.; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Scanavacca, Maurício Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the recommended treatment by leading global guidelines. However, 30%-40% of selected patients are non-responders. Objective To develop an echocardiographic model to predict cardiac death or transplantation (Tx) 1 year after CRT. Method Observational, prospective study, with the inclusion of 116 patients, aged 64.89 ± 11.18 years, 69.8% male, 68,1% in NYHA FC III and 31,9% in FC IV, 71.55% with left bundle-branch block, and median ejection fraction (EF) of 29%. Evaluations were made in the pre-implantation period and 6-12 months after that, and correlated with cardiac mortality/Tx at the end of follow-up. Cox and logistic regression analyses were performed with ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves. The model was internally validated by bootstrapping. Results There were 29 (25%) deaths/Tx during follow-up of 34.09 ± 17.9 months. Cardiac mortality/Tx was 16.3%. In the multivariate Cox model, EF < 30%, grade III/IV diastolic dysfunction and grade III mitral regurgitation at 6-12 months were independently related to increased cardiac mortality or Tx, with hazard ratios of 3.1, 4.63 and 7.11, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78. Conclusion EF lower than 30%, severe diastolic dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation indicate poor prognosis 1 year after CRT. The combination of two of those variables indicate the need for other treatment options. PMID:26351981

  17. Is Cyberbullying Worse than Traditional Bullying? Examining the Differential Roles of Medium, Publicity, and Anonymity for the Perceived Severity of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional…

  18. Sex, but not Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism, Differences in Spatial Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Yasen, Alia L; Raber, Jacob; Miller, Jeremy K; Piper, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype contribute to individual differences in spatial learning and memory. The associations of APOE genotype with neurocognitive function have been well studied among the elderly but less is known at earlier ages. Young adults (n = 169, 88 females) completed three neurocognitive tasks: mental rotation, spatial span, and Memory Island, a spatial navigation test. Males outperformed females on all three tasks: finding the hidden targets more quickly on Memory Island (Cohen's d = 0.62) and obtaining higher scores on mental rotation (d = 0.54) and spatial span (d = 0.37). In contrast, no significant effects of APOE were observed. The identified sex differences elaborate upon past literature documenting sexually dimorphic performance on specific neurobehavioral tasks.

  19. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  20. A Longitudinal Study in Adults with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for Individual Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Strube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective…

  1. Assessing Articulatory Speed Performance as a Potential Factor of Slowed Speech in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Corder, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve our understanding about the underlying factors of aging-related speaking rate decline, the authors sought to determine if lip and jaw speeds are physiologically constrained in older adults. Method: Thirty-six female--10 young adults (ages 22-27 years), 9 middle-aged adults (ages 45-55 years), 10 young-old adults (65-74 years),…

  2. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  3. Dairy consumption and working memory performance in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet

    2012-08-01

    All individuals will experience some degree of cognitive impairment in their later years. Diet is one readily modifiable factor that may influence cognitive function and psychological well-being. Very little research has considered the potential role of dairy foods in modulating cognitive and psychological functions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a high intake of reduced fat dairy food on cognitive performance. Overweight adults with habitually low dairy intakes (< two serves/day) were recruited for a 12 month crossover dietary intervention trial and randomised to a high (four serves/day) or low (one serve/day) intake of reduced fat dairy, crossing over to the alternate diet after 6 months. Participants were tested at the end of each 6 month diet period on multiple measures of cognitive performance, including memory, information processing speed, executive function, attention and abstract reasoning. In 38 participants who completed the trial (average age=52±2 years; BMI=31.5±0.8 kg/m(2)), spatial working memory performance was marginally better following 6 months of the high dairy diet compared with the low dairy diet. Increasing the dairy intake of habitually low dairy consumers may have the potential to improve working memory.

  4. Sensory-motor and psychosocial correlates of adaptive locomotor performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify sensory-motor and psychosocial factors independently associated with inability to perform adaptive walking tasks in older adults Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting Population-based older cohort Participants Community-living elderly (age≥65 years) who could walk 7 m at self-selected normal speed (n=720). Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Walking performance was assessed in four walking tests: fast walking, obstacle crossing, narrow-based walking and walking while talking. Possible correlates of the inability to perform the walking test included knee extensor strength, lower limb coordination, Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index (CSII), visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, cognition, depression, personal mastery, social support and years of education. Results The results of binary logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics and self-selected normal speed, demonstrated that poor knee extensor strength was associated with inability to perform tasks demanding increase in walking speed (fast walking and obstacle crossing). Both, poor lower limb coordination and higher CSII were significantly associated with failure in tests that demanded precise control over foot placement (obstacle crossing and narrow-base walking). Higher CSII was associated with failure in all tests except in the walking while talking. In contrast, poor cognition was associated with inability to perform walking while talking. Poor personal mastery was the only variable that was associated with failure in all walking tests. Conclusion The results demonstrated a systematic and coherent pattern in these associations and indicated possible sensory-motor and psychological parameters that should be specifically investigated and should be intervened if a patient reports a difficulty/inability in walking in certain situations. PMID:21704787

  5. Contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Guidetti, Laura; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation (MR). Fourteen trained male players with MR (32.1 +/- 7.4 years) were recruited. The athletes' performances were assessed using adapted basketball tests that assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas: ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and body mass index), static balance, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. This study showed that greater explosive leg power and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to ball handling (85%, p < 0.01), and explosive leg power had significant positive contribution in reception (59%, p < 0.05) and shooting (64%, p = 0.01). The forearm muscular strength and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to passing (78%, p = 0.01). Moreover, the greater explosive leg power had significant contribution in level II (46%, p < 0.05), in level III (52%, p < 0.05), and in global score (60%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contribution of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance. Therefore, the basketball coach could improve a selected fundamental factor to increase specific basketball ability. This should be addressed in a specific training to help players with MR to perform successfully in their competitions.

  6. Contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Guidetti, Laura; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation (MR). Fourteen trained male players with MR (32.1 +/- 7.4 years) were recruited. The athletes' performances were assessed using adapted basketball tests that assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas: ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and body mass index), static balance, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. This study showed that greater explosive leg power and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to ball handling (85%, p < 0.01), and explosive leg power had significant positive contribution in reception (59%, p < 0.05) and shooting (64%, p = 0.01). The forearm muscular strength and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to passing (78%, p = 0.01). Moreover, the greater explosive leg power had significant contribution in level II (46%, p < 0.05), in level III (52%, p < 0.05), and in global score (60%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contribution of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance. Therefore, the basketball coach could improve a selected fundamental factor to increase specific basketball ability. This should be addressed in a specific training to help players with MR to perform successfully in their competitions. PMID:20634745

  7. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  8. Effects of Conventional Ultrafiltration on Renal Performance During Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Rick A.; Holt, David W.; Turner, Scott; Stichka, Lee; Thacker, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Ultrafiltration has been used successfully in a variety of applications in the perioperative setting to assist in hemoconcentration and volume reduction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aggressive conventional hemofiltration on bypass urine production, fluid balance, and renal performance in the 24 hours after bypass procedures in the adult population. A prospective, randomized study was designed to determine the effects of conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) during bypass while monitoring urine dynamics intraoperatively and in the 24-hour post-bypass period. Study group 1 (CUF, n = 49) was compared to control group 2 (non-CUF, n _ 47) by monitoring urine values, volume additions, and packed red cell (PRC) use throughout the procedure. The mean total CUF volume removed from group 1 was 5781 ± 2612. There were no differences in prebypass, total bypass, or total operating room (OR) urine between the two groups. The 24-hour urine totals were significantly higher in group 2 (2389 ± 895) than in group 1 (2035 ± 895). The ending bypass hematocrit was also lower in group 2 (26 ± 2.0) than in group 1 (30 ± 6.0). OR PRC additions were higher in group 2 (395 ± 699) than group 1 (204 ± 300). The non-CUF control group 2 experienced significantly greater ending fluid balance (3006 ± 868) compared with group 1 (744 ± 1271). No significant differences in pre- or postoperative creatinine values were observed. Aggressive CUF can be safely used during cardiopulmonary bypass in the adult population to reduce fluid accumulation and elevate bypass hematocrit without effecting bypass or intraoperative urine production. PMID:16921688

  9. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised. PMID:24553417

  10. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  11. Dynamic expression of the polysialyltransferase in adult rat hippocampus performing an olfactory associative task.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Christine; Migliorati, Martine; Gilbert, Valérie; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Chaillan, Franck A; Truchet, Bruno; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Roman, François S

    2014-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is associated with polysialic acid (PSA), and its function is highly dependent on the extent of polysialylation through the activity of two polysialyltransferases, sialyltransferase-X (STX) and polysialyltransferase (PST). PSA-NCAM plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The involvement of STX and PST during mnesic processes was assessed in the adult rat hippocampus. We investigated whether different levels in learning and memory using an olfactory associative task influenced STX and PST gene expression in the hippocampus using semiquantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, NCAM polysialylation and cell proliferation were quantified in the dentate gyrus of a "Learning and Memory" group using immunohistochemistry. We found that only the expression level of PST mRNA increased with learning performance and returned to an initial level when learned associations were consolidated in long-term memory, while STX mRNA levels remained unchanged. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increase in PSA on NCAM but not by cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Our results suggest a different involvement for STX and PST in neural plasticity: while STX is probably involved in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, PST could play a key role in synaptic plasticity of mature neural networks. The expression of the STX and PST genes could, therefore, be useful markers of neurobiological plasticity in the brain, allowing to follow chronological events in limbic and cortical structures related first to learning and memory processes (for PST) and, second, to adult neurogenesis processes (for STX).

  12. Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure.

  13. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  14. Gender Differences in Anthropometric Predictors of Physical Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fragala, Maren S.; Clark, M.H.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Kleppinger, Alison; Judge, James O.; Kuchel, George A.; Kenny, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both high body fat and low muscle mass have been associated with physical disability in older adults. However, men and women differ markedly in body composition, where men generally have more absolute and relative lean muscle mass and less fat mass than women. It is not known how these anthropometric differences differentially impact physical ability in men and women. Objectives This study examines differences in anthropometric predictors of physical performance in older women and men. Methods Participants were 470 older women and men aged 72.9±7.9y. Body composition was measured using DXA. Maximum leg strength and power were measured using a leg press. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated as relative strength (leg press strength per kg of leg muscle mass). Gait speed and chair rise were used to assess mobility performance and functional strength. Results BMI, age and muscle quality emerged as predictors (p<0.05) of functional strength and mobility in men and women somewhat differently. After accounting for age and sample, leg muscle quality was related to chair rise time and gait speed in men but not women. BMI was related to gait speed in both men and women, but BMI was related to chair rise time in only women and not men. Discussion Results implicate the prioritized importance of healthy weight and muscle maintenance in older women and men, respectively for maintained physical functioning with aging. PMID:23123187

  15. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  16. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  17. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI.

  18. Adiponectin and Interleukin-6, But Not Adipose Tissue, Are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Function in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; Vo, Quynh T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Sacktor, Ned; Miller, Eric N.; Post, Wendy S.; Becker, James T.; Palella, Frank J.; Ragin, Ann; Martin, Eileen; Munro, Cynthia A.; Brown, Todd T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Generalized obesity has been associated with cognitive decline, a process potentially mediated by adipocytokines. The effects of regional adipose tissue (AT) on cognition, however, are not well understood. We explored cross-sectional relationships between regional AT, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers and neuropsychological (NP) test scores among HIV+ and HIV− men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal and subcutaneous thigh AT areas were quantified by computed tomography (CT). NP tests (Trail Making Test parts A and B and Symbol Digit Modalities) obtained within two years of CT screened for psychomotor speed and executive function. Adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results Of 509 HIV+ and 271 HIV− participants, HIV+ men (98% on ART, 81% HIV-1 RNA <50copies/mL) had lower median subcutaneous AT and adiponectin levels and higher hs-CRP levels, but visceral AT, BMI, IL-6 and NP scores did not vary by HIV serostatus. In multivariable analysis, older age, ≤high school education and African American race, but not AT area or site, were associated with worse NP test scores among all participants. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse cognitive function independent of AT area. No HIV-specific factors were associated with NP test scores. Conclusions Demographic factors were associated with NP test performance, but regional adiposity was not. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse NP test scores, supporting a role for chronic inflammation and adipocytokine imbalance in neurocognitive decline in HIV+ persons. PMID:25810377

  19. The Association between Unilateral Heel-Rise Performance with Static and Dynamic Balance in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D.; Wang, Man-Ying; Yu, Sean S-Y; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a measure of both strength and muscle endurance of the plantar flexors, the unilateral heel rise (UHR) test has been suggested as a method to evaluate balance capabilities in older adults. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between UHR performance with biomechanical measures of balance in seniors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-two older adults completed two testing sessions. The first visit included UHR performance; the second visit included dynamic and static motion analysis. RESULTS UHR performance was significantly associated with dynamic balance capability as measured by medial-lateral inclination angle during gait. As indicated by an analysis of center of pressure, there were significant associations between UHR performance and measures of static balance. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Balance is influenced by plantar flexor performance as measured by the UHR test. We therefore suggest incorporating the UHR test in analyses of balance in seniors. PMID:25457285

  20. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations.

  1. Can we use accelerometry to monitor balance exercise performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Tung, James Y; Ng, Helen; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora

    2014-03-01

    While home-based balance exercises are recommended to reduce the risk of falling and fractures in older adults, adherence to exercise remains suboptimal. The long-term objective of this research is to advance body-worn sensor techniques to measure at-home exercise performance and promote adherence. In this study, a method of distinguishing 5 types of walking using hip- and ankle-worn accelerometers was developed and evaluated in a target clinical population. A secondary objective was to evaluate the method's sensitivity to sensor placement. Eighteen community-dwelling, older females (≥50 years) with low bone mass wore triaxial accelerometers at the left hip and each ankle while performing 5 walking tasks at home: 4 walking balance exercises (figure 8, heel-toe, sidestep, backwards) and straight-line walking. Sensor data were separated into low (0.5-2 Hz) and high (2-10 Hz) frequency bands, and root-mean-square values (energy) were computed for each sensor, axis, and band. These 18 energy estimates were used as inputs to a neural network classifier with 5 outputs, corresponding to each task. Using a leave-one-out cross-validation protocol, the neural network correctly classified 82/90 test instances (91% accuracy). Compared to random selection accuracy of 20% (i.e., 1 in 5), the results indicated excellent separation between tasks. Reducing the sensor set to one hip and one ankle resulted in 6.7-8.9% reduction in accuracy. Our findings can be used in the development of tools used to deliver exercise performance metrics (e.g., % completed) or recognize walking and balance exercise activities using body-worn accelerometers.

  2. The Development of Informal Tests of Reading and the Analysis of the Reading Performance of Adults Attending Basic Education Classes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Robert E.

    This project developed an informal reading test from adult basic education teaching materials and investigated reading performance at six levels among adults attending basic education classes. Graded word lists, readiness oral reading passages, and graded oral reading passages were administered to 37 adults. The six most discriminating word lists…

  3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  4. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  5. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  6. Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mithal, A; Bonjour, J-P; Boonen, S; Burckhardt, P; Degens, H; El Hajj Fuleihan, G; Josse, R; Lips, P; Morales Torres, J; Rizzoli, R; Yoshimura, N; Wahl, D A; Cooper, C; Dawson-Hughes, B

    2013-05-01

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has recently received increased attention. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify nutritional factors that contribute to loss of muscle mass. The role of protein, acid-base balance, vitamin D/calcium, and other minor nutrients like B vitamins was reviewed. Muscle wasting is a multifactorial process involving intrinsic and extrinsic alterations. A loss of fast twitch fibers, glycation of proteins, and insulin resistance may play an important role in the loss of muscle strength and development of sarcopenia. Protein intake plays an integral part in muscle health and an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day is probably optimal for older adults. There is a moderate [corrected] relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Chronic ingestion of acid-producing diets appears to have a negative impact on muscle performance, and decreases in vitamin B12 and folic acid intake may also impair muscle function through their action on homocysteine. An adequate nutritional intake and an optimal dietary acid-base balance are important elements of any strategy to preserve muscle mass and strength during aging.

  7. The Influence of Reading and Writing Habits Associated with Education on the Neuropsychological Performance of Brazilian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…

  8. Unwanted Sex among Young Adults in the United States: The Role of Physical Disability and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between unwanted sexual experiences and both physical disability and cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of young adults. We used data from 11,878 participants (ages 26-32) in Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regressions…

  9. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  10. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  11. Ohio Department of Education, Office of Career-Technical & Adult Education District Program Performance Review--Executive Summary, FY04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstaett, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, the Ohio Department of Education's (ODE) Office of Career- Technical and Adult Education conducted a comprehensive program performance review of all career-technical education programs offered within Ohio Department of Youth Services (ODYS) Institutions. The unique nature of career-technical education delivery within a…

  12. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  13. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  14. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  15. Route Learning and Shortcut Performance in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Study with Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K.; Sockeel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A [double big arrow] B and A [double big arrow] C) until they reached a…

  16. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  17. Evaluating Websites for Older Adults: Adherence to "Senior-Friendly" Guidelines and End-User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, T. A.; Chaparro, B. S.; Halcomb, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Older adults in the US are the fastest-growing demographic, and also the largest-growing group of internet users. The aim of this research was to evaluate websites designed for older adults in terms of (1) how well they adhere to "senior-friendly" guidelines and (2) overall ease of use and satisfaction. In Experiment I, 40 websites designed for…

  18. Longitudinal alterations to brain function, structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults: A fMRI-DTI study.

    PubMed

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A; Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T

    2015-05-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that older adults tend to have different frontal cortex activation patterns, poorer brain structure, and lower task performance than younger adults. However, relationships between longitudinal changes in brain function, brain structure, and cognitive performance in older adults are less well understood. Here we present the results of a longitudinal, combined fMRI-DTI study in cognitive normal (CN) older adults. A two time-point study was conducted in which participants completed a task switching paradigm while fMRI data was collected and underwent the identical scanning protocol an average of 3.3 years later (SD=2 months). We observed longitudinal fMRI activation increases in bilateral regions of lateral frontal cortex at time point 2. These fMRI activation increases were associated with longitudinal declines in WM microstructure in a portion of the corpus callosum connecting the increasingly recruited frontal regions. In addition, the fMRI activation increase in the left VLPFC was associated with longitudinal increases in response latencies. Taken together, our results suggest that local frontal activation increases in CN older adults may in part reflect a response to reduced inter-hemispheric signaling mechanisms.

  19. Longitudinal Alterations to Brain Function, Structure, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: a fMRI-DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Hakun, Jonathan G.; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that older adults tend to have different frontal cortex activation patterns, poorer brain structure, and lower task performance than younger adults. However, relationships between longitudinal changes in brain function, brain structure, and cognitive performance in older adults are less well understood. Here we present the results of a longitudinal, combined fMRI-DTI study in cognitive normal (CN) older adults. A two time-point study was conducted in which participants completed a task switching paradigm while fMRI data was collected and underwent the identical scanning protocol an average of 3.3 years later (SD = 2 months). We observed longitudinal fMRI activation increases in bilateral regions of lateral frontal cortex at time point 2. These fMRI activation increases were associated with longitudinal declines in WM microstructure in a portion of the corpus callosum connecting the increasingly recruited frontal regions. In addition, the fMRI activation increase in the left VLPFC was associated with longitudinal increases in response latencies. Taken together, our results suggest that local frontal activation increases in CN older adults may in part reflect a response to reduced inter-hemispheric signaling mechanisms. PMID:25862416

  20. Nuclear Expression of GS28 Protein: A Novel Biomarker that Predicts Worse Prognosis in Cervical Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Mi; Park, Hong Sik; Kwon, Oh-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The protein GS28 (28-kDa Golgi SNARE protein) has been described as a SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) protein family member that plays a critical role in mammalian ER-Golgi or intra-Golgi vesicle transport. Little is known about the possible roles of GS28 in pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate GS28 expression in cervical cancer tissues and explore its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis. Methods We investigated GS28 expression in 177 cervical cancer tissues by using immunohistochemistry and evaluated the correlation of GS28 expression with clinicopathological features, the expression of p53 and Bcl-2, and prognosis of cervical cancer patients. Immunoblotting was performed using six freshly frozen cervical cancer tissues to confirm the subcellular localization of GS28. Results Immunoreactivity of GS28 was observed in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of cervical cancer cells. High nuclear expression of GS28 was associated with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.036) and negative expression of p53 (P = 0.036). In multivariate analyses, patients with high nuclear expression of GS28 showed significantly worse overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 3.785, P = 0.003) and progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio = 3.019, P = 0.008), compared to those with low or no nuclear expression. It was also a reliable, independent prognostic marker in subgroups of patients with early stage T1 and negative lymph node metastasis in OS (P = 0.008 and 0.019, respectively). The nuclear expression of GS28 was confirmed by immunoblotting. Conclusion High nuclear expression of GS28 is associated with poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer patients. GS28 might be a novel prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer treatment. PMID:27611086

  1. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  2. Dissociable neural modulation underlying lasting first impressions, changing your mind for the better, and changing it for the worse.

    PubMed

    Bhanji, Jamil P; Beer, Jennifer S

    2013-05-29

    Unattractive job candidates face a disadvantage when interviewing for a job. Employers' evaluations are colored by the candidate's physical attractiveness even when they take job interview performance into account. This example illustrates unexplored questions about the neural basis of social evaluation in humans. What neural regions support the lasting effects of initial impressions (even after getting to know someone)? How does the brain process information that changes our minds about someone? Job candidates' competence was evaluated from photographs and again after seeing snippets of job interviews. Left lateral orbitofrontal cortex modulation serves as a warning signal for initial reactions that ultimately undermine evaluations even when additional information is taken into account. The neural basis of changing one's mind about a candidate is not a simple matter of computing the amount of competence-affirming information in their job interview. Instead, seeing a candidate for the better is somewhat distinguishable at the neural level from seeing a candidate for the worse. Whereas amygdala modulation marks the extremity of evaluation change, favorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of lateral prefrontal cortex and unfavorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of medial prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. Investigating social evaluation as a dynamic process (rather than a one-time impression) paints a new picture of its neural basis and highlights the partially dissociable processes that contribute to changing your mind about someone for the better or the worse. PMID:23719802

  3. Dissociable neural modulation underlying lasting first impressions, changing your mind for the better, and changing it for the worse.

    PubMed

    Bhanji, Jamil P; Beer, Jennifer S

    2013-05-29

    Unattractive job candidates face a disadvantage when interviewing for a job. Employers' evaluations are colored by the candidate's physical attractiveness even when they take job interview performance into account. This example illustrates unexplored questions about the neural basis of social evaluation in humans. What neural regions support the lasting effects of initial impressions (even after getting to know someone)? How does the brain process information that changes our minds about someone? Job candidates' competence was evaluated from photographs and again after seeing snippets of job interviews. Left lateral orbitofrontal cortex modulation serves as a warning signal for initial reactions that ultimately undermine evaluations even when additional information is taken into account. The neural basis of changing one's mind about a candidate is not a simple matter of computing the amount of competence-affirming information in their job interview. Instead, seeing a candidate for the better is somewhat distinguishable at the neural level from seeing a candidate for the worse. Whereas amygdala modulation marks the extremity of evaluation change, favorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of lateral prefrontal cortex and unfavorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of medial prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. Investigating social evaluation as a dynamic process (rather than a one-time impression) paints a new picture of its neural basis and highlights the partially dissociable processes that contribute to changing your mind about someone for the better or the worse.

  4. Task Importance Affects Event-based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Method All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: 1) without PM task requirements; 2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and 3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. Results In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Conclusions Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. PMID:24834469

  5. Are Immigrants and Girls Graded Worse? Results of a Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Using Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2001 and Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data for Germany, this paper examines whether second-generation immigrants and girls are graded worse in math than comparable natives and boys, respectively. Once all grading-relevant characteristics, namely math skills and oral…

  6. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  7. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalisation--For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisation has transformed the higher education landscape around the world and has dramatically changed itself. Some question whether the change is for better or worse given some of the unintended consequences of internationalisation such as commercialisation, diploma and accreditation mills, international rankings and the great brain…

  8. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed.

  9. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water. PMID:27012768

  10. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  11. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  12. Evaluation of urine pneumococcal antigen test performance among adults in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Jagero, Geofrey; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Pimenta, Fabiana; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Feikin, Daniel R; Conklin, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    When used in an area of rural western Kenya, the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test had a sensitivity of 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 43-85%) among 21 adults ≥15 years old with acute respiratory illnesses and pneumococcal bacteremia and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 96-99%) among 660 adults ≥15 years old without fever or cough. The specificity of the test was not significantly affected by pneumococcal colonization, regardless of patients' HIV status, age, or sex. Use of the pneumococcal urine antigen test in clinical assessments of adults in Africa with acute respiratory illness is a viable option regardless of whether a patient is colonized by pneumococci, even among HIV-infected adults, although the moderate sensitivity of the urine antigen test indicates that the test is probably best used clinically as part of a panel with other tests that can detect pneumococci. PMID:27220607

  13. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  14. Allocentric Spatial Performance Higher in Early-Blind and Sighted Adults Than in Retinopathy-of-Prematurity Adults.

    PubMed

    Eardley, Alison F; Edwards, Geoffrey; Malouin, Francine; Kennedy, John M

    2016-03-01

    The question as to whether people totally blind since infancy process allocentric or external spatial information like the sighted has caused considerable debate within the literature. Due to the extreme rarity of the population, researchers have often included individuals with retinopathy of prematurity (RoP--over oxygenation at birth) within the sample. However, RoP is inextricably confounded with prematurity per se. Prematurity, without visual disability, has been associated with spatial processing difficulties. In this experiment, blindfolded sighted participants and two groups of functionally totally blind participants heard text descriptions from a survey (allocentric) or route (egocentric) perspective. One blind group lost their sight due to RoP and a second group before 24 months of age. The accuracy of participants' mental representations derived from the text descriptions was assessed via questions and maps. The RoP participants had lower scores than the sighted and early blind, who performed similarly. In other words, it was not visual impairment alone that resulted in impaired allocentric spatial performance in this task but visual impairment together with RoP. This finding may help explain the contradictions within the existing literature on the role of vision in allocentric spatial processing. PMID:26562868

  15. Communicative Competence and Metalinguistic Ability: Performance by Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Woodyatt, Gail C.

    2007-01-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as…

  16. Effects of Low Salinity on Adult Behavior and Larval Performance in the Intertidal Gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montory, Jaime A.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Diederich, Casey M.; Chaparro, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities. PMID:25077484

  17. Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

    PubMed

    Montory, Jaime A; Pechenik, Jan A; Diederich, Casey M; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

  18. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  19. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    PubMed

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed.

  20. Investigating graphesthesia task performance in the biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bernard P; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 39 biological relatives of persons with schizophrenia to that of 30 normal adult controls on graphesthesia processing, a complex somatosensory processing task. The relatives performed significantly worse on the graphesthesia task compared to the healthy controls. The relatives and control subjects, however, did not differ on two neurocognitive control tasks. These data are interpreted within the context of a somatosensory deficit linked to schizophrenia liability.

  1. Metabolic and structural connectivity within the default mode network relates to working memory performance in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Chételat, Gael; Fischer, Florian U; Landeau, Brigitte; Bastin, Christine; Scheurich, Armin; Perrotin, Audrey; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Drzezga, Alexander; Eustache, Francis; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Salmon, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes, the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in relation to normal working memory (WM). DMN was captured using independent component analysis of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data from 35 young healthy adults (27.1 ± 5.1 years). Metabolic connectivity, a correlation between FDG uptake in PCC and MPFC, was examined in groups of subjects with (relative to median) low (n=18) and high (n=17) performance on digit span backward test as an index of verbal WM. In addition, fiber tractography based on PCC and MPFC nodes as way points was performed in a subset of subjects. FDG uptake in the DMN nodes did not differ between high and low performers. However, significantly (p=0.01) lower metabolic connectivity was found in the group of low performers. Furthermore, as compared to high performers, low performers showed lower density of the left superior cingulate bundle. Verbal WM performance is related to metabolic and structural connectivity within the DMN in young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity as quantified with FDG-PET might be a sensitive marker of the normal variability in some cognitive functions. PMID:23631988

  2. Keeping track of who said what: Performance on a modified auditory n-back task with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Gary R.; Humes, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    A modified auditory n-back task was used to examine the ability of young and older listeners to remember the content of spoken messages presented from different locations. The messages were sentences from the Coordinative Response Measure (CRM) corpus, and the task was to judge whether a target word on the current trial was the same as in the most recent presentation from the same location (left, center, or right). The number of trials between comparison items (the number back) was varied while keeping the number of items to be held in memory (the number of locations) constant. Three levels of stimulus uncertainty were evaluated. Low- and high-uncertainty conditions were created by holding the talker (voice) and nontarget words constant, or varying them unpredictably across trials. In a medium-uncertainty condition, each location was associated with a specific talker, thus increasing predictability and ecological validity. Older listeners performed slightly worse than younger listeners, but there was no significant difference in response times (RT) for the two groups. An effect of the number back (n) was seen for both PC and RT; PC decreased steadily with n, while RT was fairly constant after a significant increase from n = 1 to n = 2. Apart from the lower PC for the older group, there was no effect involving age for either PC or RT. There was an effect of target word location (faster RTs with a late-occurring target) and an effect of uncertainty (faster RTs with a constant talker-location mapping, relative to the high-uncertainty condition). A similar pattern of performance was observed with a group of elderly hearing-impaired listeners (with and without shaping to ensure audibility), but RTs were substantially slower and the effect of uncertainty was absent. Apart from the observed overall slowing of RTs, these results provide little evidence for an effect of age-related changes in cognitive abilities on this task. PMID:26257666

  3. Functional Polymorphisms in Toll-like Receptor 4 Are Associated With Worse Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Juliane; Lee, Richard V.; Phillips, Hunter; Zierath, Dannielle; Tanzi, Patricia; Shibata, Dean; Cain, Kevin C.; Becker, Kyra J.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in neuroinflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4, including 1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile], are associated with altered immune responses but their effect on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome is unknown. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic and genotype data on 113 AIS patients and performed multivariate analyses to assess associations between TLR4 SNP haplotype and either neurological outcome, infection or inflammatory markers. In adjusted analyses, TLR4 SNPs were associated with worse outcome as well as increases in circulating leukocytes, C-reactive protein and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. In AIS, variations in TLR4 may influence neurological outcome. PMID:24784586

  4. Run performance of middle-aged and young adult runners in the heat.

    PubMed

    de Paula Viveiros, J; Amorim, F T; Alves, M N M; Passos, R L F; Meyer, F

    2012-03-01

    The aging process may impair exercise tolerance in the heat. It is not clear whether this impairment is partly due to a reduction in aerobic capacity. To compare the exercise performance and thermoregulatory responses of middle-aged and young adults with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses, 7 middle-aged (54±2 years; 58±4 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) and 7 young (28±1 years; 61±5 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) male competitive endurance runners underwent 2 10-km self-paced and 2 fixed-workload (90% of race speed) runs until fatigue on a treadmill in hot (40°C) and moderate (20°C) environments on separate days. The runners' total time, average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate, sweat sensitivity, number of heat-activated sweat glands and sweat rate per sweat gland were measured or calculated. Body fat, body surface area, body surface area per body mass, training volume and VO2max were similar between the 2 groups. No differences were observed in total time (59±3; 49±3; 27±2; 54±5 min in the middle-aged and 60±2; 49±3; 27±2; 51±4 min in the young group), average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate (17±7; 15±3; 23±7; 13±2 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the middle-aged and 20±5; 14±4; 22±5; 15±4 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the young group) or sweat sensitivity between age groups (p>0.05) in any trial. The number of heat-activated sweat glands (88±14; 80±18; 90±16; 66±14 cm - 2 in the middle-aged and 43±10; 32±10; 37±11; 31±11 cm - 2 in the young group) was higher, and the sweat rate per sweat gland was smaller, in the middle-aged than the young group (p<0.05) in all of the trials. We conclude that running performance and body thermoregulation are similar between young and middle-aged runners with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses under hot and moderate conditions in self-paced and fixed-intensity runs. The

  5. Performance Review: Postsecondary Adult Vocational Programs. Report Years 1989-90 through 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document describes the number of enrollees, graduates and placements connected with Postsecondary Adult Vocational Education (PSAV) programs at Miami-Dade Community College, and in the Florida Community College System. Data for Miami-Dade relate mostly to the 1994-95 through 1997-98 timeframe, while Florida system data span 1989-90 through…

  6. Comparing Applied Literacy and Basic Skills Tests as Measures of Adult Literacy Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John P.; And Others

    The Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE) is a widely used multiple-choice test battery of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. The Test of Applied Literacy Skills (TALS) is an applied literacy battery consisting of document, prose, and quantitative literacy tests. The central issue in this study was the relationship of the TABE and…

  7. An Exploration of Why Preschoolers Perform Differently than Do Adults in Audiovisual Speech Perception Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Renee N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined whether experience correctly producing consonants plays role in developing underlying representation which mediates perception of visible speech. Tested preschoolers (divided by their making of substitution errors) and adults in auditory-only, visual-only, and audiovisual conditions. Found children overall showed less visual influence and…

  8. Impact of Vapor Pressure Deficit on the Performance of Bemisia tabaci: Adult, Nymphal, and Egg Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a serious global pest with varying population dynamics among different ecosystems. An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of adults, nymphs and eggs of B. tabaci. The insects were reared...

  9. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  10. A Comparison of Spelling Performance across Young Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Gregg, Noel; McLain, Lisa; Bellair, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed 2,056 spelling errors produced by 130 young adults (65 with dyslexia, 65 typically achieving), which came from two sources: a standardized spelling test and an impromptu essay-writing task. Students with dyslexia exhibited higher spelling error rates across both tasks. To characterize the inaccurate spelling…

  11. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata develop in brood cells constructed in cavities by adult females. Pre-pupal bees diapause over winter and resume development as temperatures (Ta) increase in spring. While many insects are tolerant of suboptimal Ta in their overwintering stages, insects that initiate active develo...

  12. Indicators of Reading Difficulty: Discrimination between Instructional- and Frustration-Range Performance of Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Page Simpson; Leslie, Lauren

    1988-01-01

    Examines the validity of oral reading accuracy and comprehension as indicators of difficulty for functionally illiterate adults and the feasibility of using four less commonly measured variables as additional indicators of difficulty. Indicates that accuracy and comprehension are valid indicators of difficulty. Rate and miscue quality are strong…

  13. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  14. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years) were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25). Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45) had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55) had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92) and severe (score 31–62). There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01) and moderate (P=0.01) cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural damage mechanism. Conclusion This study found significant associations among trace elements, anti-GADAs, and cognitive function in older adults. The homeostatic balance of trace elements should be recommended among older adults for better cognitive

  15. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone.

  16. Range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance in older adults with normal, pronated, and supinated feet

    PubMed Central

    Justine, Maria; Ruzali, Dhiya; Hazidin, Ezzaty; Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli; Manaf, Haidzir

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [−1 to −4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity. PMID:27134384

  17. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  18. Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 is positively related to spatial performance but unrelated to hippocampal volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Stening, Eva; Persson, Jonas; Eriksson, Elias; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2016-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele is known to be a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been linked to especially episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy in both healthy and demented elderly populations. In young adults, ϵ4 carriers have shown better performance in episodic memory compared to non-carriers. Spatial memory, however, has not been thoroughly assessed in relation to APOE in spite of its dependence on the hippocampus. In this study, we assessed the effect of APOE genotype on a variety of spatial and episodic memory tasks as well as hippocampal volume assessed through manual tracing in a sample of young adults (N=123). We also assessed whether potential effects were modulated by sex. The presence of one or more ϵ4 alleles had positive effects on spatial function and memory and object location memory, but no effect on word recognition. Men were superior to women in spatial function and memory but there were no sex differences in the other tasks. In spite of APOE ϵ4 carriers having superior performance in several memory tasks, no difference was found as a function of APOE genotype in hippocampal volume. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that APOE ϵ4 has a positive effect on spatial ability in young adults.

  19. Communicative competence and metalinguistic ability: performance by children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Woodyatt, Gail C

    2007-09-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) using DSM-IV language criterion. Hierarchical cluster analyses of individuals with ASD identified subgroups within the spectrum. The use of developmental language history as an identifying marker in autism is questioned. The findings suggest that comprehensive language assessments on individuals with ASD can provide clinically relevant information regarding the heterogeneity of language skills within the autistic spectrum.

  20. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  1. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  2. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading.

  3. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading. PMID:25836629

  4. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  5. Sleep Supports Memory of Odors in Adults but Not in Children

    PubMed Central

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Lotzkat, Kristin; Bauhofer, Eva; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative memory in children and adults. However, it is unclear whether sleep improves odor memory in children as well as adults. Thirty healthy children (mean age of 10.6, ranging from 8–12 yrs.) and 30 healthy adults (mean age of 25.4, ranging from 20–30 yrs.) participated in an incidental odor recognition paradigm. While learning of 10 target odorants took place in the evening and retrieval (10 target and 10 distractor odorants) the next morning in the sleep groups (adults: n = 15, children: n = 15), the time schedule was vice versa in the wake groups (n = 15 each). During encoding, adults rated odors as being more familiar. After the retention interval, adult participants of the sleep group recognized odors better than adults in the wake group. While children in the wake group showed memory performance comparable to the adult wake group, the children sleep group performed worse than adult and children wake groups. Correlations between memory performance and familiarity ratings during encoding indicate that pre-experiences might be critical in determining whether sleep improves or worsens memory consolidation. PMID:26406604

  6. Sleep Supports Memory of Odors in Adults but Not in Children.

    PubMed

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Lotzkat, Kristin; Bauhofer, Eva; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative memory in children and adults. However, it is unclear whether sleep improves odor memory in children as well as adults. Thirty healthy children (mean age of 10.6, ranging from 8-12 yrs.) and 30 healthy adults (mean age of 25.4, ranging from 20-30 yrs.) participated in an incidental odor recognition paradigm. While learning of 10 target odorants took place in the evening and retrieval (10 target and 10 distractor odorants) the next morning in the sleep groups (adults: n = 15, children: n = 15), the time schedule was vice versa in the wake groups (n = 15 each). During encoding, adults rated odors as being more familiar. After the retention interval, adult participants of the sleep group recognized odors better than adults in the wake group. While children in the wake group showed memory performance comparable to the adult wake group, the children sleep group performed worse than adult and children wake groups. Correlations between memory performance and familiarity ratings during encoding indicate that pre-experiences might be critical in determining whether sleep improves or worsens memory consolidation. PMID:26406604

  7. Coincidence Anticipation Timing Performance during an Acute Bout of Brisk Walking in Older Adults: Effect of Stimulus Speed.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Smith, Mike; Price, Michael J; Wright, Sheila Leddington

    2015-01-01

    This study examined coincidence anticipation timing (CAT) performance at slow and fast stimulus speeds before, during, and after an acute bout of walking in adults aged 60-76 years. Results from a series of repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant rest versus exercise × stimulus speed × time interactions for absolute and variable errors (both P = 0.0001) whereby absolute and variable error scores, when stimulus speed was slow, improved as the duration of exercise increased. When stimulus speed was fast there were significantly greater absolute and variable errors at 18 minutes of the walking bout. There was also greater error at 18 minutes during walking compared to rest. These results suggest that, in a task involving walking and CAT, stimulus speeds plays an important role; specifically walking (exercise) enhances CAT performance at slow stimulus speeds but reduces CAT performance at fast stimulus speeds. The implications are that in everyday situations, where events require dual-task responses to be made at different speeds, for example, walking on the pavement whilst avoiding a crowd, compared to crossing a busy road, an understanding of how different stimulus speeds influence dual-task performance is extremely important, particularly in the older adult population.

  8. Coincidence Anticipation Timing Performance during an Acute Bout of Brisk Walking in Older Adults: Effect of Stimulus Speed.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Smith, Mike; Price, Michael J; Wright, Sheila Leddington

    2015-01-01

    This study examined coincidence anticipation timing (CAT) performance at slow and fast stimulus speeds before, during, and after an acute bout of walking in adults aged 60-76 years. Results from a series of repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant rest versus exercise × stimulus speed × time interactions for absolute and variable errors (both P = 0.0001) whereby absolute and variable error scores, when stimulus speed was slow, improved as the duration of exercise increased. When stimulus speed was fast there were significantly greater absolute and variable errors at 18 minutes of the walking bout. There was also greater error at 18 minutes during walking compared to rest. These results suggest that, in a task involving walking and CAT, stimulus speeds plays an important role; specifically walking (exercise) enhances CAT performance at slow stimulus speeds but reduces CAT performance at fast stimulus speeds. The implications are that in everyday situations, where events require dual-task responses to be made at different speeds, for example, walking on the pavement whilst avoiding a crowd, compared to crossing a busy road, an understanding of how different stimulus speeds influence dual-task performance is extremely important, particularly in the older adult population. PMID:26417457

  9. Coincidence Anticipation Timing Performance during an Acute Bout of Brisk Walking in Older Adults: Effect of Stimulus Speed

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Michael J.; Stanley, Michelle; Smith, Mike; Price, Michael J.; Leddington Wright, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    This study examined coincidence anticipation timing (CAT) performance at slow and fast stimulus speeds before, during, and after an acute bout of walking in adults aged 60–76 years. Results from a series of repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant rest versus exercise × stimulus speed × time interactions for absolute and variable errors (both P = 0.0001) whereby absolute and variable error scores, when stimulus speed was slow, improved as the duration of exercise increased. When stimulus speed was fast there were significantly greater absolute and variable errors at 18 minutes of the walking bout. There was also greater error at 18 minutes during walking compared to rest. These results suggest that, in a task involving walking and CAT, stimulus speeds plays an important role; specifically walking (exercise) enhances CAT performance at slow stimulus speeds but reduces CAT performance at fast stimulus speeds. The implications are that in everyday situations, where events require dual-task responses to be made at different speeds, for example, walking on the pavement whilst avoiding a crowd, compared to crossing a busy road, an understanding of how different stimulus speeds influence dual-task performance is extremely important, particularly in the older adult population. PMID:26417457

  10. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women.

  11. Can high-level inferencing be predicted by Discourse Comprehension Test performance in adults with right hemisphere brain damage?

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Connie A.; Meigh, Kimberly; Scott, April Gibbs; Lederer, Lisa Guttentag

    2009-01-01

    Background Adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) can have considerable difficulty in drawing high-level inferences from discourse. Standardised tests of language comprehension in RHD do not tap high-level inferences with many items or in much depth, but nonstandardised tasks lack reliability and validity data. It would be of great clinical value if a standardised test could predict performance on high-level inferencing measures. Aims This study addressed whether performance of adults with RHD on the Discourse Comprehension Test (DCT; Brookshire & Nicholas, 1993) could predict their performance on a nonstandardised measure of high-level inference in narrative comprehension. Methods & Procedures This study used a within-group correlational design. Participants were 32 adults with damage limited to the right cerebral hemisphere, as a result of cerebrovascular accident. Half of the participants were male and half female. Participants averaged 64.5 years of age and 14.2 years of education. Participants listened to narrative stimuli and to yes/no questions about each narrative. Each DCT narrative was followed by the standard 8 questions about stated or implied main ideas or details. The high-level inferencing task contained 6 narrative scenarios from Winner, Brownell, Happé, Blum, and Pincus (1998). Each scenario describes a character who commits a minor transgression and later denies it. Two versions of each story are designed to induce different interpretations of the character’s denial. In one version, the character tells a white lie when he is unaware that he was seen committing the transgression. In the other versions, when aware of being seen, the character makes an ironic joke. The narratives were interrupted periodically by comprehension questions. Four Pearson correlation coefficients were computed, between each of two DCT predictor variables (total accuracy for all comprehension questions; accuracy on questions about implied information) and two

  12. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  13. Performance of the measures of processes of care for adults and service providers in rehabilitation settings

    PubMed Central

    Bamm, Elena L; Rosenbaum, Peter; Wilkins, Seanne; Stratford, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, client-centered care has been embraced as a new philosophy of care by many organizations around the world. Clinicians and researchers have identified the need for valid and reliable outcome measures that are easy to use to evaluate success of implementation of new concepts. Objective The current study was developed to complete adaptation and field testing of the companion patient-reported measures of processes of care for adults (MPOC-A) and the service provider self-reflection measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). Design A validation study Settings In-patient rehabilitation facilities. Main outcome measures MPOC-A and measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). Results Three hundred and eighty-four health care providers, 61 patients, and 16 family members completed the questionnaires. Good to excellent internal consistency (0.71–0.88 for health care professionals, 0.82–0.90 for patients, and 0.87–0.94 for family members), as well as moderate to good correlations between domains (0.40–0.78 for health care professionals and 0.52–0.84 for clients) supported internal reliability of the tools. Exploratory factor analysis of the MPOC-SP(A) responses supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Conclusion MPOC-A and MPOC-SP(A) are valid and reliable tools to assess patient and service-provider accounts, respectively, of the extent to which they experience, or are able to provide, client-centered service. Research should now be undertaken to explore in more detail the relationships between client experience and provider reports of their own behavior. PMID:26089710

  14. Perinatal iron deficiency affects locomotor behavior and water maze performance in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Stephane L; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Adams, Michael A; Nakatsu, Kanji

    2008-05-01

    Iron deficiency during early growth and development adversely affects multiple facets of cognition and behavior in adult rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the learning and locomotor behavioral deficits observed in male and female rats in the absence of depressed brain iron levels at the time of testing. Adult female Wistar rats were fed either an iron-enriched diet (>225 mg/kg Fe) or an iron-restricted diet (3 mg/kg Fe) for 2 wk prior to and throughout gestation, and a nonpurified diet (270 mg/kg Fe) thereafter. Open-field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM) testing began when the offspring reached early adulthood (12 wk). At birth, perinatal iron-deficient (PID) offspring had reduced (P < 0.001) hematocrits (-33%), liver iron stores (-83%), and brain iron concentrations (-38%) compared with controls. Although there were no differences in iron status in adults, the PID males and females exhibited reduced OF exploratory behavior, albeit only PID males had an aversion to the center of the apparatus (2.5 vs. 6.9% in controls, P < 0.001). Additionally, PID males required greater path lengths to reach the hidden platform in the MWM, had reduced spatial bias for the target quadrant, and had a tendency for greater thigmotactic behavior in the probe trials (16.5 vs. 13.0% in controls; P = 0.06). PID females had slower swim speeds in all testing phases (-6.2%; P < 0.001). These results suggest that PID has detrimental programming effects in both male and female rats, although the behaviors suggest different mechanisms may be involved in each sex.

  15. Simulation of Aphasic Naming Performance in Non-Brain-Damaged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Drton, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    Discussion abounds in the literature as to whether aphasia is a deficit of linguistic competence or linguistic performance and, if it is a performance deficit, what are its precise mechanisms. Considerable evidence suggests that alteration of nonlinguistic factors can affect language performance in aphasia, a finding that raises questions about…

  16. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment.

  17. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  18. Efficacy of Brain Gym Training on the Cognitive Performance and Fitness Level of Active Older Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Cancela, José M; Vila Suárez, Ma Helena; Vasconcelos, Jamine; Lima, Ana; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of Brain Gym (BG) training in active older adults. Eighty-five participants were assigned to four training groups: BG (n = 18), BG plus water-based exercise (n = 18), land-based exercise (n = 30), and land plus water-based exercise (n = 19). The effects of the programs on the attention and memory functions were assessed by means of the symbol digit modality test. The two-min step and the eight-foot up-and-go tests were used to evaluate their impact on fitness level. No program had a significant influence on the participant's cognitive performance, while different effects on the sample' fitness levels were observed. These findings suggest that the effects of BG on the cognitive performance and fitness level of active older adults are similar to those obtained after the practice of a traditional exercise program. Whether BG is performed in isolation or combined with other exercise programs seems to have no influence on such effects.

  19. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  20. Dissociation and the Adult Attachment Interview in artists and performing artists.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Attachment patterns were investigated in a group of professional and pre-professional artists (n = 51). Given the high level of absorption/imagination required of artists, this study examined normative and pathological dissociation (PD) and considered links with Adult Attachment Interview responses, with particular attention to the AAI classification Unresolved (U) for past loss or trauma. Results indicated: (1) artists had elevated mean scores for absorption/imagination, (2) all but one artist had adverse trauma or loss experiences, (3) 17 (36%) met criteria for PD and 9 (53%) of those in the PD range had a classification of Unresolved (U) on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), (4) U was associated with PD, but not normative dissociation (absorption/imagination), (5) even with a primary U classification many individuals had an alternate secure/autonomous classification, and (6) 88% of the artists were classified as secure/autonomous in a three-way analysis on the AAI, but in a four-way analysis 27.5% were classified as U. Although 36% presented with PD, the majority of artists studied were stable, coherent and autonomous.

  1. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  2. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants-even the experienced writers-were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our results

  3. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants—even the experienced writers—were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our

  4. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants—even the experienced writers—were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our

  5. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants-even the experienced writers-were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our results

  6. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Shorter adult height is associated with poorer cognitive performance in elderly men with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    West, Rebecca K; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Leroith, Derek; Koifman, Keren; Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relationship of adult body height with five cognitive outcomes (executive functioning, semantic categorization, attention/working memory, episodic memory, and an overall cognition measure) in 897 cognitively normal elderly with type 2 diabetes. Regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic, cardiovascular, and diabetes-related risk factors and depression demonstrated that in males, shorter stature was associated with poorer executive functioning (p = 0.001), attention/working memory (p = 0.007), and overall cognition (p = 0.016), but not with episodic memory (p = 0.715) or semantic categorization (p = 0.948). No relationship between height and cognition was found for females. In cognitively normal type 2 diabetes male subjects, shorter stature, a surrogate for early-life stress and poor nutrition, was associated with cognitive functions. PMID:25374105

  8. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Medium-sized FLT3 internal tandem duplications confer worse prognosis than short and long duplications in a non-elderly acute myeloid leukemia cohort.

    PubMed

    Koszarska, Magdalena; Meggyesi, Nora; Bors, Andras; Batai, Arpad; Csacsovszki, Otto; Lehoczky, Eniko; Adam, Emma; Kozma, Andras; Lovas, Nora; Sipos, Andrea; Krahling, Tunde; Dolgos, Janos; Remenyi, Peter; Fekete, Sandor; Masszi, Tamas; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka

    2014-07-01

    Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene occur in about 25% of patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of FLT3-ITD mutations followed by a detailed analysis of the mutational load and size of ITD insertions in a cohort consisting of 324 patients younger than 60 years old and treated with curative intention. FLT3-ITD alone did not influence overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS). We observed worse OS and DFS for patients with high mutational load indicative for loss of the FLT3 wild type allele (p = 0.010, p = 0.038, respectively). In multivariate analyses, patients with FLT3-ITD(48-60bp) showed worse OS and DFS compared to other groups (FLT3-ITD(neg), FLT3-ITD (< 48b), FLT3-ITD (> 60bp); p = 0.014, p = 0.019, respectively). Our novel observation suggested that not only high FLT3-ITD load, but also medium-sized ITD insertions (48-60 bp) represented an adverse prognostic subgroup of patients with AML.

  10. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner. PMID:23880060

  11. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  12. Selective Maintenance of Motor Performance in Older Adults from Long-Lasting Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascal, Juliana Bayeux; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Decline of motor performance in older individuals affects their quality of life. Understanding the contribution of sport-related training in advanced ages might help to attenuate motor performance decay as one gets older. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent to which long-lasting training in running or sport-specific skills…

  13. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  14. "Keep on Truckin'" Literacy Program [for Adults]: Performance Report; Teacher's Handbook; Final External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

    This document is composed of a performance report, a teacher's handbook, and an evaluation report of a workplace literacy program to prepare drivers for the Commercial Drivers' License examination. The performance report addresses actual accomplishments of five objectives. It identifies the number and characteristics of project participants who…

  15. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  16. Prediction and Evaluation of Memory Performance by Young and Old Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Eugene A.; And Others

    The poorer performance of older people in laboratory tests of episodic memory may result from failures or deficiencies in metamemory processes, e.g., failure to monitor task or individual item difficulty. To study age differences in prediction of memory performance, an associative matching task was used to compare young (N=20) and older (N=20)…

  17. Episodic memory and executive function impairments in non-demented older adults: which are the respective and combined effects on gait performances?

    PubMed

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Fantino, Bruno; Annweiler, Cédric; Allali, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    Gait control depends in part on cognition. This study aims to examine the separate and combined effects of episodic memory and executive function impairments on the mean value and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of stride time among non-demented older community dwellers. Based on a cross-sectional design, 1458 older community dwellers without dementia (70.6 ± 4.9 years; 49.2 % female) were recruited and separated into cognitively healthy individuals (CHI) and individuals with cognitive impairment. A score ≤5/6 on the Short Mini-Mental State Examination defined episodic memory impairment. Impaired executive function was defined by errors on the clock-drawing test. Mean value and CoV of stride time were measured by the GAITRite® system. A total of 517 participants (35.5 %) had cognitive impairment in at least one cognitive domain. Participants with memory impairment (P = 0.006) and those with combined cognitive impairments (P < 0.001) had greater (i.e., worse gait performance) mean value of stride time (P = 0.006) compared to CHI. Participants with combined cognitive impairment had a greater CoV of stride time (i.e., worse gait performance) compared to CHI (P = 0.004) and to those with separate memory impairment (P = 0.037). Among participants with combined cognitive impairments, mean value and CoV of stride time had the highest effect size (respectively, effect size = 0.49 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.27;0.71] and effect size = 0.40 [95 %CI 0.18;0.62]). Participants with episodic memory or executive impairments had a greater mean value and CoV of stride time compared to those with no cognitive impairment. Combined episodic memory and executive impairments exceeded the sum of separate impairments on gait performances, suggesting a complex interplay going beyond a simple additive effect. PMID:26160251

  18. The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25962151

  19. Self-reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Cheng, Grand H; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for optimal cognitive functioning across the lifespan. Among older adults (≥55 years), self-reported short and long sleep durations have been repeatedly, albeit inconsistently, reported to elevate the risk for poor cognitive function. This meta-analytic review quantitatively summarizes the risk for poorer cognitive function among short and long sleepers in older adults. Eligible publications were searched online and manually. A total of 35 independent samples (N = 97,264) from 11 cross-sectional and seven prospective cohort studies were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using random-effects models. Self-reported short and long sleep increased the odds for poor cognitive function by 1.40 (CI = 1.27-1.56) and 1.58 times (CI = 1.43-1.74), respectively. Effect sizes varied across studies and may have been moderated by both study type (cross-sectional and prospective) and cognitive domain assessed. For cross-sectional studies, extreme sleep durations were significantly associated with poorer multiple-domain performance, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory capacity. Prospective cohort studies revealed the significant long-term impact of short and long sleep on multiple-domain performance only. These findings establish self-reported extreme sleep duration as a risk factor for cognitive aging. PMID:26847980

  20. Recognition and Sex Categorization of Adults' and Children's Faces: Examining Performance in the Absence of Sex-Stereotyped Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Heather A.; Barett, Susan E.; Spence, Melanie J.; O'Toole, Alice J.; Cheng, Yi D.; Brooke, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Investigated 7-year-olds', 9-year-olds', and adults' ability to classify children's and adults' faces by sex using only biological based internal facial structure. Found that participants categorized adult faces by sex at accuracy levels varying from just above chance (7-year-olds) to nearly perfect (adults). All groups were less accurate for…

  1. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  2. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

  3. Neurologic effects of solvents in older adults. (UW retired worker study). Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.E.

    1993-11-12

    The possibility that previous occupational exposure to solvents might be associated with clinically significant neurological dysfunction in older adults was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Subjects included 67 painters, 22 aerospace painters and fuel cell sealers, and a comparison group of 126 carpenters. All subjects had retired from regular employment at least 1 year prior to the study. As measured by semiquantitative exposure index, the cumulative histories of lifetime occupational solvent exposure were on the average comparable in the two exposed study groups, painters and aerospace workers. The carpenters differed from the other groups in solvent exposure by several orders of magnitude. The painters had a significantly higher history of consuming alcoholic beverages than did the other two study groups. The painters had a significantly higher score on the Beck Depression Inventory, a measure of current depressive symptoms. The painters reported significantly more general neurologic symptoms than did the other two groups. The aerospace workers showed much greater evidence of possible adverse effects from former solvent exposure on current neuropsychological function than did the painters when determined by reasoning and memory tests, memory visual motor speed and motor tests. No evidence of persistent effects on liver or renal excretory function was seen in solvent exposed subjects.

  4. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased.

  5. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  6. The effects of unilateral grab rail assistance on the sit-to-stand performance of older aged adults.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Damien M; Smith, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of unilateral grab rail assistance during the sit-to-stand transfer to develop an understanding of lower limb joint mechanics and whole body movement patterns. External reaction forces at the grab rail and floor interfaces were also investigated to understand the nature of the assistance provided by the introduction of unilateral upper body assistance. While 12 older aged adults performed the sit-to-stand, three-dimensional body segment kinematics were recorded to determine lower body joint motion and whole body centre of mass motion. Grab rail reaction forces and bilateral ground reaction forces were recorded to determine external reaction forces and lower body joint kinetics. Grab rail assisted conditions were compared with unassisted transfers. During grab rail assistance, a systematic asymmetry was introduced to lower limb joint kinetics, without noticeable alterations to peak lower body joint motion and whole body movement patterns. Ipsilateral net joint moments and powers decreased in the ankle and hip and increased in the knee, while the contralateral net joint moments and powers increased in the hip and decreased in the knee. Joint kinetic and kinematic responses suggest a motor control strategy that maintains symmetric sit-to-stand movement patterns by adjusting bilateral muscle control when a unilateral external reaction force is provided. Understanding the mechanical assistance that is generated during the sit-to-stand will facilitate optimal design of grab rails for older aged adults and may contribute to design for specific pathologies. Such design implementation will influence the ability of older aged adults to remain independent in the community.

  7. COGME's 16th Report to Congress: too many physicians could be worse than wasted.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert L; Dodoo, Martey; Jaén, Carlos R; Green, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    Departing from past reports, the latest Council on Graduate Medical Education (COGME) report warns of a physician deficit of 85,000 by 2020 and recommends increases in medical school and residency output. COGME notes that contributions of other clinicians and changes in how medical care is delivered in the future would likely offset physician deficits but chose not to modify their recommendations. COGME offers a relatively minor workforce correction in an otherwise flawed system of health care; however, the nation awaits a reassessment of its physician workforce based on what the nation wants and needs from physicians working in modern systems of care. Great caution should be exercised in expanding the physician workforce. Producing a physician surplus could be far worse than wasted, because the investment required and resulting rise in health care cost may harm, not help, the health of people in the United States. Instead, these resources could be applied in ways that improve health.

  8. Cooperation with both synergistic and local interactions can be worse than each alone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous ranging from multicellular organisms to human societies. Population structures indicating individuals' limited interaction ranges are crucial to understand this issue. But it remains unknown to what extend multiple interactions involving nonlinearity in payoff influence the cooperation in structured populations. Here we show a rule, which determines the emergence and stabilization of cooperation, under multiple discounted, linear, and synergistic interactions. The rule is validated by simulations in homogenous and heterogenous structured populations. We find that the more neighbours there are the harder for cooperation to evolve for multiple interactions with linearity and discounting. For synergistic scenario, however, distinct from its pairwise counterpart, moderate number of neighbours can be the worst, indicating that synergistic interactions work with strangers but not with neighbours. Our results suggest that the combination of different factors which promotes cooperation alone can be worse than that with every single factor. PMID:24985887

  9. Cooperation with both synergistic and local interactions can be worse than each alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2014-07-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous ranging from multicellular organisms to human societies. Population structures indicating individuals' limited interaction ranges are crucial to understand this issue. But it remains unknown to what extend multiple interactions involving nonlinearity in payoff influence the cooperation in structured populations. Here we show a rule, which determines the emergence and stabilization of cooperation, under multiple discounted, linear, and synergistic interactions. The rule is validated by simulations in homogenous and heterogenous structured populations. We find that the more neighbours there are the harder for cooperation to evolve for multiple interactions with linearity and discounting. For synergistic scenario, however, distinct from its pairwise counterpart, moderate number of neighbours can be the worst, indicating that synergistic interactions work with strangers but not with neighbours. Our results suggest that the combination of different factors which promotes cooperation alone can be worse than that with every single factor.

  10. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  11. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  12. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  13. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic/Latino Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…

  14. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  15. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  16. Migration Expectations and Performances of Open-Country Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study, 1948-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoesting, Dean R.; Bohlen, Joe M.

    This paper discusses the migration expectations of a sample of 152 respondents interviewed while high school seniors in 1948 and reinterviewed in 1956 concerning their migration performances. The research was designed to test the general hypothesis that a relationship exists between certain social and personal characteristics and migration…

  17. Oral impact on daily performance: need and use of dental prostheses among Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Ilha, L; Martins, A B; Abegg, C

    2016-02-01

    Although there is a large amount of evidence that demonstrates the relationship between oral health status and oral impact daily performance, there are few studies that have evaluated the impact of prosthetic status, particularly the need for a dental prosthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between need and use of dental prostheses and the prevalence of oral impact on daily performance. A sample of 720 subjects, aged between 50 and 74 years, was evaluated using a cross-sectional study. Participants were selected through a multistage proportional random sampling. The impact of oral health status on daily performance (oral impact on daily performance--OIDP) and socio-demographic data was assessed using a standardised questionnaire, and clinical data were assessed by oral examination. The outcome was the prevalence of impact. The association between the explanatory variables and the outcome was analysed through two models of multivariate Poisson regression. In the adjusted model, the variables need of upper and lower prosthesis and use of lower prosthesis maintained a statistically significant association. No statistically relevant relation between socio-demographic variables and outcomes was found. Findings show that the need and use and of a prosthesis are related to oral health quality of life.

  18. Variation in lung function is associated with worse clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Marostica, Paulo José Cauduro; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the variation in lung function over one year is associated with worse clinical outcomes, as well as with a decline in lung function in the following years, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving CF patients (4-19 years of age), evaluated over a three-year period. We evaluated demographic characteristics, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, antibiotic use, hospitalization, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lung function. The inclusion criterion was having undergone pulmonary function testing at least three times in the first year and at least once in each of the next two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 35 CF patients. The variation in FEV1 in the first year (ΔFEV1) was greater among those who, in the third year, showed reduced FEV1, had a below-average 6MWD, or were hospitalized than among those with normal FEV1, normal 6MWD, or no hospital admissions, in that same year (p < 0.05), although no such difference was found for antibiotic use in the third year. Subjects showing a ΔFEV1 ≥ 10% also showed a greater decline in FEV1 over the two subsequent years (p = 0.04). The ΔFEV1 also showed an inverse correlation with absolute FEV1 in the third year (r = −0.340, p = 0.04) and with the rate of FEV1 decline (r = −0.52, p = 0.001). Linear regression identified ΔFEV1 as a predictor of FEV1 decline (coefficient of determination, 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in lung function over one year seems to be associated with a higher subsequent rate of FEV1 decline and worse clinical outcomes in CF patients. Short-term ΔFEV1 might prove useful as a predictor of CF progression in clinical practice. PMID:26785959

  19. “My quality of life is worse compared to my earlier life”

    PubMed Central

    Groven, Karen Synne; Råheim, Målfrid; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss surgery is commonly regarded as improving individuals' health and social life, and resulting in a happier and more active life for those defined as “morbidly obese.” However, some researchers have started to doubt whether these positive outcomes apply to everyone and this article explores this doubt further. More specifically, we focus on the experiences of women whose life situation became worse after weight loss surgery. The material draws on qualitative interviews of five Norwegian women undergoing the irreversible gastric bypass procedure. Our findings illustrate that the women lived seemingly “normal” lives prior to the surgery with few signs of illness. Worries about future illness as well as social stigma because of their body shape motivated them to undergo weight loss surgery. After the surgery, however, their situation was profoundly changed and their lives were dramatically restricted. Chronic pain, loss of energy, as well as feelings of shame and failure for having these problems not only limited their social lives but it also made them less physically active. In addition, they had difficulties taking care of their children, and functioning satisfactorily at work. Accordingly, the women gradually felt more “disabled,” regarding themselves as “outsiders” whose problems needed to be kept private. The results highlight some “subtle” consequences of weight loss surgery, particularly the shame and stigma experienced by those whose lives became dramatically worse. Living in a society where negative impacts of weight loss surgery are more or less neglected in research as well as in the public debate the women seemed to suffer in silence. Their problems were clearly present and felt in the body but not talked about and shared with others. PMID:21103070

  20. Warmer outdoor temperature is associated with worse cognitive status in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sumowski, James F.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have more clinical exacerbations and T2 lesion activity during warmer weather. The current study is the first to investigate whether outdoor temperature is related to cognitive status across patients with MS (cross-sectional analysis), and whether cognitive status fluctuates with changes in outdoor temperature within patients with MS (longitudinal analysis). Methods: For the cross-sectional analysis, 40 patients with MS and 40 healthy control (HC) subjects were recruited throughout the calendar year. Cognitive status (processing speed, memory) and outdoor temperature were recorded for the day of testing. We calculated partial correlations between cognitive status and temperature for patients with MS and HCs, controlling for demographic and disease variables. For the longitudinal analysis, cognitive status and outdoor temperature were recorded at baseline and 6-month follow-up in a separate sample of 45 patients with MS. We calculated the partial correlation between temperature and cognitive status at follow-up, controlling for baseline temperature and cognitive status (i.e., whether temperature changes are related to cognitive changes within patients with MS). Results: Cross-sectionally, warmer temperature was related to worse cognitive status in patients with MS (rp = −0.45, p = 0.006), not in HCs (rp = 0.00, p = 0.984). Longitudinally, increased outdoor temperature from baseline to follow-up was related to a decline in cognitive status within patients with MS (rp = −0.39, p = 0.010). Conclusions: Cognitive status in patients with MS is worse on warmer days, consistent with a previously established link between heat and lesion activity. Our findings have implications for clinical trial planning, treatment, and lifestyle decisions. We discuss cognitive status as a potential marker of quiescent exacerbations. PMID:22402861

  1. Health and health care of rural populations in the UK: is it better or worse?

    PubMed Central

    Watt, I S; Franks, A J; Sheldon, T A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review available evidence on the problems facing rural health care in the UK. In particular, to determine whether the health of rural populations is worse than that of town dwellers and how the quality of health care is influenced by rurality. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF ARTICLES--A wide variety of publications and data sources were used. A number of computerised databases with different specialisations (for example medical, health care management) were used to identify relevant published articles. In addition, reports, reviews, and surveys produced by agencies for local circulation were identified by approaching academic, service, and voluntary bodies thought likely to have an interest in rural health. Although this "grey" literature is not subject to peer review, the relative lack of relevant UK publications made it a useful data source for illustrative purposes. Similarly, published articles based on rural health in other developed countries were used when UK data were lacking. CONCLUSIONS--Although the evidence concerning the health and health care of the UK rural populations is suggestive, it is very general and further research is needed. Levels of urban health seem to be generally worse than in rural areas, but contradictions do exist. The evidence on quality of care suggests that service accessibility is a central problem, and rural populations have poorer access than others. Within rural populations, such disadvantage is not uniformly experienced--it affects some groups more than others. In addition, the NHS does not seem to have a consistent policy about whether rurality should influence resource allocation, and how it should be incorporated. PMID:8138762

  2. Working memory performance in young adults is associated to the AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Carrillo-Sánchez, Karol; Gómez-López, Nardhy; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Hernández-Morales, Salvador; Carnevale-Cantoni, Alessandra; Espejel-Núñez, Aurora; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) depends on several neural networks and neurochemical systems. One of them is the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which CB1 receptor (CB1R) is widely distributed all over the brain. The stimulation of CB1R by agonists reduces WM efficiency. The CNR1 human gene (6q14-15) encodes the CB1R. AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 gene has been related to psychiatric disorders, and to procedural learning and attention in healthy subjects. The aim of this exploratory research was to test whether AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 is related to the WM performance, by measuring n-back task. Mexican healthy young adults (n = 94) performed the WM n-back task. One of the most frequent AATn allele in our sample was the AAT12. We formed three groups, as a function of the AATn genotype: AAT ≤ 12/AAT≤12, AAT ≤ 12/AAT > 12 and AAT > 12/AAT > 12, and their accuracy on the n-back task was compared. WM accuracy differed among genotypes (P=0.03): AAT ≤ 12/AAT≤12 group had a higher performance than the AAT > 12/AAT > 12 group (statistical power: 0.65, f(2) = 0.20, P<0.05). These results suggest that the fewer AATn repeats of the CNR1 gene, the better WM performance, and sustain the idea that eCB system participates in the modulation of the human brain network involved in WM.

  3. Effects of chronic dietary selenomethionine exposure on repeat swimming performance, aerobic metabolism and methionine catabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jith K; Wiseman, Steve; Giesy, John P; Janz, David M

    2013-04-15

    In a previous study we reported impaired swimming performance and greater stored energy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after chronic dietary exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet). The goal of the present study was to further investigate effects of chronic exposure to dietary SeMet on repeat swimming performance, oxygen consumption (MO2), metabolic capacities (standard metabolic rate [SMR], active metabolic rate [AMR], factorial aerobic scope [F-AS] and cost of transport [COT]) and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes in adult zebrafish. Fish were fed SeMet at measured concentrations of 1.3, 3.4, 9.8 or 27.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) for 90 d. At the end of the exposure period, fish from each treatment group were divided into three subgroups: (a) no swim, (b) swim, and (c) repeat swim. Fish from the no swim group were euthanized immediately at 90 d and whole body triglycerides, glycogen and lactate, and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes were determined. Individual fish from the swim group were placed in a swim tunnel respirometer and swimming performance was assessed by determining the critical swimming speed (U(crit)). After both Ucrit and MO2 analyses, fish were euthanized and whole body energy stores and lactate were determined. Similarly, individual fish from the repeat swim group were subjected to two U(crit) tests (U(crit-1) and U(crit-2)) performed with a 60 min recovery period between tests, followed by determination of energy stores and lactate. Impaired swim performance was observed in fish fed SeMet at concentrations greater than 3 μg Se/g in the diet. However, within each dietary Se treatment group, no significant differences between single and repeat U(crits) were observed. Oxygen consumption, SMR and COT were significantly greater, and F-AS was significantly lesser, in fish fed SeMet. Whole body triglycerides were proportional to the concentration of SeMet in the diet. While

  4. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  5. Aging Ebbs the Flow of Thought: Adult Age Differences in Mind Wandering, Executive Control, and Self-Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Meier, Matthew E.; Touron, Dayna R.; Kane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among adult aging, mind wandering, and executive-task performance, following from surprising laboratory findings that older adults report fewer task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) than do younger adults (e.g., Giambra, 1989; Jackson & Balota, 2011). Because older adults may experience more ability- and performance-related worry during cognitive tasks in the laboratory, and because these evaluative thoughts (known as task-related interference, “TRI”) might be sometimes misclassified by subjects as task-related, we asked subjects to distinguish task-related thoughts from TRI and TUTs when probed during ongoing tasks. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed either a go/no-go or a vigilance version of a sustained attention to response task (SART). Older adults reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than did younger adults while also performing more accurately. In Experiment 2, subjects completed either a 1- or 2-back version of the n-back task. Older adults again reported more TRI and fewer TUTs than younger adults in both versions, while performing better than younger adults in the 1-back and worse in the 2-back. Across experiments, older adults’ reduced TUT rates were independent of performance relative to younger adults. And, although older adults consistently reported more TRI and less mind wandering than did younger adults, overall they reported more on-task thoughts. TRI cannot, therefore, account completely for prior reports of decreasing TUTs with aging. We discuss the implications of these results for various theoretical approaches to mind-wandering. PMID:23261422

  6. A genetic variant in NRP1 is associated with worse response to ranibizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lorés-Motta, Laura; van Asten, Freekje; Muether, Philipp S.; Smailhodzic, Dzenita; Groenewoud, Joannes M.; Omar, Amer; Chen, John; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Fauser, Sascha; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Jong, Eiko K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) gene in treatment response to antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods Four SNPs in the NRP1 gene (rs2229935, rs2247383, rs2070296, and rs2804495) were genotyped in a study cohort of 377 nvAMD patients who received the loading dose of three monthly ranibizumab injections. Treatment response was assessed as the change in visual acuity after three monthly loading injections compared with baseline. Results SNP rs2070296 was associated with change in visual acuity after 3 months of treatment. Patients carrying the GA or AA genotypes performed significantly worse than individuals carrying the GG genotype (P=0.01). A cumulative effect of rs2070296 in the NRP1 gene and rs4576072 located in the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 or KDR) gene, previously associated with treatment response, was observed. Patients carrying two risk alleles performed significantly worse than patients carrying zero or one risk allele (P=0.03), and patients with more than two risk alleles responded even worse to the therapy (P=3×10–3). The combined effect of these two SNPs on the response was also seen after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that genetic variation in NRP1, a key molecule in VEGFA-driven neovascularization, influences treatment response to ranibizumab in nvAMD patients. The results of this study may be used to generate prediction models for treatment response, which in the future may help tailor medical care to individual needs. PMID:26426212

  7. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  8. Machine learning identification of EEG features predicting working memory performance in schizophrenia and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jason K.; Bi, Jinbo; Jiang, Ruhua; Kenney, Joshua G.; Chen, Chi-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background With millisecond-level resolution, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording provides a sensitive tool to assay neural dynamics of human cognition. However, selection of EEG features used to answer experimental questions is typically determined a priori. The utility of machine learning was investigated as a computational framework for extracting the most relevant features from EEG data empirically. Methods Schizophrenia (SZ; n = 40) and healthy community (HC; n = 12) subjects completed a Sternberg Working Memory Task (SWMT) during EEG recording. EEG was analyzed to extract 5 frequency components (theta1, theta2, alpha, beta, gamma) at 4 processing stages (baseline, encoding, retention, retrieval) and 3 scalp sites (frontal-Fz, central-Cz, occipital-Oz) separately for correctly and incorrectly answered trials. The 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) method was used to build EEG classifiers of SWMT trial accuracy (correct vs. incorrect; Model 1) and diagnosis (HC vs. SZ; Model 2). External validity of SVM models was examined in relation to neuropsychological test performance and diagnostic classification using conventional regression-based analyses. Results SWMT performance was significantly reduced in SZ (p < .001). Model 1 correctly classified trial accuracy at 84 % in HC, and at 74 % when cross-validated in SZ data. Frontal gamma at encoding and central theta at retention provided highest weightings, accounting for 76 % of variance in SWMT scores and 42 % variance in neuropsychological test performance across samples. Model 2 identified frontal theta at baseline and frontal alpha during retrieval as primary classifiers of diagnosis, providing 87 % classification accuracy as a discriminant function. Conclusions EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma’s role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. Tests of model performance and cross

  9. Massage and mobilization of the feet and ankles in elderly adults: effect on clinical balance performance.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Jacques; Rouland, Audrey; Martigné, Pascale; Braujou, Renaud; Nissen, Michael J; Caillat-Miousse, Jean-Louis; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent; Juvin, Robert

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a session of plantar massage and joint mobilization of the feet and ankles on clinical balance performance in elderly people. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial was used to examine the immediate effects of manual massage and mobilization of the feet and ankles. Twenty-eight subjects, aged from 65 to 95 years (78.8+/-8.5 years - mean+/-SD) were recruited from community nursing homes. Main outcome measures were the performances in three tests: One Leg Balance (OLB) test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Lateral Reach (LR) test. Results demonstrated a significant improvement after massage and mobilization compared with placebo for the OLB test (1.1+/-1.7s versus 0.4+/-1.2s, p<0.01) and the TUG test (0.9+/-2.6s versus 0.2+/-1.2s, p<0.05). Conversely, performances in the LR test did not improve significantly. These results emphasise the positive impact of a single session of manual therapy applied to the feet and ankles on balance in elderly subjects.

  10. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference. PMID:23052601

  11. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT. PMID:26505869

  12. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT.

  13. Neuropsychological attention skills and related behaviours in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Kevin M; McCartney, Deborah L; Serfontein, Jaco R; de Vries, Petrus J

    2011-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with mTOR over-activation and disruption of MAPK, PI3K and AMPK signalling. Children with TSC have significant deficits on neuropsychological attention tasks, particularly dual tasking. Here we investigated attentional skills and related behaviours in daily life in normally intelligent adults with TSC and matched controls using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and the Attention-Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA). No group differences were demonstrated on selective or sustained attention tasks carried out alone. However, adults with TSC performed significantly worse when these tasks were combined in a cross-modal dual task condition. On the ADSA the TSC group had significantly worse scores on several subscales (attention/concentration, behaviour/disorganization, academic and emotional behaviours) compared to controls and these correlated with dual task performance, indicating a clear impact of dual task deficits on attention-related behaviours in daily life. The presence or absence of epilepsy did not influence dual task performance or attention-deficits in daily life. Taken together with similar findings in children, results suggest that dual task difficulties are a core feature of the neuropsychological phenotype of TSC.

  14. Influence of Planning Time and First-Move Strategy on Tower of Hanoi Problem-Solving Performance of Mentally Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In two experiments using a computer-interfaced problem, planning time of 50 retarded young adults was as long as or longer than that of higher performing nonretarded children. In neither group was there a reliable correlation between planning time and performance. There were group differences in preferred strategies, possibly associated with…

  15. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  16. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  17. More than a Servant: Self-Reported Willingness of Younger and Older Adults to having a Robot perform Interactive and Critical Tasks in the Home.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Neta; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A

    2009-10-01

    Many companies are developing robots for the home, including robots specifically for older adults. There is little understanding, however, about the types and characteristics of tasks that younger and older individuals would be willing to let a robot perform. In a mailed questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate their willingness to have a robot perform each of 15 robot tasks that required different levels of interaction with the human owner and different levels of task criticality. The responses of 117 older adults (aged 65-86) and 60 younger adults (aged 18-25) were analyzed. The results indicated that respondents of both groups were more willing to have robots perform infrequent, albeit important, tasks that required little interaction with the human compared to service-type tasks with more required interaction; they were least willing to have a robot perform non-critical tasks requiring extensive interaction between robot and human. Older adults reported more willingness than younger adults in having a robot perform critical tasks in their home. The results suggest that both younger and older individuals are more interested in the benefits that a robot can provide than in their interactive abilities.

  18. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K; Pinkston, James B; Flores, Jose M; Friedmann, David R; Jones, Callie B; Roland, J Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting University cochlear implant center. Participants The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years) cochlear implant recipients (n=7). Measurements A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7) after cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline) between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70%) of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25%) subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%), post-CI performance improved compared to a patient’s own performance before implantation. Of these, nine (45%) showed moderate or pronounced improvement. Overall, improvements were largest in the verbal and memory domains. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant relationship between speech perception and cognitive function over time. Five neurocognitive tests were predictive of improved speech perception following implantation. Conclusion Comprehensive neurocognitive testing of elderly women demonstrated areas of improvement in cognitive function and auditory

  19. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  20. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

    2010-03-01

    Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly. PMID:20191258

  1. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

    2010-03-01

    Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly.

  2. Investigating relationships between cortical thickness and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari; Lawyer, Glenn; Nyman, Håkan; Jönsson, Erik G; Haukvik, Unn K; Saetre, Peter; Bjerkan, Petr S; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Agartz, Ingrid

    2010-05-30

    Relationships between prefrontal and temporal lobe grey matter volumes as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive test results have been reported in schizophrenia. This investigation aimed to localize brain regions where cortical thickness and neurocognitive performance were related, and investigate if such relationships might differ in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were characterized by neurocognitive testing and by brain cortical thickness maps. Putative cortical thickness/cognitive score relationships were investigated with contrast analyses of general linear models for the combined sample. Regions in which relationships were present were further investigated for diagnostic interaction. In the combined sample, significant positive relationships were found between frontal, temporal and occipital regions and tests for verbal IQ, verbal learning and executive functions. Diagnostic interaction was found for the relationships between verbal IQ and the right temporo-occipital junction and the left middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, the significant relationships between cortical thickness and neurocognitive performances were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The relationships were similar in patients and controls, except for the right temporo-occipital and left occipital cortical areas, indicating a disrupted structure-function relationship in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy control subjects.

  3. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  4. Social Perception and WAIS-IV Performance in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…

  5. Virtual Simulation in Leadership Development Training: The Impact of Learning Styles and Conflict Management Tactics on Adult Learner Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Adult learners can develop leadership skills and competencies such as conflict management and negotiation skills. Virtual simulations are among the emerging new technologies available to adult educators and trainers to help adults develop various leadership competencies. This study explored the impact of conflict management tactics as well as…

  6. The effects of visibility conditions, traffic density, and navigational challenge on speed compensation and driving performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Trick, Lana M; Toxopeus, Ryan; Wilson, David

    2010-11-01

    Research on how older drivers react to natural challenges in the driving environment is relevant for both the research on mental workload and that on age-related compensation. Older adults (M age=70.8 years) were tested in a driving simulator to assess the impact of three driving challenges: a visibility challenge (clear day, fog), a traffic density challenge (low density, high density) and a navigational challenge (participants followed the road to arrive at their destination, participants had to use signs and landmarks). The three challenge manipulations induced different compensatory speed adjustments. This complicated interpretation of the other measures of driving performance. As a result, speed adjustment indices were calculated for each condition and participant and composite measures of performance were created to correct for speed compensation. (These speed adjustment indices correlated with vision test scores and subscales of the Useful Field of View.) When the composite measures of driving performance were analyzed, visibility x density x navigational challenge interactions emerged for hazard RT and SD of lane position. Effects were synergistic: the impact of the interaction of challenge variables was greater than the sum of independent effects. The directions of the effects varied depending on the performance measure in question though. For hazard RT, the combined effects of high-density traffic and navigational challenge were more deleterious in good visibility conditions than in fog. For or SD of lane position, the opposite pattern emerged: combined effects of high-density traffic and navigational challenge were more deleterious in fog than in clear weather. This suggests different aspects of driving performance tap different resources.

  7. Apolipoprotein E and Clusterin can Magnify Effects of Personality Vulnerability on Declarative Memory Performance in Non-Demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Shraddha; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Small, Brent J.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recent research has linked psychological (personality) factors and specific genetic risk polymorphisms to performance on neurocognitive phenotypes. We examined whether episodic or semantic memory performance is associated with (a) three personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience), (b) two neurodegenerative-related polymorphisms (i.e., Apolipoprotein E (APOE; rs7412; rs429358), Clusterin (CLU; rs11136000)), and (c) cross-domain risk interactions (magnification effects). Methods Linear growth models were examined to test independent associations between personality traits and declarative memory performance, and potential interaction effects with APOE and CLU genetic risk. Normal older adults (n = 282) with personality and genetic data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were included at baseline and for up to 14 years of follow-up. Results First, we observed that higher openness to experience levels were associated with better episodic and semantic memory. Second, three significant gene × personality interactions were associated with poorer memory performance at baseline. These synergistic effects are: (a) APOE allelic risk (ε4+) carriers with lower openness to experience levels, (b) CLU (no risk: T/T) homozygotes with higher extraversion levels, and (c) CLU (no risk: T/T) homozygotes with lower neuroticism levels. Conclusions Specific neurodegenerative-related genetic polymorphisms (i.e., APOE and CLU) moderate and magnify the risk contributed by selected personality trait levels (i.e., openness to experience, extraversion) on declarative memory performance in non-demented aging. Future research could target interactions of other personality traits and genetic polymorphisms in different clinical populations for predicting other neurocognitive deficits or transitions to cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:26343804

  8. Occupational Exposures Are Associated with Worse Morbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Blanc, Paul D.; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D.; Kanner, Richard E.; Belli, Andrew J.; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. Objectives: To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. Methods: A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. Measurements and Main Results: An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (−26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (−3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may

  9. Interregional cerebral metabolic associativity during a continuous performance task Part I: Healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Mark W.; Benson, Brenda E.; Ketter, Terence A.; Kimbrell, Tim A.; George, Mark S.; Speer, Andrew M.; Herscovitch, Peter; Post, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    One emerging hypothesis regarding psychiatric illnesses is that they arise from the dysregulation of normal circuits or neuroanatomical patterns. In order to study mood disorders within this framework, we explored normal metabolic associativity patterns in healthy volunteers as a prelude to examining the same relationships in affectively ill patients (Part II). We applied correlational analyses to regional brain activity as measured with FDG-PET during an auditory continuous performance task (CPT) in 66 healthy volunteers. This simple attention task controlled for brain activity that otherwise might vary amongst affective and cognitive states. There were highly significant positive correlations between homologous regions in the two hemispheres in thalamic, extrapyramidal, orbital frontal, medial temporal and cerebellar areas. Dorsal frontal, lateral temporal, cingulate, and especially insula, and inferior parietal areas showed less significant homologous associativity, suggesting more specific lateralized function. The medulla and bilateral thalami exhibited the most diverse interregional associations. A general pattern emerged of cortical regions covarying inversely with subcortical structures, particularly the frontal cortex with cerebellum, amygdala and thalamus. These analytical data may help to confirm known functional and neuroanatomical relationships, elucidate others as yet unreported, and serve as a basis for comparison to patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:18799294

  10. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  11. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  12. Effects of thymol and isoeugenol feed supplementation on quail adult performance, egg characteristics and hatching success.

    PubMed

    Luna, A; Dambolena, J S; Zygadlo, J A; Marin, R H; Labaque, M C

    2012-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate whether feed supplementation with thymol or isoeugenol can alter Japanese quail growth rate and final body weight, the female onset of puberty, hen-day egg production and the physical and chemical characteristics of the egg, as well as its potential to alter hatchability. 2. From 4 to 16 weeks of age, birds from each cage (1 male: 3 females) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed in the supplement added to the feed: control, thymol or isoeugenol (400 mg/kg). The average ages (d) at first egg lay (FIRST), at 25% egg production (A25% EP), at 50% egg production (A50% EP) and weekly and cumulative hen-day egg production (HDEP) were calculated. In addition, physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs, their fertility and hatchability were also evaluated for each group. 3. Feed supplementation did not significantly affect growth rate, final body weight, egg production parameters, fertility and physical characteristics of egg or most of the fatty acid components of the yolk. 4. The group treated with isoeugenol showed an increase in the percentage of palmitoleic fatty acid compared to the control, with thymol group showing intermediates values. 5. Both thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups showed increased hatchabilities, by 18.8% and 11.8%, respectively, compared to their control counterparts. 6. The improvement in the hatching success of the eggs from the thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups without a negative impact on their performance may have important economic implications for future breeding programmes, particularly if these effects generalise from quail to other more commercially important poultry species, such as chickens or turkeys. PMID:23281757

  13. Effects of thymol and isoeugenol feed supplementation on quail adult performance, egg characteristics and hatching success.

    PubMed

    Luna, A; Dambolena, J S; Zygadlo, J A; Marin, R H; Labaque, M C

    2012-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate whether feed supplementation with thymol or isoeugenol can alter Japanese quail growth rate and final body weight, the female onset of puberty, hen-day egg production and the physical and chemical characteristics of the egg, as well as its potential to alter hatchability. 2. From 4 to 16 weeks of age, birds from each cage (1 male: 3 females) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed in the supplement added to the feed: control, thymol or isoeugenol (400 mg/kg). The average ages (d) at first egg lay (FIRST), at 25% egg production (A25% EP), at 50% egg production (A50% EP) and weekly and cumulative hen-day egg production (HDEP) were calculated. In addition, physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs, their fertility and hatchability were also evaluated for each group. 3. Feed supplementation did not significantly affect growth rate, final body weight, egg production parameters, fertility and physical characteristics of egg or most of the fatty acid components of the yolk. 4. The group treated with isoeugenol showed an increase in the percentage of palmitoleic fatty acid compared to the control, with thymol group showing intermediates values. 5. Both thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups showed increased hatchabilities, by 18.8% and 11.8%, respectively, compared to their control counterparts. 6. The improvement in the hatching success of the eggs from the thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups without a negative impact on their performance may have important economic implications for future breeding programmes, particularly if these effects generalise from quail to other more commercially important poultry species, such as chickens or turkeys.

  14. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Árias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  15. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  16. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability.

  17. Tainted altruism: when doing some good is evaluated as worse than doing no good at all.

    PubMed

    Newman, George E; Cain, Daylian M

    2014-03-01

    In four experiments, we found that the presence of self-interest in the charitable domain was seen as tainting: People evaluated efforts that realized both charitable and personal benefits as worse than analogous behaviors that produced no charitable benefit. This tainted-altruism effect was observed in a variety of contexts and extended to both moral evaluations of other agents and participants' own behavioral intentions (e.g., reported willingness to hire someone or purchase a company's products). This effect did not seem to be driven by expectations that profits would be realized at the direct cost of charitable benefits, or the explicit use of charity as a means to an end. Rather, we found that it was related to the accessibility of different counterfactuals: When someone was charitable for self-interested reasons, people considered his or her behavior in the absence of self-interest, ultimately concluding that the person did not behave as altruistically as he or she could have. However, when someone was only selfish, people did not spontaneously consider whether the person could have been more altruistic. PMID:24403396

  18. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  19. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  20. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  1. [Secondary monoclonal gammopathy after bone marrow autotransplantation as a cause of worse renal function in light chain immunoglobulin deposition disease].

    PubMed

    Rekhtina, I G; Mendeleeva, L P; Stolyarevich, E S; Gal'tseva, I V; Povilaitite, P E; Biryukova, L S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical case of a female woman with nephropathy due to light chain deposition disease caused by secretion of κ Bence-Jones protein. Complete immunochemical remission was achieved after induction therapy using a bortezomib + cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone regimen. Renal function remained unchanged (glomerular filtration rate 16 ml/min), there was a reduction in proteinuria from 5.8 to 2.6 g/day. High-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation was performed as consolidation of remission. A year posttransplantation, there was no secretion of κ light chains; however, monoclonal IgG lambda emerged in a quantity of 3.2 g/l. At the same period, nephrotic syndrome became progressive (daily proteinuria 12 g) and dialysis-dependent renal failure developed. A repeat renal biopsy specimen revealed changes, suggesting that there was a decrease in renal deposits of κ light chains. Simultaneously with this, the obvious negative trend as progressive nephrosclerosis and fixation of IgG and λ light chains in the glomeruli (in the sclerotic areas) cause IgGλ monoclonal protein to be involved in the genesis of further kidney injury. Attention is also paid to different characteristics of capillary wall deposits by density (according to the electron microscopic findings), which may point to their different qualitative composition and possibly different formation duration. Papaprotein Gλ disappeared after a year without therapy, suggesting its reactivity. The findings confirm that worse renal function is caused by the action of paraprotein Gλ due to secondary (after autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation) monoclonal gammopathy.

  2. Allogeneic unrelated bone marrow transplantation from older donors results in worse prognosis in recipients with aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takenaka, Katsuto; Sugita, Junichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Uchida, Naoyuki; Iwato, Koji; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ishiyama, Ken; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mori, Takehiko; Teshima, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is an essential therapy for acquired aplastic anemia and prognosis has recently improved. However, engraftment failure and graft-versus-host disease are potential fatal complications. Various risk factors for poor prognosis have been identified, such as patient age and human-leukocyte antigen disparity, but the relationship between donor age and prognosis is still unknown. Therefore, we performed a cohort study to compare the prognosis of unrelated bone marrow transplantation from younger and older donors using the registry database in Japan. We evaluated 427 patients (age 16–72 years) with aplastic anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation from younger (≤39 years, n=281) or older (≥40 years, n=146) unrelated donors. Overall survival of the older donor group was significantly inferior to that of the younger donor group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.35; P<0.01). The incidence of fatal infection was significantly higher in the older donor group (13.7% vs. 7.5%; P=0.03). Primary engraftment failure and acute graft-versus-host disease were significantly more frequent in the older donor group (9.7% vs. 5.0%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.30; P=0.01, and 27.1% vs. 19.7%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.56; P=0.03, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease was related to a worse prognosis in the whole cohort. This study showed the inferiority of older donors in aplastic anemia; thus, donor age should be considered when multiple donors are available. A large-scale prospective study is warranted to establish a better donor selection algorithm for bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia. PMID:26858357

  3. [Secondary monoclonal gammopathy after bone marrow autotransplantation as a cause of worse renal function in light chain immunoglobulin deposition disease].

    PubMed

    Rekhtina, I G; Mendeleeva, L P; Stolyarevich, E S; Gal'tseva, I V; Povilaitite, P E; Biryukova, L S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical case of a female woman with nephropathy due to light chain deposition disease caused by secretion of κ Bence-Jones protein. Complete immunochemical remission was achieved after induction therapy using a bortezomib + cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone regimen. Renal function remained unchanged (glomerular filtration rate 16 ml/min), there was a reduction in proteinuria from 5.8 to 2.6 g/day. High-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation was performed as consolidation of remission. A year posttransplantation, there was no secretion of κ light chains; however, monoclonal IgG lambda emerged in a quantity of 3.2 g/l. At the same period, nephrotic syndrome became progressive (daily proteinuria 12 g) and dialysis-dependent renal failure developed. A repeat renal biopsy specimen revealed changes, suggesting that there was a decrease in renal deposits of κ light chains. Simultaneously with this, the obvious negative trend as progressive nephrosclerosis and fixation of IgG and λ light chains in the glomeruli (in the sclerotic areas) cause IgGλ monoclonal protein to be involved in the genesis of further kidney injury. Attention is also paid to different characteristics of capillary wall deposits by density (according to the electron microscopic findings), which may point to their different qualitative composition and possibly different formation duration. Papaprotein Gλ disappeared after a year without therapy, suggesting its reactivity. The findings confirm that worse renal function is caused by the action of paraprotein Gλ due to secondary (after autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation) monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:27296267

  4. Allogeneic unrelated bone marrow transplantation from older donors results in worse prognosis in recipients with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takenaka, Katsuto; Sugita, Junichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Uchida, Naoyuki; Iwato, Koji; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ishiyama, Ken; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mori, Takehiko; Teshima, Takanori

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is an essential therapy for acquired aplastic anemia and prognosis has recently improved. However, engraftment failure and graft-versus-host disease are potential fatal complications. Various risk factors for poor prognosis have been identified, such as patient age and human-leukocyte antigen disparity, but the relationship between donor age and prognosis is still unknown. Therefore, we performed a cohort study to compare the prognosis of unrelated bone marrow transplantation from younger and older donors using the registry database in Japan. We evaluated 427 patients (age 16-72 years) with aplastic anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation from younger (≤39 years, n=281) or older (≥40 years, n=146) unrelated donors. Overall survival of the older donor group was significantly inferior to that of the younger donor group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.35; P<0.01). The incidence of fatal infection was significantly higher in the older donor group (13.7% vs. 7.5%; P=0.03). Primary engraftment failure and acute graft-versus-host disease were significantly more frequent in the older donor group (9.7% vs. 5.0%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.30; P=0.01, and 27.1% vs. 19.7%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.56; P=0.03, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease was related to a worse prognosis in the whole cohort. This study showed the inferiority of older donors in aplastic anemia; thus, donor age should be considered when multiple donors are available. A large-scale prospective study is warranted to establish a better donor selection algorithm for bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia. PMID:26858357

  5. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  6. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  7. Gender Differences in Adult Health: An International Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Omar; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…

  8. Patients With Small Left Ventricular Size Undergoing Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty Have Worse Intraprocedural Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Don, Creighton; Gupta, Pritha P.; Witzke, Christian; Kesarwani, Manoj; Cubeddu, Roberto J.; Inglessis, Ignacio; Palacios, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of left ventricular (LV) chamber size on procedural and hospital outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valvuloplasty. Background Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is used as an integral step during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients with small, thickened ventricles are thought to have more complications during and following BAV. Methods Retrospective study of consecutive patients with severe, symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis who underwent retrograde BAV at Massachusetts General Hospital. We compared patients with left ventricular end-diastolic diameters (LVEDD) <4.0 cm (n = 31) to those with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm (n = 78). Baseline and procedural characteristics as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used for the adjusted analysis. Results Patients with smaller LV chamber size were mostly women (80.7% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.01) and had a smaller body surface area (BSA), (1.61 ± 0.20 m2 vs. 1.79 ± 0.25 m2, P < 0.01). Patients with smaller LV chamber size had higher ejection fractions and thicker ventricles. Otherwise, baseline characteristics were similar. The intraprocedural composite of death, cardiopulmonary arrest, intubation, hemodynamic collapse, and tamponade was higher for patients with LVEDD < 4.0 cm (32.3% v. 11.5%, P = 0.01). Adjusting for age, gender, BSA, LV pressure, and New York Heart Association class, LVEDD < 4.0 cm remained an independent predictor of procedural (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.4– 18.2) and in-hospital complications (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2–11.6). Conclusions Compared to patients undergoing BAV with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm, those with smaller LV chambers had worse procedural and in-hospital outcomes. PMID:22926957

  9. Concordance of studies for nodal staging is prognostic for worse survival in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhupar, R; Correa, A M; Ajani, J; Betancourt, S; Mehran, R J; Swisher, S G; Hofstetter, W L

    2014-01-01

    Pretreatment clinical staging in esophageal cancer influences prognosis and treatment strategy. Current staging strategies utilize multiple imaging modalities, and often the results are contradictory. No studies have examined the implications of concordance of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) when used for the evaluation of nodal disease. The objective of this study was to determine if concordance of CT, PET, or EUS for nodal disease predicts worse overall survival. We reviewed 615 esophageal cancer patients with pretreatment CT, PET, and EUS that underwent esophagectomy for survival outcomes based on concordance of studies for nodal disease. Concordant N+ is defined as two or three studies positive for nodal disease; non-concordant N+ is defined as only one positive study. Node-positive disease by any study predicted shorter survival than node-negative disease (42% vs. 73% 5-year survival; P<0.001). Additionally, non-concordant N+ patients had shorter survival than N- patients (52% vs. 73% 5-year survival; P<0.001). Concordant N+ patients had shorter survival than non-concordant N+ patients (38- vs. 61-month median survival; P=0.017). There were no statistically significant differences in survival based on specific combinations of studies. When PET was disregarded, patients with both CT+ and EUS+ had shorter survival than patients with either CT+ or EUS+ (39- vs. 58-month median survival; P=0.029). Pretreatment CT, PET, or EUS concordance for node-positive disease predicts shorter overall survival in patients that undergo esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Predicting survival in esophageal cancer should consider the synergistic capabilities of CT, PET, and EUS in evaluating nodal status.

  10. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  11. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  12. Ischemic Colitis Has a Worse Prognosis When Isolated to the Right Side of the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, John; Brandt, Lawrence J.; Behin, Daniel S.; Southern, William N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND In general, ischemic colitis has a very good prognosis, but there is concern that when ischemia affects the right side of the colon in an isolated fashion, the prognosis may not be so favorable. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features and outcomes of ischemia isolated to the right side of the colon with those of ischemia involving other areas of the colon. METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken of patients with colon ischemia hospitalized at the Moses and Weiler Divisions of the Montefiore Medical Center during the interval 1998–2005. Patients were identified using computerized searches of ICD-9 codes for colon ischemia and were divided into two groups: those with isolated right colon ischemia (IRCI) and those with colon ischemia not involving the right colon in an isolated fashion (non-IRCI). Only patients with biopsy-proven ischemic colitis were entered into our study. RESULTS A total of 273 cases of biopsy-proven ischemic colitis were identified, of which 71 (26.0%) were isolated to the right side. Of these IRCI cases, 59.2% had an unfavorable outcome compared with 17.3% of cases of non-ICRI: 54.9% of IRCI patients required surgery compared with 10.9% of non-IRCI patients; mortality in patients with IRCI was 22.5% compared with 11.9% in patients with non-IRCI. CONCLUSIONS A total of 273 cases of biopsy-proven ischemic colitis were identified of which 71 (26.0%) involved only the right side. Patients with IRCI had a worse outcome than those with colon ischemia involving other colon regions, including a fivefold need for surgery and a twofold mortality. PMID:17561968

  13. Outcomes in females hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia are worse than in males.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Forest W; Wiemken, Timothy L; Peyrani, Paula; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Ramirez, Julio A

    2013-05-01

    There is little recent information on sex-specific outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The objective of this study was to determine whether female sex is associated with better clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with CAP. A secondary analysis was conducted by the Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization regarding male and female patients with CAP from 80 hospitals in 17 countries from June 1, 2001 to August 2, 2011. Outcomes were time to clinical stability, length of stay and in-hospital and 28-day mortality. Propensity-adjusted, multivariate regression models were used to predict the probability of occurrence of each of the study outcomes. There were 6718 patients in this study, of whom 40% were female. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for time to clinical stability was 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.97; p=0.005). The adjusted HR for length of stay was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-1.01; p=0.089). The adjusted risk ratio for in-hospital mortality was 1.04 (95% CI 0.86-1.24; p=0.717), and for 28-day mortality was 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.30; p=0.018). This study demonstrates that the epidemiology of CAP may be changing, and that females have worse outcomes for CAP than males. They are more likely to take longer to reach clinical stability, have longer hospital stays and are 15% more likely to have died after 28 days. Current pneumonia scoring systems may need to be revised regarding female mortality risk.

  14. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species.

  15. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachamallu, M.; Zhou, N.; Anderson, C.

    2013-12-01

    Meera Rachamallu, Nancy Zhou, and Clarissa Anderson1 1 Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse? Since the early to mid 1990's, the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) has been the site of intensive time-series water column and sediment trap sampling. Chlorophyll concentrations have increased significantly over the past several years, consistent with observations of more intense diatom blooms during the spring and summer and fewer, large dinoflagellate blooms beginning in 2001. Sediment trap fluxes confirm these changes with evidence of an abrupt shift upwards in bloom frequency and abundance of the neurotoxin (domoic acid) producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia beginning in 2000. We hypothesize that these shifts are associated with decreases in the concentration of important nutrients, particularly silicic acid, that feed the phytoplankton and can help select which species bloom. Silicate and phosphate limitation have also been shown in the laboratory to stimulate domoic acid production. Our summer study of surface phytoplankton populations in the SBC showed that since surface sampling began in 2009, the biggest bloom occurred in October 2010 coinciding with a strong La Niña period. Shellfish toxin levels were also high during that period, and models that incorporate low silicic acid as a factor for toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms predicted these large blooms in fall of 2010. We show that more recent harmful algal blooms have been small in comparison to 2010, indicating that the La Niña anomaly may have been responsible. In other words, intense upwelling in the fall of 2010 combined with lower-than-normal ratios of silicic acid to nitrate may be the root cause for the large and toxic diatom bloom.

  16. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  17. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  18. Only watching others making their experiences is insufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis and water maze performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iggena, Deetje; Klein, Charlotte; Garthe, Alexander; Winter, York; Kempermann, Gerd; Steiner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the context of television consumption and its opportunity costs the question arises how far experiencing mere representations of the outer world would have the same neural and cognitive consequences than actively interacting with that environment. Here we demonstrate that physical interaction and direct exposition are essential for the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment. In our experiment, the mice living in a simple standard cage placed in the centre of a large enriched environment only indirectly experiencing the stimulus-rich surroundings (IND) did not display increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In contrast, the mice living in and directly experiencing the surrounding enriched environment (DIR) and mice living in a similar enriched cage containing an uninhabited inner cage (ENR) showed enhanced neurogenesis compared to mice in control conditions (CTR). Similarly, the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on learning performance in the Morris Water maze depended on the direct interaction of the individual with the enrichment. In contrast, indirectly experiencing a stimulus-rich environment failed to improve memory functions indicating that direct interaction and activity within the stimulus-rich environment are necessary to induce structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. PMID:26369255

  19. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  20. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  1. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  2. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Perform Multiple Step, Job Tasks in a Generalized Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ortega-Hurndon, Fanny

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to perform complex, multiple step, job tasks in a generalized setting. A multiple probe design across three job tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  3. Must We Take Student Teaching for Better or Worse? What Student Teachers Learn from Their Internships in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peshe C.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the blog entries of student teachers to examine what they learn during their internships. Data reveal how novice teachers, for better or worse, are socialized to conform to the status quo, thereby calling the current model for student teaching into question. The article argues that a better model for student teaching would…

  4. Self-regulatory strength depletion and muscle-endurance performance: a test of the limited-strength model in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Woodgate, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Self-regulation consumes a form of strength or energy. The authors investigated aftereffects of self-regulation depletion on muscle-endurance performance in older adults. Participants (N = 61, mean age = 71) were randomized to a self-regulation-depletion or control group and completed 2 muscle-endurance performance tasks involving isometric handgrip squeezing that were separated by a cognitive-depletion task. The depletion group showed greater deterioration of muscle-endurance performance than controls, F(1, 59) = 7.31, p = .009. Results are comparable to those of younger adults in a similar study and support Baumeister et al.'s limited-strength model. Self-regulation may contribute to central-nervous-system fatigue; however, biological processes may allow aging muscle to offset depletion of self-regulatory resources affecting muscle-endurance performance.

  5. Dynamic Spectral Structure Specifies Vowels for Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic specification account of vowel recognition suggests that formant movement between vowel targets and consonant margins is used by listeners to recognize vowels. This study tested that account by measuring contributions to vowel recognition of dynamic (i.e., time-varying) spectral structure and coarticulatory effects on stationary structure. Adults and children (four-and seven-year-olds) were tested with three kinds of consonant-vowel-consonant syllables: (1) unprocessed; (2) sine waves that preserved both stationary coarticulated and dynamic spectral structure; and (3) vocoded signals that primarily preserved that stationary, but not dynamic structure. Sections of two lengths were removed from syllable middles: (1) half the vocalic portion; and (2) all but the first and last three pitch periods. Adults performed accurately with unprocessed and sine-wave signals, as long as half the syllable remained; their recognition was poorer for vocoded signals, but above chance. Seven-year-olds performed more poorly than adults with both sorts of processed signals, but disproportionately worse with vocoded than sine-wave signals. Most four-year-olds were unable to recognize vowels at all with vocoded signals. Conclusions were that both dynamic and stationary coarticulated structures support vowel recognition for adults, but children attend to dynamic spectral structure more strongly because early phonological organization favors whole words. PMID:25536845

  6. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  7. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes.

  8. The effect of inversion on face recognition in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2015-05-01

    Face identity recognition has widely been shown to be impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study we examined the influence of inversion on face recognition in 26 adults with ASD and 33 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed a recognition test comprising upright and inverted faces. Participants with ASD performed worse than controls on the recognition task but did not show an advantage for inverted face recognition. Both groups directed more visual attention to the eye than the mouth region and gaze patterns were not found to be associated with recognition performance. These results provide evidence of a normal effect of inversion on face recognition in adults with ASD.

  9. Older adults have greater difficulty imagining future rather than atemporal experiences.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Peter G; Bailey, Phoebe E; Henry, Julie D; Phillips, Louise H; Gaskin, Shae; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Episodic future thinking refers to mentally traveling forward in time to preexperience an event, and emerging research suggests that this is more difficult for older adults. The current study was designed to better understand the effect of aging on separate component processes of age differences in episodic future thinking. Young (n = 24) and older (n = 25) adults were asked to construct a) atemporal scenarios, b) future scenarios, and c) a narrative that involved navigation. Each of these conditions assesses the capacity to construct and describe a scene, but only the future scenario requires a subjective sense of self in time (autonoetic consciousness). The composite measure of performance showed that relative to young adults, older adults have substantially reduced capacity for all three types of construction, suggesting that age-related difficulty imagining future episodic events may reflect a more general cognitive decline with age. In addition, older adults were worse at imagining future experiences than atemporal experiences, indicating limited capacity for autonoetic consciousness. Further, this difference between imagining atemporal and future experiences was not as evident among younger adults. These deficits in episodic future thinking have implications for the daily lives of older adults in terms of anticipating and planning for the future.

  10. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor based sleep assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study, we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and the month prior to a neuropsychological evaluation on cognitive performance. Results showed that mildly disturbed sleep the week prior and month prior to cognitive testing was associated with reduced working memory on cognitive evaluation. One night of mild sleep disturbance was not associated with decreased cognitive performance the next day. Sleep duration was unrelated to cognition. In-home, unobtrusive sensor monitoring technologies provide a novel method for objective, long-term, and continuous assessment of sleep behavior and other everyday activities that might contribute to decreased or variable cognitive performance in healthy older adults. PMID:25642948

  11. The contribution of stretch-shortening cycle and arm-swing to vertical jumping performance in children, adolescents, and adult basketball players.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Perkos, Stefanos; Dipla, Konstantina; Manou, Vassiliki; Kellis, Spiros

    2008-11-01

    This study examined from childhood to adulthood: (1) the effects of countermovement (use of stretch-shortening cycle-SSC) and arm-swing (AS) on vertical jumping (VJ) performance and (2) the ability to use the SSC and AS during VJ. Male basketball players (n = 106) were divided according to their age into: children (12.0 +/- 0.23), young adolescents (14.5 +/- 0.41), old adolescents (16.9 +/- 0.27), and adults (21.9 +/- 0.32). Each participant executed three maximal squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps without arms (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA). The contribution of SSC and AS was calculated by the augmentation (difference and percent change) in performance between CMJ and SJ, and CMJA and CMJ, respectively. CMJA performance was significantly (p < .05) higher than CMJ and SJ, and CMJ was higher than SJ within all age-groups. There were no significant differences (p > .05) among children, young and old adolescents, and adults in the percent contribution of SSC and AS to VJ performance. The variability in the contribution of SSC and AS to VJ performance was about twofold higher in children vs. adults. It appears that the ability to use the SSC and AS is not affected by the maturation process in males, trained in basketball.

  12. Tower of Hanoi Performance of Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children as a Function of Solution Length and Goal State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borys, Suzanne V.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with the Tower of Hanoi task to assess problem-solving ability in 6-, 7-, 8-, and 10-year-old nonretarded children and mentally retarded young adults of varying maturational ages. (Author/MP)

  13. Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of tongue and handgrip strength and endurance measurements in healthy adults using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Fifty-one healthy participants (21 males, 30 females; age range = 19-57 years) were tested on four occasions 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. The primary outcome measures were isometric tongue and handgrip strength (best of three trials) and sustained isometric endurance. Small increases (changes in group mean) in both anterior (1.7 %) and posterior (2.5 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (5 %) between weeks 1 and 2 were observed with no change in subsequent weeks, suggesting that there is only a small learning effect for these measurements. The within-subject variation (mean-typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]) indicated higher than desirable initial variation for anterior (CV 10.8 %) and posterior (CV 11.8 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (CV 15.2 %) but this was reduced in weeks 2-4. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated acceptable and improved reliability for both anterior (ICC 0.77-0.90) and posterior (ICC 0.79-0.86) tongue strength and handgrip strength (ICC 0.69-0.91) after week 1. Additional exploratory analyses were conducted with a subset of data to determine whether two values within 5 kPa (tongue) or 15 kPa (handgrip) provide superior strength reliability. Neither tongue nor hand endurance measurements were sufficiently reliable. These findings suggest that tongue and handgrip strength values demonstrate acceptable reliability, especially if familiarization is provided. Further investigation is needed to reduce sources of variability in tongue endurance measurements.

  14. The time course of access to semantic information in high-performing older adults: behavioral evidence for the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in OLDer individuals.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Ensie; Joanette, Yves

    2011-07-01

    The possibility that the HAROLD phenomenon (i.e., Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in OLDer adults) is manifested in the course of access to semantic information, in particular the meaning of emotional words, was investigated using the visual half-field priming paradigm. The time course of priming was tracked in the cerebral hemispheres across three SOAs: 150, 300, and 750 ms. The results showed older and young adults had the same level of accuracy. While priming occurred unilaterally in young participants, the pattern of priming in older participants appeared to be bilateral whenever it was present, that is, at the 300- and 750-ms SOAs. The delay in the appearance of priming in older adults may be due to an increase in sensory thresholds that causes older adults to need more time to encode stimuli and fully activate their semantic network. It is concluded that the bilateral pattern of priming in the presence of an equivalent level of performance in older adults provides behavioral evidence supporting the compensatory role of the HAROLD phenomenon for this particular task.

  15. Impact of Helminth Diagnostic Test Performance on Estimation of Risk Factors and Outcomes in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael B.; John-Stewart, Grace; Richardson, Barbra A.; Singa, Benson; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J.; Sangaré, Laura R.; Mbogo, Loice W.; Naulikha, Jacqueline M.; Walson, Judd L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. Methods This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. Results Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0%) and 20(13.1%) were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001). PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40), communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27), and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33), whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl) and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88) compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60). Conclusion Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the identification

  16. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

  17. Pay attention to impulsivity: modelling low attentive and high impulsive subtypes of adult ADHD in the 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in female rats.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Harte, Michael K; Barnes, Samuel A; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2014-08-01

    Varying levels of attention and impulsivity deficits are core features of the three subtypes of adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, little is known about the neurobiological correlates of these subtypes. Development of a translational animal model is essential to improve our understanding and improve therapeutic strategies. The 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in rats can be used to examine different forms of attention and impulsivity. Adult rats were trained to pre-set 5C-CPT criterion and subsequently separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, premature responding and response disinhibition in the 5C-CPT. The behavioural subgroups were selected to represent the different subtypes of adult ADHD. Consequently, effects of the clinically used pharmacotherapies (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) were assessed in the different subgroups. Four subgroups were identified: low-attentive (LA), high-attentive (HA), high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine produced differential effects in the subgroups. Methylphenidate increased sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced premature responding in HI animals. Atomoxetine also improved sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced response disinhibition and premature responding in HI animals. This is the first study using adult rats to demonstrate the translational value of the 5C-CPT to select subgroups of rats, which may be used to model the subtypes observed in adult ADHD. Our findings suggest that this as an important paradigm to increase our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of adult ADHD-subtypes and their response to pharmacotherapy.

  18. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847

  19. For Better or Worse: The Health Implications of Marriage Separation Due to Migration in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feinian; Liu, Hui; Vikram, Kriti; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Massive rural-to-urban migration in China has led to spatial separation of millions of married couples. In this article, we examine the question of whether the well-documented health benefits of marriage extend to left-behind individuals in rural China who are spatially separated from their spouses. Using longitudinal data that span 16 years (China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006), we compare the self-reported health trajectories of adults across different marital statuses while taking into account the physical location of their spouses. Our results suggest a clear health disadvantage of married individuals whose spouses are absent compared with those whose spouses are living in the same household. Further, longer spousal absence is more harmful to an individual’s health. Finally, spousal absence and longer physical separation from their spouses induce stronger health deficits for married men than for married women, suggesting that a gendered process is at work. PMID:26100981

  20. Variation of availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography between adult and pediatric patients in the academic emergency department in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Changsun; Kang, Bo Seung; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography (USG) in the emergency department (ED) and the status of USG training programs in emergency medicine residencies in academic EDs in Korea. Methods In spring 2014, a link to a 16-question, multiple-choice, and rating scale web-based survey was e-mailed to all 97 academic ED residency training directors in Korea. Results The response rate was 83.5% (81/97). All respondents had their own USG machines in the ED. In total, 82.7% of respondents reported that emergency physician-performed adult USGs were usually conducted daily, whereas only 23.6% performed pediatric USGs daily. Moreover, 55.5% performed pediatric USG fewer than once a week. 74.1% of respondents had education programs for adult USG in residency training, but only 21.0% had programs for pediatric USG. There was a high association between the presence of education programs and the use of USG in both groups. The faculty members who most commonly participated in teaching ED residents how to perform USG were emergency physicians (67.9%). Only 17.3% of respondents reported that they always supported a quality assurance process. The training directors generally agreed with the advantages in emergency physician-performed USGs. Conclusion The availability of ultrasound machines was high both for adult and pediatric EDs. Nevertheless, the frequency of Emergency physician-performed USG for pediatric patients was low, which was related to the lack of the training programs for treating pediatric patients.

  1. Performance of Young Adult Cannabis Users on Neurocognitive Measures of Impulsive Behavior and their Relationship to Symptoms of Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M.; Diviak, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed and less is known on the performance of non-treatment seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n = 65) and non-using controls (NU, n = 65) on several laboratory measures of impulsive behavior, as well as on a measure of episodic memory commonly impacted by cannabis use. The CU group performed more poorly than the NU group on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Immediate Recall and Delayed Recall. No significant differences were observed on the measures of impulsive behavior (i.e., Iowa Gambling Task [IGT], Go-Stop Task, Monetary Choice Questionnaire, Balloon Analogue Risk Task). We examined relationships between neurocognitive performance and symptoms of cannabis use disorder symptoms (DSM-IV CUD) among the CU group, which revealed that poorer IGT performance was associated with more symptoms of DSM-IV CUD. Our results show poorer memory performance among young adult cannabis users relative to healthy controls, but no differences on measures of impulsive behavior. However, performance on a specific type of impulsive behavior (i.e., poorer decision-making) was associated with more cannabis use disorder symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that decision-making deficits may be more strongly associated with problems experienced from cannabis use, rather than solely being a consequence of cannabis use, per se. PMID:22882144

  2. Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M; Diviak, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that abstinent cannabis users show deficits on neurocognitive laboratory tasks of impulsive behavior. But results are mixed, and less is known on the performance of non-treatment-seeking, young adult cannabis users. Importantly, relationships between performance on measures of impulsive behavior and symptoms of cannabis addiction remain relatively unexplored. We compared young adult current cannabis users (CU, n = 65) and nonusing controls (NU, n = 65) on several laboratory measures of impulsive behavior, as well as on a measure of episodic memory commonly impacted by cannabis use. The CU group performed more poorly than the NU group on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total Immediate Recall and Delayed Recall. No significant differences were observed on the measures of impulsive behavior (i.e., Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Go-Stop Task; Monetary Choice Questionnaire; Balloon Analogue Risk Task). We examined relationships between neurocognitive performance and symptoms of cannabis use disorder symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV CUD) among the CU group, which revealed that poorer IGT performance was associated with more symptoms of DSM-IV CUD. Our results show poorer memory performance among young adult cannabis users than among healthy controls, but no differences on measures of impulsive behavior. However, performance on a specific type of impulsive behavior (i.e., poorer decision making) was associated with more cannabis use disorder symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence to suggest that decision-making deficits may be more strongly associated with problems experienced from cannabis use, rather than solely being a consequence of cannabis use, per se. PMID:22882144

  3. Exposure to High Risk Medications is Associated with Worse Outcomes in Older Veterans with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Una E; Pugh, Mary Jo; Alvarez, Carlos A; Berlowitz, Dan R; Turner, Barbara J; Aung, KoKo; Mortensen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common, costly, and leads to significant morbidity in older adults, yet we have limited data on medication safety. We sought to evaluate the association of incident High Risk Medication in the Elderly (HRME) with mortality, emergency department (ED) or hospital care among older adults with chronic pain. Methods A retrospective Veterans Health Administration cohort study was conducted examining older Veterans with chronic pain diagnoses and use of incident HRME (opioids, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, and psychotropics). Outcomes evaluated included all-cause mortality, ED visits, or inpatient hospital care. Descriptive statistics summarized variables for the overall cohort, the chronic pain cohort, and those with and without HRME. Separate generalized linear mixed-effect regression models were used to examine the association of incident HRME on each outcome, controlling for potential confounders. Results Among 1,807,404 Veterans who received VA care in 2005–2006, 584,066 (32.3%) had chronic pain; 45,945 Veterans with chronic pain (7.9%) had incident HRME exposure. The strongest significant associations of incident HRME were for: high-risk opioids with all-cause hospitalizations (OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.95–2.23); skeletal muscle relaxants with all-cause ED visits (OR 2.62, 95%CI 2.52–2.73) and mortality (OR 0.80, 95%CI 0.74–0.86); antihistamines with all-cause ED visits (OR 2.82 95%CI 2.72–2.95); and psychotropics with all-cause hospitalizations (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.96–2.35). Conclusions Our data indicate that incident HRME is associated with clinically important adverse outcomes in older Veterans with chronic pain and highlight the importance of being judicious with prescribing certain classes of drugs in this vulnerable population. PMID:26418380

  4. When the Future Feels Worse than the Past: A Temporal Inconsistency in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Eugene M.

    2010-01-01

    Logically, an unethical behavior performed yesterday should also be unethical if performed tomorrow. However, the present studies suggest that the timing of a transgression has a systematic effect on people's beliefs about its moral acceptability. Because people's emotional reactions tend to be more extreme for future events than for past events,…

  5. Between Domain Cognitive Dispersion and Functional Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Robert P.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Within-person variability in cognitive performance is related to neurological integrity, but the association with functional abilities is less clear. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between cognitive dispersion, or within-person variability, and everyday multitasking and the way in which these variables may influence performance on a naturalistic assessment of functional abilities. Method Participants were 156 community-dwelling adults, age 50 or older. Cognitive dispersion was calculated by measuring within-person variability in cognitive domains, established through principal components analysis. Path analysis was used to determine the independent contribution of cognitive dispersion to functional ability, mediated by multitasking. Results Results of the path analysis revealed that the number of subtasks interweaved (i.e., multitasked) mediated the association between cognitive dispersion and task sequencing and accuracy. Although increased multitasking was associated with worse task performance in the path model, secondary analyses revealed that for individuals with low cognitive dispersion, increased multitasking was associated with better task performance, whereas for those with higher levels of dispersion multitasking was negatively correlated with task performance. Conclusion These results suggest that cognitive dispersion between domains may be a useful indicator of multitasking and daily living skills among older adults. PMID:26300441

  6. Being Playful and Smart? The Relations of Adult Playfulness with Psychometric and Self-Estimated Intelligence and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relation between subjectively assessed adult playfulness and psychometric and self-estimated intelligence in a sample of 254 students. As expected, playfulness existed widely independently from psychometric intelligence. Correlations pointed in the direction of higher expressive playfulness and numeric intelligence and lower…

  7. Use of Portable Electronic Assistive Technology to Improve Independent Job Performance of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Poor employment outcomes for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) persist, despite the development of legal policies designed to enhance access to gainful employment and to promote increased community integration. Recent data suggest that only 37% of young adults with ID obtain paid employment outside of the home. Among persons with ID who…

  8. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  9. Adult English as a Second Language Students in the United States: Learner Characteristics, Goals, and Academic Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga Demin

    2009-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) students learning English outside of traditional academic settings are an understudied population of second language learners. The purpose of the research reported here is to contribute to meeting the instructional needs of these students more effectively by investigating the relationships between their…

  10. The effect of beta-amyloid on face processing in young and old adults: A multivariate analysis of the BOLD signal.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Jenny R; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Devous, Michael D; Park, Denise C

    2015-07-01

    The recent ability to measure in vivo beta-amyloid (Aβ), a marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has led to an increased focus on the significance of Aβ deposition in clinically normal adults. Evidence suggests that healthy adults with elevated cortical Aβ show differences in neural activity associated with memory encoding-specifically encoding of face stimuli. Here, we examined if Aβ deposition in clinically normal adults was related to differences in neural activity in ventral visual cortex during face viewing. Our sample included 23 high-Aβ older adults, 23 demographically matched low-Aβ older adults, and 16 young adults. Participants underwent cognitive testing, Aβ positron emission tomography imaging with (18) F-Florbetapir, and functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity while participants passively viewed photographs of faces. Using barycentric discriminant analysis-a between-groups classification technique-we found that patterns of neural activity in the left fusiform gyrus, a region highly responsive to faces, distinguished Aβ status of participants. Older adults with elevated Aβ were characterized by decreased activity in left fusiform compared to Aβ-negative older adults. Further, we found that the degree to which older adults expressed decreased fusiform activity was related to worse performance on tasks of processing speed. Our results provide unique evidence that, in addition to previously studied memory and default regions, decreased neural activity in a region important for face perception was associated with elevated Aβ and may be an early manifestation of AD.

  11. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-10-01

    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind.

  12. How children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps.

    PubMed

    Chihak, Benjamin J; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2014-06-01

    We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection, 12-year-olds exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks, and 10-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants needed to either speed up or slow down on all intersections or needed to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all age groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. The adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. The 10-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition but performed worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually available and remembered information in complex perception-action tasks. PMID:24576506

  13. Adult brains don't fully overcome biases that lead to incorrect performance during cognitive development: an fMRI study in young adults completing a Piaget-like task.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Spiess, Jeanne; Zago, Laure; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amélie; Turbelin, Marie-Renée; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier; Joliot, Marc

    2009-03-01

    A current issue in developmental science is that greater continuity in cognition between children and adults may exist than is usually appreciated in Piaget-like (stages or 'staircase') models. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at the behavioural level, but never at the brain level. Here we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for the first time, that adult brains do not fully overcome the biases of childhood. More specifically, the aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate whether the perceptual bias that leads to incorrect performance during cognitive development in a Piaget-like task is still a bias in the adult brain and hence requires an executive network to overcome it. Here, we compared two numerical-judgment tasks, one being a Piaget-like task with number-length interference (called 'INT') and the other being a control task with number-length covariation ('COV'). We also used a colour-detection task to control for stimuli numerosity, spatial distribution, and frequency. Our behavioural results confirmed that INT remains a difficult task for young adults. Indeed, response times were significantly higher in INT than in COV. Moreover, we observed that only in INT did response times increase linearly as a function of the number of items. The fMRI results indicate that the brain network common to INT and COV shows a large rightward functional asymmetry, emphasizing the visuospatial nature of these two tasks. When INT was compared with COV, activations were found within a right frontal network, including the pre-supplementary motor area, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus, which probably reflect detection of the number/length conflict and inhibition of the 'length-equals-number' response strategy. Finally, activations related to visuospatial and quantitative processing, enhanced or specifically recruited in the Piaget-like task, were found in bilateral posterior areas.

  14. When two obese parents are worse than one! Impacts on embryo and fetal development.

    PubMed

    McPherson, N O; Bell, V G; Zander-Fox, D L; Fullston, T; Wu, L L; Robker, R L; Lane, M

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in reproductive-age adults is increasing worldwide. While the effects of either paternal or maternal obesity on gamete health and subsequent fertility and pregnancy have been reported independently, the combination of having both parents overweight/obese on fecundity and offspring health has received minimal attention. Using a 2 × 2 study design in rodents we established the relative contributions of paternal and maternal obesity on fetal and embryo development and whether combined paternal and maternal obesity had an additive effect. Here, we show that parental obesity reduces fetal and placental weights without altering pregnancy establishment and is not dependent on an in utero exposure to a high-fat diet. Interestingly combined parental obesity seemed to accumulate both the negative influences of paternal and maternal obesity had alone on embryo and fetal health rather than an amplification, manifested as reduced embryo developmental competency, reduced blastocyst cell numbers, impaired mitochondrial function, and alterations to active and repressive embryonic chromatin marks, resulting in aberrant placental gene expression and reduced fetal liver mtDNA copy numbers. Further understanding both the maternal cytoplasmic and paternal genetic interactions during this early developmental time frame will be vital for understanding how developmental programming is regulated and for the proposition of interventions to mitigate their effects. PMID:26199280

  15. Quantitative analysis of short- and long-distance racing performance in young and adult horses and association analysis with functional candidate genes in Spanish Trotter horses.

    PubMed

    Negro Rama, S; Valera, M; Membrillo, A; Gómez, M D; Solé, M; Menendez-Buxadera, A; Anaya, G; Molina, A

    2016-10-01

    The association of five candidate genes with sporting performance in young and adult Spanish Trotter horses (STHs) was performed according to a previous selection based on quantitative analysis of the trait time per kilometre (TPK). A total of 334 516 records of TPK from 5958 STHs were used to estimate the estimated breeding values (EBVs) at different age groups (young and adults horses) throughout the range of distances (1600-2700 m) using a bicharacter random regression model. The heritability estimated by distance ranged from 0.16 to 0.40, with a different range for the two age groups. Considering the animals with the best and the worst deregressed EBV, 321 STHs were selected for SNP genotyping in MSTN, COX4I2, PDK4, DMRT3 and CKM genes. An association analysis based on ridge and logistic regression revealed that the young trotters with genotype GG in PDK4 (p < 0.05) and AA of DMRT3 (p < 0.001) SNPs show the best potential in short-distance races, while those carrying the genotype AA in DMRT3 (p < 0.001) and CC in CKM (p < 0.05) genes seem to be the best in long-distance races. Adult trotters with genotype AA in DMRT3 also display greater speed (p < 0.05) and endurance (p < 0.001).

  16. Outcomes of Patients with Healthcare-associated Pneumonia: Worse disease or sicker patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Michael B.; Haessler, Sarah; Lagu, Tara; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Pekow, Penelope S.; Priya, Aruna; Skiest, Daniel; Zilberberg, Marya D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is an entity distinct from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). HCAP has a higher case-fatality rate, due either to HCAP organisms or the health status of HCAP patients. The contribution of HCAP criteria to case-fatality rate is unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of adult patients admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia from 7/2007–11/2011 to 491 U.S. hospitals. HCAP was defined as having ≥ 1 of the following: prior hospitalization within 90 days, hemodialysis, admission from a skilled nursing facility, or immune suppression. We compared characteristics of patients with CAP and HCAP and explored the contribution of HCAP criteria to case-fatality rate in a hierarchical generalized linear model. Results Of 436,483 patients hospitalized with pneumonia, 149,963 (34.4%) had HCAP. Compared to those with CAP, HCAP patients were older, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to require ICU care. In-hospital case-fatality rate was higher among patients with HCAP compared to CAP (11.1% vs. 5.1%, p<0.001). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, presence of other infections, early ICU admission, chronic and acute medications, early tests and therapies, length of stay, HCAP remained associated with increased case-fatality rate (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.32–1.39); odds of death increased for each additional HCAP criterion (OR (95% CI) 1 criterion = 1.27 (1.23 – 1.31), 2 criteria=1.55 (1.49 – 1.62), and ≥3 criteria 1.88 (1.72 – 2.06)). Conclusions After adjusting for differences in patient characteristics, HCAP was associated with greater case-fatality rate than CAP. This difference may be due to HCAP organisms or to HCAP criteria themselves. PMID:25222889

  17. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

  18. The Impact of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Wells, Rebecca E.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Summarize and critically evaluate research on the effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in older adults. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. SETTING Community and residential care. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and over (with the exception of one study) with and without cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Cognitive ability using a variety of neuropsychological testing. RESULTS Twenty eligible studies with a total of 2,553 participants were identified that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 11 of the 20 eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 was a prospective non-randomized controlled study, 4 were prospective non-controlled observational studies, and 4 were cross-sectional studies. Overall quality of RCTs was modest, with 3 of 11 trials categorized as high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of outcomes related to executive function in RCTs of cognitively healthy adults indicated a large effect size when Tai Chi was compared to non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.90; p=0.043) and moderate effect size when compared to exercise controls (Hedge’s g=0.51; p=0.003). Meta-analyses of outcomes related to global cognitive function in RCTs of cognitively impaired adults, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, showed smaller but statistically significant effects when Tai Chi was compared to both non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.35; p=0.004) and other active interventions (Hedge’s g=0.30; p=0.002). Findings from non-randomized studies add further evidence that Tai Chi may positively impact these and other domains of cognitive function. CONCLUSION Tai Chi shows potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults, particularly in the realm of executive functioning and in those individuals without significant impairment. Larger and methodologically sound trials with longer follow-up periods are needed before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24383523

  19. Critical review and analysis of the impact of the physical infrastructure on the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Paula Christine

    2008-01-01

    Literature on the impact of physical infrastructure on older adult safe driving performance was reviewed in 2005 as part of the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Literature Review Project. Existing guidelines for driving environments, related to changes in visual, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities associated with the aging process (as published in the Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Federal Highway Administration, 2001), are exhaustive, but the authors made no attempt to critically assess the strength of the study design or level of evidence. In laboratory studies since 1999, the interventions lacked applicability to real-life driving environments. Further investigation of the effectiveness of best practice interventions and how the driving environment can better accommodate the needs of older drivers is needed. Occupational therapy interventions that focus on the occupation of driving and compensation and education strategies that allow older adults to drive safely as long as possible are included.

  20. Single and repeated sevoflurane or desflurane exposure does not impair spatial memory performance of young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kilicaslan, Alper; Belviranli, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel; Nurullahoglu Atalik, Esra

    2013-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics are known to disturb the spatial memory in aged rodents, but there is insufficient information on their effects on young adult rodents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single and repeated exposure to desflurane and sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions in young adult mice. Balb/c mice (2 months old) were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 8). The groups with single inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 4 h, respectively. The groups with repeated inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 2 h a day during 5 consecutive days. Spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze 24 h after exposure. In the learning phase, the parameters associated with finding the hidden platform and swimming speed, and in the memory phase, time spent in the target quadrant and the adjacent quadrants, were assessed and compared between the groups. In the 4-day learning process, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean latency to platform, mean distance traveled and average speed (P > 0.05). During the memory-test phase, all mice exhibited spatial memory, but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of time spent in the target quadrant (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia did not impair acquisition learning and retention memory in young adult mice.

  1. Sleep disorder or simple sleep ontogeny? Tendency for morningness is associated with worse sleep quality in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, A.A.; Miguel, M.A.L.; Tufik, S.; Sabino, F.C.; Cendoroglo, M.S.; Pedrazzoli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the alterations in sleep and circadian parameters during the aging process. The study sample comprises volunteers older than 18 up to 90 years of age that answered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Horne and Östberg circadian preference questionnaire. We observed that the shift to morningness with increasing age is associated with a significant worsening in sleep quality. We discuss that this sleep profile characterized by morningness and worse sleep quality observed in elderly, when compared to younger people, reflects not necessarily a pathological state, but an expected profile for this age group. PMID:27737315

  2. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  3. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  4. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Palmer, Barry R; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0

  5. How Children and Adults Learn to Intercept Moving Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Chihak, Benjamin J.; Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Cremer, James F.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2014-01-01

    We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Ten- and 12-year-old children and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection and 12-year-old exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks. Ten-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants had to either speed up or slow down on all intersections, or had to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. Adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. Ten-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition, but worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually-available and remembered information in complex perception-action tasks. PMID:24576506

  6. Task demands moderate stereotype threat effects on memory performance.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Emery, Lisa; Queen, Tara L

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults' memory performance is adversely affected by the explicit activation of negative stereotypes about aging. In this study, we examined the impact of stereotype threat on recognition memory, with specific interest in (a) the generalizability of previously observed effects, (b) the subjective experience of memory, and (c) the moderating effects of task demands. Older participants subjected to threat performed worse than did those in a nonthreat condition but only when performance constraints were high (i.e., memory decisions had to be made within a limited time frame). This effect was reflected in the subjective experience of memory, with participants in this condition having a lower ratio of "remember" to "know" responses. The absence of threat effects when constraints were minimal provides important boundary information regarding stereotype influences on memory performance.

  7. Cognitive adaptations to stressful environments: When childhood adversity enhances adult executive function.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sung, Sooyeon; Young, Ethan S

    2015-10-01

    Can growing up in a stressful childhood environment enhance certain cognitive functions? Drawing participants from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds, we tested how adults who grew up in harsh or unpredictable environments fared on 2 types of executive function tasks: inhibition and shifting. People who experienced unpredictable childhoods performed worse at inhibition (overriding dominant responses), but performed better at shifting (efficiently switching between different tasks). This finding is consistent with the notion that shifting, but not inhibition, is especially useful in unpredictable environments. Importantly, differences in executive function between people who experienced unpredictable versus predictable childhoods emerged only when they were tested in uncertain contexts. This catalyst suggests that some individual differences related to early life experience are manifested under conditions of uncertainty in adulthood. Viewed as a whole, these findings indicate that adverse childhood environments do not universally impair mental functioning, but can actually enhance specific types of cognitive performance in the face of uncertainty. PMID:26414842

  8. When the future feels worse than the past: a temporal inconsistency in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M

    2010-11-01

    Logically, an unethical behavior performed yesterday should also be unethical if performed tomorrow. However, the present studies suggest that the timing of a transgression has a systematic effect on people's beliefs about its moral acceptability. Because people's emotional reactions tend to be more extreme for future events than for past events, and because such emotional reactions often guide moral intuitions, judgments of moral behavior may be more extreme in prospect than in retrospect. In 7 studies, participants judged future bad deeds more negatively, and future good deeds more positively, than equivalent behavior in the equidistant past. In addition, participants thought that future unfair actions deserved more punishment than past unfair actions, and were more willing to sacrifice their own financial gain to be treated fairly in the future compared with in the past. These patterns were explained in part by the stronger emotions that were evoked by thoughts of future events than by thoughts of past events. Taken together, the results suggest that permission for actions with ethical connotations may be harder to get than forgiveness for those same actions, and demonstrate a systematic way in which moral judgments of the same action are inconsistent across time.

  9. Hyperfibrinogenemia is associated with lymphatic as well as hematogenous metastasis and worse clinical outcome in T2 gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiroharu; Kitayama, Joji; Kanno, Nobuko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2006-01-01

    Background Abnormal hemostasis in cancer patients has previously been described, however the correlation between the plasma fibrinogen level and cancer metastasis and prognosis has not been reported in a large-scale clinical study. Methods Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were retrospectively examined in 405 patients who underwent surgery for advanced gastric cancer. The association of fibrinogen levels with clinical/pathological findings and clinical outcome was evaluated. Results There was a positive correlation between plasma fibrinogen levels and the depth of invasion (p < 0.05). Hyperfibrinogenemia (>310 mg/dl) was independently associated with lymph node (Odds Ratio; 2.342, P = 0.0032) and liver (Odds Ratio; 2.933, P = 0.0147) metastasis, not with peritoneal metastasis in this series. Patients with hyperfibrinogenemia showed worse clinical outcome in T2 gastric cancer, however, there was no correlation of plasma fibrinogen level with prognosis in T3/T4 gastric cancer. Conclusion Our results might support the idea that hyperfibrinogenemia can augment lymphatic and hematogeneous metastasis of advanced gastric cancer, which is major determinant of the prognosis in T2 gastric cancer. Therefore, in the situation without peritoneal involvement, hyperfibrinogenemia is a useful biomarker to predict the possible metastasis and worse clinical outcome in T2 gastric cancer. PMID:16740157

  10. Are economic recessions at the time of leaving school associated with worse physical functioning in later life?

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines whether economic conditions at the time of leaving school or college are associated with physical functioning at old age among cohorts in 11 European countries. Methods Data came from 10,338 participants in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) aged 50-74 who left school or college between 1956 and 1986. Data on functional limitations, as well as employment, marriage and fertility retrospective histories were linked to national unemployment rates during the year individuals left school. Models included country-fixed effects and controls for early-life circumstances. Results Higher unemployment rates during the school-leaving year were associated with fewer functional limitations at ages 50-74 among men (RR[Rate ratio]=0.63, 95%CI=0.47-0.83), but more physical functioning limitations among women (RR=1.30, 95%CI=1.13-1.50), particularly with (post-)secondary education. Economic conditions at the age of leaving school were associated with several labor market, marriage, fertility and health behavior outcomes, but controlling for these factors did not attenuate associations. Results were similar in models that controlled for selection into higher education due to measured covariates. Conclusions Worse economic conditions during the school-leaving year predicted better health at old age among men but worse health among women. Both selection and causation mechanisms may explain this association. PMID:24051367

  11. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  12. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  13. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  14. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns.

  15. The cost of thinking about false beliefs: evidence from adults' performance on a non-inferential theory of mind task.

    PubMed

    Apperly, Ian A; Back, Elisa; Samson, Dana; France, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    Much of what we know about other people's beliefs comes non-inferentially from what people tell us. Developmental research suggests that 3-year-olds have difficulty processing such information: they suffer interference from their own knowledge of reality when told about someone's false belief (e.g., [Wellman, H. M., & Bartsch, K. (1988). Young children's reasoning about beliefs. Cognition, 30, 239-277.]). The current studies examined for the first time whether similar interference occurs in adult participants. In two experiments participants read sentences describing the real colour of an object and a man's false belief about the colour of the object, then judged the accuracy of a picture probe depicting either reality or the man's belief. Processing costs for picture probes depicting reality were consistently greater in this false belief condition than in a matched control condition in which the sentences described the real colour of one object and a man's unrelated belief about the colour of another object. A similar pattern was observed for picture probes depicting the man's belief in most cases. Processing costs were not sensitive to the time available for encoding the information presented in the sentences: costs were observed when participants read the sentences at their own pace (Experiment 1) or at a faster or a slower pace (Experiment 2). This suggests that adults' difficulty was not with encoding information about reality and a conflicting false belief, but with holding this information in mind and using it to inform a subsequent judgement.

  16. Is Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Worse During Days of National Academic Meetings in Japan? A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Izawa, Junichi; Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) might be worse during academic meetings because many medical professionals attend them. Methods This nationwide population-based observation of all consecutively enrolled Japanese adult OHCA patients with resuscitation attempts from 2005 to 2012. The primary outcome was 1-month survival with a neurologically favorable outcome. Calendar days at three national meetings (Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, and Japanese Circulation Society) were obtained for each year during the study period, because medical professionals who belong to these academic societies play an important role in treating OHCA patients after hospital admission, and we identified two groups: the exposure group included OHCAs that occurred on meeting days, and the control group included OHCAs that occurred on the same days of the week 1 week before and after meetings. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results A total of 20 143 OHCAs that occurred during meeting days and 38 860 OHCAs that occurred during non-meeting days were eligible for our analyses. The proportion of patients with favorable neurologic outcomes after whole arrests did not differ during meeting and non-meeting days (1.6% [324/20 143] vs 1.5% [596/38 855]; adjusted odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.88–1.19). Regarding bystander-witnessed ventricular fibrillation arrests of cardiac origin, the proportion of patients with favorable neurologic outcomes also did not differ between the groups. Conclusions In this population, there were no significant differences in outcomes after OHCAs that occurred during national meetings of professional organizations related to OHCA care and those that occurred during non-meeting days. PMID:26639754

  17. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  18. E-learning module on chronic low back pain in older adults: evidence of effect on medical student objective structured clinical examination performance.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Debra K; Morone, Natalia E; Spallek, Heiko; Karp, Jordan F; Schneider, Michael; Washburn, Carol; Dziabiak, Michael P; Hennon, John G; Elnicki, D Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine has highlighted the urgent need to close undergraduate and graduate educational gaps in treating pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common pain conditions, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to potential morbidities associated with misinformed treatment. An e-learning case-based interactive module was developed at the University of Pittsburgh Center of Excellence in Pain Education, one of 12 National Institutes of Health-designated centers, to teach students important principles for evaluating and managing CLBP in older adults. A team of six experts in education, information technology, pain management, and geriatrics developed the module. Teaching focused on common errors, interactivity, and expert modeling and feedback. The module mimicked a patient encounter using a standardized patient (the older adult with CLBP) and a pain expert (the patient provider). Twenty-eight medical students were not exposed to the module (Group 1) and 27 were exposed (Group 2). Their clinical skills in evaluating CLBP were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Mean scores were 62.0 ± 8.6 for Group 1 and 79.5 ± 10.4 for Group 2 (P < .001). Using an OSCE pass-fail cutoff score of 60%, 17 of 28 Group 1 students (60.7%) and 26 of 27 Group 2 students (96.3%) passed. The CLBP OSCE was one of 10 OSCE stations in which students were tested at the end of a Combined Ambulatory Medicine and Pediatrics Clerkship. There were no between-group differences in performance on eight of the other nine OSCE stations. This module significantly improved medical student clinical skills in evaluating CLBP. Additional research is needed to ascertain the effect of e-learning modules on more-advanced learners and on improving the care of older adults with CLBP.

  19. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  20. Does Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer Imply a Worse Prognosis? A Matched Case-Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Zagouri, Flora; Tsigginou, Alexandra; Marinopoulos, Spyros; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Keramopoulos, Antonis; Zografos, George C.; Ampela, Konstantina; Mpaltas, Dimosthenis; Papadimitriou, Christos; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Significant controversy exists in the literature regarding the role of pregnancy in the prognosis of breast cancer. We designed a matched case-case study, matching pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) cases with breast cancer cases for stage, age, and year of diagnosis. Patients and Methods 39 consecutive cases of PABC were matched with 39 premenopausal cases of breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses followed by adjustment for stage, grade, estrogen receptor status, and age at diagnosis, were performed. Results Regarding overall survival (OS), univariate analysis pointed to longer OS in non-PABC cases vs. PABC cases. Accordingly, a more advanced stage predicted shorter survival. In the multivariate analysis, the independent aggravating effect mediated by pregnancy persisted. Interestingly, a post hoc nested analysis within PABC cases indicated that the 3rd trimester pointed to shorter OS. The aforementioned results on OS were also replicated during the examination of relapse-free survival. Conclusion Implementing a matched case-case design, the present study points to pregnancy as a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. PMID:24415971

  1. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ari L.; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). 44 (21%) of patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were 10 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions. PMID:24323716

  2. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ari L; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D; Victor, Jonathan D; Goldfine, Andrew M

    2014-04-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Forty-four (21%) of the patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were ten times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions.

  3. Worse Health Status and Higher Incidence of Health Disorders in Rhesus Negative Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Dammann, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects) showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26495842

  4. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  5. Diabetes Is Associated with Worse Clinical Presentation in Tuberculosis Patients from Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, Lucas S.; Daltro, Carla; Castro, Simone; Kornfeld, Hardy; Netto, Eduardo M.; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, especially in developing countries, and the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as a major public health issue in these same regions, emphasize the importance of investigating this association. Here, we compared the clinical profile and disease outcomes of TB patients with or without coincident DM in a TB reference center in Brazil. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB patient cohort (treatment naïve) of 408 individuals recruited at a TB primary care center in Brazil between 2004 and 2010. Data on diagnosis of TB and DM were used to define the groups. The study groups were compared with regard to TB disease presentation at diagnosis as well as to clinical outcomes such as cure and mortality rates upon anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) initiation. A composite score utilizing clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters was used to compare TB severity between the groups. Results DM patients were older than non-diabetic TB patients. In addition, diabetic individuals more frequently presented with cough, night sweats, hemoptysis and malaise than those without DM. The overall pattern of lung lesions assessed by chest radiographic examination was similar between the groups. Compared to non-diabetic patients, those with TB-diabetes exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli in sputum samples more frequently at diagnosis and at 30 days after ATT initiation. Notably, higher values of the TB severity score were significantly associated with TB-diabetes comorbidity after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, during ATT, diabetic patients required more frequent transfers to TB reference hospitals for complex clinical management. Nevertheless, overall mortality and cure rates were indistinguishable between the study groups. Conclusions These findings reinforce the idea that diabetes negatively impacts pulmonary TB severity. Our study argues for the systematic screening for DM in TB

  6. How Staff Pursue Questions to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, W. M. L.; Antaki, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When support staff use questions to instruct, advise or guide adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), or to solicit information from them, the interaction does not always proceed smoothly, particularly when replies are ambiguous, absent or not obviously relevant. That can lead to interactional trouble and dissatisfaction, or worse.…

  7. Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tomasz; Ilott, Nicholas; Brolese, Giovana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Asherson, Philip J E; Stolerman, Ian P

    2011-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a wide variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, including increased infant mortality and decreased birth weight. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, of which nicotine is a major teratogenic component, has also been linked to the acceleration of the risk for different psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether this increased risk is influenced by the direct effects of gestational nicotine exposure on the developing fetus remains uncertain. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on measures of attention and impulsivity in adult male rats. Offspring of females exposed during pregnancy to 0.06 mg/ml nicotine solution as the only source of water (daily consumption: 69.6±1.4 ml/kg; nicotine blood level: 96.0±31.9 ng/ml) had lower birth weight and delayed sensorimotor development measured by negative geotaxis, righting reflex, and grip strength. In the 5-choice serial reaction time test, adult rats showed increased numbers of anticipatory responses and omissions errors, more variable response times, and lower accuracy with evidence of delayed learning of the task demands when the 1 s stimulus duration was introduced. In contrast, prenatal nicotine exposure had no effect on exploratory locomotion or delay-discounting test. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased expression of the D5 dopamine receptor gene in the striatum, but did not change expression of other dopamine-related genes (DRD4, DAT1, NR4A2, and TH) in either the striatum or the prefrontal cortex. These data suggest a direct effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on important aspects of attention, inhibitory control, or learning later in life. PMID:21289608

  8. Declines in Mobility and Changes in Performance in the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Mildly Disabled Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bear-Lehman, Jane; Anderson, Stewart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gait speed is as an important predictor of mortality, volume of medical care, hospitalization, onset of activities of daily living (ADL) disability, and nursing home placement. We examined associations between change in gait speed and change in observed performance in the instrumental ADL (IADL) in a sample of mild-to-moderately disabled older adults. Methods. Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) were approached to complete a 4-m gait assessment and a performance test of IADL competency at three points over 2 years. IADL competency was assessed by occupational therapists, who rated participants using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) and who also made a global rating of need for help or supervision. Linear mixed models were developed to assess change in motor AMPS score relative to baseline status and change in gait speed and AMPS process scores. Results. Baseline gait and change in gait were significant correlates of change in the AMPS motor ability measures in models that adjusted for cognitive status and AMPS process ability. Even respondents with gait speeds of 1 m/s at baseline were at risk of declining AMPS motor ability and an occupational therapist rating of IADL disability if gait speed declined. Conclusions. Slowing in gait speed is an important risk factor for IADL disability in mild to moderately disabled older adults. PMID:24952575

  9. Vitamin C in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with Ultraviolet detection: first action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Redeuil, Karine; Kilinc, Tamara; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV from September 30 to October 3, 2012, the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals convened to review single-laboratory validation data submitted for the method, Vitamin C in Adult/Pediatric Formula by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. This method is a modified version of the method "HPLC-UV Determination of Total Vitamin C in a Wide Range of Fortified Food Products" previously published in Food Chem., 94, 626-631 (2006). The SLV data from the modified method were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPR 2012.012), and it was concluded that the method meets the requirements. The method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The method is based on the acidic extraction of ascorbic acid in the presence of Tris[2-carboxyethyl] phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent. Separation was achieved on a C18 column with a sodium acetate eluent (pH 5.4) combined with TCEP and decylamine as an ion-pairing agent. Accuracy rates were between 90 and 100%. Repeatability RSD (RSD,) ranged from 1.4 to 2.5%, and intermediate reproducibility RSD (RSDiR) ranged from 1.3 to 7.5%. PMID:24282948

  10. Vitamin C in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with Ultraviolet detection: first action 2012.22.

    PubMed

    Campos-Giménez, Esther; Fontannaz, Patric; Redeuil, Karine; Kilinc, Tamara; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV from September 30 to October 3, 2012, the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals convened to review single-laboratory validation data submitted for the method, Vitamin C in Adult/Pediatric Formula by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. This method is a modified version of the method "HPLC-UV Determination of Total Vitamin C in a Wide Range of Fortified Food Products" previously published in Food Chem., 94, 626-631 (2006). The SLV data from the modified method were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPR 2012.012), and it was concluded that the method meets the requirements. The method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The method is based on the acidic extraction of ascorbic acid in the presence of Tris[2-carboxyethyl] phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent. Separation was achieved on a C18 column with a sodium acetate eluent (pH 5.4) combined with TCEP and decylamine as an ion-pairing agent. Accuracy rates were between 90 and 100%. Repeatability RSD (RSD,) ranged from 1.4 to 2.5%, and intermediate reproducibility RSD (RSDiR) ranged from 1.3 to 7.5%.

  11. Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Paul, Margot D; Silveri, Marisa M

    2013-04-26

    Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication.

  12. Limited health literacy and decline in executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Shwetha S; Eggermont, Laura H P; Silliman, Rebecca A; Bickmore, Timothy W; Henault, Lori E; Winter, Michael R; Nelson, Kerrie; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with worse executive function, but the association between limited health literacy and decline in executive function has not been established because of a lack of longitudinal studies. The authors aimed to examine this association by studying a prospective cohort in the setting of a randomized controlled trial to promote walking in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (65 years of age or older) who scored 2 or more on the Mini-Cog, without depression (score of less than 15 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), and who completed baseline and 12-month evaluations (n = 226). Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Executive function measured at baseline and 12 months using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Category Fluency. The associations between health literacy and 12-month decline in each test of executive function were modeled using multivariate linear regression. Health literacy was found to be limited in 37% of participants. Limited health literacy was associated with reduced performance on all 3 executive function tests. In fully adjusted models, limited health literacy was associated with greater 12-month decline in performance on the TMT than higher health literacy (p = .01). In conclusion, older adults with limited health literacy are at risk for more rapid decline in scores on the TMT, a measure of executive function.

  13. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  14. Extremes of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression Associate with Worse Outcomes in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nick, Jerry A.; Caceres, Silvia M.; Kret, Jennifer E.; Poch, Katie R.; Strand, Matthew; Faino, Anna V.; Nichols, David P.; Saavedra, Milene T.; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L.; Geraci, Mark W.; Burnham, Ellen L.; Fessler, Michael B.; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Abraham, Edward; Moss, Marc; Malcolm, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) severity may be influenced by heterogeneity of neutrophil activation. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons, often as a response to viral infections, which evokes extensive immunomodulation. We tested the hypothesis that over- or under-expression of immunomodulatory ISG by neutrophils is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of circulating neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 19) were used to characterize ISG expression. Hierarchical clustering of expression identified 3 distinct subject groups with Low, Mid and High ISG expression. ISG accounting for the greatest variability in expression were identified (MX1, IFIT1, and ISG15) and used to analyze a prospective cohort at the Colorado ARDS Network site. One hundred twenty ARDS patients from four urban hospitals were enrolled within 72 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from patients and expression of ISG determined by PCR. Samples were stratified by standard deviation from the mean into High (n = 21), Mid, (n = 82) or Low (n = 17) ISG expression. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with High or Low ISG expression to those with Mid-range expression. At enrollment, there were no differences in age, gender, co-existing medical conditions, or type of physiologic injury between cohorts. After adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI, patients with either High or Low ISG expression had significantly worse clinical outcomes than those in the Mid for number of 28-day ventilator- and ICU-free days (P = 0.0006 and 0.0004), as well as 90-day mortality and 90-day home with unassisted breathing (P = 0.02 and 0.004). These findings suggest extremes of ISG expression by circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients recovered early in the syndrome are associated

  15. Extremes of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression Associate with Worse Outcomes in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Caceres, Silvia M; Kret, Jennifer E; Poch, Katie R; Strand, Matthew; Faino, Anna V; Nichols, David P; Saavedra, Milene T; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Geraci, Mark W; Burnham, Ellen L; Fessler, Michael B; Suratt, Benjamin T; Abraham, Edward; Moss, Marc; Malcolm, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) severity may be influenced by heterogeneity of neutrophil activation. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons, often as a response to viral infections, which evokes extensive immunomodulation. We tested the hypothesis that over- or under-expression of immunomodulatory ISG by neutrophils is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of circulating neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 19) were used to characterize ISG expression. Hierarchical clustering of expression identified 3 distinct subject groups with Low, Mid and High ISG expression. ISG accounting for the greatest variability in expression were identified (MX1, IFIT1, and ISG15) and used to analyze a prospective cohort at the Colorado ARDS Network site. One hundred twenty ARDS patients from four urban hospitals were enrolled within 72 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from patients and expression of ISG determined by PCR. Samples were stratified by standard deviation from the mean into High (n = 21), Mid, (n = 82) or Low (n = 17) ISG expression. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with High or Low ISG expression to those with Mid-range expression. At enrollment, there were no differences in age, gender, co-existing medical conditions, or type of physiologic injury between cohorts. After adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI, patients with either High or Low ISG expression had significantly worse clinical outcomes than those in the Mid for number of 28-day ventilator- and ICU-free days (P = 0.0006 and 0.0004), as well as 90-day mortality and 90-day home with unassisted breathing (P = 0.02 and 0.004). These findings suggest extremes of ISG expression by circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients recovered early in the syndrome are associated

  16. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; He, Du; Yang, Liang; Wen, Bo; Dai, Jinfen; Zhang, Qian; Kang, Jian; He, Weiyang; Ding, Qianshan; He, De

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • TRIM26 is down-regulated in liver cancer samples and functions as a novel tumor suppressor. • Down-regulation of TRIM26 is associated with worse prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Knockdown of TRIM26 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. • TRIM26 may function in abnormal metabolic progress of HCC.

  17. Extremes of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression Associate with Worse Outcomes in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Caceres, Silvia M; Kret, Jennifer E; Poch, Katie R; Strand, Matthew; Faino, Anna V; Nichols, David P; Saavedra, Milene T; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Geraci, Mark W; Burnham, Ellen L; Fessler, Michael B; Suratt, Benjamin T; Abraham, Edward; Moss, Marc; Malcolm, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) severity may be influenced by heterogeneity of neutrophil activation. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons, often as a response to viral infections, which evokes extensive immunomodulation. We tested the hypothesis that over- or under-expression of immunomodulatory ISG by neutrophils is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of circulating neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 19) were used to characterize ISG expression. Hierarchical clustering of expression identified 3 distinct subject groups with Low, Mid and High ISG expression. ISG accounting for the greatest variability in expression were identified (MX1, IFIT1, and ISG15) and used to analyze a prospective cohort at the Colorado ARDS Network site. One hundred twenty ARDS patients from four urban hospitals were enrolled within 72 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from patients and expression of ISG determined by PCR. Samples were stratified by standard deviation from the mean into High (n = 21), Mid, (n = 82) or Low (n = 17) ISG expression. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with High or Low ISG expression to those with Mid-range expression. At enrollment, there were no differences in age, gender, co-existing medical conditions, or type of physiologic injury between cohorts. After adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI, patients with either High or Low ISG expression had significantly worse clinical outcomes than those in the Mid for number of 28-day ventilator- and ICU-free days (P = 0.0006 and 0.0004), as well as 90-day mortality and 90-day home with unassisted breathing (P = 0.02 and 0.004). These findings suggest extremes of ISG expression by circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients recovered early in the syndrome are associated

  18. Lumbar disc degeneration below a long arthrodesis (performed for scoliosis in adults) to L4 or L5.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ian J; Charosky, Sebastian; Vialle, Raphael; Chopin, Daniel H

    2008-02-01

    A retrospective analysis of adults treated with long instrumented fusion for scoliosis from the thoracic spine proximally to L4 or L5. To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes as well as radiological changes in distal unfused mobile segments and to evaluate factors that may predispose to distal disc degeneration and/or poor outcome. A total of 151 mobile segments in 85 patients (65 female), mean age 43.2 (range 21-68), were studied. Curve type, number of fused levels and pelvic incidence were recorded. Clinical outcome was measured using the Whitecloud function scale and disc degeneration using the UCLA disc degeneration score. Spinal balance, local segmental angulations and lumbar lordosis were measured pre- and post-operatively as well as at the most recent follow up--mean 9.3 years (range 7-19). A total of 62% of patients had a good or excellent outcome. Eleven had a poor outcome of which ten underwent extension of fusion--five for pain alone, three for pain with stenosis and two for pseudarthroses. Pre-operative disc degeneration was often asymmetric and was slightly greater in older patients. Overall, there was a significant deterioration in disc degeneration (P < 0.0001) that did not correlate with clinical outcome. Disc degeneration correlated with the recent sagittal balance (Anova F = 14.285, P < 0.001) and the most recent lordosis (Anova F = 4.057, P = 0.048). The post-operative sagittal balance and local L5-S1 sagittal angulation correlated to L4 and L5 degeneration, respectively. There was no correlation between degeneration and age, pre-operative degenerative score, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, number of fused levels or distal level of fusion. Disc degeneration does occur below an arthrodesis for scoliosis in adults which does not correlate with clinical outcome. The correlation of loss of sagittal balance with disc degeneration may be as a result of degeneration causing the loss of balance or vice versa, i.e. sagittal imbalance causing

  19. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  20. Next-Day Effects of Ramelteon (8 mg), Zopiclone (7.5 mg), and Placebo on Highway Driving Performance, Memory Functioning, Psychomotor Performance, and Mood in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mets, Monique A.J.; de Vries, Juna M.; de Senerpont Domis, Lieke M.; Volkerts, Edmund R.; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the next-morning residual effects of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo on driving performance, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, and mood in healthy adult subjects following bedtime dosing and a middle of the night awakening. Design: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting: Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Participants: 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females). Interventions: a single dose of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo, administered at bedtime. Measurements: A balance test was performed at night. Other tests were performed the following morning, 8.5 h after administration. Subjects performed a 100-km highway driving test in normal traffic. Primary outcome measure was the standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car. After driving, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor tests were performed and mood was assessed. Results: SDLP was significantly increased after the intake of ramelteon (+2.2 cm) and zopiclone (+2.9 cm). Ramelteon and zopiclone produced significant impairment on reaction time (P < 0.024) in the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, slow (P < 0.007) and fast (P < 0.010) tracking, reaction speed (P < 0.015) and tracking (P < 0.001) in the Divided Attention Test, and delayed recall (P < 0.032) in the Word Learning Test. In contrast to ramelteon, zopiclone additionally impaired performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P < 0.001) and the balance test (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Ramelteon (8 mg) and zopiclone (7.5 mg) significantly impaired driving performance, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor performance the morning following bedtime administration. In contrast to zopiclone, ramelteon produced no balance impairments. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00319215 (www.clinicaltrials.gov) Citation: Mets MAJ; de Vries JM; de Senerpont Domis LM; Volkerts ER; Olivier B; Verster JC. Next

  1. Pre- and postnatally administered ACTH, Organon 2766 and CRF facilitate or inhibit active avoidance task performance in young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Honour, L C; White, M H

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning/memory-related neuropeptides on behavioral task performance in later life. A 1 mg/kg dosage of adrenocorticotropic hormone 4-9, Organon 2766, ACTH/MSH 4-10, ACTH 1-24, CRF, or diluent was subcutaneously injected into either pregnant females or into newborn pups during specific neural developmental windows. Each of the progeny was trained in an active-avoidance task and tested for acquisition on postpartum days 35-37. The mice were then tested for memory task performance and reacquisition on days 42-44 postpartum using the identical experimental paradigm as that used in the training sessions. Prenatal treatment with these memory-related neuropeptides resulted in significant facilitation of learning/memory task performance in male and female mice treated with Organon 2766 (p less than 0.001), and a significant inhibition of learning/memory task performance in males and females treated with ACTH 1-24 (p less than 0.01). Additional sex-specific performance facilitations and inhibitions resulted from the pre- or postnatal administration of the various neuropeptides used in this study. These results suggest that neuropeptides, when available in increased amounts during specific neural developmental windows, can significantly improve or suppress related behavioral performance capability in later life.

  2. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  3. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry), muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press) and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days) will be assessed at baseline (Week 0), following the intervention (Week 11), and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24) by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the effects of progressive

  4. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms. PMID:22253623

  5. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  6. A comprehensive review of post-market clinical studies performed in adults with an Asian probiotic formulation.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, T A; Xu, X; Ahmarani, J

    2010-03-01

    Probiotics as dietary supplements have been readily accepted by Asian populations. Use of certain probiotic preparations is widespread and the number of clinical trials undertaken with such products is unparalleled in western scientific literature. One such preparation, containing a combination of Enterococcus faecium R0026 and Bacillus subtilis R0179, has 23 publications on post-market clinical studies involving over 1,800 adults. The majority of these publications are printed in Chinese and Korean journals. This review examines the clinical findings with this probiotic combination. As mono-therapy, it has been used to overcome symptoms associated with chronic diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome. It has been used as co-adjuvant therapy with sulfasalazine and mesalazine to improve remission times in mild to moderate Ulcerative Colitis and to improve compliance with conventional triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. While the much of the data is preliminary and the study designs require refinement, the contribution of these trials should not be ignored. The information derived in this review will provide practitioners with practical information on appropriate applications for probiotic supplements, expected outcomes, dosing regimes, safety and reported adverse events. Furthermore, identification of problems in these trials should help researchers design better clinical trials when investigating probiotic products.

  7. Similarities and Differences in the Determinants of Trips Outdoors Performed by UK Urban- and Rural-Living Older Adults.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Jolanthe L; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of trips outdoors is a strong indicator of older adults' physical activity levels. This qualitative study compared and contrasted determinants of trips outdoors between rural- (n = 13) and urban-living (n = 15) people aged 65 and older living in England. Interview transcripts were analyzed through directed and summative content analysis employing the Ecological Model framework. Some personal-level determinants (age-related barriers) and environment-level factors (car dependence, bus services) were shared across samples. The main differences were seen in how a community-based social network instigated trips outdoors for rural participants while family ties mostly led to trips outdoors for urban-living participants. Urban participants used and valued recreational facilities, but rural participants did not report them as important in determining trips outdoors. Strategies to improve public transport and minimize age-related barriers may translate from urban to rural contexts. However, social and/or physical environment interventions could be more effective if they were rural-grounded, not urban-translated. PMID:25562468

  8. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms. PMID:22253623

  9. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Etnier, Jennifer L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Karper, William B; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C; Dudley, William N; Rulison, Kelli L

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.

  10. Effects of ramp slope on physiological characteristic and performance time of healthy adults propelling and pushing wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Oh; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Myoung Hee; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants’ pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs. PMID:25642025

  11. Effects of ramp slope on physiological characteristic and performance time of healthy adults propelling and pushing wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Oh; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Myoung Hee; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of ramp slope (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) on physiological characteristics and performance times of wheelchair users and the performance times of caregivers to determine which slope would be the best for wheelchairs, in order to propose a ramp slope that incorporates a universal design. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Fifteen of these subjects also volunteered to participate as caregivers. A wooden ramp with an adjustable slope was constructed. As manual wheelchair users, the participants performed propulsion of a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. Four ramp slopes (1:12, 1:10, 1:8, and 1:6) were used, and the participants sequentially ascended them in order from the gentlest to the steepest slope. The caregivers also pushed a wheelchair up the ramp at a self-selected pace. The blood pressure and pulse of participants after the ascent, as well as the performance times of the caregivers and manual wheelchair users, were measured on each of the different ramp slopes. The measured data, pulse, blood pressure, and performance time, were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. [Results] Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher after ascending the 1:6 slope than after ascending the 1:12 and 1:8 slopes. The participants' pulses tended to increase significantly with an increase in slope. An assessment of the propulsion performance times revealed significant differences among the slopes. [Conclusion] Considering the results of the wheelchair users and caregivers, the 1:12 and 1:10 slopes are suitable ramp slopes for wheelchairs. PMID:25642025

  12. Physical performance, body weight and BMI of young adults in Germany 2000 - 2004: results of the physical-fitness-test study.

    PubMed

    Leyk, D; Rohde, U; Gorges, W; Ridder, D; Wunderlich, M; Dinklage, C; Sievert, A; Rüther, T; Essfeld, D

    2006-08-01

    In westernized countries the sedentary lifestyle in conjunction with a hypercaloric diet has caused an increase in the number of obese adults. Moreover, recent studies suggest that the prevalence of overweight in children increased during the last decade. However, the literature has to be interpreted with some caution since the majority of epidemiological studies examining health, fitness, and obesity rely on self-reported data rather than measurements. A further limitation is that most studies examine either physical activity or nutrition, only few deal with both aspects simultaneously. In the present study we analyzed both aspects in more than 58,000 persons aged between 17 and 26 years. All of them were applicants for the German Bundeswehr, which accepts only volunteers with school leaving certificates and a body mass index (BMI) below 30 kg . m (-2). The admitted subjects performed a Physical-Fitness-Test (PFT) consisting of 5 simple sport tests (shuttle run, sit-ups, push-ups, standing jump, Cooper test). For 23 000 subjects additional measurements of body height and body weight as well as information about their education level were available. These data were combined with the PFT results. We found large deficits in the physical fitness of young adults: More than 37 % of the participants failed to pass the PFT, with failure rates of the male volunteers increasing significantly since 2001. While the female volunteers showed virtually constant body weight and BMI, the corresponding values of men increased monotonously between the age of 17 and 26 years. Physical fitness was positively, BMI negatively correlated with education level. The present findings suggest that body weight increases and fitness decreases in non-obese young adults in Germany. Despite the correlations between BMI and physical fitness the terms "overweight" and "physically unfit" should not be regarded as synonyms.

  13. Poorer Wisconsin card-sorting test performance in healthy adults with higher positive and negative schizotypal traits.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting Gang; Lee, I Hui; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Yang, Yen Kuang; Huang, Si Sheng; Chen, Kao Chin; Wang, Chieh Hui; Chang, Yun-Hsuan

    2011-10-01

    Non-clinical schizotypy was found to be related to poorer Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) performance, but the results were inconsistent. Two subgroups, the higher negative-higher positive and the lower negative-lower positive (15 vs 16), were selected from the top and the bottom quartiles of negative and positive scale scores of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) completed by 177 healthy volunteers, respectively. The higher negative-higher positive SPQ score subgroup had significantly poorer performance regarding the completed categories of WCST than the lower negative-lower positive SPQ score subgroup. Subjects with higher non-clinical schizotypy trait showed relatively mild cognitive dysfunction.

  14. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; Schoenfelder, Erin N.; English, Joseph S.; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O’Brien, Benjamin R.; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10 mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10 mg THC + 0 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg MPH = 89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of “Feel Drug,” “Good Effects,” and “Take Drug Again.” THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. PMID:25175495

  15. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

  16. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. PMID:25175495

  17. [Has Russia gotten worse?].

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    During a 1995 conference on AIDS prevention organized by the U.S. Agency for International Development, undersecretary of state Tim Wirth spoke of the connection between international drug trafficking and the spread of HIV infection. The drug traffickers with their private armies and growing power are a menace to democracy in several countries, not just Latin American nations like Colombia whose problems are known, but others such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Russia. In 1987, most of the countries of the former Soviet Union adopted an AIDS control policy similar to that of Cuba, with universal obligatory screening and identification and location of sexual contacts. Counseling, medical care, and respect for confidentiality were nonexistent. A small number of cases were diagnosed in each country. Most of the countries have discontinued these costly and authoritarian measures. The replacement programs, based on individual initiative, are poorly financed. The drugs available to them are largely limited to AZT, which is locally produced. The unemployment, declining incomes, and arrival of traffickers of all kinds in these countries since the fall of the Soviet Union appear to present ideal conditions for the propagation of AIDS. Drug use and prostitution, increasingly involving men and children as well as women, have flourished. Rates of HIV infection under the circumstances are unlikely to remain low. The division of individuals into groups at risk is unrealistic, because drug users become prostitutes and prostitutes use drugs. The most effective campaign against AIDS in these countries may therefore depend on a merciless campaign against drug trafficking. PMID:12179248

  18. Dark Energy, or Worse

    ScienceCinema

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2016-07-12

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  19. Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Liu, Xingbo; Sim, Don; Benner, Chance M; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Qian, Yanrong; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kim, Jason K; Kopchick, John J

    2016-05-01

    GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1. PMID:27035649

  20. Prefrontal-parietal correlation during performance of the towers of Hanoi task in male children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Miguel Angel; Rizo Martínez, Lucía Ester; Robles Aguirre, Francisco Abelardo; Hernández González, Marisela

    2012-01-01

    Potential age differences in the electroencephalographic (EEG) correlation (r) between the prefrontal and parietal cortices during performance of the Tower of Hanoi task were studied. In three groups of healthy males (G1, 11-13; G2, 18-20, and G3, 26-30, years of age) EEGs were recorded at baseline and during performance of the Tower of Hanoi task. The parameters of the task showed no significant differences among groups, though the majority of younger subjects failed to complete it. The G1 group showed increases only in the interparietal r. The G2 group showed an increased interhemispheric and intrahemispheric r in almost all frequency bands, while the r in G3 increased only in selected frequency bands in the right hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the functional coupling between these two cortices shows a characteristic pattern during performance of the Hanoi task that, while specific to each age group, was not associated with the successful performance of the task. PMID:22682734

  1. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale…

  2. An Accelerometer-Based Handheld System to Reduce Breaks in Performance of Young Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Zhi-Zhan

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a system that reduced breaks in performance. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  3. Nurses' Perceptions of Role, Team Performance, and Education Regarding Resuscitation in the Adult Medical-Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Sharon C; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Fealy, Natalie; Saba, Christine R; Smith, Stacey; McHugh, Allison T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perception of their roles, team performance, and educational needs during resuscitation using an electronic survey. Findings provide direction for clinical practice, nursing education, and future research to improve resuscitation care. PMID:26665866

  4. The effect of early musical training on adult motor performance: evidence for a sensitive period in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Penhune, Virginia; Watanabe, Donald; Savion-Lemieux, Tal

    2005-12-01

    This experiment demonstrates that musicians who began training before age seven perform better on a rhythmic tapping task than musicians who began after the age of seven, when the two groups are matched for years of experience. These results support the idea that there may be a sensitive period in childhood for motor training, similar to that observed for language learning.

  5. Experienced stress produces inhibitory deficits in old adults' Flanker task performance: First evidence for lifetime stress effects beyond memory.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R; Geeraert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Studies regarding aged individuals' performance on the Flanker task differ with respect to reporting impaired or intact executive control. Past work has explained this discrepancy by hypothesising that elderly individuals use increased top-down control mechanisms advantageous to Flanker performance. This study investigated this mechanism, focussing on cumulative experienced stress as a factor that may impact on its execution, thereby leading to impaired performance. Thirty elderly and thirty young participants completed a version of the Flanker task paired with electroencephalographic recordings of the alpha frequency, whose increased synchronisation indexes inhibitory processes. Among high stress elderly individuals, findings revealed a general slowing of reaction times for congruent and incongruent stimuli, which correlated with alpha desynchronisation for both stimulus categories. Results found high performing (low stress) elderly revealed neither a behavioural nor electrophysiological difference compared to young participants. Therefore, rather than impacting on top-down compensatory mechanisms, findings indicate that stress may affect elderly participants' inhibitory control in attentional and sensorimotor domains. PMID:26542527

  6. Intraindividual Variability in Executive Functions but Not Speed of Processing or Conflict Resolution Predicts Performance Differences in Gait Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette; Verghese, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Background. The relationship between executive functions (EF) and gait speed is well established. However, with the exception of dual tasking, the key components of EF that predict differences in gait performance have not been determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine whether processing speed, conflict resolution, and intraindividual variability in EF predicted variance in gait performance in single- and dual-task conditions. Methods. Participants were 234 nondemented older adults (mean age 76.48 years; 55% women) enrolled in a community-based cohort study. Gait speed was assessed using an instrumented walkway during single- and dual-task conditions. The flanker task was used to assess EF. Results. Results from the linear mixed effects model showed that (a) dual-task interference caused a significant dual-task cost in gait speed (estimate = 35.99; 95% CI = 33.19–38.80) and (b) of the cognitive predictors, only intraindividual variability was associated with gait speed (estimate = −.606; 95% CI = −1.11 to −.10). In unadjusted analyses, the three EF measures were related to gait speed in single- and dual-task conditions. However, in fully adjusted linear regression analysis, only intraindividual variability predicted performance differences in gait speed during dual tasking (B = −.901; 95% CI = −1.557 to −.245). Conclusion. Among the three EF measures assessed, intraindividual variability but not speed of processing or conflict resolution predicted performance differences in gait speed. PMID:24285744

  7. A randomized trial on the effect of a multimodal intervention on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life in adult patients undergoing allogeneic SCT.

    PubMed

    Jarden, M; Baadsgaard, M T; Hovgaard, D J; Boesen, E; Adamsen, L

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of a 4- to 6-week multimodal program of exercise, relaxation and psychoeducation on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life (QOL) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) adult recipients. In all, 42 patients were randomized to a supervised multimodal intervention or to a control group receiving usual care. The primary end point was on aerobic capacity measured in VO(2) max. Secondary end points were muscle strength, functional performance, physical activity level, QOL, fatigue, psychological well-being and clinical outcomes. The multimodal intervention had a significant effect on physical capacity: VO(2) max (P<0.0001) and muscle strength: chest press (P<0.0001), leg extension (P=0.0003), right elbow flexor (P=0.0009), right knee extensor (P<0.0001) and functional performance (stair test) (0.0008). Moreover, the intervention group showed significantly better results for the severity of diarrhea (P=0.014) and fewer days of total parenteral nutrition (P=0.019). Longitudinal changes in QOL, fatigue and psychological well-being favored the intervention group, but did not reach statistical significance. Assignment of a multimodal intervention during allo-HSCT did not cause untoward events, sustained aerobic capacity and muscle strength and reduced loss of functional performance during hospitalization.

  8. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  9. Home based exercise to improve turning and mobility performance among community dwelling older adults: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Turning is a common activity for older people, and is one of the activities commonly associated with falls during walking. Falls that occur while walking and turning have also been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in older people. Despite the importance of stability during turning, there has been little focus on identifying this impairment in at risk older people, or in evaluating interventions aiming to improve this outcome. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 week tailored home based exercise program in older adults aged (50 years and above) who were identified as having unsteadiness during turning. Methods/Design A single blind randomized controlled trial will be conducted, with assessors blind to group allocation. Study participants will be aged 50 years and above, living in the community and have been identified as having impaired turning ability [outside of age and gender normal limits on the Step Quick Turn (180 degree turn) task on the Neurocom® Balance Master with long plate]. After a comprehensive baseline assessment, those classified as having balance impairment while turning will be randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive a 16 week individualized balance and strength home exercise program, based on the Otago Exercise Program with additional exercises focused on improving turning ability. Intervention group will attend four visit to the assessment centre over 16 weeks period, for provision, monitoring, modification of the exercise and encourage ongoing participation. Participants in the control group will continue with their usual activities. All participants will be re-assessed on completion of the 16 week program. Primary outcome measures will be the Step Quick Turn Test and Timed-Up and Go test. Secondary outcomes will include other clinical measures of balance, psychological aspects of falls, incidence of falls and falls risk factors. Discussion Results of this study

  10. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  11. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Etnier, Jennifer L.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Karper, William B.; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T.; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M.; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C.; Dudley, William N.; Rulison, Kelli L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by ApoEe4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting ApoE e4 carriers are discussed. PMID:25594264

  12. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration.

  13. A functional variant in MIR137, a candidate gene for schizophrenia, affects Stroop test performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; González-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Forero, Diego A

    2016-02-28

    MIR137, a brain expressed miRNA, has been identified as a top novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). 230 healthy participants completed the Stroop test and were genotyped for a functional Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) in MIR137 gene. MIR137 VNTR genotypes were associated with differences in Stroop facilitation and accuracies in congruent trials and for the total number of errors. This is the first study of the functional VNTR in MIR137 gene and Stroop test performance in healthy subjects. Our results could have important implications for the identification of genetic candidates for endophenotypes for SZ.

  14. A functional variant in MIR137, a candidate gene for schizophrenia, affects Stroop test performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; González-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Forero, Diego A

    2016-02-28

    MIR137, a brain expressed miRNA, has been identified as a top novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). 230 healthy participants completed the Stroop test and were genotyped for a functional Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) in MIR137 gene. MIR137 VNTR genotypes were associated with differences in Stroop facilitation and accuracies in congruent trials and for the total number of errors. This is the first study of the functional VNTR in MIR137 gene and Stroop test performance in healthy subjects. Our results could have important implications for the identification of genetic candidates for endophenotypes for SZ. PMID:26778630

  15. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  16. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management.

  17. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Thomas, Enlli M.; Kennedy, Ivan; Prys, Cynog; Young, Nia; Viñas Guasch, Nestor; Roberts, Emily J.; Hughes, Emma K.; Jones, Leah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorting, Simon, and a metalinguistic judgment task (650, 557, and 354 participants, respectively) reveal little support for a bilingual advantage, either in relation to control or globally. Primarily there is no difference in performance across groups, but there is occasionally better performance by monolinguals or persons dominant in the language being tested, and in one case-in one condition and in one age group-lower performance by the monolinguals. The lack of evidence for a bilingual advantage in these simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals suggests the need for much closer scrutiny of what type of bilingual might demonstrate the reported effects, under what conditions, and why. PMID:24550853

  18. Subclinical Atherosclerotic Calcification and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Terry, James G.; Loria, Catherine M.; Hazzouri, Adina Zeki Al; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Jacobs, David R.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Zhu, Na; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular risk factors in middle-age are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in older age. Less is known about the burden of calcified subclinical atherosclerosis and cognition, especially in midlife. We examined the association of coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (CAC and AAC, respectively) with cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 2,510 black and white adults (age: 43–55 years) without heart disease or stroke who completed a year 25 follow-up exam (2010–11) as part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. CAC and AAC were measured with non-contrast computed tomography. Cognition was assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) (psychomotor speed), Stroop Test (executive function), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) (verbal memory). Results A greater amount of CAC and AAC was associated with worse performance on each test of cognitive function after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and study center. Associations were attenuated, but remained significant for the DSST and RAVLT following additional adjustment for vascular risk factors, including adiposity, smoking, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Compared to participants without CAC or AAC, those with both CAC and AAC, but not CAC or AAC alone was associated with lower DSST scores (p<0.05). Conclusions In this community-based sample, greater subclinical atherosclerotic calcification was associated with worse psychomotor speed and memory in midlife. These findings underscore the importance of a life course approach to the study of cognitive impairment with aging. PMID:24125414

  19. Peak procedure performance in young adult and aged rats: acquisition and adaptation to a changing temporal criterion.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, H; Ferrara, A; Soffíe, M; Bronchart, M; Wearden, J H

    1998-08-01

    Twenty-four-month-old and 4-month-old rats were trained on a peak-interval procedure, where the time of reinforcement was varied twice between 20 and 40 sec. Peak times from the old rats were consistently longer than the reinforcement time, whereas those from younger animals tracked the 20- and 40-sec durations more closely. Different measures of performance suggested that the old rats were either (1) systematically misremembering the time of reinforcement or (2) using an internal clock with a substantially greater latency to start and stop timing than the younger animals. Old rats also adjusted more slowly to the first transition from 20 to 40 sec than did the younger ones, but not to later transitions. Correlations between measures derived from within-trial patterns of responding conformed in general to detailed predictions derived from scalar expectancy theory. However, some correlation values more closely resembled those derived from a study of peak-interval performance in humans and a theoretical model developed by Cheng and Westwood (1993), than those obtained in previous work with animals, for reasons that are at present unclear.

  20. Enhancement of episodic memory in young and healthy adults: a paired-pulse TMS study on encoding and retrieval performance.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Geneviève; Schneider, Cyril; Grondin, Simon; Blanchet, Sophie

    2011-01-20

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological tool that can transiently influence brain excitability and improve cognitive performance. Facilitation effects induced by low frequency repetitive TMS on memory functions have been shown in a few studies in young and healthy participants [29] and in older individuals with memory complaints [40]. However, regions specifically involved in encoding and retrieval were not always systematically targeted. We thus aimed to facilitate episodic memory with online TMS systematically applied over the left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) while participants were performing a recognition task. We applied online paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) (15 ms inter-stimulus interval) either during encoding or retrieving of verbal or non-verbal material. Participants were 11 right-handed young individuals (21.33 ± 2.27 years old). Repeated measures ANOVA showed shorter reaction time when ppTMS are applied over the left DLPFC during encoding as compared to right homologous stimulation or to Sham condition. In contrast, ppTMS over the right DLPFC during retrieval was associated with shorter reaction times compared to left homologous stimulation. Overall, our data support for the first time that online ppTMS over the DLPFCs is capable of hastening memory processes in young and healthy individuals. PMID:21094215