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  1. The outcome of lumbar disc herniation surgery is worse in old adults than in young adults.

    PubMed

    Strömqvist, Fredrik; Strömqvist, Björn; Jönsson, Bo; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - The outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been thoroughly evaluated in middle-aged patients, but less so in elderly patients. Patients and methods - With validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and using SweSpine (the national Swedish Spine Surgery Register), we analyzed the preoperative clinical status of LDH patients and the 1-year postoperative outcome of LDH surgery performed over the period 2000-2012. We included 1,250 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) and 12,840 young and middle-aged patients (aged 20-64). Results - Generally speaking, elderly patients were referred for LDH surgery with worse PROM scores than young and middle-aged patients, they improved less by surgery, they experienced more complications, they had inferior 1-year postoperative PROM scores, and they were less satisfied with the outcome (with all differences being statistically significant). Interpretation - Elderly patients appear to have a worse postoperative outcome after LDH surgery than young and middle-aged patients, they are referred to surgery with inferior clinical status, and they improve less after the surgery. PMID:27391663

  2. Memory Deficit is Associated with Worse Functional Trajectories Among Older Adults in Low Vision Rehabilitation for Macular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Sanders, Linda L.; Potter, Guy G.; Cousins, Scott W.; Ansah, Deidra; McConnell, Eleanor; Pieper, Carl F.; Landerman, Lawrence; Steffens, David C.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Older adults with macular disease are at increased risk of memory decline and incident dementia. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) aims to preserve independence in people with irreversible vision loss, but comorbid memory problems could limit the success of rehabilitation. This study examined whether performance on a brief memory test is related to functional outcomes among older patients undergoing LVR for macular disease. Design Observational cohort study of patients receiving outpatient LVR Setting Academic center Participants 91 seniors (average age 80.1 years) with macular disease Measurements Memory was assessed at baseline with a 10-word list; memory deficit was defined as immediate recall of ≤ two words. Vision-related function was measured with the 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25)administered at baseline and during subsequent interviews (mean length of follow up = 115 days). Linear mixed models (LMMs) were constructed to compare average trajectories of four VFQ-25 subscales: near activities, distance activities, dependency, and role difficulty. Results The 29.7% of patients with memory deficit tended to decline in ability to accomplish activities that involve near vision. Controlling for age, sex, and education, the functional trajectory of participants with memory deficit differed significantly from that of participants with better memory (p=0.002), who tended to report improvements in ability to accomplish near activities. Conclusion Among older adults receiving LVR for macular disease, those with memory deficit experienced worse functional trajectories in their ability to perform specific visually mediated tasks. A brief memory screen may help explain variability in rehabilitation outcomes and identify patients who might require special accommodations. PMID:23126548

  3. Medication cost problems among chronically ill adults in the US: did the financial crisis make a bad situation even worse?

    PubMed

    Piette, John D; Rosland, Ann Marie; Silveira, Maria J; Hayward, Rodney; McHorney, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    A national internet survey was conducted between March and April 2009 among 27,302 US participants in the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel. Respondents reported behaviors related to cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) and the impacts of medication costs on other aspects of their daily lives. Among respondents aged 40-64 and looking for work, 66% reported CRN in 2008, and 41% did not fill a prescription due to cost pressures. More than half of respondents aged 40-64 and nearly two-thirds of those in this group who were looking for work or disabled reported other impacts of medication costs, such as cutting back on basic needs or increasing credit card debt. More than one-third of respondents aged 65+ who were working or looking for work reported CRN. Regardless of age or employment status, roughly half of respondents reporting medication cost hardship said that these problems had become more frequent in 2008 than before the economic recession. These data show that many chronically ill patients, particularly those looking for work or disabled, reported greater medication cost problems since the economic crisis began. Given links between CRN and worse health, the financial downturn may have had significant health consequences for adults with chronic illness. PMID:21573050

  4. Edentulism associates with worse cognitive performance in community-dwelling elders in rural Ecuador: results of the Atahualpa project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Gardener, Hannah; Del Brutto, Victor J; Maestre, Gladys E; Zambrano, Mauricio; Montenegro, Jipson E; Wright, Clinton B

    2014-12-01

    Studies in industrialized nations suggest that severe edentulism correlates with cognitive impairment, but there is little information on this association in underserved populations. We conducted a community-based study to assess whether edentulism associates with cognitive impairment in elders living in rural Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door census and evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Persons were classified into two groups according to whether they have severe edentulism (<10 remaining teeth) or not. In addition, a questionnaire allowed self-rating of oral health. A total of 274 persons (mean age 69.6 ± 7.7 years; 59% women) were included. Persons with <10 remaining teeth (n = 116) have significantly lower MoCA scores than those with ≥10 teeth (n =158), after adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, depression and dementia (β = -1.06, p = 0.03). Self-rated poor oral health was more prevalent among persons with <10 teeth (p < 0.0001), but did not correlate with MoCA scores (good vs. poor, β = -0.89, p = 0.89). Severe edentulism is associated with poor cognitive performance in elders living in rural Ecuador. Public health campaigns directed to improve oral health may facilitate early recognition of persons with cognitive impairment in underserved populations. PMID:24627152

  5. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Taylor, Amy M; Barkus, Christopher; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2016-04-01

    A common strategy when searching for cognitive-enhancing drugs has been to target the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), given its putative role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Evidence in favour of this approach has come primarily from studies with rodents using behavioural assays like the Morris water maze. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of the synaptic NMDAR. Inhibiting DAO could therefore provide an effective and viable means of enhancing cognition, particularly in disorders like schizophrenia, in which NMDAR hypofunction is implicated. Indirect support for this notion comes from the enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and facilitated water maze acquisition of ddY/Dao(-) mice, which lack DAO activity due to a point mutation in the gene. Here, in Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice, we report both better and worse water maze performance, depending on the radial distance of the hidden platform from the side wall of the pool. Dao(-/-) mice displayed an increased innate preference for swimming in the periphery of the maze (possibly due to heightened anxiety), which facilitated the discovery of a peripherally located platform, but delayed the discovery of a centrally located platform. By contrast, Dao(-/-) mice exhibited normal performance in two alternative assays of long-term spatial memory: the appetitive and aversive Y-maze reference memory tasks. Taken together, these results question the proposed relationship between DAO inactivation and enhanced long-term associative spatial memory. They also have generic implications for how Morris water maze studies are performed and interpreted. PMID:26833794

  6. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  7. Is It Really Worse to Have Public Health Insurance than to Have No Insurance at All? Health Insurance and Adult Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Using prospective cohort data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the extent to which health insurance coverage and the source of that coverage affect adult health. While previous research has shown that privately insured nonelderly individuals enjoy better health outcomes than their uninsured counterparts, the…

  8. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  9. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards. PMID:26809162

  10. Adult Cognitive Styles and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.; Bush, David

    1977-01-01

    Adult males (N=90) ages 25 to 58 were individually tested with three cognitive style measures. Error scores on the MFF (Matching Familiar Figures Test) are a better predictor of test performance than are latencies. Presented at the 84th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 1976. (Author)

  11. "K"-Means May Perform as well as Mixture Model Clustering but May Also Be Much Worse: Comment on Steinley and Brusco (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2011-01-01

    Steinley and Brusco (2011) presented the results of a huge simulation study aimed at evaluating cluster recovery of mixture model clustering (MMC) both for the situation where the number of clusters is known and is unknown. They derived rather strong conclusions on the basis of this study, especially with regard to the good performance of…

  12. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2013-11-14

    Objective: Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. Method: We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Results: Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Conclusion: Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24232170

  13. Measuring Literacy: Performance Levels for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Robert M., Ed.; Edley, Christopher F., Jr., Ed.; Koenig, Judith Anderson, Ed.; Elliott, Stuart W., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) is a household survey conducted periodically by the Department of Education that evaluates the literacy skills of a sample of adults in the United Stages ages 16 and older. NAAL results are used to characterize adults literacy skills and to inform policy and programmatic decisions. The Committee on…

  14. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  15. Physical Performance and a Test of Gaze Stabilization in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Mohammed, Maha; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephane A.; Whitney, Susan L.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a standardized test of gaze stabilization as an indicator of vestibular function in community-dwelling older adults and to examine the relationship between gaze stabilization and physical performance. Design Descriptive, Cross-sectional. Setting Tertiary Medical Center. Subjects Eighty-six healthy older adults (22 males) of mean (SD) age 76.8 (5.8) years were recruited from the Pittsburgh community. Main Outcome Measures Performance on the gaze stabilization test (GST), measures of physical performance (standing balance, chair rises, and gait speed individually and combined into the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)) and self-reported balance. Results While over 90% of participants completed testing in the pitch and yaw planes, only 85% (73/86) had interpretable scores, due to prolonged perception time, independent of VOR. The mean (SD) head movement velocity in the pitch plane was 94.5 (26.7) degrees per second and in the yaw plane was 95.5 (29.3) degrees per second. There was a strong association between age and GST performance in the pitch and yaw planes (r=0.68, p<0.001). Poor GST performance in the yaw plane was associated with balance capacity with eyes closed. Additionally, there was a trend toward an association between self-reported balance and GST performance in both pitch (p=0.08) and yaw planes (p=0.10). Conclusions While most older adults completed GST testing, estimates were not interpretable in almost 15% due to prolonged perception time. GST in the yaw plane was worse than previously reported in healthy older adults and was associated with poor ability to balance with eyes closed. Self-reported balance tended to be associated with an objective assessment of VOR in this population of older adults. PMID:19940791

  16. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the claims of the developers of the Adult Performance Level (APL) program to improve the teaching and testing of adults enrolled in federally supported adult basic education programs, identifies APL's theoretical problems, scrutinizes the technical aspects of its development, and evaluates the role of the U.S. Office of Education in these…

  17. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  18. LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

    THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR…

  19. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  20. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  1. Relationship Between Performance and Interest in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Thomas P.

    Focusing on readability and interest factors of instructional materials for adult education, the study examined the possible relationships between performance and expressed interest in individual reading passages and in categories of passages. Passages on one of three levels of difficulty were administered to 180 adult education students from…

  2. Environmental heat exposure and cognitive performance in older adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Beatriz Maria; Apolinario, Daniel; de Oliveira, Rafaela Sanchez; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stress has a negative effect on the cognitive performance of military personnel and industry workers exposed to extreme environments. However, no studies have investigated the effects of environmental thermal stress on the cognitive functions of older adults. We carried out a controlled trial with 68 healthy older adults (mean age 73.3 years, 69 % female), each of whom has been assessed twice on the same day with selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Repeated sessions were conducted with air temperatures set at 24 °C and 32 °C in a balanced order. Our primary analyses did not show significant differences when comparing the cognitive performance of the total sample under the two experimental temperatures. However, interaction analysis has shown that humidity levels modify the effect of temperature on cognitive outcomes. The subgroup exposed to relative humidity greater than the median value (57.8 %) presented worse cognitive performance in the heat session when compared to the control session. Reported exercising frequency explained individual vulnerability to heat stress. Volunteers with lower levels of physical activity (<4 times per week) were more likely to present worsened cognitive performance under heat stress. In a fully adjusted linear regression model, the performance under heat stress remained associated with relative humidity (β = -0.21; p = 0.007) and frequency of exercising (β = 0.18; p = 0.020). Our results indicate that heat stress may have detrimental effects on the cognitive functioning of some subgroups of older adults and under particular circumstances. Further research is needed for exploring a variety of potentially influential factors. PMID:25916595

  3. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  4. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile. PMID:24525641

  5. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  6. Well, I Wouldn't be Any Worse Off, Would I, Than I am Now? A Qualitative Study of Decision-Making, Hopes, and Realities of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Undergoing Islet Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Jane; Woodcock, Alison J.; Reaney, Matthew D.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Johnson, Paul; Parrott, Neil; Rutter, Martin K.; Senior, Peter; Shaw, James A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background For selected individuals with type 1 diabetes, pancreatic islet transplantation (IT) prevents recurrent severe hypoglycemia and optimizes glycemia, although ongoing systemic immunosuppression is needed. Our aim was to explore candidates and recipients' expectations of transplantation, their experience of being on the waiting list, and (for recipients) the procedure and life posttransplant. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative research design using semistructured interviews with 16 adults (8 pretransplant, 8 posttransplant; from 4 UK centers (n = 13) and 1 Canadian center (n = 3)). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and underwent inductive thematic analysis. Results Interviewees were aged (mean ± SD) 52 ± 10 years (range, 30-64); duration of diabetes, 36 ± 9 years (range, 21-56); 12 (75%) were women. Narrative accounts centered on expectations, hopes, and realities; decision-making; waiting and uncertainty; the procedure, hospital stay, and follow-up. Expected benefits included fewer severe hypoglycemic episodes, reduced need for insulin, preventing onset/progression of complications and improved psychological well-being. These were realized for most, at least in the short term. Most interviewees described well-informed, shared decision-making with clinicians and family, and managing their expectations. Although life “on the list” could be stressful, and immunosuppressant side effects were severe, interviewees reported “no regrets.” Posttransplant, interviewees experienced increased confidence, through freedom from hypoglycemia and regained glycemic control, which tempered any disappointment about continued reliance on insulin. Most viewed their transplant as a success, though several reflected upon setbacks and hidden hopes for becoming “insulin-free.” Conclusions Independently undertaken interviews demonstrated realistic and balanced expectations of IT and indicate how to optimize the process and support for future IT candidates

  7. Adult age trends in athletic performances.

    PubMed

    Stones, M J; Kozma, A

    1981-01-01

    Aged trends in male, world record, track and field performances were examined over the 40-69 years age range. Five hypotheses were compared with respect to accuracy of prediction of differential age trends across events. The only hypothesis to yield statistically significant predictions was termed that of energy expenditure-supply ratio. This hypothesis predicts performance changes with age to exhibit steeper overall declines for events for events associated with higher maximal force transmissions, relative to the available (anaerobic or aerobic) energy supply. PMID:7318855

  8. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  9. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  10. Spelling Performance of Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Arvaniti, Evmorfia K.; Dimitriadi, Despina I.; Gkoutsioudi, Vasiliki G.; Zantali, Christina I.

    2009-01-01

    Visual processes undoubtedly play an important role in print reading as well as in spelling. In the present study we intend to compare the spelling performance of visually impaired individuals (both individuals who are blind and individuals with low vision) with that of their fully sighted peers. An analysis of errors (misspelled words and…

  11. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity. PMID:25956761

  12. Long-term efavirenz use is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Vaida, Florin; Wong, Jenna; Sanders, Chelsea A; Kao, Yu-ting; Croteau, David; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina M; McArthur, Justin C; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Neurocognitive (NC) complications continue to afflict a substantial proportion of HIV-infected people taking effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). One contributing mechanism for this is antiretroviral neurotoxicity. Efavirenz (EFV) is associated with short-term central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, but less is known about its long-term effects. Our objective was to compare NC functioning with long-term use of EFV to that of a comparator, lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), in a cohort of well-characterized adults. Four hundred forty-five patients were selected from the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort based on their use of either EFV (n = 272, mean duration 17.9 months) or LPV/r (n = 173, mean duration 16.4 months) and the lack of severe NC comorbidities. All patients had undergone standardized comprehensive NC testing. Univariable and multivariable analyses to predict NC outcomes were performed. Compared with LPV/r users, EFV users were more likely to be taking their first ART regimen (p < 0.001), were less likely to have AIDS (p < 0.001) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (p < 0.05), had higher CD4+ T cell nadirs (p < 0.001), had lower peak (p < 0.001) and current (p < 0.001) plasma HIV RNA levels, and were less likely to have detectable HIV RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (p < 0.001). Overall, EFV users had worse speed of information processing (p = 0.04), verbal fluency (p = 0.03), and working memory (p = 0.03). An interaction with HCV serostatus was present: Overall among HCV seronegatives (n = 329), EFV users performed poorly, whereas among HCV seropositives (n = 116), LPV/r users had overall worse performance. In the subgroup with undetectable plasma HIV RNA (n = 269), EFV users had worse speed of information processing (p = 0.02) and executive functioning (p = 0.03). Substantial differences exist between EFV and LPV/r users in this observational cohort

  13. Motor Learning and Movement Performance: Older versus Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Fatemeh; Abdollahi, Iraj; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Zahiri, Nahid; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Motor skills play an important role during life span, and older adults need to learn or relearn these skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate how aging affects induction of improved movement performance by motor training. Methods: Serial Reaction Time Test (SRTT) was used to assess movement performance during 8 blocks of motor training. Participants were tested in two separate dates, 48 hours apart. First session included 8 blocks of training (blocks 1–8) and second session comprised 2 blocks (blocks 9, 10). Results: Analyses of data showed that reaction times in both online and offline learning were significantly shorter in older adults compared to younger adults (P<0.001). Young adults demonstrated both online and offline learning (P<0.001), but older adults only showed online learning (P<0.001) without offline learning (P=0.24). Discussion: The result of the current study provides evidence that the healthy older adults are able to improve their performance with practice and learn motor skill successfully in the form of online learning. PMID:26649161

  14. How feelings of stereotype threat influence older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Bhattacharyya, Sudipa; Horhota, Michelle; Tam, Raymond; Hasher, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than for older adults and was higher in the impression formation than memorization condition, but was not different for older adults in the two instruction conditions. These results also showed that age differences in memory performance were mediated by participants' feelings of stereotype threat, such that age was positively related to stereotype threat and stereotype threat was negatively related to memory performance. These data demonstrate that concerns about being negatively stereotyped influence age differences in memory performance, and that the effects of these feelings on performance are not easily reduced by reframing the task instructions. PMID:16036721

  15. An Examination of the Adult Performance Level Project and Its Effects upon Adult Literacy Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project, which developed and validated a series of objectives for adult functional competency free from school-based notions of literacy, is the most widely accepted approach to adult literacy and adult literacy education in the United States today. Yet a review of the project and its impact reveals that the APL…

  16. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  17. Capacity Differences Reflected in the Recall Performance of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, Mary S.

    Recent theories in cognitive psychology have emphasized the role of capacity requirements in encoding tasks. To examine the notion that age-related differences in the recall performance reflect differences in cognitive capacity, 80 adults (40 undergraduates, and 40 senior citizens) recalled newspaper advertisements under free recall and cued…

  18. HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

  19. Resistance training improves single leg stance performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Geralt T; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Emerson, Nadia S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated losses in muscle mass, or sarcopenia, are marked by accompanying decrements in strength and muscle quality, impairing balance and increasing the risk for falls. Although progressive resistance training has been widely accepted as an appropriate modality for the treatment of sarcopenia, it has yet to offer consistent results in terms of improved balance. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects on static balance performance following a 6-week full-body progressive resistance training program in untrained older adults. Evaluation of magnitude-based inferences indicated the progressive resistance training intervention to be likely beneficial for improving static balance performance. These results were likely related to the strengthening of all major muscle groups by the incorporation of both free weights and resistance machines in the exercise regimen. Our findings support the use of progressive resistance training for untrained older adults to improve balance. PMID:23959961

  20. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing. PMID:26014793

  1. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  2. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise. PMID:25566159

  3. Short term stroke outcome is worse among indiv1iduals with sickle cell trait

    PubMed Central

    Olowoyo, P.; Owolabi, M.O.; Fawale, B.; Ogunniyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most (86%) of the global stroke mortality are from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including African countries which have the highest prevalence of the sickle cell trait (Hb AS). The effects of this trait on stroke occurrence and outcome are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effects of the sickle cell trait on the 30-day stroke mortality in Nigerian-Africans. Method This was a prospective study of 35 stroke patients with sickle cell trait (Haemoglobin AS) and 35 age and sex-matched controls without haemoglobinopathy (Haemoglobin AA). Haemoglobin electrophoresis was performed for all before recruitment and they all had neuroimaging done. Patients with haemoglobin AS were used as cases and those with haemoglobin AA as controls. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke at presentation and the Modified Rankin Scale for 30-day stroke outcome. Result There was no significant difference in the baseline stroke severity between the two groups (p = 0.21). Univariate analysis of the factors predicting the 30-day stroke outcome revealed that NIHSS score > 20 (p < 0.001), haemorrhagic stroke (p = 0.01) and the presence of Hb AS (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Haemorrhagic stroke type was strongly associated with HbAS (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.10–7.99, p-value = 0.02). With multiple logistic regression model, the presence of Hb AS (p = 0.01) and NIHSS score > 20 (p = 0.05) emerged as independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. The cases had worse stroke outcome at 30 days. Conclusion Stroke had1 a worse 30-day mortality and outcome in patients with sickle cell trait (HbAS) than in patients with normal adult haemoglobin (HbAA). PMID:27355086

  4. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  5. Correlates of virtual navigation performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Korthauer, Laura E; Nowak, Nicole T; Moffat, Scott D; An, Yang; Rowland, Laura M; Barker, Peter B; Resnick, Susan M; Driscoll, Ira

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable evidence for deleterious effects of aging on place learning and memory, less is known about the trajectory and the putative neural mechanisms of these decrements. The virtual Morris water task (vMWT) is a human analog of a nonhuman spatial navigation task. The present study investigated longitudinal changes in place learning in 51 healthy, nondemented adults (age 30-83 years) who completed the vMWT and a neuropsychological battery at 2 time-points (interval = ∼8 years). We also assessed cross-sectional associations between vMWT and brain structure, biochemical integrity, and standardized neuropsychological measures in a subset of 22 individuals who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at follow-up. Despite no longitudinal decrement in vMWT performance, there were cross-sectional age differences on the vMWT favoring younger adults. Negative associations were observed between vMWT latency and gray matter volumes in the right hippocampus, bilateral thalamus, and right medial orbitofrontal cortex and between vMWT latency and white matter fractional anisotropy in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus. Collectively, these results suggest a pattern of differences in the structural integrity of regions supporting successful navigation even in the absence of longitudinal performance decrements. PMID:26923408

  6. Physical performance limitations among adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Morris, E. Brannon; Nolan, Vikki G.; Howell, Carrie R.; Gilchrist, Laura S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Cox, Cheryl L.; Klosky, James L.; Gajjar, Amar; Neglia, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors (BT) may have late-effects that compromise physical performance and everyday task participation. Objective To evaluate muscle strength, fitness, physical performance, and task participation among adult survivors of childhood BT. Design/Method In-home evaluations and interviews were conducted for 156 participants (54% male). Results on measures of muscle strength, fitness, physical performance, and participation were compared between survivors and population-group members with chi-squared statistics and two-sample t-tests. Associations between late effects and physical performance, and physical performance and participation, were evaluated in regression models. Results BT survivors were a median age of 22 (18–58), and 14.7 (6.5–45.9) years from diagnosis. Survivors had lower estimates of grip strength (Female: 24.7±9.2 vs. 31.5±5.8, Male: 39.0±12.2 vs. 53.0±10.1 kilograms), knee extension strength (Female: 246.6±95.5 vs. 331.5±5.8, Male: 304.7±116.4 vs. 466.6±92.1 Newtons) and peak oxygen uptake (Female: 25.1±8.8 vs. 31.3±5.1, Male: 24.6±9.5 vs. 33.2±3.4 milliliters/kilogram/minute) than population-group members. Physical performance was lower among survivors and associated with not living independently (OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.0–12.2) and not attending college (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.4). Conclusion Muscle strength and fitness values among BT survivors are similar to those among persons 60+ years, and are associated with physical performance limitations. Physical performance limitations are associated with poor outcomes in home and school environments. These data indicate an opportunity for interventions targeted at improving long-term physical function in this survivor population. PMID:20564409

  7. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  8. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  9. Performance on Specific Cognitive Domains and Cause of Death: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Non-Demented Older Adults (NEDICES).

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Contador, Israel; Mitchell, Alex J; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between performance on specific cognitive domains and cause of death is scarce. We assessed whether specific cognitive domains predicted mortality and the presence of any association with specific causes of death in a population-dwelling sample of non-demented older adults. In this population-based, prospective study (NEDICES), 2,390 non-demented subjects ≥65 years completed a brief neuropsychological battery. Cox's proportional hazards models, adjusted by sociodemographic and comorbidity factors, global cognitive performance, educational level, and premorbid intelligence were used to assess the risk of death. Participants were followed for a median of 9.2 years (range 0.01-10.7), after which the death certificates of those who died were examined. 880 (36.8%) of 2,390 participants died over a median follow-up of 5.5 years (range 0.01-10.5). Using adjusted Cox regression models, we found that hazard ratios for mortality in participants within the lowest tertiles (worse performance) were 1.31 (speed of cognitive processing, p = 0.03); 1.22 (semantic fluency, p = 0.04), 1.32 (delayed free recall, p = 0.003), and 1.23 (delayed logical memory, p = 0.03). Poor performance on delayed recall and speed of cognitive processing tests were associated with dementia and cerebrovascular disease mortality, respectively. Further, poor performance on semantic fluency was associated with decreased cancer mortality. In this study of community dwelling non-demented older adults, worse neuropsychological performance was associated with increased risk of mortality. Performance on specific cognitive domains were related to different causes of death. Of particular note there appears to be an inverse association between poor semantic fluency and cancer mortality. PMID:26890757

  10. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  11. Adult Basic Education. Adult Performance Level Curriculum Handbook: Occupational Knowledge, Consumer Economics, Health and Safety, Government and Law, Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Mildred; Thomas, Claire

    Beginning with a brief project report, this curriculum guide is intended to enable teachers to work effectively with Adult Performance Level (APL) programs. The manual (1) clarifies the concept of APL, (2) describes the APL-ABE (Adult Basic Education) curriculum at Florida Junior College (FJC), (3) provides examples of effective lesson plans for…

  12. ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Dobson-Patterson, Roberta; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2016-08-01

    The study investigated, with an adult sample, the hypothesis that differences between subtypes of ADHD on neuropsychological tests contribute to the poor separation of ADHD and healthy groups on tests of this kind. Groups of ADHD inattentive (n=16) and combined (n=16) subtypes were carefully identified using DSM-IV criteria, and their performance on 14 measures of attention, memory, and executive function (EF) was compared between subtypes and between the two subtypes combined and a group of healthy controls (n=30). Multivariate analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two subtypes, and between the two subtypes combined and the healthy controls. Importantly for the hypothesis, where differences for neuropsychological tests in terms of effect sizes between subtypes were largest, the differences in effect sizes between the two groups combined and controls were smallest (r=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.87]). PMID:27043366

  13. The Artistic Infant Directed Performance: A Mycroanalysis of the Adult's Movements and Sounds.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Shifres, Favio

    2015-09-01

    Intersubjectivity experiences established between adults and infants are partially determined by the particular ways in which adults are active in front of babies. An important amount of research focuses on the "musicality" of infant-directed speech (defined melodic contours, tonal and rhythm variations, etc.) and its role in linguistic enculturation. However, researchers have recently suggested that adults also bring a multimodal performance to infants. According to this, some scholars seem to find indicators of the genesis of the performing arts (mainly music and dance) in such a multimodal stimulation. We analyze the adult performance using analytical categories and methodologies of analysis broadly validated in the fields of music performance and movement analysis in contemporary dance. We present microanalyses of an adult-7 month old infant interaction scene that evidenced structural aspects of infant directed multimodal performance compatible with music and dance structures, and suggest functions of adult performance similar to performing arts functions or related to them. PMID:25916347

  14. Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159505.html Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men: Study They need to be ... June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who survive cardiac arrest are less likely than men to get aggressive, ...

  15. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Strong, Judith A.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Method Data were collected from 116 young adults (18–25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. Results MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy’s impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption. PMID:26231032

  16. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  17. Differences Among Patients That Make Their Tinnitus Worse or Better

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Richard S.; Ji, Haihong; Coelho, Claudia; Gogel, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to identify activities that influence tinnitus and to determine if conditional probabilities exist among such variables. Method Two hundred fifty-eight patients were asked the following two questions: “When you have your tinnitus, which of the following makes it worse?” and “Which of the following reduces your tinnitus?” Results Things that made tinnitus better included noise (31%) and relaxation (15%). Things that made tinnitus worse included being in a quiet place (48%), stress (36%), being in a noisy place (32%), and lack of sleep (27%). Almost 6% of patients suggested coffee/tea and 4% said certain foods made their tinnitus worse. Conditional probabilities indicated that for those whose tinnitus is not worse in quiet, it is usually not reduced by noise. For those whose tinnitus is not worse in noise, it is usually not reduced in quiet. Conclusion There are dramatic differences among patients. Such differences need to be considered in planning treatments. PMID:26649850

  18. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    PubMed

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy. PMID:27156177

  19. The Association between High Neuroticism-Low Extraversion and Dual-Task Performance during Walking While Talking in Non-demented Older Adults.

    PubMed

    LeMonda, Brittany C; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-08-01

    The Walking While Talking (WWT) dual-task paradigm is a mobility stress test that predicts major outcomes, including falls, frailty, disability, and mortality in aging. Certain personality traits, such as neuroticism, extraversion, and their combination, have been linked to both cognitive and motor outcomes. We examined whether individual differences in personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion predicted dual-task performance decrements (both motor and cognitive) on a WWT task in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that the combined effect of high neuroticism-low extraversion would be related to greater dual-task costs in gait velocity and cognitive performance in non-demented older adults. Participants (N=295; age range,=65-95 years; female=164) completed the Big Five Inventory and WWT task involving concurrent gait and a serial 7's subtraction task. Gait velocity was obtained using an instrumented walkway. The high neuroticism-low extraversion group incurred greater dual-task costs (i.e., worse performance) in both gait velocity {95% confidence interval (CI) [-17.68 to -3.07]} and cognitive performance (95% CI [-19.34 to -2.44]) compared to the low neuroticism-high extraversion group, suggesting that high neuroticism-low extraversion interferes with the allocation of attentional resources to competing task demands during the WWT task. Older individuals with high neuroticism-low extraversion may be at higher risk for falls, mobility decline and other adverse outcomes in aging. PMID:26527241

  20. The Association between High Neuroticism-Low Extraversion and Dual-Task Performance during Walking While Talking in Non-demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    LeMonda, Brittany C.; Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    The Walking While Talking (WWT) dual-task paradigm is a mobility stress test that predicts major outcomes, including falls, frailty, disability, and mortality in aging. Certain personality traits, such as neuroticism, extraversion, and their combination, have been linked to both cognitive and motor outcomes. We examined whether individual differences in personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion predicted dual-task performance decrements (both motor and cognitive) on a WWT task in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that the combined effect of high neuroticism-low extraversion would be related to greater dual-task costs in gait velocity and cognitive performance in non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 295; age range, = 65–95 years; female = 164) completed the Big Five Inventory and WWT task involving concurrent gait and a serial 7's subtraction task. Gait velocity was obtained using an instrumented walkway. The high neuroticism-low extraversion group incurred greater dual-task costs (i.e., worse performance) in both gait velocity {95% confidence interval (CI) [−17.68 to −3.07]} and cognitive performance (95% CI [−19.34 to −2.44]) compared to the low neuroticism-high extraversion group, suggesting that high neuroticism-low extraversion interferes with the allocation of attentional resources to competing task demands during the WWT task. Older individuals with high neuroticism-low extraversion may be at higher risk for falls, mobility decline and other adverse outcomes in aging. PMID:26527241

  1. Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Women Get Worse Cardiac Arrest Care Than Men: Study They need to be treated as aggressively as men when their hearts stop, experts say To use ... who survive cardiac arrest are less likely than men to get aggressive, lifesaving care at the hospital, ...

  2. Do Adult Phenotypes Reflect Selection on Juvenile Performance? A Comparative Study on Performance and Morphology in Lizards.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Lopez-Darias, Marta; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Cornette, Raphaël; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Brandt, Renata

    2016-09-01

    When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues may constrain performance during early ontogenetic stages. However, juveniles must feed before they can become reproductively active adults and as such the adult phenotype may be the result of an ontogenetic filter imposing selection on juvenile phenotype and performance. Here we present ontogenetic data on head morphology and bite force for different lizard species. We test whether adults reflect selection on juveniles by comparing slopes of growth trajectories before and after sexual maturity in males and females and by examining the variance in head morphology and bite force in juveniles versus adults. Finally, we also present the first results of a selection study where animals were measured, marked and released, and recaptured the subsequent year to test whether head morphology and bite force impact survival. PMID:27400973

  3. Visual Performance of Adults with Prelingual Auditory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld, S.; Spiering, M.; Rotteveel, M.; van Beest, I.

    2004-01-01

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese…

  4. Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

  5. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  6. Feedback: Enhancing the Performance of Adult Learners with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, Adrienne

    This pamphlet discusses the pivotal role that feedback can play in the instruction of adult learners with learning disabilities and provides strategies to enable teachers to constructively design and present effective feedback. The paper begins by describing and instructional techniques that can be used to create interest and provide feedback…

  7. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  8. Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle–Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; La Rue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle–aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease–sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, gray matter volume, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were acquired in 372 participants at baseline and a consecutive subset of 121 individuals ~4 years later. Voxel-based morphometry and tensor-based morphometry were used, respectively, to test the association of insulin resistance with baseline brain volume and progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS Higher insulin resistance predicted less gray matter at baseline and 4 years later in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortices, precuneus, and other parietal gyri. A region-of-interest analysis, independent of the voxel-wise analyses, confirmed that higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle–aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe. PMID:23069842

  9. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  10. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  11. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  12. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  13. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  14. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  15. Educator's Crock or Panacea: Implications of the Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    Adult performance level (APL) methodology, results, and conclusions are summarized. Taking exception to functional literacy accounting for an individuals level of income, education, and job status, the author questions the utilitarian value of an APL curriculum. (Author)

  16. Exploring the Performance Differences on the Flicker Task and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability of the flicker task to demonstrate greater utility in discriminating performance in young adults with and without ADHD compared to the Conners' CPT (CCPT). Method: Flicker task and CCPT performance were compared between an ADHD (n = 28) and control (n = 30) group of college students. Results: This study replicated…

  17. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  18. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  19. Drink Availability is Associated with Enhanced Examination Performance in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Chris; Gardner, Mark R.; Doherty, Sarah; Martin, Laura; Soares, Rute; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    While dehydration has negative effects on memory and attention, few studies have investigated whether drinking water can enhance cognitive performance, and none have addressed this in a real-world setting. In this study we explored the potential benefits of the availability of water for undergraduates. The exam performance of students who brought…

  20. Learning vs. Performance: Implications for the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John

    Goal setting is a dispositional trait that influences motivation to learn and to perform. Individuals with a Performing (or Proving) Goal Orientation are characterized by a desire to please authority figures, the belief that personal abilities are stable and unchanging, and a tendency to become frustrated and give up quickly when faced by…

  1. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  2. Autonomic predictors of Stroop performance in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Jetha, Michelle K; Drmic, Irene E; Bryson, Susan E; Goldberg, Joel O; Hall, Geoffrey B; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2010-06-01

    Although changes in autonomic activity have been extensively examined as responses to cognitive challenges, relatively few studies have used individual differences in autonomic parameters to predict executive performance in healthy adults. Here we examined baseline and task-related changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) to predict performance of a pictorial Stroop task in a group of 81 healthy adults aged 17-55. Greater autonomic reactivity (increased heart rate and reduced RSA for task performance) was associated with faster colour naming of faces in the Stroop task. Dividing the group by median age revealed that middle-aged adults reduced RSA to a greater degree than their younger counterparts in the context of equivalent performance across groups. Findings suggest that performance of executive function tasks that evoke attentional control may depend in part on the responsiveness of autonomic control parameters via age-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20193717

  3. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues. PMID:26208404

  4. Drawing to remember: external support of older adults' eyewitness performance.

    PubMed

    Dando, Coral J

    2013-01-01

    Although healthy aging is accompanied by a general decline in memory functioning, environmental support at retrieval can improve older adults' (+65 years) episodic remembering. Despite those over the age of 65 years representing a growing proportion of the population, few environmental retrieval support methods have been empirically evaluated for use with older witnesses and victims of crime. Here, the efficacy of a novel retrieval technique, the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context, is compared with a standard Mental Reinstatement of Context and a no support control (Control). Fifty-one participants witnessed an unexpected live event, and 48 hours later were interviewed using one of three aforementioned techniques. In line with predictions emanating from cognitive theories of aging and the environmental support hypothesis, participants in the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context condition recalled significantly more correct information and fewer inaccurate items. The Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context technique appears to scaffold memory retrieval in an age-appropriate manner during a post-event interview, possibly by encouraging more effortful retrieval and reducing dual-task load. As such, this procedure offers an effective alternative to current approaches, adding to the toolbox of techniques available to forensic and other interviewers. PMID:23922863

  5. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

  6. A Reanalysis of Cognitive-Functional Performance in Older Adults: Investigating the Interaction Between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia, and Depression.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Jonas J; Bicalho, Maria A; Ávila, Rafaela T; Cintra, Marco T G; Diniz, Breno S; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive-functional impairment in normal aging older adults (NA). However, less is known about this effect on people with mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We investigated this relationship along with the NA-MCI-AD continuum by reanalyzing a previously published dataset. Participants (N = 274) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of Executive Function, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Visuospatial Abilities, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. MANOVA, logistic regression and chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between depression and cognitive-functional performance in each group. In the NA group, depressed participants had a lower performance compared to non-depressed participants in all cognitive and functional domains. However, the same pattern was not observed in the MCI group or in AD. The results suggest a progressive loss of association between depression and worse cognitive-functional performance along the NA-MCI-AD continuum. PMID:26858666

  7. A Reanalysis of Cognitive-Functional Performance in Older Adults: Investigating the Interaction Between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Ávila, Rafaela T.; Cintra, Marco T. G.; Diniz, Breno S.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive-functional impairment in normal aging older adults (NA). However, less is known about this effect on people with mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We investigated this relationship along with the NA-MCI-AD continuum by reanalyzing a previously published dataset. Participants (N = 274) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of Executive Function, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Visuospatial Abilities, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. MANOVA, logistic regression and chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between depression and cognitive-functional performance in each group. In the NA group, depressed participants had a lower performance compared to non-depressed participants in all cognitive and functional domains. However, the same pattern was not observed in the MCI group or in AD. The results suggest a progressive loss of association between depression and worse cognitive-functional performance along the NA-MCI-AD continuum. PMID:26858666

  8. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18-71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  9. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  10. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target). PMID:24871301

  11. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  12. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  13. Attention Performance in Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterr, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    Attention acts as the mind's "gatekeeper" by regulating and prioritizing the stimuli processed by the central nervous system. It is essential for cognitive performance, memory, and behavior, and we know that even slight deficiencies in attention compromise learning. Basic neuroscience research further indicates that attention consists of (fairly)…

  14. Measured Acculturation and MMPI-168 Performance of Native American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Tom; And Others

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acculturation influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) performance of Native Americans, an instrument was developed to measure five components of acculturation. When both the acculturation instrument and the MMPI-168 were administered to 69 Rosebud Sioux, results confirmed the hypothesis. Thus,…

  15. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  16. Deficit and Resilience Perspectives on Performance and Campus Comfort of Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Pat M.; Byerly, Cory; Floerchinger, Heidi; Pence, Elizabeth; Thornberg, Etta

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to test deficit and resilience models of adult students' experiences by: (1) determining the relative influence of chronological age and age stress on their academic performance and campus comfort; and (2) considering earlier educational experiences and social support in relation to their performance and campus…

  17. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  18. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  19. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. PMID:23452943

  20. From Grapheme to Phonological Output: Performance of Adults Who Stutter on a Word Jumble Task

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megann; Sussman, Harvey; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task. Method Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category) were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT). Results Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter), SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls. Conclusion Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter. PMID:26963917

  1. Client-centered home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Landsbaum, Amanda; Palmer, Janice; Somerville, Emily K.; Morris, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Remaining at home is a high priority for many older adults, but the capacity to “age in place” often is threatened by environmental barriers. Purpose To describe a client-centered occupational therapy, home modification intervention program and examine the impact of the intervention on daily activity performance over time. Methods Using a competence-environmental press framework, a client-centered home modification program for older adults was implemented. In this quasi-experimental, single group prospective study, participants’ subjective ratings of daily activity performance were evaluated before and after the intervention (baseline/post/post). Findings After home modification, participants’ perception of their daily activity performance at home improved significantly and was maintained 2 years post-modification. Implications Home modification may benefit older adults attempting to age in place. PMID:19757729

  2. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on driving performance in adults with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Mekary, Saïd; Bélanger, Mathieu; Johnson, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to decreases in driving performance and an increased crash risk. Regular exercise has been linked to improved driving performance among healthy adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program and driving performance among individuals with CVD. Twenty-five individuals, including 12 cardiac adults and 13 healthy adults, took part in this study. Simulated driving performance was assessed using a standardized demerit-based scoring system at 0 and 12 weeks. Cardiac participants completed a 12-week CR program between evaluations. At baseline, cardiac participants had a higher number of demerit points than healthy adults (120.9±38.1 vs. 94.7±28.3, P=0.04). At follow-up, there was an improvement in both groups' driving evaluations, but the improvement was greater among the cardiac group such that there was no longer a difference in driving performance between both groups (94.6±30 vs. 86.9±34.8, P=0.51). Participation in an aerobic exercise-based CR program appears to lead to improvements in simulated driving performances of individuals with CVD. PMID:26756849

  3. Cognitive Correlates of Functional Performance in Older Adults: Comparison of Self-Report, Direct Observation, and Performance-Based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Cook, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are often asked to answer questions about the effects of cognitive deficits on everyday functioning. This study examined the relationship between and the cognitive correlates of self-report, performance-based, and direct observation measures commonly used as proxy measures for everyday functioning. Participants were 88 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy older adults (age 50–86 years). Participants completed standardized neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., water plants, fill a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. All proxy measures of everyday function were sensitive to the effects of healthy cognitive aging. After controlling for age, cognitive predictors explained a unique amount of the variance for only the performance-based behavioral simulation measure (i.e., Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living). The self-report instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test (i.e., EPT) did not correlate with each other; however, both were unique predictors of the direct observation measure. These findings suggest that neuropsychologists must be cautious in making predictions about the quality of everyday activity completion in cognitively healthy older adults from specific cognitive functions. The findings further suggest that a self-report of IADLs and the performance-based EPT may be useful measures for assessing everyday functional status in cognitively healthy older adults. PMID:21729400

  4. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10–20 min sleep) or long nap (50–70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  5. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10-20 min sleep) or long nap (50-70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  6. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  7. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  8. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  9. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  11. Physiological Indicators of Stress and Intellectual Performance among Anxious Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Older adults (n=27) concerned about declining cognitive functioning performed cognitive tasks, completed questionnaires, and were given measures of anxiety and physiological change. Negative correlations appeared between level of cortisol, a stress-related hormone, and self-efficacy on measures of fluid intelligence. Epstein-Barr virus levels were…

  12. Load Modulation of BOLD Response and Connectivity Predicts Working Memory Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Irene E.; Preuschhof, Claudia; Li, Shu-Chen; Nyberg, Lars; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) performance have rarely been related to individual differences in the functional responsivity of the WM brain network. By neglecting person-to-person variation, comparisons of network activity between younger and older adults using functional imaging techniques often confound differences in activity…

  13. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  14. The effect of three months of aerobic training on stroop performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Predovan, David; Fraser, Sarah A; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity (P < 0.001) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition (P < 0.03). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest (r = -0.538; P = 0.007). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults' executive functions. PMID:23304504

  15. School Performance and the Risk of Suicidal Thoughts in Young Adults: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Fredlund, Peeter; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although low school performance is related to attempted and completed suicide, its relationship with suicidal thoughts has been less clear. We conducted a population-based study including 10081 individuals aged 18–29 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and found a clear positive gradient in the risk of lifetime suicidal thoughts with decreasing levels of compulsory school leaving grades. This relationship was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in multivariate models accounting for family background, severe adult psychopathology and adult socioeconomic conditions. School failure is associated with an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and may also increase the tendency of acting upon them. PMID:25347404

  16. Low Socioeconomic Status Is Associated with Worse Survival in Children with Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sumit; Wilejto, Marta; Pole, Jason D.; Guttmann, Astrid; Sung, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Background While low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. Methods We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. Results Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC) children, 38 (73.1%) found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival), only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. Conclusions Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival. PMID:24586813

  17. The Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Impaired Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lafenetre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in two neurogenic zones in the adult brain: new neurons are born at the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and then migrate to the olfactory bulb, and at the subgranular zone to integrate the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and the generation of new hippocampal neurons has been suggested to be a new form of plasticity implicated in these processes. In the last decades, diverse intrinsic and epigenetic factors have been identified to influence adult neurogenesis but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a recent study, Lafenetre et al. (2010) showed the beneficial influence of physical voluntary activity on adult neurogenesis and cognitive performance in a transgenic mouse, the synRas mouse via brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Here we review how hippocampal neurogenesis can be regulated by environmental factors and the possible role of the newly generated cells in learning and memory. PMID:21559064

  18. Psychometric properties of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in home-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tuntland, Hanne; Aaslund, Mona Kristin; Langeland, Eva; Espehaug, Birgitte; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) is an occupational therapy instrument designed to help participants identify, prioritize, and evaluate performance of important occupations. Objective To investigate the validity, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility of the COPM when used by various health professions in home-dwelling older adults receiving reablement. Reablement is a new form of multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation for older adults experiencing functional decline. Participants and methods The sample of 225 participants, mean age 80.8 years, who were in need of rehabilitation for various health conditions were included in the study. Data collection was conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks follow-up. The COSMIN guidelines and recommendations for evaluating methodological quality were followed. Results Content validity, construct validity, and feasibility were found to be adequate. Responsiveness, however, was moderate. Functional mobility was the most frequently prioritized occupational category of all. Regarding interpretability, the minimal important change was 3.0 points and 3.2 points for performance and satisfaction, respectively. The older adults reported that COPM was a useful and manageable instrument. The majority of the occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and nurses reported that they had the required expertise to conduct the COPM assessments. Conclusion The results support the multidisciplinary use of the COPM in clinical practice and research in a home-dwelling, heterogeneous population of older adults. Based on the findings, 3 points are recommended as a cutoff point to distinguish between older adults who have a minimal important change in COPM performance and COPM satisfaction and those who have not. PMID:27621647

  19. Augmenting mirror visual feedback-induced performance improvements in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Rjosk, Viola; Sehm, Bernhard; Steele, Christopher J; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that age-related behavioral alterations are not irreversible but are subject to amelioration through specific training interventions. Both training paradigms and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can be used to modulate age-related brain alterations and thereby influence behavior. It has been shown that mirror visual feedback (MVF) during motor skill training improves performance of the trained and untrained hands in young adults. The question remains of whether MVF also improves motor performance in older adults and how performance improvements can be optimised via NIBS. Here, we sought to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) can be used to augment MVF-induced performance improvements in manual dexterity. We found that older adults receiving a-tDCS over the right primary motor cortex (M1) during MVF showed superior performance improvements of the (left) untrained hand relative to sham stimulation. An additional control experiment in participants receiving a-tDCS over the right M1 only (without MVF/motor training of the right hand) revealed no significant behavioral gains in the left (untrained) hand. On the basis of these findings, we propose that combining a-tDCS with MVF might be relevant for future clinical studies that aim to optimise the outcome of neurorehabilitation. PMID:25912048

  20. Better or Worse than Expected? Aging, Learning, and the ERN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppinger, Ben; Kray, Jutta; Mock, Barbara; Mecklinger, Axel

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age differences in error processing and reinforcement learning. We were interested in whether the electrophysiological correlates of error processing, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the feedback-related negativity (FRN), reflect learning-related changes in younger and older adults. To do so, we applied a probabilistic…

  1. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  2. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of striatum in children and adults, and its association with working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Darki, Fahimeh; Nemmi, Federico; Möller, Annie; Sitnikov, Rouslan; Klingberg, Torkel

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in which the magnetic susceptibility characteristic of molecular and cellular components, including iron and myelin, is quantified. Rapid iron accumulation in subcortical nuclei and myelination of the white matter tracts are two important developmental processes that contribute to cognitive functions. Both also contribute to the magnetic susceptibility of the brain tissues. Here, we used the QSM as indirect measures of iron in subcortical nuclei and myelin in caudo-frontal white matter pathways. We included two groups of participants; 21 children aged 6-7years and 25 adults aged 21-40years. All subjects also performed tests estimating their visuo-spatial working memory capacity. Adults had higher magnetic susceptibility in all subcortical nuclei, compared to children. The magnetic susceptibility of these nuclei highly correlated with their previously reported iron content. Moreover, working memory performance correlated significantly with the magnetic susceptibility in caudate nucleus in both children and adults, while the correlation was not significant for gray matter density. QSM of white matter in the caudo-frontal tract also differed between children and adults, but did not correlate with working memory scores. These results indicate that QSM is a feasible technique to measure developmental aspects of changes in the striatum, possibly related to iron content that is relevant to cognition. PMID:27132546

  3. Do Concomitant Cranium and Axis Injuries Predict Worse Outcome? A Trauma Database Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2011-01-01

    We performed a trauma database analysis to identify the effect of concomitant cranial injuries on outcome in patients with fractures of the axis. We identified patients with axis fractures over a 14-year period. A binary outcome measure was used. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. There were 259 cases with axis fractures. Closed head injury was noted in 57% and skull base trauma in 14%. Death occurred in 17 cases (6%). Seventy-two percent had good outcome. Presence of abnormal computed tomography head findings, skull base fractures, and visceral injury was significantly associated with poor outcome. Skull base injury in association with fractures of the axis is a significant independent predictor of worse outcomes, irrespective of the severity of the head injury. We propose that presence of concomitant cranial and upper vertebral injuries require careful evaluation in view of the associated poor prognosis. PMID:22470268

  4. Neurobehavioral Performance in Young Adults Living on a 28-h Day for 6 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Wang, Wei; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Scheuermaier, Karine D.; Cain, Sean W.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Performance on many cognitive tasks varies with time awake and with circadian phase, and the forced desynchrony (FD) protocol can be used to separate these influences on performance. Some performance tasks show practice effects, whereas the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) has been reported not to show such effects. We aimed to compare performance on the PVT and on an addition test (ADD) across a 6-week FD study, to determine whether practice effects were present and to analyze the circadian and wake-dependent modulation of the 2 measures. Design and Setting: A 47-day FD study conducted at the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eleven healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 years, 2 women). Measurements and Results: For 2 baseline days and across 6 weeks of FD, we gave a test battery (ADD, PVT, self-rating of effort and performance) every 2 hours. During FD, there was a significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in ADD performance (more correct calculations completed), whereas PVT performance (mean reaction time, fastest 10% reaction times, lapses) significantly (P < 0.0001) declined week by week. Subjective ratings of PVT performance indicated that subjects felt their performance improved across the study (P < 0.0001), but their rating of whether they could have performed better with greater effort did not change across the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The decline in PVT performance suggests a cumulative effect of sleep loss across the 6-week study. Subjects did not accurately detect their declining PVT performance, and a motivational factor could not explain this decline. Citation: Lee JH; Wang W; Silva EJ; Chang AM; Scheuermaier KD; Cain SW; Duffy JF. Neurobehavioral performance in young adults living on a 28-h day for 6 weeks. SLEEP 2009;32(7):905-913. PMID:19639753

  5. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Pillai, Sharmila GK; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. Methods One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Results Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=−0.33), and FRT (r=−0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). Conclusion The

  6. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed. PMID:9760740

  7. Hippocampal (subfield) volume and shape in relation to cognitive performance across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Winterburn, Julie L; Felsky, Daniel; Pipitone, Jon; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2015-08-01

    Newer approaches to characterizing hippocampal morphology can provide novel insights regarding cognitive function across the lifespan. We comprehensively assessed the relationships among age, hippocampal morphology, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in 137 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (18-86 years of age). They underwent MRI, cognitive assessments and genotyping for Apolipoprotein E status. We measured hippocampal subfield volumes using a new multiatlas segmentation tool (MAGeT-Brain) and assessed vertex-wise (inward and outward displacements) and global surface-based descriptions of hippocampus morphology. We examined the effects of age on hippocampal morphology, as well as the relationship among age, hippocampal morphology, and episodic and working memory performance. Age and volume were modestly correlated across hippocampal subfields. Significant patterns of inward and outward displacement in hippocampal head and tail were associated with age. The first principal shape component of the left hippocampus, characterized by a lengthening of the antero-posterior axis was prominently associated with working memory performance across the adult lifespan. In contrast, no significant relationships were found among subfield volumes and cognitive performance. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal shape plays a unique and important role in hippocampal-dependent cognitive aging across the adult lifespan, meriting consideration as a biomarker in strategies targeting the delay of cognitive aging. PMID:25959503

  8. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  9. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Change in Physical Performance and Strength in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Hausman, Dorothy B.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Cauley, Jane A.; Bauer, Doug C.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Shea, M. Kyla; Schwartz, Gary G.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are common among older adults and are associated with poorer physical performance and strength, but results from longitudinal studies have been inconsistent. The 25(OH)D threshold for physical performance and strength was determined, and both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between 25(OH)D and physical performance and strength were examined, in men and women aged 71–80 years from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (n = 2,641). Baseline serum 25(OH)D was measured in 1998–1999, and physical performance and strength were measured at baseline and at 2- and 4-year follow-up. Piecewise regression models were used to determine 25(OH)D thresholds. Linear regression and mixed models were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The 25(OH)D thresholds were 70–80 nmol/L for physical performance and 55–70 nmol/L for strength. Participants with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L had poorer physical performance at baseline and at 2- and 4-year follow-up than participants with 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L (P < 0.01). Although physical performance and strength declined over 4 years of follow-up (P < 0.0001), in general, the rate of decline was not associated with baseline 25(OH)D. Older adults with low 25(OH)D concentrations had poorer physical performance over 4 years of follow-up, but low 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a faster rate of decline in physical performance or strength. PMID:23118104

  11. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  12. Cognitive Performance, Driving Behavior, and Attitudes over Time in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Mark J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Naglie, Gary; Tuokko, Holly; Myers, Anita; Crizzle, Alexander; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Vrkljan, Brenda; Bédard, Michel; Porter, Michelle M; Mazer, Barbara; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that changes over time in cognitive performance are associated with changes in driver perceptions, attitudes, and self-regulatory behaviors among older adults. Healthy older adults (n = 928) underwent cognitive assessments at baseline with two subsequent annual follow-ups, and completed scales regarding their perceptions, attitudes, and driving behaviours. Multivariate analysis showed small but statistically significant relationships between the cognitive tests and self-report measures, with the largest magnitudes between scores on the Trails B cognitive task (seconds), perceptions of driving abilities (β = -0.32), and situational driving avoidance (β = 0.55) (p < 0.05). Cognitive slowing and executive dysfunction appear to be associated with modestly lower perceived driving abilities and more avoidance of driving situations over time in this exploratory analysis. PMID:27021848

  13. Changes in Cognitive Performance Are Associated with Changes in Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Hall, Martica H; Nebes, Robert D; Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sleep features associated with cognition in older adults and examined whether sleep changes following insomnia treatment were associated with cognitive improvements. Polysomnography and cognition (recall, working memory, and reasoning) were assessed before and after an insomnia intervention (Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia [BBTI] or information control [IC]) in 77 older adults with insomnia. Baseline wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO) was associated with recall. Greater NREM (nonrapid eye movement) delta power and lower NREM sigma power were associated with greater working memory and reasoning. The insomnia intervention did not improve performance. However, increased absolute delta power and decreased relative sigma power were associated with improved reasoning. Findings suggest that improvements in executive function may occur with changes in NREM architecture. PMID:26322904

  14. Cortisol reactivity and performance abilities in social situations in adults with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lense, Miriam D; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed. PMID:24245731

  15. For Better or Worse: Young Adults' Opportunity Beliefs and Motivational Self-Regulation during Career Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' motivational self-regulatory system is challenged as they cross the transition from school to work. Using data from a longitudinal study of participants approaching and crossing university graduation (n = 140), we examine the ways in which individuals' motivational strategies reflect and direct their career-related opportunity field.…

  16. Co-Constructional Task Analysis: Moving beyond Adult-Based Models to Assess Young Children's Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of young children's thinking competence in task performances has typically followed the novice-to-expert regimen involving models of strategies that adults use when engaged in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and decision-making. Socio-constructivists argue for a balanced pedagogical approach between the adult and child…

  17. Brief Report: The Effects of Typed and Spoken Modality Combinations on the Language Performance of Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Janice; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of five adult males with autism investigated which combination of input/output modalities (typed or spoken) enhanced the syntactic, semantic, and/or pragmatic performance of individuals with autism when engaging in conversations with a normal language adult. Results found that typed communications facilitated the use of longer utterances.…

  18. Marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults in a verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Methqal, Ikram; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of a high level of performance in aging has often been associated with changes in cerebral activations patterns for various cognitive components. However, relatively few studies have investigated this phenomenon in light of lexical speech production abilities, which have not been systematically found to benefit from neurofunctional reorganization during verbal fluency tasks. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess overt self-paced semantic and orthographic verbal fluency tasks performed by healthy younger and older adults within a mixed block/event-related fMRI design. Behavioral results indicated similarly high levels of performance between tasks and age groups, while whole brain analysis revealed significant task-related differences in patterns of brain activity, but no significant effect of age or task-by-age interaction across the speech conditions. Only local activity differences were found between age groups. These marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults are discussed in terms of task demands. PMID:25461916

  19. The Impact of Age Stereotypes on Older Adults' Hazard Perception Performance and Driving Confidence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lyn; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Horswill, Mark S; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of age-stereotype threat on older adults' performance on a task measuring hazard perception performance in driving. The impact of age-stereotype threat in relation to the value participants placed on driving and pre- and post-task confidence in driving ability was also investigated. Eighty-six adults aged from 65 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring demographic information, driving experience, self-rated health, driving importance, and driving confidence. Prior to undertaking a timed hazard perception task, participants were exposed to either negative or positive age stereotypes. Results showed that age-stereotype threats, while not influencing hazard perception performance, significantly reduced post-driving confidence compared with pre-driving confidence for those in the negative prime condition. This finding builds on the literature that has found that stereotype-based influences cannot simply be understood in terms of performance outcomes alone and may be relevant to factors affected by confidence such as driving cessation decisions. PMID:24652925

  20. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  1. Cardiovascular and Coordination Training Differentially Improve Cognitive Performance and Neural Processing in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies revealed a positive influence of physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults. Studies that investigate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of type and long term duration of physical training, however, are missing. We performed a 12-month longitudinal study to investigate the effects of cardiovascular and coordination training (control group: relaxation and stretching) on cognitive functions (executive control and perceptual speed) in older adults. We analyzed data of 44 participants aged 62–79 years. Participants were trained three times a week for 12 months. Their physical and cognitive performance was tested prior to training, and after 6 and 12 months. Changes in brain activation patterns were investigated using functional MRI. On the behavioral level, both experimental groups improved in executive functioning and perceptual speed but with differential effects on speed and accuracy. In line with the behavioral findings, neurophysiological results for executive control also revealed changes (increases and reductions) in brain activity for both interventions in frontal, parietal, and sensorimotor cortical areas. In contrast to the behavioral findings, neurophysiological changes were linear without indication of a plateau. In both intervention groups, prefrontal areas showed decreased activation after 6 and 12 months when performing an executive control task, as compared to the control group, indicating more efficient information processing. Furthermore, cardiovascular training was associated with an increased activation of the sensorimotor network, whereas coordination training was associated with increased activation in the visual–spatial network. Our data suggest that besides cardiovascular training also other types of physical activity improve cognition of older adults. The mechanisms, however, that underlie the performance changes seem to differ depending on the intervention. PMID:21441997

  2. Do Elderly Patients Fare Worse Following Operative Treatment of Distal Femur Fractures Using Modern Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Brandon S.; Patsalos-Fox, Bianka; Lopez, Nicole; Konda, Sanjit R.; Tejwani, Nirmal C.; Egol, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and quality of life of older and younger patients with similarly treated distal femur fractures. Methods: We conducted an assessment of 57 patients who sustained distal femur fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association Type 33B, C) and underwent surgical treatment at our academic medical center. Patients were divided into 2 groups for analysis: an elderly cohort of patients aged 65 or older and a comparison cohort of patients younger than age of 65. A retrospective review of demographics, preoperative ambulatory status, radiographic data, and physical examination data was collected from the medical records. Follow-up functional data were collected via telephone at a mean of 2.5 years (range 6 months-8 years) using a Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA). All patients underwent standard operative treatment of either nail or plate fixation. Results: There was no statistical difference in gender, fracture type, surgical technique, surgeon, or institution where the surgery was performed. The percentage of patients with healed fractures at 6-months follow-up was not significantly different between the cohorts. The elderly cohort had slightly worse knee range of motion at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively but there was not a statistically significant difference between the groups. The SMFA Daily Activity, Functional, and Bother indices were significantly worse in the older cohort (P < .01, P = .01, P = .02, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the SMFA Emotional or Mobility indices. Conclusion: Despite lower quality of life and functional scores, this study suggests that relatively good clinical outcomes can be achieved with surgical fixation of distal femoral fractures in the elderly patients. Age should not be used as a determinate in deciding against operative treatment of distal femur fractures in the elderly patients. PMID:24660097

  3. Current Smoking is Associated with Worse Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning in Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Bowie, Christopher R.; Mausbach, Brent T; Wolyniec, Paula; Thornquist, Mary H.; Luke, James R.; McGrath, John A.; Pulver, Ann E.; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Few studies have examined whether smoking history is associated with adaptive functioning among individuals diagnosed with these serious mental illnesses. Method In a large relatively homogenous cohort of patients with either bipolar disorder (n=363) or schizophrenia (n=400), we investigated the association between cigarette smoking status, intensity, and cumulative exposure and performance on a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive, functional capacity, informant-rated functional measures. The associations were adjusted for variation in sociodemographic indicators, psychopathologic symptoms, and substance use. Results There was an average of 12 pack years of smoking across the sample. People with schizophrenia reported double the rate of current smoking compared to patients with bipolar disorder. Adjusting for demographic covariates, current smokers had worse composite cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcome than past or never smokers. There were no significant differences between never and past smokers, and these effects were evident in both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Conclusion Current smokers with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder evidence worse cognitive and adaptive functioning functional outcome, even when demographic covariates are considered. Significant Outcomes Patients with schizophrenia had double the rate of smoking compared to patients with bipolar disorder Current smoking was negatively associated with cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and informant reported functional outcomes in both patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates Limitations The study was cross-sectional and so causal associations cannot be inferred Tobacco use was assessed with a self-report instrument The sample was relatively homogenous and high function and may not generalize to

  4. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  5. Spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid, enhances cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghwan; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Hyung Eun; Jung, In Ho; Jo, Yeong-Woo; Lee, Sunhee; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis has received much attention due to its potential role in neurological or psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined whether spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, affects cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in normal naïve mice. The subchronic administration of spinosin (5mg/kg) for 14days significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task. Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that the subchronic administration of spinosin (5mg/kg) significantly increased the proliferation and survival of neuronal cells and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In addition, we observed an increase in the percentage of BrdU-incorporated cells co-localized with NeuN, a mature neuronal marker, which indicated that spinosin stimulates the differentiation of newly generated cells into mature neurons. Also, the subchronic treatment with spinosin (5mg/kg) increased the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that spinosin has the potential for therapeutic use in treating the cognitive dysfunction observed in neurological or psychiatric disorders by up-regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis or activating of the ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. PMID:26997033

  6. Childhood Abuse, Household Dysfunction, and Indicators of Impaired Adult Worker Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Robert F; Fleisher, Vladimir I; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Whitfield, Charles L; Dube, Shanta R; Williamson, David F

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We examined the relation between eight types of adverse childhood experience (ACE) and three indicators of impaired worker performance (serious job problems, financial problems, and absenteeism). Methods: We analyzed data collected for the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study from 9633 currently employed adult members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan in San Diego. Results: Strong graded relations were found between the ACE Score (total number of ACE categories experienced) and each measure of impaired worker performance (p < .001). We found strong evidence that the relation between ACE Score and worker performance was mediated by interpersonal relationship problems, emotional distress, somatic symptoms, and substance abuse. Conclusions: The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences on the workforce impose major human and economic costs that are preventable. These costs merit attention from the business community in conjunction with specialists in occupational medicine and public health. PMID:26704603

  7. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  8. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  9. Effects of moderate zinc deficiency on cognitive performance in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Massaro, T F; Mohs, M; Fosmire, G

    1982-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to establish a dietary zinc level which approximates a moderate deficiency in the young adult rat and to determine if a concurrent zinc deficiency affects cognitive performance. Male rats were fed varying levels of zinc in diet throughout a 17-day period. The lowest dietary level that depressed serum and bone zinc without influencing food consumption or body weight gains was observed to be 5.8 microgram Zn/g diet. Young adult rats maintained on either a zinc adequate (24.4 microgram Zn/g) or low-zinc (5.3 microgram Zn/g) diet were tested in a modified Skinner Box involving tests of visual, auditory, association, and discrimination learning. No differences were observed in the visual discrimination performance of the zinc deficient animals when compared with control counterparts. Deficits in the ability to transfer a learned association between visual and auditory stimuli were observed, however, in the deficient group during the transfer test phase. The latter performed better during the final auditory discrimination task in transferring a learned food-relevant cue. PMID:7122717

  10. Instructions and skill level influence reliability of dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Prudence; Grewal, Gurtej; Najafi, Bijan; Ballard, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the trial-to-trial repeatability of dual-task performance and establish the minimal detectable change (MDC95) of gait-related dual-task interference. Thirty-one healthy young adults (22.5, SD 2.1 years) performed texting and walking tasks in isolation (single-task) and in combination (dual-task). The dual-task was repeated with three different instructional sets regarding how attention should be prioritized (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in two different environments (low-distraction, high-distraction). Participants performed two trials for each condition. Trial-to-trial repeatability of gait speed, texting speed, texting accuracy, and the relative dual-task effects (DTE) on each was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement. MDC95 scores were also computed for each performance measure. Among young adults, reliability of gait speed in a challenging dual-task situation is excellent, even in a high-distraction environment. In the absence of specific task prioritization instructions, changes in dual-task gait speed greater than 0.15m/s or 11.9% DTE represent real change. Reliability of the more novel, non-gait task has poor to good reliability. Dual-task effects are more reliable when participants are given specific instructions about how to prioritize their attention. The findings also suggest that reliability of dual-task performance in a novel or challenging task is greater when individuals are more skilled at the task. Implications for clinical assessment of dual-task performance are discussed. PMID:25891529

  11. Observational training improves adult womens' performance on Piaget's water-level task.

    PubMed

    Krekling, S; Nordvik, H

    1992-01-01

    Among women university students who lacked conceptual understanding of the principle that the surface of still water is always horizontal, a specific task procedure designed to optimize self-discovery of the principle proved effective. Successful learning was reflected in more accurate responses on an adjustment task and by a significant increase (p less than .01) in the number of subjects able to verbalize a correct strategy. In contrast to previous research the results show that adult womens' performance on the water-level task can be improved by observational training, suggesting that the female lag in spatial skills may depend on experiential factors. PMID:1641606

  12. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  13. Relationship between poor sleep and daytime cognitive performance in young adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Limoges, Élyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the morning after a second night of sleep in the laboratory, to 17 young adults with autism and normal intelligence, and 14 typically developed individuals matched for age and IQ; none of the participants complained about sleep problems. Two dimensions of attention (sustained and selective) and 4 types of memory (working, declarative, sensory-motor and cognitive procedural) were tested. Individuals with autism showed clear signs of poor sleep. Their performance differed from the controls in response speed but not in accuracy. Signs of poor sleep in the autism group were significantly correlated with either normal performance (selective attention and declarative memory) or performance inferior to that of the controls (sensory-motor and cognitive procedural memories). Both groups presented a significant negative correlation between slow-wave sleep (SWS) and learning a sensory-motor procedural memory task. Only control participants showed a positive association between SWS duration and number of figures recalled on the declarative memory task. Correlation patterns differed between groups when sleep spindles were considered: they were negatively associated with number of trials needed to learn the sensory-motor procedural memory task in autism and with reaction time and number of errors on selective attention in the controls. Correlation between rapid eye movements (REMs) in REM sleep and cognitive procedural memory was not significant. We conclude that some signs reflecting the presence of poor sleep in adults with high-functioning autism correlate with various aspects of motor output on non-verbal performance tasks. The question is

  14. Adult progenitor cell transplantation influences contractile performance and calcium handling of recipient cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon; Stagg, Mark A; Fukushima, Satsuki; Soppa, Gopal K R; Siedlecka, Urszula; Youssef, Samuel J; Suzuki, Ken; Yacoub, Magdi H; Terracciano, Cesare M N

    2009-04-01

    Adult progenitor cell transplantation has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure, but the mechanisms effecting functional improvements remain unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in failing hearts treated with cell transplantation, the mechanical properties and excitation-contraction coupling of recipient cardiomyocytes are altered. Adult rats underwent coronary artery ligation, leading to myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. After 3 wk, they received intramyocardial injections of either 10(7) green fluorescence protein (GFP)-positive bone marrow mononuclear cells or 5 x 10(6) GFP-positive skeletal myoblasts. Four weeks after injection, both cell types increased ejection fraction and reduced cardiomyocyte size. The contractility of isolated GFP-negative cardiomyocytes was monitored by sarcomere shortening assessment, Ca(2+) handling by indo-1 and fluo-4 fluorescence, and electrophysiology by patch-clamping techniques. Injection of either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts normalized the impaired contractile performance and the prolonged time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient observed in failing cardiomyocytes. The smaller and slower L-type Ca(2+) current observed in heart failure normalized after skeletal myoblast, but not bone marrow cell, transplantation. Measurement of Ca(2+) sparks suggested a normalization of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak after skeletal myoblast transplantation. The increased Ca(2+) wave frequency observed in failing myocytes was reduced by either bone marrow cells or skeletal myoblasts. In conclusion, the morphology, contractile performance, and excitation-contraction coupling of individual recipient cardiomyocytes are altered in failing hearts treated with adult progenitor cell transplantation. PMID:19181964

  15. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  16. Occupational therapy interventions to improve driving performance in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Golisz, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive and visual function, motor function, driving skills, self-regulation and self-awareness, and the role of passengers and family involvement in the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 29 studies were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) educational interventions including family education, (2) cognitive-perceptual training, (3) interventions addressing physical fitness, (4) simulator training, and (5) behind-the-wheel training. Outcome measures used in the studies included changes in knowledge through speed of processing, physical and cognitive skills predicted to reduce crash risk, simulated driving, and real-world driving. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve older driver performance. PMID:25397761

  17. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints.

    PubMed

    Davids, Roeliena C D; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J; Tucha, Oliver M; van Balkom, Ingrid D C

    2016-09-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy reported BRIEF) in 36 ASD and 36 typically developed individuals (n = 72). High functioning older adults with ASD reported EF-impairments in metacognition, but did not deviate in EF task performance, except for a longer execution time of the Tower of London. The need for additional time to complete daily tasks may contribute to impairments in daily life and may be correlated to a higher level of experienced EF-difficulties in ASD. PMID:27278313

  18. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  19. Bisphenol A does not affect memory performance in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Rika; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kohara, Yumi; Jojima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2014-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor used for producing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. This study investigated the effects of oral BPA administration on memory performance, general activity, and emotionality in adult male Sprague Dawley rats using a battery of behavioral tests, including an appetite-motivated maze test (MAZE test) used to assess spatial memory performance. In addition, in order to confirm the effects of BPA on spatial memory performance, we examined whether intrahippocampal injection of BPA affects spatial memory consolidation. In the MAZE test, although oral BPA administration at 10 mg/kg significantly altered the number of entries into the incorrect area compared to those of vehicle-treated rats, male rats given BPA through either oral administration or intrahippocampal injection failed to show significant differences in latencies to reach the reward. Also, oral BPA administration did not affect fear-motivated memory performance in the step-through passive avoidance test. Oral BPA administration at 0.05 mg/kg, the lowest dose used in this study, was correlated with a decrease in locomotor activity in the open-field test, whereas oral administration at 10 mg/kg, the highest dose used in this study, was correlated with a light anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test. The present study suggests that BPA in adulthood has little effect on spatial memory performance in male rats. PMID:24326521

  20. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  1. Performance of Nymph and Adult of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding on Cultivated Legumes.

    PubMed

    Zerbino, M S; Altier, N A; Panizzi, A R

    2016-04-01

    Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) feeding on different cultivated legumes was studied under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH, 14 h of photophase) on soybean immature pod (SIP; R5.5-R6), birdsfoot trefoil immature pod (BTIP), alfalfa immature pod (AIP), and red clover flower with immature seeds (RCF). Food had significant effects on the life history of P. guildinii. The major differences in nymph survivorship were observed at second and third instars, with similar survivorship on SIP and AIP as hosts and higher than that recorded on BTIP and RCF. Total nymph mortality was much greater on BTIP (87.6%) than on SIP (32.6%) and AIP (54.2%); all nymphs died on RCF. Food did not affect nymph development time (about 20 days). Adult longevity was highest and lowest on AIP and RCF (62 and 32 days), respectively. Percentage of ovipositing females was highest (≈ 80%) on SIP and AIP, and intermediate on BTIP (52.2%); no females reproduced on RCF. Fecundity on SIP and AIP was similar (≈ 9 egg masses/female; and ≈ 141 eggs/female) and twice as higher than on BTIP (4.1 egg masses/female; and 60.2 eggs/female). Egg fertility (58%) did not vary with food sources. Adults fed on SIP and AIP gained weight during 43 days, remained unaltered on BTIP, and decreased on RCF. Data obtained indicated that SIP and AIP are suitable food sources, and emphasize the importance of alfalfa as a host plant of P. guildinii in Uruguay. PMID:26581380

  2. How Standards Control Module Design for Better or Worse (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2011-02-01

    One would hope that PV modules are designed for survival in the outdoors. However, it appears that some module types are really designed to pass the qualification (IEC 61216/61646) and safety (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) tests. While this has resulted in an overall increase in module reliability and a reduction in infant mortality, it may not result in the most cost-effective solution for long-term reliability and minimum power degradation. This paper will provide several examples of module types and even solar cells designed to pass the tests that do not result in good cost-effective long-term solutions for outdoor performance. This presentation is meant to stimulate a discussion about how to remedy this situation and improve the overall PV industry.

  3. Accelerometer Adherence and Performance in a Cohort Study of US Hispanic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Deng, Yu; Marshall, Simon J.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Esliger, Dale W.; Davis, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study described participant adherence to wearing the accelerometer and accelerometer performance in a cohort study of adults. Methods From 2008-2011, 16,415 United States (US) Hispanic/Latino adults age 18-74 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Immediately following the baseline visit, participants wore an Actical accelerometer for one week. This study explored correlates of accelerometer participation and adherence, defined as wearing it for at least 3 of a possible days for >=10 hours/day. Accelerometer performance was assessed by exploring the number of different values of accelerometer counts/minute for each participant. Results Overall, 92.3% (n=15,153) had at least one day with accelerometer data and 77.7% (n=12,750) were adherent. Both accelerometer participation and adherence were higher among participants who were married or partnered, reported a higher household income, were first generation immigrants, or reported lower sitting time. Participation was also higher among those with no stair limitations. Adherence was higher among participants who were male, older, employed or retired, not US born, preferred Spanish over English, reported higher work activity or lower recreational activity, and those with a lower body mass index. Among the sample that met the adherence definition, the maximum recorded count/minute was 12,000, and there were a total of 5,846 different counts/minute. On average, participants had 112.5 different counts/minute over 6 days (median 106, interquartile range 91-122). The number of different counts/minute were higher among men, younger ages, normal weight, and those with higher accelerometer assessed physical activity. Conclusion Several correlates differed between accelerometer participation and adherence. These characteristics could be targeted in future studies to improve accelerometer wear. The performance of the accelerometer provided insight into creating a more accurate non

  4. Performance and Safety of an Integrated Portable Extracorporeal Life Support System for Adults.

    PubMed

    Alwardt, Cory M; Wilson, Donald S; Alore, Michelle L; Lanza, Louis A; Devaleria, Patrick A; Pajaro, Octavio E

    2015-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is indicated when conventional measures fail to support a patient during cardiac or respiratory failure. Due to the complicated nature of ECMO, patients often require transport to a tertiary care center. This study retrospectively compared the performance of the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system with a previously used ECMO circuit when transporting adult patients on venoarterial ECMO between facilities. Two ECMO circuits were compared for performance: 1) the Cardiohelp™ (Maquet) life support system and 2) the "standard" circuit consisting of a Thoratec CentriMag centrifugal pump, Maquet Quadrox-D oxygenator, and a Terumo CDI-500 in-line blood gas analyzer. After analyzing data from 16 patients (eight patients supported with each ECMO system), no differences in patient demographics, percentage of patients successfully weaned from ECMO, percentage of patients surviving to discharge, duration supported on the initial ECMO system, or total duration of ECMO were noted. No patient deaths were related to circuit failure or circuit disruptions in either group. Analysis of the performance of the ECMO circuits and the resulting patient status showed few significant differences between ECMO groups (Cardiohelp™ vs. standard circuit) and time points (the first 8 hours vs. a 24-hour time point). The statistically significant differences were not concerning in terms of appropriate medical support or patient safety. Of interest, the transmembrane pressure was significantly lower for the Cardiohelp™ module vs. the standard oxygenator during the first 8 hours (20.1 [5.3] vs. 37.1 [7.1] mmHg; p < .001) and at 24 hours (21.3 [3.8] vs. 34.8 [7.9] mmHg; p = .001). The Cardiohelp™ portable life support system provides safe and reliable support for adult patients on ECMO during interhospital patient transport as compared to the standard circuit. PMID:26390678

  5. Associations between CAMCOG-R subscale performance and formal education attainment in South African older adults.

    PubMed

    James, Katharine A; Grace, Laurian K; Thomas, Kevin G F; Combrinck, Marc I

    2014-11-10

    ABSTRACT Background: The Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a sensitive screening tool for the early diagnosis of dementia in older adults. Overall performance on the CAMCOG-R is influenced by educational attainment. Few studies have, however, examined the association between educational attainment and performance on the individual CAMCOG subscales. We aimed to address this question in a sample from a low-and middle-income country (LAMIC), where resource constraints may have compromised access to, and quality of, education for many older adults. Methods: Participants, all over 60 years of age, were 51 cognitively healthy community-dwelling volunteers and 47 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most participants had some high school education. They were administered the CAMCOG-R under standardized conditions. Results: Within both the control and AD patient groups, there were significant associations between years of completed education and CAMCOG-R total score, MMSE score, and CAMCOG-R Language subscale score. In both groups, level of education was not associated with scores on these subscales: in controls, recent memory, R 2 = .21, p = .055, learning memory, R 2 = .16, p = .398, attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .467, and perception, R 2 = .18, p = .984; in AD patients, recent memory, R 2 = .14, p = .340, learning memory, R 2 = .03, p = .680, perception, R 2 = .09, p = .723, and attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .097. Conclusions: Some CAMCOG-R subscale scores were more strongly associated with educational attainment than others. Importantly, however, performance on the recent memory and learning memory subscales was not affected by education. These subscales are sensitive indicators of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD. These subscales may therefore remain valid for use as an AD screening tool in resource-poor healthcare settings. PMID:25382591

  6. Core muscle strengthening's improvement of balance performance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Nicole; Tevald, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of core muscle strengthening on balance in community-dwelling older adults, 24 healthy men and women between 65 and 85 years old were randomized to either exercise (EX; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 12) groups. The exercise group performed a core strengthening home exercise program thrice weekly for 6 wk. Core muscle (curl-up test), functional reach (FR) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. There were no group differences at baseline. At follow-up, EX exhibited significantly greater improvements in curl-up (Cohen's d = 4.4), FR (1.3), and SEBT (>1.9 for all directions) than CON. The change in curl-up was significantly correlated with the change in FR (r = .44, p = .03) and SEBT (r > .61, p ≤ .002). These results suggest that core strengthening should be part of a comprehensive balance-training program for older adults. PMID:23348043

  7. Selected factors correlated to athletic performance in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the contribution of selected factors to the athletic performance in adults with mental retardation (MR) and to analyze the correlation of each factor with subjects' MR levels. Twenty-nine trained athletes with MR aged 20-45 years were recruited. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. The athletic performances were as follows: 60 m, 300 m, 400 m in walking, standing long jump, and vortex throw (Level I) or 100-m run, shot put, and long jump (Level II). Motor coordination and body weight had significant contributions to 60 m (p < 0.01) and the %body fat had significant contribution to 300 m and 100 m (p < 0.05). The explosive leg power had significant contribution to vortex throw and standing long jump (p < 0.05). The upper-body strength and muscular endurance had significant contribution in shot put (p < 0.05). The body weight had significant contribution in long jump (p < 0.05). MR level was positively correlated to motor coordination (p < 0.05) and negatively to abdominal muscular strength and endurance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contributions of selected factors to the athletic performance. This should be addressed in athletics training to help athletes with MR to perform successfully in their competitions. PMID:20300018

  8. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  9. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  10. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  11. Regulation of abortion services -- for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Cates, W; Gold, J; Selik, R M

    1979-09-27

    Legal abortions are being limited in the United States by restricting public funds and regulating the conditions for performing an abortion. These regulations require a woman's informed consent to a major surgical operation, a detailed description of anatomic and physiologic fetal characteristics, a 24-hour waiting period after the counseling, parental notification if the woman is under 18 years old, restriction of hypertonic saline or hypersmolar urea agents, and hospitalization for an obortion after 12 weeks gestation. These regulations, however, may create more psychologic reactions to terminating the pregnancy by describing fetal morphology; delays may increase the risk of morbidity and mortality; and requiring hospitalization after 12 weeks of gestation increases costs and unnecessarily uses hospital beds. In addition, complications from illegal abortions may increase if the regulations lead women to seek abortions from persons other than physicians. These regulations in affect in some areas tend to bias continuation of an unwanted pregnancy and may ultimately endanger rather than protect women seeking an abortion. PMID:481469

  12. Echocardiographic Predictors of Worse Outcome After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Abreu, José Sebastião; Lima, José Wellington O.; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula M.; Rocha Neto, Almino Cavalcante; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Goés, Camilla Viana A.; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Scanavacca, Maurício Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the recommended treatment by leading global guidelines. However, 30%-40% of selected patients are non-responders. Objective To develop an echocardiographic model to predict cardiac death or transplantation (Tx) 1 year after CRT. Method Observational, prospective study, with the inclusion of 116 patients, aged 64.89 ± 11.18 years, 69.8% male, 68,1% in NYHA FC III and 31,9% in FC IV, 71.55% with left bundle-branch block, and median ejection fraction (EF) of 29%. Evaluations were made in the pre-implantation period and 6-12 months after that, and correlated with cardiac mortality/Tx at the end of follow-up. Cox and logistic regression analyses were performed with ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves. The model was internally validated by bootstrapping. Results There were 29 (25%) deaths/Tx during follow-up of 34.09 ± 17.9 months. Cardiac mortality/Tx was 16.3%. In the multivariate Cox model, EF < 30%, grade III/IV diastolic dysfunction and grade III mitral regurgitation at 6-12 months were independently related to increased cardiac mortality or Tx, with hazard ratios of 3.1, 4.63 and 7.11, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.78. Conclusion EF lower than 30%, severe diastolic dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation indicate poor prognosis 1 year after CRT. The combination of two of those variables indicate the need for other treatment options. PMID:26351981

  13. Is Cyberbullying Worse than Traditional Bullying? Examining the Differential Roles of Medium, Publicity, and Anonymity for the Perceived Severity of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional…

  14. Sex, but not Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism, Differences in Spatial Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Yasen, Alia L; Raber, Jacob; Miller, Jeremy K; Piper, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype contribute to individual differences in spatial learning and memory. The associations of APOE genotype with neurocognitive function have been well studied among the elderly but less is known at earlier ages. Young adults (n = 169, 88 females) completed three neurocognitive tasks: mental rotation, spatial span, and Memory Island, a spatial navigation test. Males outperformed females on all three tasks: finding the hidden targets more quickly on Memory Island (Cohen's d = 0.62) and obtaining higher scores on mental rotation (d = 0.54) and spatial span (d = 0.37). In contrast, no significant effects of APOE were observed. The identified sex differences elaborate upon past literature documenting sexually dimorphic performance on specific neurobehavioral tasks. PMID:25750133

  15. A Longitudinal Study in Adults with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for Individual Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Strube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective…

  16. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  17. Assessing Articulatory Speed Performance as a Potential Factor of Slowed Speech in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Corder, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve our understanding about the underlying factors of aging-related speaking rate decline, the authors sought to determine if lip and jaw speeds are physiologically constrained in older adults. Method: Thirty-six female--10 young adults (ages 22-27 years), 9 middle-aged adults (ages 45-55 years), 10 young-old adults (65-74 years),…

  18. Territory of Guam Adult Education Programs. Performance Report. Fiscal Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Agency for Vocational and Adult Education.

    The 1992 activities in support of the goals described in the Guam State Plan for Adult Education focused on curriculum development and evaluation. Three major programs offered 48 daytime and 101 evening classes for students at 6 sites. The primary components of the adult education instructional programs were adult high school, General Educational…

  19. Severity of pulmonary hypertension and obesity are not associated with worse functional outcomes after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Le, Catherine N.; Robbins, Ivan M.; Petracek, Michael R.; Pugh, Meredith E.; Brittain, Evan L.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Predictors of functional outcomes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) are important to identify preoperatively. We hypothesized that baseline severity of pulmonary hypertension and obesity would not be associated with 6-month functional outcomes after PTE. Clinical and hemodynamic data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing PTE from 2008 to 2014. Patients were stratified according to baseline pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and body mass index (BMI). Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), New York Heart Association functional class (FC), and echocardiography were assessed in each group at baseline and 6 months after PTE. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between functional outcomes and baseline PVR and BMI. Forty-two patients underwent PTE and had 6-month follow up data. In comparisons of patients with high and low baseline PVR, the baseline characteristics, distribution of disease, 6MWD, and FC were similar. Postoperative hemodynamics for both groups were similar. At 6 months, both groups achieved improvements in FC, and there were no between-group differences in the change in 6MWD or FC. In comparisons of obese and nonobese patients, perioperative and FC improvement were similar; however, obese patients achieved a greater improvement in 6MWD than nonobese patients (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our data suggest that baseline severity of CTEPH and obesity were not associated with worse functional outcome. Further studies are needed to confirm these results, as these findings could have implications for patient selection for PTE. PMID:27252843

  20. Younger gestational age is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes after cardiac surgery in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Donna A.; Luan, Xianqun; Gerdes, Marsha; Bernbaum, Judy; D’Agostino, Jo Ann; Rychik, Jack; Wernovsky, Gil; Licht, Daniel J.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Clancy, Robert R.; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J. William

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the impact of near-term delivery on neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods Secondary analysis of data from a study of genetic polymorphisms and ND outcomes after cardiac surgery in infants. The effect of gestational age (GA) as a continuous variable on ND outcomes was evaluated using general linear regression models. GA was also evaluated as a categorical variable to seek a threshold for better outcomes. ND domains tested at 4 years of age included cognition, language skills, attention, impulsivity, memory, executive function, social competence, visual-motor, and fine-motor skills. Results ND outcomes and GA were available for 378 infants. Median GA was 39 weeks (range, 28–42 weeks) with 351 born at 36 weeks or more (near-term/term). In univariate analysis of the near-term/term subgroup, older GA predicted better performance for cognition, visual-motor, and fine-motor skills. After covariate adjustment, older GA predicted better performance for fine-motor skills (P = .018). Performance for cognition, language, executive function, social skills, visual-motor, and fine-motor skills was better for those born at 39 to 40 weeks of GA or more versus those born at less than 39 weeks (all P<.05). Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that delivery before 39 to 40 weeks of GA is associated with worse outcomes in patients with CHD. Early delivery of a child with CHD is often indicated because of maternal or fetal health issues. In the absence of these concerns, these data suggest that elective (or spontaneous) delivery at 39 to 40 weeks of GA is associated with better ND outcomes. PMID:22340027

  1. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890

  2. Local adaptation in adult feeding preference and juvenile performance in the generalist herbivore Idotea balthica.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tina M; Sotka, Erik E

    2012-10-01

    Populations can respond to environmental heterogeneity by genetic adaptation to local conditions. Evidence for local adaptation in herbivores with relatively broad host breadth is scarce, either because generalists rarely locally adapt or because fewer studies have tested for local adaptation. The marine isopod Idotea balthica, a small (<3 cm) generalist herbivore common to estuaries of the northwestern Atlantic, is found on multiple macroalgae and sea grasses north of 42°N, while more southerly populations utilize sea grass-dominated and macroalgal-poor habitats. Feeding preference assays revealed a latitudinal shift in preference hierarchy that mirrors this geographic variation in host availability. Northern populations have higher feeding preference for fresh and freeze-dried tissue of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and consumed more of its water-soluble and lipophilic extracts relative to southern populations. In contrast, southern populations have a relatively higher preference for the green macroalga Ulva linza and sea grass Zostera marina. The rank of hosts in feeding assays exhibited by northern adults (Fucus = Ulva > Zostera) and southern adults (Ulva > Fucus > Zostera) closely mirrored ranking of juvenile growth rates, suggesting that preference and performance are strongly correlated across these macrophytes. Several of our assays included isopods that had parents reared under uniform laboratory conditions, indicating that geographic differences are genetically mediated and unlikely to reflect phenotypic plasticity or maternal effects. Local adaptation in host use traits may be common in broadly distributed, generalist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems, and will manifest itself as local shifts in the preference ranking of hosts. PMID:22451011

  3. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised. PMID:24553417

  4. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  5. Contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Guidetti, Laura; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation (MR). Fourteen trained male players with MR (32.1 +/- 7.4 years) were recruited. The athletes' performances were assessed using adapted basketball tests that assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas: ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and body mass index), static balance, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. This study showed that greater explosive leg power and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to ball handling (85%, p < 0.01), and explosive leg power had significant positive contribution in reception (59%, p < 0.05) and shooting (64%, p = 0.01). The forearm muscular strength and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to passing (78%, p = 0.01). Moreover, the greater explosive leg power had significant contribution in level II (46%, p < 0.05), in level III (52%, p < 0.05), and in global score (60%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the possibility to determine the contribution of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance. Therefore, the basketball coach could improve a selected fundamental factor to increase specific basketball ability. This should be addressed in a specific training to help players with MR to perform successfully in their competitions. PMID:20634745

  6. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Phillip J; Kiesel, Kyle B

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of movement tests before performance training and sport participation is gaining popularity as part of musculoskeletal screening for injury. The identification of an athlete's asymmetries and poor performance in the preseason allows coaches and sports medicine clinicians the opportunity to proactively address these deficits to reduce the potential for injury. Currently, there are no tests reported in the literature that simultaneously require shoulder and core stability while taking the subjects through a large range of motion at the end range of their stability. Thus, the purpose of this article was to describe the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and report the gender differences in the performance of the test. Upper extremity reach distances were measured in 95 active adults using a standardized upper extremity balance-and-reach protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability, and gender differences were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, whereas bilateral differences were analyzed using a dependent samples t-test for the normalized composite reach scores. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for interrater reliability was 1.00. Average composite scores (right/left) reported as a percentage of limb length were 81.7/82.3% for men and 80.7/80.7% for women. The results of the study suggest that the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test is a reliable test for measuring upper extremity reach distance while in a closed-chain position. It was further determined that there was no significant difference in performance between genders or between sides on the test when normalized to limb length. Coaches and sports medicine professionals may consider incorporating the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test as part of their preprogram testing to identify movement limitations and asymmetries in athletes and thereby may reduce injury. PMID:22228174

  7. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  8. The Relationship between Mean Corpuscular Volume and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rifkind, Joseph; Longo, Dan L.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and cognitive performance over time. DESIGN Longitudinal. SETTING Sample from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) PARTICIPANTS The sample consisted of 827 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; M age = 67; range = 50 – 96). MEASUREMENTS MCV and several other blood indices were measured including hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, white blood cell count, albumin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Cognitive performance was examined using neuropsychological measures of visual memory, verbal memory, language, attention, executive function and global mental status. RESULTS High MCV levels were significantly associated with lower global mental status even after adjusting for potential confounders. High MCV levels were also significantly associated with accelerated rates of decline on tasks of global mental status, long delay memory, and attention even after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION Our findings confirm a previous observation that larger erythrocytes in older adults are associated with poorer cognitive function. The relationship between MCV and cognition does not appear to be explained by anemia and inflammation. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms behind this association. PMID:23301873

  9. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  10. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed. PMID:24893739

  11. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference = 1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT

  12. A Novel Analytic Technique to Measure Associations Between Circulating Biomarkers and Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew J; Thompson, Dana K; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Kraus, Virginia B; Kraus, William E; Sullivan, Patrick; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Cohen, Harvey J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding associations between circulating biomarkers and physical performance across the adult life span could aid in better describing mechanistic pathways leading to disability. We hypothesized that high concentrations of circulating biomarkers would be associated with lower functioning across study populations representing the adult life span. The data were from four intervention and two observational studies with ages ranging 22-89 years. Biomarkers assayed included inflammatory, coagulation, and endothelial function markers. Physical performance was measured either by VO2peak (studies of young and middle-aged adults) or usual gait speed (studies of older adults). Partialled (by age, body mass index, race, and sex) and weighted common correlations were calculated between biomarkers and physical performance. Homogeneity of the associations was also assessed. Interleukin-6 (weighted r = -.22), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (weighted r = -.19), D-dimer (weighted r = -.16), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (weighted r = -.15), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (weighted r = -.14), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (weighted r = -.10) were all significantly inversely correlated with physical performance (p < .05). All significant correlations were homogeneous across studies. In summary, we observed consistent inverse associations between six circulating biomarkers and objective measures of physical performance. These results suggest that these serum biomarkers may be broadly applicable for detection, trajectory, and treatment monitoring of physical function across the life span or possibly for midlife predictors of functionally deleterious conditions. PMID:25745025

  13. Is previous knee arthroscopy related to worse results in primary total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Piedade, Sérgio Rocha; Pinaroli, Alban; Servien, Elvire; Neyret, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    According to literature, knee arthroscopy is a minimal invasive surgery performed for minor surgical trauma, reduced morbidity and shortens the hospitalization period. Therefore, this type of surgery before total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could be considered a minor procedure with minimum postoperative complication. A retrospective and cohort series of 1,474 primary TKA was performed with re-assessment after a minimum follow-up period of 2 years: 1,119 primary TKA had no previous surgery (group A) and 60 primary TKA had arthroscopic debridement (group B). All the patients underwent a clinical and radiological evaluation as well as IKS scores. Statistical analysis of postoperative complications revealed that group B had a higher postoperative complication rate (P < 0.01). In this group, 30% of local complications were re-operated and 8.3% of these cases underwent revision TKA (P < 0.01). The mean interval between arthroscopy and primary TKA was 53 months. However, statistical analysis did not reveal a direct correlation between arthroscopy/primary TKA interval and postoperative complications/failures (P = 0.55). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a survival rate of 98.1 and 86.8% at 10 years follow-up for groups A and B, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that previous knee arthroscopy should be considered a factor related to postoperative primary TKA outcomes as demonstrated by the higher rate of postoperative complications and failures (P < 0.001) as well as a worse survival curve than group A. PMID:19099293

  14. Adiponectin and Interleukin-6, But Not Adipose Tissue, Are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Function in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; Vo, Quynh T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Sacktor, Ned; Miller, Eric N.; Post, Wendy S.; Becker, James T.; Palella, Frank J.; Ragin, Ann; Martin, Eileen; Munro, Cynthia A.; Brown, Todd T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Generalized obesity has been associated with cognitive decline, a process potentially mediated by adipocytokines. The effects of regional adipose tissue (AT) on cognition, however, are not well understood. We explored cross-sectional relationships between regional AT, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers and neuropsychological (NP) test scores among HIV+ and HIV− men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal and subcutaneous thigh AT areas were quantified by computed tomography (CT). NP tests (Trail Making Test parts A and B and Symbol Digit Modalities) obtained within two years of CT screened for psychomotor speed and executive function. Adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results Of 509 HIV+ and 271 HIV− participants, HIV+ men (98% on ART, 81% HIV-1 RNA <50copies/mL) had lower median subcutaneous AT and adiponectin levels and higher hs-CRP levels, but visceral AT, BMI, IL-6 and NP scores did not vary by HIV serostatus. In multivariable analysis, older age, ≤high school education and African American race, but not AT area or site, were associated with worse NP test scores among all participants. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse cognitive function independent of AT area. No HIV-specific factors were associated with NP test scores. Conclusions Demographic factors were associated with NP test performance, but regional adiposity was not. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse NP test scores, supporting a role for chronic inflammation and adipocytokine imbalance in neurocognitive decline in HIV+ persons. PMID:25810377

  15. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  16. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations. PMID:26187093

  17. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Worse Performance on Objective Cognitive Tests in MS.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Sarah A; Rosehart, Heather; Pantazopoulos, Koula

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are known to interact in non-MS populations. This retrospective chart review examined this relationship in a relapsing-remitting MS population. A significant difference on measures of processing speed/working memory and visual-spatial memory was found in MS patients with anxiety compared with nonanxious MS patients, while a significant difference was found on measures of processing speed, visual-spatial memory and executive function in MS patients with depressive symptoms compared with those without. Further research is needed to determine the causal relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. PMID:26569152

  18. Ohio Department of Education, Office of Career-Technical & Adult Education District Program Performance Review--Executive Summary, FY04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstaett, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, the Ohio Department of Education's (ODE) Office of Career- Technical and Adult Education conducted a comprehensive program performance review of all career-technical education programs offered within Ohio Department of Youth Services (ODYS) Institutions. The unique nature of career-technical education delivery within a…

  19. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  20. The Effects of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction on Reading Performance of Adult ESL Learners with Limited English and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…

  1. Unwanted Sex among Young Adults in the United States: The Role of Physical Disability and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between unwanted sexual experiences and both physical disability and cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of young adults. We used data from 11,878 participants (ages 26-32) in Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regressions…

  2. The Buffering Effects of Rejection-Inhibiting Attentional Training on Social and Performance Threat among Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…

  3. The Influence of Reading and Writing Habits Associated with Education on the Neuropsychological Performance of Brazilian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…

  4. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  5. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  6. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  7. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  8. Route Learning and Shortcut Performance in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Study with Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengue-Topio, Hursula; Courbois, Yannick; Farran, Emily K.; Sockeel, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn routes though a virtual environment (VE) and to make a novel shortcut between two locations was assessed in 18 adults with intellectual disability and 18 adults without intellectual disability matched on chronological age. Participants explored two routes (A [double big arrow] B and A [double big arrow] C) until they reached a…

  9. Evaluating Websites for Older Adults: Adherence to "Senior-Friendly" Guidelines and End-User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, T. A.; Chaparro, B. S.; Halcomb, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Older adults in the US are the fastest-growing demographic, and also the largest-growing group of internet users. The aim of this research was to evaluate websites designed for older adults in terms of (1) how well they adhere to "senior-friendly" guidelines and (2) overall ease of use and satisfaction. In Experiment I, 40 websites designed for…

  10. Patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia with prior malignancy do not have significantly worse outcome.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mohamad; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Pham, Hannah; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-11-01

    The clinical relevance of prior malignancy (PM) in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) is largely unknown. We retrospectively evaluated 437 patients (ET, n=263; PV, n=174) treated at MD Anderson between 1960 and 2010. Forty-four patients had PM (ET, 10%; PV, 11%), with median time to diagnosis of 66 months. PM was not associated with abnormal cytogenetics, JAK2-mutation frequency, blood-cell counts or progression to acute leukemia or myelofibrosis. In multivariate analysis, only older age and high LDH levels were associated with worse OS. In conclusion, PM does not predict worse outcomes for patients with ET and PV. PMID:23993426

  11. Longitudinal Alterations to Brain Function, Structure, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: a fMRI-DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Hakun, Jonathan G.; Zhu, Zude; Brown, Christopher A.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research has shown that older adults tend to have different frontal cortex activation patterns, poorer brain structure, and lower task performance than younger adults. However, relationships between longitudinal changes in brain function, brain structure, and cognitive performance in older adults are less well understood. Here we present the results of a longitudinal, combined fMRI-DTI study in cognitive normal (CN) older adults. A two time-point study was conducted in which participants completed a task switching paradigm while fMRI data was collected and underwent the identical scanning protocol an average of 3.3 years later (SD = 2 months). We observed longitudinal fMRI activation increases in bilateral regions of lateral frontal cortex at time point 2. These fMRI activation increases were associated with longitudinal declines in WM microstructure in a portion of the corpus callosum connecting the increasingly recruited frontal regions. In addition, the fMRI activation increase in the left VLPFC was associated with longitudinal increases in response latencies. Taken together, our results suggest that local frontal activation increases in CN older adults may in part reflect a response to reduced inter-hemispheric signaling mechanisms. PMID:25862416

  12. Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mithal, A; Bonjour, J-P; Boonen, S; Burckhardt, P; Degens, H; El Hajj Fuleihan, G; Josse, R; Lips, P; Morales Torres, J; Rizzoli, R; Yoshimura, N; Wahl, D A; Cooper, C; Dawson-Hughes, B

    2013-05-01

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has recently received increased attention. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify nutritional factors that contribute to loss of muscle mass. The role of protein, acid-base balance, vitamin D/calcium, and other minor nutrients like B vitamins was reviewed. Muscle wasting is a multifactorial process involving intrinsic and extrinsic alterations. A loss of fast twitch fibers, glycation of proteins, and insulin resistance may play an important role in the loss of muscle strength and development of sarcopenia. Protein intake plays an integral part in muscle health and an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day is probably optimal for older adults. There is a moderate [corrected] relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Chronic ingestion of acid-producing diets appears to have a negative impact on muscle performance, and decreases in vitamin B12 and folic acid intake may also impair muscle function through their action on homocysteine. An adequate nutritional intake and an optimal dietary acid-base balance are important elements of any strategy to preserve muscle mass and strength during aging. PMID:23247327

  13. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  14. Predictors of web navigation performance in a life span sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Jason C; Scialfa, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    The influence of age, subject matter knowledge, working memory, reading abilities, spatial abilities, and processing speed on Web navigation was assessed in a sample of 41 participants between the ages of 19 and 83 years. Each participant navigated a stand-alone tourism Web site to find answers to 12 questions. Performance was measured using time per trial, number of pages per trial, and number of revisited pages per trial. Age did not influence the number of total pages or repeat pages visited, which were predicted by domain knowledge, working memory, and processing speed. Age was associated with slower times per trial, and the effect remained significant after controlling for working memory, processing speed, and spatial abilities. Only with the addition of subject matter knowledge and World Wide Web experience was the age effect eliminated. Actual or potential applications of this research include redesigning Web sites to minimize memory demands and enhance visual segmentation. The data also suggest that age differences in Web navigation can be offset partially by taking advantage of older adults' prior experiences in the domain. PMID:16170939

  15. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  16. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  17. No Significant Effect of Prefrontal tDCS on Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Jonna; Lebedev, Alexander V.; Lövdén, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been put forward as a non-pharmacological alternative for alleviating cognitive decline in old age. Although results have shown some promise, little is known about the optimal stimulation parameters for modulation in the cognitive domain. In this study, the effects of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on working memory performance were investigated in thirty older adults. An N-back task assessed working memory before, during and after anodal tDCS at a current strength of 1 mA and 2 mA, in addition to sham stimulation. The study used a single-blind, cross-over design. The results revealed no significant effect of tDCS on accuracy or response times during or after stimulation, for any of the current strengths. These results suggest that a single session of tDCS over the dlPFC is unlikely to improve working memory, as assessed by an N-back task, in old age. PMID:26696882

  18. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Emily E; Schultz, Aaron P; Sperling, Reisa A; Hedden, Trey

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65-90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  19. Intimate Partner Violence: A Predictor of Worse HIV Outcomes and Engagement in Care

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Julia; Gupta, Shruti; Thorpe, John; Winstead-Derlega, Christopher; Pinkerton, Relana; Laughon, Kathryn; Ingersoll, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For HIV-infected patients, experiencing multiple traumas is associated with AIDS-related and all-cause mortality, increased opportunistic infections, progression to AIDS, and decreased adherence to therapy. The impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on adherence and HIV outcomes is unknown. HIV-infected patients recruited from a public HIV clinic participated in this observational cohort study (n=251). Participants completed interviews evaluating IPV and covariates. CD4 count <200 (CD4<200), detectable HIV viral load (VL), and engagement in care (“no show rate” [NSR]) were the outcomes of interest. Medication adherence was not measured. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed with covariates included if p<0.3 in the univariate phase. Seventy-four percent of the participants were male, 55% Caucasian, and 52.2% self-identified as “men who have sex with men.” IPV prevalence was 33.1% with no difference by gender or sexual orientation. In univariate analysis, IPV exposure predicted having a CD4<200 (p=0.005) and a detectable VL (p=0.04) but trended toward significance with a high NSR (p=0.077). Being threatened by a partner was associated with a CD4<200 (p=0.005), a detectable VL (p=0.011), and high NSR (p=0.019) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, IPV predicted having a CD4<200 (p=0.005) and detectable VL (p=0.035). Being threatened by a partner predicted having a CD4<200 (p=0.020), a detectable VL (p=0.007), and a high NSR (p=0.020). Our results suggest IPV impacts biologic outcomes and engagement in care for HIV-infected patients. IPV alone predicts worse biologic outcomes, whereas the specific experience of being threatened by a partner was associated with all three outcomes in univariate and multivariate analyses. PMID:22612519

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance: An Analysis From the Boston RISE Study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicole E.; Grande, Laura; Kurlinski, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Marla K.; Kiely, Dan K.; Petersen, Janne; Leveille, Suzanne; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (aMCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument’s Basic Lower Extremity and Advanced Lower Extremity function scales. Results. Participants had a mean age of 76.6 years, and 42% were characterized with MCI. Participants with MCI performed significantly worse than participants without MCI (No-MCI) on all performance and self-report measures (p < .01). All MCI subtypes performed significantly worse than No-MCI on all mobility measures (p < .05) except for aMCI versus No-MCI on the Figure of 8 Walk (p = .054) and Basic Lower Extremity (p = .11). Moreover, compared with aMCI, mdMCI manifested worse performance on the Figure of 8 Walk and Short Physical Performance Battery, and naMCI manifested worse performance on Short Physical Performance Battery and Basic Lower Extremity. Conclusions. Among older community-dwelling primary care patients, performance on a broad range of mobility measures was worse among those with MCI, appearing poorest among those with nonmemory MCI. PMID:24799356

  1. Intoxication with Bourbon versus Vodka: Effects on Hangover, Sleep and Next-Day Neurocognitive Performance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Howland, Jonathan; Arnedt, J. Todd; Almeida, Alissa B.; Greece, Jacey; Minsky, Sara; Kempler, Carrie S.; Sales, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the effects of heavy drinking with high or low congener beverages on next-day neurocognitive performance, and the extent to which these effects were mediated by alcohol-related sleep disturbance or alcoholic beverage congeners, and correlated with the intensity of hangover. Methods Healthy heavy drinkers age 21–33 (n = 95) participated in two drinking nights after an acclimatization night. They drank to a mean of 0.11 g% BrAC on vodka or bourbon one night with matched placebo the other night, randomized for type and order. Polysomnography recordings were made overnight; self-report and neurocognitive measures were assessed the next morning. Results After alcohol, people had more hangover and more decrements in tests requiring both sustained attention and speed. Hangover correlated with poorer performance on these measures. Alcohol decreased sleep efficiency and REM sleep, and increased wake time and next-day sleepiness. Alcohol effects on sleep correlated with hangover but did not mediate the effects on performance. No effect of beverage congeners was found except on hangover severity, with people feeling worse after bourbon. Virtually no sex differences appeared. Conclusions Since drinking to this level affects complex cognitive abilities, safety could be affected, with implications for driving and for safety sensitive occupations. Congener content affects only how people feel the next day so does not increase risk. The sleep disrupting effects of alcohol did not account for the impaired performance so other mechanisms of effect need to be sought. Since hangover symptoms correlate with impaired performance, these might be contributing to the impairment. PMID:20028364

  2. Task Importance Affects Event-based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y.; Nichols, Sharon L.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Method All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: 1) without PM task requirements; 2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and 3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. Results In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Conclusions Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. PMID:24834469

  3. Dissociable neural modulation underlying lasting first impressions, changing your mind for the better, and changing it for the worse.

    PubMed

    Bhanji, Jamil P; Beer, Jennifer S

    2013-05-29

    Unattractive job candidates face a disadvantage when interviewing for a job. Employers' evaluations are colored by the candidate's physical attractiveness even when they take job interview performance into account. This example illustrates unexplored questions about the neural basis of social evaluation in humans. What neural regions support the lasting effects of initial impressions (even after getting to know someone)? How does the brain process information that changes our minds about someone? Job candidates' competence was evaluated from photographs and again after seeing snippets of job interviews. Left lateral orbitofrontal cortex modulation serves as a warning signal for initial reactions that ultimately undermine evaluations even when additional information is taken into account. The neural basis of changing one's mind about a candidate is not a simple matter of computing the amount of competence-affirming information in their job interview. Instead, seeing a candidate for the better is somewhat distinguishable at the neural level from seeing a candidate for the worse. Whereas amygdala modulation marks the extremity of evaluation change, favorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of lateral prefrontal cortex and unfavorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of medial prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. Investigating social evaluation as a dynamic process (rather than a one-time impression) paints a new picture of its neural basis and highlights the partially dissociable processes that contribute to changing your mind about someone for the better or the worse. PMID:23719802

  4. Chronic pubertal, but not adult chronic cannabinoid treatment impairs sensorimotor gating, recognition memory, and the performance in a progressive ratio task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Miriam; Koch, Michael

    2003-10-01

    There is evidence from studies in humans and animals that a vulnerable period for chronic cannabinoid administration exists during certain phases of development. The present study tested the hypothesis that long-lasting interference of cannabinoids with the developing endogenous cannabinoid system during puberty causes persistent behavioral alterations in adult rats. Chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) (1.2 mg/kg) or vehicle was extended over 25 days either throughout the rats' puberty or for a similar time period in adult rats. The rats received 20 injections intraperitoneally (i.p.), which were not delivered regularly. Adult rats were tested for object recognition memory, performance in a progressive ratio (PR) operant behavior task, locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR). PPI was significantly disrupted only by chronic peripubertal cannabinoid treatment. This long-lasting PPI deficit was reversed by the acute administration of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. Furthermore, we found deficits in recognition memory of pubertal-treated rats and these animals showed lower break points in a PR schedule, whereas food preference and locomotion were not affected. Adult chronic cannabinoid treatment had no effect on the behaviors tested. Therefore, we conclude that puberty in rats is a vulnerable period with respect to the adverse effects of cannabinoid treatment. Since PPI deficits, object recognition memory impairments, and anhedonia/avolition are among the endophenotypes of schizophrenia, we propose chronic cannabinoid administration during pubertal development as an animal model for some aspects of the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:12888772

  5. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalisation--For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisation has transformed the higher education landscape around the world and has dramatically changed itself. Some question whether the change is for better or worse given some of the unintended consequences of internationalisation such as commercialisation, diploma and accreditation mills, international rankings and the great brain…

  6. Are Immigrants and Girls Graded Worse? Results of a Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Using Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2001 and Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data for Germany, this paper examines whether second-generation immigrants and girls are graded worse in math than comparable natives and boys, respectively. Once all grading-relevant characteristics, namely math skills and oral…

  7. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  8. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed. PMID:21220381

  9. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water. PMID:27012768

  10. Evaluation of urine pneumococcal antigen test performance among adults in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Jagero, Geofrey; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Pimenta, Fabiana; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Feikin, Daniel R; Conklin, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    When used in an area of rural western Kenya, the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test had a sensitivity of 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 43-85%) among 21 adults ≥15 years old with acute respiratory illnesses and pneumococcal bacteremia and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 96-99%) among 660 adults ≥15 years old without fever or cough. The specificity of the test was not significantly affected by pneumococcal colonization, regardless of patients' HIV status, age, or sex. Use of the pneumococcal urine antigen test in clinical assessments of adults in Africa with acute respiratory illness is a viable option regardless of whether a patient is colonized by pneumococci, even among HIV-infected adults, although the moderate sensitivity of the urine antigen test indicates that the test is probably best used clinically as part of a panel with other tests that can detect pneumococci. PMID:27220607

  11. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  12. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  13. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  14. Effects of Low Salinity on Adult Behavior and Larval Performance in the Intertidal Gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montory, Jaime A.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Diederich, Casey M.; Chaparro, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities. PMID:25077484

  15. Allocentric Spatial Performance Higher in Early-Blind and Sighted Adults Than in Retinopathy-of-Prematurity Adults.

    PubMed

    Eardley, Alison F; Edwards, Geoffrey; Malouin, Francine; Kennedy, John M

    2016-03-01

    The question as to whether people totally blind since infancy process allocentric or external spatial information like the sighted has caused considerable debate within the literature. Due to the extreme rarity of the population, researchers have often included individuals with retinopathy of prematurity (RoP--over oxygenation at birth) within the sample. However, RoP is inextricably confounded with prematurity per se. Prematurity, without visual disability, has been associated with spatial processing difficulties. In this experiment, blindfolded sighted participants and two groups of functionally totally blind participants heard text descriptions from a survey (allocentric) or route (egocentric) perspective. One blind group lost their sight due to RoP and a second group before 24 months of age. The accuracy of participants' mental representations derived from the text descriptions was assessed via questions and maps. The RoP participants had lower scores than the sighted and early blind, who performed similarly. In other words, it was not visual impairment alone that resulted in impaired allocentric spatial performance in this task but visual impairment together with RoP. This finding may help explain the contradictions within the existing literature on the role of vision in allocentric spatial processing. PMID:26562868

  16. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    PubMed

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23184483

  17. Vomiting and Hyponatremia Are Risk Factors for Worse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized Due to Nonsurgical Abdominal Pain: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goren, Idan; Israel, Ariel; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Kliers, Iris; Gringauz, Irina; Dagan, Amir; Lavi, Bruno; Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad

    2016-04-01

    After initial evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), many patients complaining of abdominal pain are classified as suffering from nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP). Clinical characteristics and risk factors for worse prognosis were not published elsewhere.Characterizing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized due to NSAP and identifying predictor variables for worse clinical outcomes.We made a retrospective cohort analysis of patients hospitalized due to NSAP compared to matched control patients (for age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index) hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons in a ratio of 1 to 10. We further performed in-group analysis of patients admitted due to NSAP in order to appreciate variables (clinical and laboratory parameters) potentially associated with worse clinical outcomes.Overall 23,584 patients were included, of which 2144 were admitted due to NSAP and 21,440 were matched controls. Patients admitted due to NSAP had overall better clinical outcomes: they had lower rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality (2.8% vs 5.5% and 7.9% vs 10.4% respectively, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). They also had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (3.9 vs 6.2 days, P < 0.001). Rates of re-hospitalization within 30-days were not significantly different between study groups. Among patients hospitalized due to NSAP, we found that vomiting or hyponatremia at presentation or during hospital stay were associated with worse clinical outcomes.Compared to patients hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons, the overall prognosis of patients admitted due to NSAP is favorable. The combination of NSAP with vomiting and hyponatremia is associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:27057886

  18. Metabolic and structural connectivity within the default mode network relates to working memory performance in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Chételat, Gael; Fischer, Florian U; Landeau, Brigitte; Bastin, Christine; Scheurich, Armin; Perrotin, Audrey; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Drzezga, Alexander; Eustache, Francis; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Salmon, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes, the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in relation to normal working memory (WM). DMN was captured using independent component analysis of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data from 35 young healthy adults (27.1 ± 5.1 years). Metabolic connectivity, a correlation between FDG uptake in PCC and MPFC, was examined in groups of subjects with (relative to median) low (n=18) and high (n=17) performance on digit span backward test as an index of verbal WM. In addition, fiber tractography based on PCC and MPFC nodes as way points was performed in a subset of subjects. FDG uptake in the DMN nodes did not differ between high and low performers. However, significantly (p=0.01) lower metabolic connectivity was found in the group of low performers. Furthermore, as compared to high performers, low performers showed lower density of the left superior cingulate bundle. Verbal WM performance is related to metabolic and structural connectivity within the DMN in young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity as quantified with FDG-PET might be a sensitive marker of the normal variability in some cognitive functions. PMID:23631988

  19. Retinal Image Quality during Accommodation in Adult Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Aslakson, Emily; Kornaus, Andrew; Thibos, Larry N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Reduced retinal image contrast produced by accommodative lag is implicated with myopia development. Here, we measure accommodative error and retinal image quality from wavefront aberrations in myopes and emmetropes when they perform visually demanding and naturalistic tasks. Methods Wavefront aberrations were measured in 10 emmetropic and 11 myopic adults at three distances (100, 40, and 20 cm) while performing four tasks (monocular acuity, binocular acuity, reading, and movie watching). For the acuity tasks, measurements of wavefront error were obtained near the end point of the acuity experiment. Refractive state was defined as the target vergence that optimizes image quality using a visual contrast metric (VSMTF) computed from wavefront errors. Results Accommodation was most accurate (and image quality best) during binocular acuity whereas accommodation was least accurate (and image quality worst) while watching a movie. When viewing distance was reduced, accommodative lag increased and image quality (as quantified by VSMTF) declined for all tasks in both refractive groups. For any given viewing distance, computed image quality was consistently worse in myopes than in emmetropes, more so for the acuity than for reading/movie watching. Although myopes showed greater lags and worse image quality for the acuity experiments compared to emmetropes, acuity was not measurably worse in myopes compared to emmetropes. Conclusions Retinal image quality present when performing a visually demanding task (e.g., during clinical examination) is likely to be greater than for less demanding tasks (e.g., reading/movie watching). Although reductions in image quality lead to reductions in acuity, the image quality metric VSMTF is not necessarily an absolute indicator of visual performance because myopes achieved slightly better acuity than emmetropes despite showing greater lags and worse image quality. Reduced visual contrast in myopes compared to emmetropes is consistent

  20. Keeping track of who said what: Performance on a modified auditory n-back task with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Gary R.; Humes, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    A modified auditory n-back task was used to examine the ability of young and older listeners to remember the content of spoken messages presented from different locations. The messages were sentences from the Coordinative Response Measure (CRM) corpus, and the task was to judge whether a target word on the current trial was the same as in the most recent presentation from the same location (left, center, or right). The number of trials between comparison items (the number back) was varied while keeping the number of items to be held in memory (the number of locations) constant. Three levels of stimulus uncertainty were evaluated. Low- and high-uncertainty conditions were created by holding the talker (voice) and nontarget words constant, or varying them unpredictably across trials. In a medium-uncertainty condition, each location was associated with a specific talker, thus increasing predictability and ecological validity. Older listeners performed slightly worse than younger listeners, but there was no significant difference in response times (RT) for the two groups. An effect of the number back (n) was seen for both PC and RT; PC decreased steadily with n, while RT was fairly constant after a significant increase from n = 1 to n = 2. Apart from the lower PC for the older group, there was no effect involving age for either PC or RT. There was an effect of target word location (faster RTs with a late-occurring target) and an effect of uncertainty (faster RTs with a constant talker-location mapping, relative to the high-uncertainty condition). A similar pattern of performance was observed with a group of elderly hearing-impaired listeners (with and without shaping to ensure audibility), but RTs were substantially slower and the effect of uncertainty was absent. Apart from the observed overall slowing of RTs, these results provide little evidence for an effect of age-related changes in cognitive abilities on this task. PMID:26257666

  1. Prediction of Human Glomerular Filtration Rate from Preterm Neonates to Adults: Evaluation of Predictive Performance of Several Empirical Models.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Staschen, Carl-Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of several allometric empirical models (body weight dependent, age dependent, fixed exponent 0.75, a data-dependent single exponent, and maturation models) to predict glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in preterm and term neonates, infants, children, and adults without any renal disease. In this analysis, the models were developed from GFR data obtained from inulin clearance (preterm neonates to adults; n = 93) and the predictive performance of these models were evaluated in 335 subjects (preterm neonates to adults). The primary end point was the prediction of GFR from the empirical allometric models and the comparison of the predicted GFR with measured GFR. A prediction error within ±30% was considered acceptable. Overall, the predictive performance of the four models (BDE, ADE, and two maturation models) for the prediction of mean GFR was good across all age groups but the prediction of GFR in individual healthy subjects especially in neonates and infants was erratic and may be clinically unacceptable. PMID:26801317

  2. Prolonged Emergency Department Length of Stay is not Associated with Worse Outcomes in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Pallin, Daniel J.; Liu, Shan; Pearson, Catherine; Chang, Yuchiao; Camargo, Carlos A.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) has been associated with worse patient outcomes, longer inpatient stays, and failure to meet quality measures in several acute medical conditions, but these findings have not been consistently reproduced. We performed this study to explore the hypothesis that longer EDLOS would be associated with worse outcomes in a large cohort of patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH who presented to a single academic referral center from February 2005 to October 2009. The primary exposure variable was EDLOS, and our primary outcome was neurologic status at hospital discharge, measured with a modified Rankin scale (mRS). Secondary outcomes were ICU length of stay, total hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs. Results Our cohort included 616 visits of which 42 were excluded, leaving 574 patient encounters for analysis. Median age was 75 years (IQR 63–82), median EDLOS 5.1 h (IQR 3.7–7.1) and median discharge mRS 4 (IQR 3–6). Thirty percent of the subjects died in-hospital. Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression, controlling for age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, initial hematoma volume, ED occupancy at registration, and the need for intubation or surgical intervention, demonstrated no association between EDLOS and outcome. Furthermore, multivariable analysis revealed no association of increased EDLOS with ICU or hospital length of stay or hospital costs. Conclusion We found no effect of EDLOS on neurologic outcome or resource utilization for patients presenting with spontaneous ICH. PMID:21912953

  3. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Bekker, Evelijne M; de Roos, Marlise; Minova, Anita; Eijken, Erik J E; Kooij, J J Sandra; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kenemans, J Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2008-05-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance. PMID:18308788

  4. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  5. Brief Report: Impaired Temporal Reproduction Performance in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jonathan S.; Poirier, Marie; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2010-01-01

    Although temporal processing has received little attention in the autism literature, there are a number of reasons to suspect that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have particular difficulties judging the passage of time. The present study tested a group of 20 high-functioning adults with ASD and 20 matched comparison participants on…

  6. Performance Review: Postsecondary Adult Vocational Programs. Report Years 1989-90 through 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document describes the number of enrollees, graduates and placements connected with Postsecondary Adult Vocational Education (PSAV) programs at Miami-Dade Community College, and in the Florida Community College System. Data for Miami-Dade relate mostly to the 1994-95 through 1997-98 timeframe, while Florida system data span 1989-90 through…

  7. The Northeast Texas Adult Education Rural Workplace Literacy Program. Annual Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sue; Burns, Kathryn; Bowers, Jana; Pruitt, Jeanni; Pate, Sally

    The Northeast Texas Adult Education Rural Education Workplace Literacy Program, which is a partnership between Northeast Texas Community College and area businesses, offers workplace literacy instruction designed around job-specific basic skills. Training is offered in the following: applied workplace technology; applied math skills; measurements…

  8. The Adult Learner and Performance in Introductory Economics, a Personalized System of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    A study to determine the effectiveness of the personalized system of instruction format used in the introductory economics course at Empire State College is reported. Also addressed are the ability of adult students in the personalized system to learn as much as students in conventional settings, and the explaining and predicting of adult…

  9. A Comparison of Spelling Performance across Young Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Gregg, Noel; McLain, Lisa; Bellair, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed 2,056 spelling errors produced by 130 young adults (65 with dyslexia, 65 typically achieving), which came from two sources: a standardized spelling test and an impromptu essay-writing task. Students with dyslexia exhibited higher spelling error rates across both tasks. To characterize the inaccurate spelling…

  10. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  11. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  12. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata develop in brood cells constructed in cavities by adult females. Pre-pupal bees diapause over winter and resume development as temperatures (Ta) increase in spring. While many insects are tolerant of suboptimal Ta in their overwintering stages, insects that initiate active develo...

  13. Chronic Bronchitis Is Associated With Worse Symptoms and Quality of Life Than Chronic Airflow Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Paula M.; Petersen, Hans; Washko, George R.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Kim, Victor; Sood, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD includes the chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema phenotypes. Although it is generally assumed that emphysema or chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) is associated with worse quality of life (QOL) than is CB, this assumption has not been tested. METHODS: The current study’s analyses from the Lovelace Smokers’ Cohort (LSC) were validated in the COPD Gene Cohort (COPDGene). CB without CAO (CB only) was defined as self-reported cough productive of phlegm for ≥ 3 mo/y for 2 consecutive years and postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ 70%. CAO without CB (CAO only) was defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% with no evidence of CB. QOL outcomes were obtained from the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. A priori covariates included age, sex, pack-years of smoking, current smoking, and FEV1. RESULTS: Smokers with CB without CAO (LSC = 341; COPDGene = 523) were younger and had a greater BMI and less smoking exposure than did those with CAO only (LSC = 302; COPDGene = 2,208). Compared with the latter group, QOL scores were worse for those with CB only. Despite similar SGRQ Activity and SF-36 Role Physical and Physical Functioning, SGRQ Symptoms and Impact scores and SF-36 emotional and social measures were worse in the CB-only group, in both cohorts. After adjustment for covariates, the CB-only group remained a significant predictor for “worse” symptoms and emotional and social measures. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this analysis is the first to suggest that among subjects with COPD, those with CB only present worse QOL symptoms and mental well-being than do those with CAO only. PMID:25741880

  14. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years) were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25). Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45) had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55) had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92) and severe (score 31–62). There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01) and moderate (P=0.01) cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural damage mechanism. Conclusion This study found significant associations among trace elements, anti-GADAs, and cognitive function in older adults. The homeostatic balance of trace elements should be recommended among older adults for better cognitive

  15. Quality of Life in Adults with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melinda Y.; Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; Coleman, Anne L.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess relative quality of life in patients with strabismus. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was performed in 42 strabismic adults over the age of 50 years at a single institution. Subscale scores were compared with those of patients with other ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, cataract, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, and low vision. Results Median visual acuity was 20/20 (range 20/12.5 to 20/50), and 34 patients (81%) reported diplopia. Strabismic patients performed the same or worse on nearly all vision-related subscales than did patients with diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, and CMV retinitis. Additionally, strabismic patients reported significantly worse ocular pain than all comparison groups before any surgery was performed. Conclusions Strabismus impacts quality of life through both functional and psychosocial factors. Physicians treating strabismic patients should recognize these quality of life issues and address them accordingly. PMID:25498355

  16. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  17. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone. PMID:25958946

  18. Range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance in older adults with normal, pronated, and supinated feet

    PubMed Central

    Justine, Maria; Ruzali, Dhiya; Hazidin, Ezzaty; Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli; Manaf, Haidzir

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [−1 to −4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity. PMID:27134384

  19. Sleep Supports Memory of Odors in Adults but Not in Children

    PubMed Central

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Lotzkat, Kristin; Bauhofer, Eva; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative memory in children and adults. However, it is unclear whether sleep improves odor memory in children as well as adults. Thirty healthy children (mean age of 10.6, ranging from 8–12 yrs.) and 30 healthy adults (mean age of 25.4, ranging from 20–30 yrs.) participated in an incidental odor recognition paradigm. While learning of 10 target odorants took place in the evening and retrieval (10 target and 10 distractor odorants) the next morning in the sleep groups (adults: n = 15, children: n = 15), the time schedule was vice versa in the wake groups (n = 15 each). During encoding, adults rated odors as being more familiar. After the retention interval, adult participants of the sleep group recognized odors better than adults in the wake group. While children in the wake group showed memory performance comparable to the adult wake group, the children sleep group performed worse than adult and children wake groups. Correlations between memory performance and familiarity ratings during encoding indicate that pre-experiences might be critical in determining whether sleep improves or worsens memory consolidation. PMID:26406604

  20. Sleep Supports Memory of Odors in Adults but Not in Children.

    PubMed

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Lotzkat, Kristin; Bauhofer, Eva; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2015-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative memory in children and adults. However, it is unclear whether sleep improves odor memory in children as well as adults. Thirty healthy children (mean age of 10.6, ranging from 8-12 yrs.) and 30 healthy adults (mean age of 25.4, ranging from 20-30 yrs.) participated in an incidental odor recognition paradigm. While learning of 10 target odorants took place in the evening and retrieval (10 target and 10 distractor odorants) the next morning in the sleep groups (adults: n = 15, children: n = 15), the time schedule was vice versa in the wake groups (n = 15 each). During encoding, adults rated odors as being more familiar. After the retention interval, adult participants of the sleep group recognized odors better than adults in the wake group. While children in the wake group showed memory performance comparable to the adult wake group, the children sleep group performed worse than adult and children wake groups. Correlations between memory performance and familiarity ratings during encoding indicate that pre-experiences might be critical in determining whether sleep improves or worsens memory consolidation. PMID:26406604

  1. Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 is positively related to spatial performance but unrelated to hippocampal volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Stening, Eva; Persson, Jonas; Eriksson, Elias; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2016-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele is known to be a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been linked to especially episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy in both healthy and demented elderly populations. In young adults, ϵ4 carriers have shown better performance in episodic memory compared to non-carriers. Spatial memory, however, has not been thoroughly assessed in relation to APOE in spite of its dependence on the hippocampus. In this study, we assessed the effect of APOE genotype on a variety of spatial and episodic memory tasks as well as hippocampal volume assessed through manual tracing in a sample of young adults (N=123). We also assessed whether potential effects were modulated by sex. The presence of one or more ϵ4 alleles had positive effects on spatial function and memory and object location memory, but no effect on word recognition. Men were superior to women in spatial function and memory but there were no sex differences in the other tasks. In spite of APOE ϵ4 carriers having superior performance in several memory tasks, no difference was found as a function of APOE genotype in hippocampal volume. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that APOE ϵ4 has a positive effect on spatial ability in young adults. PMID:26581118

  2. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women. PMID:26473521

  3. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  4. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  5. Performance of the measures of processes of care for adults and service providers in rehabilitation settings

    PubMed Central

    Bamm, Elena L; Rosenbaum, Peter; Wilkins, Seanne; Stratford, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, client-centered care has been embraced as a new philosophy of care by many organizations around the world. Clinicians and researchers have identified the need for valid and reliable outcome measures that are easy to use to evaluate success of implementation of new concepts. Objective The current study was developed to complete adaptation and field testing of the companion patient-reported measures of processes of care for adults (MPOC-A) and the service provider self-reflection measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). Design A validation study Settings In-patient rehabilitation facilities. Main outcome measures MPOC-A and measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). Results Three hundred and eighty-four health care providers, 61 patients, and 16 family members completed the questionnaires. Good to excellent internal consistency (0.71–0.88 for health care professionals, 0.82–0.90 for patients, and 0.87–0.94 for family members), as well as moderate to good correlations between domains (0.40–0.78 for health care professionals and 0.52–0.84 for clients) supported internal reliability of the tools. Exploratory factor analysis of the MPOC-SP(A) responses supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Conclusion MPOC-A and MPOC-SP(A) are valid and reliable tools to assess patient and service-provider accounts, respectively, of the extent to which they experience, or are able to provide, client-centered service. Research should now be undertaken to explore in more detail the relationships between client experience and provider reports of their own behavior. PMID:26089710

  6. Association of the Frontal QRS-T Angle with Adverse Cardiac Remodeling, Impaired Left and Right Ventricular Function, and Worse Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Burke, Michael A.; Freed, Benjamin H.; Lang, Roberto M.; Martinez, Eva E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2013-01-01

    Background No prior studies have investigated the association of QRS-T angle with cardiac structure/function and outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We hypothesized that increased frontal QRS-T angle is associated with worse cardiac function/remodeling and adverse outcomes in HFpEF. Methods We prospectively studied 376 patients with HFpEF (i.e. symptomatic HF with left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction >50%.) The frontal QRS-T angle was calculated from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Patients were divided into tertiles by frontal QRS-T angle (0–26°, 27–75°, and 76–179°), and clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data were compared among groups. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine the association between QRS-T angle and outcomes. Results The mean age of the cohort was 64±13 years, 65% were women, and the mean QRS-T angle was 61±51°. Patients with increased QRS-T angle were older, had a lower body-mass index, more frequently had coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and atrial fibrillation, and had higher B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (P<0.05 for all comparisons). After multivariable adjustment, patients with increased QRS-T angle had higher BNP levels in addition to higher LV mass index, worse diastolic function parameters, more right ventricular (RV) remodeling, and worse RV systolic function (P<0.05 for all associations). QRS-T angle was independently associated with the composite outcome of cardiovascular hospitalization or death on multivariable analysis, even after adjusting for BNP (HR for the highest QRS-T tertile = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4; P=0.008). Conclusions In HFpEF, increased QRS-T angle is independently associated with worse left and right ventricular function/remodeling and adverse outcomes. PMID:24075945

  7. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts. PMID:27138951

  8. Postlingual Adult Performance in Noise with HiRes 120 and ClearVoice Low, Medium and High

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Brenner, Christine; Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study’s objectives were to evaluate speech recognition in multiple listening conditions using several noise types with HiRes 120 and ClearVoice (Low, Medium, High) and to determine which ClearVoice program was most beneficial for everyday use. Methods Fifteen postlingual adults attended four sessions; speech recognition was assessed at sessions one and three with HiRes 120 and at sessions two and four with all ClearVoice programs. Test measures included sentences presented in restaurant noise (R-SPACE™), in speech-spectrum noise, in four- and eight-talker babble, and connected discourse presented in 12-talker babble. Participants completed a questionnaire comparing ClearVoice programs. Results Significant group differences in performance between HiRes 120 and ClearVoice were present only in the R-SPACE™; performance was better with ClearVoice High than HiRes 120. Among ClearVoice programs, no significant group differences were present for any measure. Individual results revealed most participants performed better in the R-SPACE™ with ClearVoice than HiRes 120. For other measures, significant individual differences between HiRes 120 and ClearVoice were not prevalent. Individual results among ClearVoice programs differed and overall preferences varied. Questionnaire data indicated increased understanding with High and Medium in certain environments. Discussion R-SPACE™ and questionnaire results indicated an advantage for ClearVoice High and Medium. Individual test and preference data showed mixed results between ClearVoice programs making global recommendations difficult; however, results suggest providing ClearVoice High and Medium and HiRes 120 as processor options for adults willing to change settings. For adults unwilling or unable to change settings, ClearVoice Medium is a practical choice for daily listening. PMID:23683298

  9. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment.

  10. Higher body mass index in older adults is associated with lower gray matter volume: implications for memory performance.

    PubMed

    Kharabian Masouleh, Shahrzad; Arélin, Katrin; Horstmann, Annette; Lampe, Leonie; Kipping, Judy A; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Schroeter, Matthias L; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Witte, Anja Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Midlife obesity has been associated with increased dementia risk, yet reports on brain structure and function are mixed. We therefore assessed the effects of body mass index (BMI) on gray matter volume (GMV) and cognition in a well-characterized sample of community-dwelled older adults. GMV was measured using 3T-neuroimaging in 617 participants (258 women, 60-80 years, BMI 17-41 kg/m(2)). In addition, cognitive performance and various confounders including hypertension, diabetes, and apolipoprotein E genotype were assessed. A higher BMI correlated significantly with lower GMV in multiple brain regions, including (pre)frontal, temporal, insular and occipital cortex, thalamus, putamen, amygdala, and cerebellum, even after adjusting for confounders. In addition, lower GMV in prefrontal and thalamic areas partially mediated negative effects of (1) higher BMI and (2) higher age on memory performance. We here showed that a higher BMI in older adults is associated with widespread gray matter alterations, irrespective of obesity-related comorbidities and other confounders. Our results further indicate that a higher BMI induces structural alterations that translate into subtle impairments in memory performance in aging. PMID:26973099

  11. Performance of Dry Powder Inhalers with Single Dosed Capsules in Preschool Children and Adults Using Improved Upper Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Lindert, Sandra; Below, Antje; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary administration of pharmaceutical aerosols to patients is affected by age-dependent variations in the anatomy of the upper airways and the inhalation pattern. Considering this aspect, different upper airway models, representing the geometries of adults and preschool children, and a conventional induction port according to the European Pharmacopeia were used for in vitro testing of dry powder inhalers with single dosed capsules (Cyclohaler®, Handihaler® and Spinhaler®). Deposition measurements were performed using steady flow rates of 30 and 60 L/min for the Handihaler®/Spinhaler® and 30, 60 and 75 L/min for the Cyclohaler®. The inhalation volume was set at 1 L. For the Cyclohaler®, the in vitro testing was supplemented by a pediatric inhalation profile. Slight differences of pulmonary deposition between the idealized adult (11%–15%) and pediatric (9%–11%) upper airway model were observed for the Cyclohaler®. The applied pediatric inhalation profile resulted in a reduction of pulmonary deposition by 5% compared to steady conditions and indicated the influence of the inhalation pattern on the amount of pulmonary deposited particles. The comparison of two pediatric upper airway models showed no differences. The performance of the Handihaler® was similar to the Cyclohaler®. The Spinhaler® showed an insufficient performance and limited reproducibility in our investigations. PMID:24514766

  12. Allocation of Attentional Resources toward a Secondary Cognitive Task Leads to Compromised Ankle Proprioceptive Performance in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yuki; Iimura, Naoyuki; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether increased attentional demands influence the assessment of ankle joint proprioceptive ability in young adults. We used a dual-task condition, in which participants performed an ankle ipsilateral position-matching task with and without a secondary serial auditory subtraction task during target angle encoding. Two experiments were performed with two different cohorts: one in which the auditory subtraction task was easy (experiment 1a) and one in which it was difficult (experiment 1b). The results showed that, compared with the single-task condition, participants had higher absolute error under dual-task conditions in experiment 1b. The reduction in position-matching accuracy with an attentionally demanding cognitive task suggests that allocation of attentional resources toward a difficult second task can lead to compromised ankle proprioceptive performance. Therefore, these findings indicate that the difficulty level of the cognitive task might be the possible critical factor that decreased accuracy of position-matching task. We conclude that increased attentional demand with difficult cognitive task does influence the assessment of ankle joint proprioceptive ability in young adults when measured using an ankle ipsilateral position-matching task. PMID:24523966

  13. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030773

  14. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.; Rose, Dorian K.; Ring, Sarah A.; Porges, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here, we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL). Materials and methods: Sixteen older men and women (age: 77.2 ± 5.6 years) with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task) and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task), dim lighting (dim task), carrying a tray (carry task), negotiating obstacles (obstacles task) and wearing a weighted vest (vest task). Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat. Results: Prefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks. Discussion: These findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults. PMID

  15. Simulation of Aphasic Naming Performance in Non-Brain-Damaged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Drton, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    Discussion abounds in the literature as to whether aphasia is a deficit of linguistic competence or linguistic performance and, if it is a performance deficit, what are its precise mechanisms. Considerable evidence suggests that alteration of nonlinguistic factors can affect language performance in aphasia, a finding that raises questions about…

  16. Genetic Variation Associated with Differential Educational Attainment in Adults Has Anticipated Associations with School Performance in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mary E.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10−10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10−04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  17. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  18. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  19. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Adult Education Program Performance Report. Fiscal Year 1994. Under the Four-Year Plan for the Administration of Adult Education, P.L. 102-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Director for Adult Education.

    Guam Community College provides basic skills education for adults who have less than high school education. In 1994, these services were provided at 11 sites by 20 administrative and support personnel, 70 teachers, and 6 counselors (88 of these work part time). In that year, more than 2,000 adults enrolled in programs to enhance their skills and…

  1. Adult Education Program Performance Report. Program Year 1996. Under the Four-Year Plan for the Administration of Adult Education P.L. 102-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Director for Adult Education.

    The Guam State Plan for Adult Education, as implemented by Guam Community College, had five goals: provide a comprehensive adult education instructional program that is flexible and responsive to employment needs; increase enrollment and expand services for special groups; establish continuous needs assessment of targeted educationally…

  2. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner. PMID:23880060

  3. Recognition and Sex Categorization of Adults' and Children's Faces: Examining Performance in the Absence of Sex-Stereotyped Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Heather A.; Barett, Susan E.; Spence, Melanie J.; O'Toole, Alice J.; Cheng, Yi D.; Brooke, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Investigated 7-year-olds', 9-year-olds', and adults' ability to classify children's and adults' faces by sex using only biological based internal facial structure. Found that participants categorized adult faces by sex at accuracy levels varying from just above chance (7-year-olds) to nearly perfect (adults). All groups were less accurate for…

  4. Cognitive Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Across the Healthy Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Loc, Kiet; Colt, Alexandra; Van Liew, Charles; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to compare age-related performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) across the adult lifespan in an asymptomatic, presumably normal, sample. Background The MMSE is the most commonly used brief cognitive screening test; however, the MoCA may be better at detecting early cognitive dysfunction. Methods We gave the MMSE and MoCA to 254 community-dwelling participants ranging in age from 20 to 89, stratified by decade and we compared their scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results For the total sample, the MMSE and MoCA differed significantly in total scores as well as in visuospatial, language, and memory domains (for all of these scores, P <0.001). Mean MMSE scores declined only modestly across the decades; mean MoCA scores declined more dramatically. There were no consistent domain differences between the MMSE and MoCA during the 3rd and 4th decades; however, significant differences in memory (P <0.05) and language (P <0.001) emerged in the 5th through 9th decades. Conclusions We conclude that the MoCA may be a better detector of age-related decrements in cognitive performance than the MMSE, as shown in this community-dwelling adult population. PMID:23538566

  5. Self-reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Cheng, Grand H; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for optimal cognitive functioning across the lifespan. Among older adults (≥55 years), self-reported short and long sleep durations have been repeatedly, albeit inconsistently, reported to elevate the risk for poor cognitive function. This meta-analytic review quantitatively summarizes the risk for poorer cognitive function among short and long sleepers in older adults. Eligible publications were searched online and manually. A total of 35 independent samples (N = 97,264) from 11 cross-sectional and seven prospective cohort studies were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using random-effects models. Self-reported short and long sleep increased the odds for poor cognitive function by 1.40 (CI = 1.27-1.56) and 1.58 times (CI = 1.43-1.74), respectively. Effect sizes varied across studies and may have been moderated by both study type (cross-sectional and prospective) and cognitive domain assessed. For cross-sectional studies, extreme sleep durations were significantly associated with poorer multiple-domain performance, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory capacity. Prospective cohort studies revealed the significant long-term impact of short and long sleep on multiple-domain performance only. These findings establish self-reported extreme sleep duration as a risk factor for cognitive aging. PMID:26847980

  6. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  7. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  8. Clinical Applications of Continuous Performance Tests: Measuring Attention and Impulsive Responding in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    This handbook examines the similarities and differences in continuous performance test (CPT) techniques and their research literature, with thorough reviews of the four major CPTs in use today and overviews of their applications. The chapters are: (1) "Neurobiology of Attention and Executive Control"; (2) "Continuous Performance Test Paradigms and…

  9. "Keep on Truckin'" Literacy Program [for Adults]: Performance Report; Teacher's Handbook; Final External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

    This document is composed of a performance report, a teacher's handbook, and an evaluation report of a workplace literacy program to prepare drivers for the Commercial Drivers' License examination. The performance report addresses actual accomplishments of five objectives. It identifies the number and characteristics of project participants who…

  10. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49%) of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010) in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3%) and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy) (> 1.9) occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49%) in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle. PMID:22289165

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  12. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance. PMID:25642826

  13. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed. PMID:25255784

  14. Neurologic effects of solvents in older adults. (UW retired worker study). Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.E.

    1993-11-12

    The possibility that previous occupational exposure to solvents might be associated with clinically significant neurological dysfunction in older adults was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Subjects included 67 painters, 22 aerospace painters and fuel cell sealers, and a comparison group of 126 carpenters. All subjects had retired from regular employment at least 1 year prior to the study. As measured by semiquantitative exposure index, the cumulative histories of lifetime occupational solvent exposure were on the average comparable in the two exposed study groups, painters and aerospace workers. The carpenters differed from the other groups in solvent exposure by several orders of magnitude. The painters had a significantly higher history of consuming alcoholic beverages than did the other two study groups. The painters had a significantly higher score on the Beck Depression Inventory, a measure of current depressive symptoms. The painters reported significantly more general neurologic symptoms than did the other two groups. The aerospace workers showed much greater evidence of possible adverse effects from former solvent exposure on current neuropsychological function than did the painters when determined by reasoning and memory tests, memory visual motor speed and motor tests. No evidence of persistent effects on liver or renal excretory function was seen in solvent exposed subjects.

  15. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  16. Serum IL-10 Predicts Worse Outcome in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pin; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background IL–10 is an important immunosuppressive cytokine which is frequently elevated in tumor microenvironment. Some studies have reported that overexpression of serous IL–10 is correlated with worse outcome in patients with malignant tumor. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of serous IL–10 expression in cancer patients. Methods We searched PubMed and EBSCO for studies in evaluating the association of IL–10 expression—in serum and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Overall survival (OS) was the primary prognostic indicator and disease-free survival (DFS) was the secondary indicator. Extracted data were computed into odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value for survival at 1, 3 and 5 years. Pooled data were weighted using the Mantel–Haenszel Fixed-effect model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1788 patients with cancer from 21 published studies were incorporated into this meta-analysis. High level of serum IL–10 was significantly associated with worse OS at 1-year (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.81 to 4.87, P < 0.00001), 3-year (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.53 to 4.39, P < 0.0001) and 5-year (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.90 to 4.10, P < 0.0001) of cancer. Subgroup analysis showed that the correlation between serous IL–10 expression and outcome of patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies are consistent. The association of IL–10 with worse DFS at 1-year (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.40 to 7.94, P = 0.006) and 2-year (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.79 to 8.53, P = 0.0006) was also identified. Conclusions High expression of serous IL–10 leads to an adverse survival in most types of cancer. IL–10 is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction and targeting IL–10 treatment options for both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. PMID:26440936

  17. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased. PMID:12191837

  18. Performance of Five Food Regimes on Anopheles gambiae Senso Stricto Larval Rearing to Adult Emergence in Insectary

    PubMed Central

    Kivuyo, Happiness S.; Mbazi, Paschal H.; Kisika, Denis S.; Munga, Stephen; Rumisha, Susan F.; Urasa, Felister M.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rearing of Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquitoes in insectary with quality cheap food sources is of paramount importance for better and healthy colony. This study evaluated larval survival and the development rate of aquatic stages of An.gambiae s.s under five food regimes; tetramin fish food (a standard insectary larval food), maize pollen, Cerelac, green filamentous algae and dry powdered filamentous algae. Methods Food materials were obtained from different sources, cerelac was made locally, fresh filamentous algae was taken from water bodies, dry filamentous algae was ground to powder after it was dried under shade, and maize pollen was collected from the flowering maize. Each food source type was used to feed three densities of mosquito larvae 20, 60, and 100 in six replicates each. Larval age structure was monitored daily until pupation and subsequently adult emergence. Tetramin was used and taken as a standard food source for An. gambiae s.s. larvae feeding in Insectary. Results Larval survivorship using maize pollen and Tetramin fish food was statistically insignificant (P = 0.564). However when compared to other food regime survivorship was significantly different with Tetramin fish food performing better than cerelac (P<0.001), dry algae (P<0.001) and fresh algae (P<0.001). The pupation rates and sex ratio of emerging adults had significant differences among the food regimes. Conclusion The findings of this study have shown that maize pollen had closely similar nutritional value for larval survivorship to tetramin fish food, a standard larvae food in insectary. Further studies are required to assess the effect of food sources on various life traits of the emerged adults. PMID:25340408

  19. Cooperation with both synergistic and local interactions can be worse than each alone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous ranging from multicellular organisms to human societies. Population structures indicating individuals' limited interaction ranges are crucial to understand this issue. But it remains unknown to what extend multiple interactions involving nonlinearity in payoff influence the cooperation in structured populations. Here we show a rule, which determines the emergence and stabilization of cooperation, under multiple discounted, linear, and synergistic interactions. The rule is validated by simulations in homogenous and heterogenous structured populations. We find that the more neighbours there are the harder for cooperation to evolve for multiple interactions with linearity and discounting. For synergistic scenario, however, distinct from its pairwise counterpart, moderate number of neighbours can be the worst, indicating that synergistic interactions work with strangers but not with neighbours. Our results suggest that the combination of different factors which promotes cooperation alone can be worse than that with every single factor. PMID:24985887

  20. Association between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Neuropsychological Performance in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Terpening, Zoe; Lewis, Simon J G; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ron R; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing in middle-age and older adults has been shown to be linked to a range of neuropsychological deficits, but the extent to which these relationships are evident in older people 'at risk' of developing dementia in unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine whether changes in sleep-disordered breathing and sleep fragmentation during nocturnal sleep were related to neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-six patients with MCI (mean age = 66.1 y, sd = 8.4) and 40 age-matched healthy controls (mean age = 63.5 y, sd = 8.9) underwent psychiatric, medical, and neuropsychological assessment, in addition to overnight polysomnography and self-report questionnaires. Measures of hypoxemia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep quality were derived including the apnoea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, percentage of total sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation, arousal index, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset. Patients with MCI did not differ from healthy aging on any measure of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep fragmentation. In MCI, processing speed was negatively correlated with greater sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation and a higher apnoea-hypopnea index. In contrast, in the healthy aging, processing speed was negatively correlated with an increased oxygen desaturation index and the arousal index. Sleep-disordered breathing is evident in both healthy aging and MCI with associated decrements in processing speed. Future research is needed to determine the unique and synergistic effects of these differential associations, their potential to inform disease trajectory, and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:25720400

  1. “My quality of life is worse compared to my earlier life”

    PubMed Central

    Groven, Karen Synne; Råheim, Målfrid; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss surgery is commonly regarded as improving individuals' health and social life, and resulting in a happier and more active life for those defined as “morbidly obese.” However, some researchers have started to doubt whether these positive outcomes apply to everyone and this article explores this doubt further. More specifically, we focus on the experiences of women whose life situation became worse after weight loss surgery. The material draws on qualitative interviews of five Norwegian women undergoing the irreversible gastric bypass procedure. Our findings illustrate that the women lived seemingly “normal” lives prior to the surgery with few signs of illness. Worries about future illness as well as social stigma because of their body shape motivated them to undergo weight loss surgery. After the surgery, however, their situation was profoundly changed and their lives were dramatically restricted. Chronic pain, loss of energy, as well as feelings of shame and failure for having these problems not only limited their social lives but it also made them less physically active. In addition, they had difficulties taking care of their children, and functioning satisfactorily at work. Accordingly, the women gradually felt more “disabled,” regarding themselves as “outsiders” whose problems needed to be kept private. The results highlight some “subtle” consequences of weight loss surgery, particularly the shame and stigma experienced by those whose lives became dramatically worse. Living in a society where negative impacts of weight loss surgery are more or less neglected in research as well as in the public debate the women seemed to suffer in silence. Their problems were clearly present and felt in the body but not talked about and shared with others. PMID:21103070

  2. Variation in lung function is associated with worse clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Marostica, Paulo José Cauduro; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the variation in lung function over one year is associated with worse clinical outcomes, as well as with a decline in lung function in the following years, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving CF patients (4-19 years of age), evaluated over a three-year period. We evaluated demographic characteristics, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, antibiotic use, hospitalization, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lung function. The inclusion criterion was having undergone pulmonary function testing at least three times in the first year and at least once in each of the next two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 35 CF patients. The variation in FEV1 in the first year (ΔFEV1) was greater among those who, in the third year, showed reduced FEV1, had a below-average 6MWD, or were hospitalized than among those with normal FEV1, normal 6MWD, or no hospital admissions, in that same year (p < 0.05), although no such difference was found for antibiotic use in the third year. Subjects showing a ΔFEV1 ≥ 10% also showed a greater decline in FEV1 over the two subsequent years (p = 0.04). The ΔFEV1 also showed an inverse correlation with absolute FEV1 in the third year (r = −0.340, p = 0.04) and with the rate of FEV1 decline (r = −0.52, p = 0.001). Linear regression identified ΔFEV1 as a predictor of FEV1 decline (coefficient of determination, 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in lung function over one year seems to be associated with a higher subsequent rate of FEV1 decline and worse clinical outcomes in CF patients. Short-term ΔFEV1 might prove useful as a predictor of CF progression in clinical practice. PMID:26785959

  3. Warmer outdoor temperature is associated with worse cognitive status in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sumowski, James F.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have more clinical exacerbations and T2 lesion activity during warmer weather. The current study is the first to investigate whether outdoor temperature is related to cognitive status across patients with MS (cross-sectional analysis), and whether cognitive status fluctuates with changes in outdoor temperature within patients with MS (longitudinal analysis). Methods: For the cross-sectional analysis, 40 patients with MS and 40 healthy control (HC) subjects were recruited throughout the calendar year. Cognitive status (processing speed, memory) and outdoor temperature were recorded for the day of testing. We calculated partial correlations between cognitive status and temperature for patients with MS and HCs, controlling for demographic and disease variables. For the longitudinal analysis, cognitive status and outdoor temperature were recorded at baseline and 6-month follow-up in a separate sample of 45 patients with MS. We calculated the partial correlation between temperature and cognitive status at follow-up, controlling for baseline temperature and cognitive status (i.e., whether temperature changes are related to cognitive changes within patients with MS). Results: Cross-sectionally, warmer temperature was related to worse cognitive status in patients with MS (rp = −0.45, p = 0.006), not in HCs (rp = 0.00, p = 0.984). Longitudinally, increased outdoor temperature from baseline to follow-up was related to a decline in cognitive status within patients with MS (rp = −0.39, p = 0.010). Conclusions: Cognitive status in patients with MS is worse on warmer days, consistent with a previously established link between heat and lesion activity. Our findings have implications for clinical trial planning, treatment, and lifestyle decisions. We discuss cognitive status as a potential marker of quiescent exacerbations. PMID:22402861

  4. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  5. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  6. Working memory performance in young adults is associated to the AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Carrillo-Sánchez, Karol; Gómez-López, Nardhy; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Hernández-Morales, Salvador; Carnevale-Cantoni, Alessandra; Espejel-Núñez, Aurora; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) depends on several neural networks and neurochemical systems. One of them is the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which CB1 receptor (CB1R) is widely distributed all over the brain. The stimulation of CB1R by agonists reduces WM efficiency. The CNR1 human gene (6q14-15) encodes the CB1R. AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 gene has been related to psychiatric disorders, and to procedural learning and attention in healthy subjects. The aim of this exploratory research was to test whether AATn polymorphism of the CNR1 is related to the WM performance, by measuring n-back task. Mexican healthy young adults (n = 94) performed the WM n-back task. One of the most frequent AATn allele in our sample was the AAT12. We formed three groups, as a function of the AATn genotype: AAT ≤ 12/AAT≤12, AAT ≤ 12/AAT > 12 and AAT > 12/AAT > 12, and their accuracy on the n-back task was compared. WM accuracy differed among genotypes (P=0.03): AAT ≤ 12/AAT≤12 group had a higher performance than the AAT > 12/AAT > 12 group (statistical power: 0.65, f(2) = 0.20, P<0.05). These results suggest that the fewer AATn repeats of the CNR1 gene, the better WM performance, and sustain the idea that eCB system participates in the modulation of the human brain network involved in WM. PMID:22944513

  7. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  8. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic/Latino Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…

  9. Acquisition Performance by Mentally Retarded Children and Young Adults on Complex Benchwork Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kevin P.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the capacity of younger handicapped children to learn a benchwork assembly, 18 children (mean age 12.7) were taught a complex worksample, and various acquisition measures were compared with the performance of 60 older subjects on the same task. Only one significant difference was found between all measures of acquisition. (Author/CL)

  10. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  11. Measuring Adult Literacy in Health Care: Performance of the Newest Vital Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Weiss, Barry D.; Davis, Terry C.; Skripkauskas, Silvia; Rodrigue, Christopher; Bass, Pat F., III; Wolf, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare performance of the newest vital sign (NVS) with existing literacy measures. Methods: We administered the NVS and REALM to 129 patients, and NVS and S-TOFHLA to 119 patients all in public clinics. Results: The NVS demonstrated high sensitivity for detecting limited literacy and moderate specificity (area under the receiver…

  12. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  13. A genetic variant in NRP1 is associated with worse response to ranibizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lorés-Motta, Laura; van Asten, Freekje; Muether, Philipp S.; Smailhodzic, Dzenita; Groenewoud, Joannes M.; Omar, Amer; Chen, John; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Fauser, Sascha; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Jong, Eiko K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) gene in treatment response to antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods Four SNPs in the NRP1 gene (rs2229935, rs2247383, rs2070296, and rs2804495) were genotyped in a study cohort of 377 nvAMD patients who received the loading dose of three monthly ranibizumab injections. Treatment response was assessed as the change in visual acuity after three monthly loading injections compared with baseline. Results SNP rs2070296 was associated with change in visual acuity after 3 months of treatment. Patients carrying the GA or AA genotypes performed significantly worse than individuals carrying the GG genotype (P=0.01). A cumulative effect of rs2070296 in the NRP1 gene and rs4576072 located in the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 or KDR) gene, previously associated with treatment response, was observed. Patients carrying two risk alleles performed significantly worse than patients carrying zero or one risk allele (P=0.03), and patients with more than two risk alleles responded even worse to the therapy (P=3×10–3). The combined effect of these two SNPs on the response was also seen after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that genetic variation in NRP1, a key molecule in VEGFA-driven neovascularization, influences treatment response to ranibizumab in nvAMD patients. The results of this study may be used to generate prediction models for treatment response, which in the future may help tailor medical care to individual needs. PMID:26426212

  14. Patterns of Performance on the Modified Cued Recall Test in Spanish Adults With Down Syndrome With and Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Benejam, Bessy; Fortea, Juan; Molina-López, Rafael; Videla, Sebastià

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of memory decline in people with intellectual disability (ID) is more difficult than in the general population, due to a lack of appropriate instruments and to preexisting cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to describe performance of healthy adults with Down syndrome (healthy-DS; prospectively cohort) on a Spanish version of the modified Cued Recall Test (mCRT). We also recruited retrospectively a cohort of DS subjects with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DS-DAT). Healthy-DS obtained higher scores on free recall and total score than DS-DAT. Age was the main factor associated with decreasing mCRT scores. The mCRT was useful in DS subjects with ID at the upper end of the spectrum or ID in the middle range of the spectrum, and discriminated well between DS subjects with and without DAT. PMID:26505869

  15. Machine learning identification of EEG features predicting working memory performance in schizophrenia and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jason K.; Bi, Jinbo; Jiang, Ruhua; Kenney, Joshua G.; Chen, Chi-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background With millisecond-level resolution, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording provides a sensitive tool to assay neural dynamics of human cognition. However, selection of EEG features used to answer experimental questions is typically determined a priori. The utility of machine learning was investigated as a computational framework for extracting the most relevant features from EEG data empirically. Methods Schizophrenia (SZ; n = 40) and healthy community (HC; n = 12) subjects completed a Sternberg Working Memory Task (SWMT) during EEG recording. EEG was analyzed to extract 5 frequency components (theta1, theta2, alpha, beta, gamma) at 4 processing stages (baseline, encoding, retention, retrieval) and 3 scalp sites (frontal-Fz, central-Cz, occipital-Oz) separately for correctly and incorrectly answered trials. The 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) method was used to build EEG classifiers of SWMT trial accuracy (correct vs. incorrect; Model 1) and diagnosis (HC vs. SZ; Model 2). External validity of SVM models was examined in relation to neuropsychological test performance and diagnostic classification using conventional regression-based analyses. Results SWMT performance was significantly reduced in SZ (p < .001). Model 1 correctly classified trial accuracy at 84 % in HC, and at 74 % when cross-validated in SZ data. Frontal gamma at encoding and central theta at retention provided highest weightings, accounting for 76 % of variance in SWMT scores and 42 % variance in neuropsychological test performance across samples. Model 2 identified frontal theta at baseline and frontal alpha during retrieval as primary classifiers of diagnosis, providing 87 % classification accuracy as a discriminant function. Conclusions EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma’s role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. Tests of model performance and cross

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Physical and Cognitive Performance among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Morris, John C.; Galvin, James E.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217); physical only (n = 169); cognitive only (n = 158), or both (n = 220)] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations). Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills). We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, p<0.001), with baseline physical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294). In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk. PMID:25875165

  17. Influence of Planning Time and First-Move Strategy on Tower of Hanoi Problem-Solving Performance of Mentally Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In two experiments using a computer-interfaced problem, planning time of 50 retarded young adults was as long as or longer than that of higher performing nonretarded children. In neither group was there a reliable correlation between planning time and performance. There were group differences in preferred strategies, possibly associated with…

  18. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference. PMID:23052601

  19. More than a Servant: Self-Reported Willingness of Younger and Older Adults to having a Robot perform Interactive and Critical Tasks in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Ezer, Neta; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many companies are developing robots for the home, including robots specifically for older adults. There is little understanding, however, about the types and characteristics of tasks that younger and older individuals would be willing to let a robot perform. In a mailed questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate their willingness to have a robot perform each of 15 robot tasks that required different levels of interaction with the human owner and different levels of task criticality. The responses of 117 older adults (aged 65–86) and 60 younger adults (aged 18–25) were analyzed. The results indicated that respondents of both groups were more willing to have robots perform infrequent, albeit important, tasks that required little interaction with the human compared to service-type tasks with more required interaction; they were least willing to have a robot perform non-critical tasks requiring extensive interaction between robot and human. Older adults reported more willingness than younger adults in having a robot perform critical tasks in their home. The results suggest that both younger and older individuals are more interested in the benefits that a robot can provide than in their interactive abilities. PMID:25349553

  20. Effects of underwater treadmill training on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Sandra L.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the effects of underwater treadmill training (UTT) on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Design Pre-test and post-test design. Setting Exercise physiology laboratory. Participants Adult volunteers with iSCI (n = 11). Intervention Participants completed 8 weeks (3 × /week) of UTT. Each training session consisted of three walks performed at a personalized speed, with adequate rest between walks. Body weight support remained constant for each participant and ranged from 29 to 47% of land body weight. Increases in walking speed and duration were staggered and imposed in a gradual and systematic fashion. Outcome measures Lower-extremity strength (LS), balance (BL), preferred and rapid walking speeds (PWS and RWS), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and daily step activity (DSA). Results Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in LS (13.1 ± 3.1 to 20.6 ± 5.1 N·kg−1), BL (23 ± 11 to 32 ± 13), PWS (0.41 ± 0.27 to 0.55 ± 0.28 m·s−1), RWS (0.44 ± 0.31 to 0.71 ± 0.40 m·s−1), 6MWD (97 ± 80 to 177 ± 122 m), and DSA (593 ± 782 to 1310 ± 1258 steps) following UTT. Conclusion Physical function and walking ability were improved in adults with iSCI following a structured program of UTT featuring individualized levels of body weight support and carefully staged increases in speed and duration. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential of UTT in persons with physical disabilities and diseases that would benefit from weight-supported exercise. PMID:24969269

  1. Social Perception and WAIS-IV Performance in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…

  2. Virtual Simulation in Leadership Development Training: The Impact of Learning Styles and Conflict Management Tactics on Adult Learner Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Adult learners can develop leadership skills and competencies such as conflict management and negotiation skills. Virtual simulations are among the emerging new technologies available to adult educators and trainers to help adults develop various leadership competencies. This study explored the impact of conflict management tactics as well as…

  3. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K; Pinkston, James B; Flores, Jose M; Friedmann, David R; Jones, Callie B; Roland, J Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting University cochlear implant center. Participants The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years) cochlear implant recipients (n=7). Measurements A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7) after cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline) between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70%) of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25%) subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%), post-CI performance improved compared to a patient’s own performance before implantation. Of these, nine (45%) showed moderate or pronounced improvement. Overall, improvements were largest in the verbal and memory domains. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant relationship between speech perception and cognitive function over time. Five neurocognitive tests were predictive of improved speech perception following implantation. Conclusion Comprehensive neurocognitive testing of elderly women demonstrated areas of improvement in cognitive function and auditory

  4. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  5. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

    2010-03-01

    Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly. PMID:20191258

  6. Minimal effects of visual memory training on auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Oba, Sandra I; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users' speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether posttraining gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory, and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory, were assessed in 10 CI users before, during, and after training with a nonauditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Posttraining gains were much smaller with the nonauditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that posttraining gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception. PMID:23516087

  7. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  8. Factors affecting numerical typing performance of young adults in a hear-and-type task.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jhe; Wu, Changxu

    2011-12-01

    Numerical hear-and-type tasks, i.e. making immediate keypresses according to verbally presented numbers, possess both practical and theoretical importance but received relatively little attention. Effects of speech rates (500-ms vs. 1000-ms interval), urgency (urgent condition: performance-based monetary incentive plus time limit vs. non-urgent condition: flat-rate compensation) and finger strategies (single vs. multi-finger typing) on typing speed and accuracy were investigated. Fast speech rate and multi-finger typing produced more errors and slower typing speed. Urgency improved typing speed but decreased accuracy. Errors were almost doubled under urgent condition, while urgency effect on speed was similar to that of speech rate. Examination of error patterns did not fully support Salthouse's (1986) speculations about error-making mechanisms. The results implied that urgency could play a more important role in error-making than task demands. Numerical keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial incidence of errors found in this study. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study revealed that classic speculations about error-making mechanisms in alphabetical typing do not necessarily translate to numerical typing. Factors other than external task demands such as urgency can affect typing performance to a similar or greater extent. Investigations of intrinsic error-making factors in non-traditional typing tasks are encouraged. PMID:22103724

  9. Resting state connectivity and cognitive performance in adults with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; Moreton, Fiona C; Stringer, Michael S; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Kalladka, Dheeraj; López-González, Maria R; Santosh, Celestine; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Muir, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is an inevitable feature of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), affecting executive function, attention and processing speed from an early stage. Impairment is associated with structural markers such as lacunes, but associations with functional connectivity have not yet been reported. Twenty-two adults with genetically-confirmed CADASIL (11 male; aged 49.8 ± 11.2 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. Intrinsic attentional/executive networks were identified using group independent components analysis. A linear regression model tested voxel-wise associations between cognitive measures and component spatial maps, and Pearson correlations were performed with mean intra-component connectivity z-scores. Two frontoparietal components were associated with cognitive performance. Voxel-wise analyses showed an association between one component cluster and processing speed (left middle temporal gyrus; peak -48, -18, -14; ZE = 5.65, pFWE corr = 0.001). Mean connectivity in both components correlated with processing speed (r = 0.45, p = 0.043; r = 0.56, p = 0.008). Mean connectivity in one component correlated with faster Trailmaking B minus A time (r = -0.77, p < 0.001) and better executive performance (r = 0.56, p = 0.011). This preliminary study provides evidence for associations between cognitive performance and attentional network connectivity in CADASIL. Functional connectivity may be a useful biomarker of cognitive performance in this population. PMID:26929239

  10. Adolescent ADHD and Adult Physical and Mental Health, Work Performance, and Financial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. METHODS: A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01–3.25; P < .05) for impaired general physical health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23–4.51; P < .01) for impaired general mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51–7.13; P < .01) for antisocial personality disorder. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for ADHD in adolescence as related to external stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37–4.43; P < .01) for impaired work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70–6.55; P < .001) for high financial stress. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood. PMID:23230074

  11. Occupational Exposures Are Associated with Worse Morbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Blanc, Paul D.; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D.; Kanner, Richard E.; Belli, Andrew J.; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. Objectives: To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. Methods: A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. Measurements and Main Results: An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (−26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (−3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may

  12. Mobility performance of low-vision adults using an electronic mobility aid.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim; Troscianko, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Visually impaired people rank obstacle location and identification as two of the most important mobility problems faced. Traditional mobility aids (the long cane) provide information about where an object is located but only within their limited (one metre) range. Although objects are located when traditional aids are used, it is unlikely that they are identified. The Bristol Mobility Aid (BMA) is an electronic travel aid that presents scene images to remaining residual vision in a number of view formats. Previous work has suggested visually impaired observers have better static object recognition using this aid. We investigated the mobility performance of subjects with retinitis pigmentosa using the BMA by determining the percentage preferred walking speed (PPWS), and the number of errors made with three different BMA headset views on an indoor mobility course. We found low-vision subjects had significantly reduced PPWS in two of the three headset views and interestingly, sighted subjects had significantly reduced PPWS when using the BMA in all three views. The numbers of errors made were significantly higher across all vision groups when the BMA was worn. We found that the BMA does not currently increase mobility in the visually impaired. Results are discussed in terms of modifications that could be made to the aid and methodological limitations. PMID:16430435

  13. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development. PMID:24878351

  14. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using adult mice with multiple genotoxicity assays concurrently performed as a combination test.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using young adult rats with repeated administrations has been investigated by employing a new method without partial hepatectomy or in situcollagenase perfusion as the repeated dose liver MN (RDLMN) assay by Narumi et al. (2012). In our study, in order to investigate the possibility of the RDLMN assay using young adult mice instead of rats and the feasibility of employing some genotoxicity assays along with the RDLMN assay as a combination test, two genotoxic carcinogens (N,N-diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) and cisplatin (CIS)) and a nongenotoxic carcinogen (phenobarbital sodium (PHE)) were administered to mice for 15 or 29 days. Then, the liver MN assay, peripheral blood (PB) MN assay and comet assay using the liver and kidney were concurrently performed as a combination test. DEN showed positive responses to all endpoints except MN induction in PB after 15 days of repeat administration. A cross-linking agent, CIS, showed MN induction in liver after 29 days of repeat administration, and in PB after 15 and 29 days of repeat administration, although the comet assay yielded negative responses for both organs at both sampling times. PHE yielded negative responses for all endpoints. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RDLMN assay using mice is a feasible method to be integrated into the general repeated toxicity test along with the combination assays, i.e., comet assay or PB MN assay, which would help in risk assessment for carcinogenicity by comparing the results of combination assays with each other. PMID:24849678

  15. Cognition and dual-task performance in older adults with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Andrade, Larissa Pires; Beinotti, Fernanda; Borges, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with neurodegenerative diseases usually experience significant functional deficits. Older adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may suffer from both motor and cognitive impairments, making them especially vulnerable to poor dual-task performance. Objective To analyze the dual-task cost of walking in subjects with PD and AD exposed to motor and cognitive distracters. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 126 older adults comprising three groups: PD (n=43), AD (n=38), and control (n=45). The subjects were evaluated using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test administered with motor and cognitive distracters. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cognition as a covariant factor was used to test the possible main effects of dual-task on motion. A 5% threshold for significance was set, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The partial eta square (n2p) analysis was included to estimate the magnitude of effect. Results Examining the effects for dual-task, ANOVA revealed the main effect for group×task interactions (F=13.09; P=0.001; n2p =0.178), for task (F=8.186; P=0.001; n2p =0.063) but not for group (F=2.954; P=0.056; n2p =0.047). Cognition applied as a covariant factor indicated interference on dual-tasks (F=30.43; P=0.001; n2p =0.201). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that dual-task interference is a particularly noticeable problem in PD and AD, affecting subjects’ ability to appropriately adapt to environmental challenges. PMID:25092996

  16. The effects of 21 and 23 milimeter aortic valve prosthesis on hemodynamic performance and functional capacity in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Umit Yener, Ali; Ozcan, Sedat; Baran Budak, Ali; Bahadir Genc, Serhat; Ozkan, Turgut; Faruk Cicek, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early and medium-term improvement of functional capacity and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated in the young adult patient group following application of 21 mm or 23 mm bileaflet aortic mechanical valve prosthesis due to aortic stenosis. Methods : Twenty two patients (10 male, 12 female; mean age 27+-8.2 (19-43)) who underwent isolated aortic valve replacement due to rheumatic aortic stenosis, were included in the study. 21 mm and 23 mm bileaflet mechanical prosthesis was used respectively in eight and fourteen patients. The mean body surface area was 1.86 m2 and 1.68 m2 respectively in 23 mm and 21 mm prosthesis while 1.73 ±0.25 m2 for the whole group. Functional capacity was New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II in 9 patients and class III in thirteen patients. Implantation was performed without enlarging the aortic root in all except four patients. In all patients transvalvular gradients, effective orifice area and the diameter of left ventricle were measured with transthoracic echocardiography during rest and after maximal exercise. Mean follow-up was 34±12 months (range 11-57 months). Results: There were no postoperative complications or deaths. All the patients were assessed as NYHA class I with regards to functional capacity (p=0.01). Significant improvements were determined in postoperative mean transvalvular gradient (p=0.005) and left ventricular mass index (p=0.01) when compared with preoperative values. Conclusion: Our findings show that replacement with 21 mm and 23 mm mechanical prosthesis provides a significant improvement in regression of symptoms and increase of functional capacity in young adults in early and mid-period without increasing mortality and morbidity. PMID:24772143

  17. Functional Foot Symmetry and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Physical Performance in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riskowski, J.L.; Hagedorn, TJ; Dufour, AB; Hannan, MT

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies use gait symmetry as a marker of healthy gait, the evidence that gait symmetry exists is limited. Because gait symmetry is thought to arise through laterality (i.e., limb preference) and affects gait retraining efforts, it is important to understand if symmetry exists during gait in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate foot and gait symmetry in the population-based Framingham Foot Study as well as to determine the effects of vertical force symmetry on physical performance measures. Methods Members of the Framingham Foot Study were included in this analysis (N=1333). Foot function and force data were collected using the Tekscan Matscan during self-selected gait, with symmetry evaluated using the symmetry index. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) measures of balance, chair stands and gait speed assessed lower extremity physical function. Participants were evaluated using quartiles of gait speed and foot symmetry to determine the effects of symmetry on lower extremity physical function. Results Individuals with faster gait speed displayed greater foot function asymmetry; individuals with −3.0% to −9.5% asymmetry in foot function performed better on the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Further, with aging, the degree of asymmetry was reduced. Conclusions While this research suggests that a moderate degree of foot asymmetry is associated with better lower extremity function, the causes of vertical force asymmetry are unknown. Future studies should evaluate the causes of foot asymmetry and should track the changes in symmetry that occur with aging. PMID:22560642

  18. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Árias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  19. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  20. Pediatric and adult vision restoration after optic nerve sheath decompression for idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Thomas A; Meeker, Austin R; Sismanis, Dimitrios N; Carruth, Bryant P

    2016-06-01

    To compare presentations of idiopathic intracranial hypertension and efficacy of optic nerve sheath decompression between adult and pediatric patients, a retrospective cohort study was completed All idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients undergoing optic nerve sheath decompression by one surgeon between 1991 and 2012 were included. Pre-operative and post-operative visual fields, visual acuity, color vision, and optic nerve appearance were compared between adult and pediatric (<18 years) populations. Outcome measures included percentage of patients with complications or requiring subsequent interventions. Thirty-one adults (46 eyes) and eleven pediatric patients (18 eyes) underwent optic nerve sheath decompression for vision loss from idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Mean deviation on visual field, visual acuity, color vision, and optic nerve appearance significantly improved across all subjects. Pre-operative mean deviation was significantly worse in children compared to adults (p=0.043); there was no difference in mean deviation post-operatively (p=0.838). Significantly more pediatric eyes (6) presented with light perception only or no light perception than adult eyes (0) (p=0.001). Pre-operative color vision performance in children (19%) was significantly worse than in adults (46%) (p=0.026). Percentage of patients with complications or requiring subsequent interventions did not differ between groups. The consistent improvement after surgery and low rate of complications suggest optic nerve sheath decompression is safe and effective in managing vision loss due to adult and pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Given the advanced pre-operative visual deficits seen in children, one might consider a higher index of suspicion in diagnosing, and earlier surgical intervention in treating pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension. PMID:27163674

  1. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  2. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health care provider - adult ... Questions you should ask: Can I eat dairy foods? What foods can make my problem worse? Can I have greasy or spicy foods? ...

  3. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  4. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  5. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  6. Relationships between performance on the Cogstate Brief Battery, neurodegeneration, and Aβ accumulation in cognitively normal older adults and adults with MCI.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Pietrzak, Robert H; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rembach, Alan; Harrington, Karra; Salvado, Olivier; Martins, Ralph N; Snyder, Peter J; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L; Maruff, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the extent to which decline in memory and working memory in beta-amyloid (Aβ) positive non-demented individuals was related to hippocampal atrophy and Aβ accumulation over 36 months. Cognitively normal older adults (CN) (n = 178) and adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 49) underwent positron emission tomography neuroimaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and cognitive assessments at baseline, 18- and 36-months. Relative to Aβ- CNs, Aβ+ CNs and Aβ+ MCIs showed greater rates of cognitive decline, Aβ accumulation, and hippocampal atrophy. Analysis of interrelationships between these Alzheimer's disease markers in Aβ+ CNs and MCIs indicated that rate of Aβ accumulation was associated with rate of hippocampal atrophy (β = -0.05, p = .037), which was in turn associated independently with rate of decline in memory (β = -0.03, p = .032). This suggests that Aβ accumulation precedes any neurodegeneration or clinical symptoms, and that the relationship between Aβ and cognitive decline is mediated by hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25467942

  7. [Secondary monoclonal gammopathy after bone marrow autotransplantation as a cause of worse renal function in light chain immunoglobulin deposition disease].

    PubMed

    Rekhtina, I G; Mendeleeva, L P; Stolyarevich, E S; Gal'tseva, I V; Povilaitite, P E; Biryukova, L S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical case of a female woman with nephropathy due to light chain deposition disease caused by secretion of κ Bence-Jones protein. Complete immunochemical remission was achieved after induction therapy using a bortezomib + cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone regimen. Renal function remained unchanged (glomerular filtration rate 16 ml/min), there was a reduction in proteinuria from 5.8 to 2.6 g/day. High-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation was performed as consolidation of remission. A year posttransplantation, there was no secretion of κ light chains; however, monoclonal IgG lambda emerged in a quantity of 3.2 g/l. At the same period, nephrotic syndrome became progressive (daily proteinuria 12 g) and dialysis-dependent renal failure developed. A repeat renal biopsy specimen revealed changes, suggesting that there was a decrease in renal deposits of κ light chains. Simultaneously with this, the obvious negative trend as progressive nephrosclerosis and fixation of IgG and λ light chains in the glomeruli (in the sclerotic areas) cause IgGλ monoclonal protein to be involved in the genesis of further kidney injury. Attention is also paid to different characteristics of capillary wall deposits by density (according to the electron microscopic findings), which may point to their different qualitative composition and possibly different formation duration. Papaprotein Gλ disappeared after a year without therapy, suggesting its reactivity. The findings confirm that worse renal function is caused by the action of paraprotein Gλ due to secondary (after autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation) monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:27296267

  8. Allogeneic unrelated bone marrow transplantation from older donors results in worse prognosis in recipients with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takenaka, Katsuto; Sugita, Junichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Uchida, Naoyuki; Iwato, Koji; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ishiyama, Ken; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mori, Takehiko; Teshima, Takanori

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is an essential therapy for acquired aplastic anemia and prognosis has recently improved. However, engraftment failure and graft-versus-host disease are potential fatal complications. Various risk factors for poor prognosis have been identified, such as patient age and human-leukocyte antigen disparity, but the relationship between donor age and prognosis is still unknown. Therefore, we performed a cohort study to compare the prognosis of unrelated bone marrow transplantation from younger and older donors using the registry database in Japan. We evaluated 427 patients (age 16-72 years) with aplastic anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation from younger (≤39 years, n=281) or older (≥40 years, n=146) unrelated donors. Overall survival of the older donor group was significantly inferior to that of the younger donor group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.35; P<0.01). The incidence of fatal infection was significantly higher in the older donor group (13.7% vs. 7.5%; P=0.03). Primary engraftment failure and acute graft-versus-host disease were significantly more frequent in the older donor group (9.7% vs. 5.0%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.30; P=0.01, and 27.1% vs. 19.7%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.56; P=0.03, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease was related to a worse prognosis in the whole cohort. This study showed the inferiority of older donors in aplastic anemia; thus, donor age should be considered when multiple donors are available. A large-scale prospective study is warranted to establish a better donor selection algorithm for bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia. PMID:26858357

  9. Allogeneic unrelated bone marrow transplantation from older donors results in worse prognosis in recipients with aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takenaka, Katsuto; Sugita, Junichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Uchida, Naoyuki; Iwato, Koji; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Ishiyama, Ken; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Mori, Takehiko; Teshima, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is an essential therapy for acquired aplastic anemia and prognosis has recently improved. However, engraftment failure and graft-versus-host disease are potential fatal complications. Various risk factors for poor prognosis have been identified, such as patient age and human-leukocyte antigen disparity, but the relationship between donor age and prognosis is still unknown. Therefore, we performed a cohort study to compare the prognosis of unrelated bone marrow transplantation from younger and older donors using the registry database in Japan. We evaluated 427 patients (age 16–72 years) with aplastic anemia who underwent bone marrow transplantation from younger (≤39 years, n=281) or older (≥40 years, n=146) unrelated donors. Overall survival of the older donor group was significantly inferior to that of the younger donor group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.35; P<0.01). The incidence of fatal infection was significantly higher in the older donor group (13.7% vs. 7.5%; P=0.03). Primary engraftment failure and acute graft-versus-host disease were significantly more frequent in the older donor group (9.7% vs. 5.0%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.30; P=0.01, and 27.1% vs. 19.7%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.56; P=0.03, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease was related to a worse prognosis in the whole cohort. This study showed the inferiority of older donors in aplastic anemia; thus, donor age should be considered when multiple donors are available. A large-scale prospective study is warranted to establish a better donor selection algorithm for bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia. PMID:26858357

  10. Dynamic Spectral Structure Specifies Vowels for Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic specification account of vowel recognition suggests that formant movement between vowel targets and consonant margins is used by listeners to recognize vowels. This study tested that account by measuring contributions to vowel recognition of dynamic (i.e., time-varying) spectral structure and coarticulatory effects on stationary structure. Adults and children (four-and seven-year-olds) were tested with three kinds of consonant-vowel-consonant syllables: (1) unprocessed; (2) sine waves that preserved both stationary coarticulated and dynamic spectral structure; and (3) vocoded signals that primarily preserved that stationary, but not dynamic structure. Sections of two lengths were removed from syllable middles: (1) half the vocalic portion; and (2) all but the first and last three pitch periods. Adults performed accurately with unprocessed and sine-wave signals, as long as half the syllable remained; their recognition was poorer for vocoded signals, but above chance. Seven-year-olds performed more poorly than adults with both sorts of processed signals, but disproportionately worse with vocoded than sine-wave signals. Most four-year-olds were unable to recognize vowels at all with vocoded signals. Conclusions were that both dynamic and stationary coarticulated structures support vowel recognition for adults, but children attend to dynamic spectral structure more strongly because early phonological organization favors whole words. PMID:25536845

  11. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  12. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  13. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachamallu, M.; Zhou, N.; Anderson, C.

    2013-12-01

    Meera Rachamallu, Nancy Zhou, and Clarissa Anderson1 1 Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in central California: Are they getting worse? Since the early to mid 1990's, the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) has been the site of intensive time-series water column and sediment trap sampling. Chlorophyll concentrations have increased significantly over the past several years, consistent with observations of more intense diatom blooms during the spring and summer and fewer, large dinoflagellate blooms beginning in 2001. Sediment trap fluxes confirm these changes with evidence of an abrupt shift upwards in bloom frequency and abundance of the neurotoxin (domoic acid) producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia beginning in 2000. We hypothesize that these shifts are associated with decreases in the concentration of important nutrients, particularly silicic acid, that feed the phytoplankton and can help select which species bloom. Silicate and phosphate limitation have also been shown in the laboratory to stimulate domoic acid production. Our summer study of surface phytoplankton populations in the SBC showed that since surface sampling began in 2009, the biggest bloom occurred in October 2010 coinciding with a strong La Niña period. Shellfish toxin levels were also high during that period, and models that incorporate low silicic acid as a factor for toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms predicted these large blooms in fall of 2010. We show that more recent harmful algal blooms have been small in comparison to 2010, indicating that the La Niña anomaly may have been responsible. In other words, intense upwelling in the fall of 2010 combined with lower-than-normal ratios of silicic acid to nitrate may be the root cause for the large and toxic diatom bloom.

  14. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  15. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  16. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  17. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Perform Multiple Step, Job Tasks in a Generalized Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ortega-Hurndon, Fanny

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to perform complex, multiple step, job tasks in a generalized setting. A multiple probe design across three job tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  18. Development of a Performance Assessment System for the Central New York External High School Diploma Program: An Educational Alternative for Adults: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickse, Ruth S.

    The report describes the development of an alternative performance assessment procedure for certifying adults at the secondary school level in the New York External High School Diploma Program. Unlike standardized group tests, the alternative method is characterized by such features as flexibility in time and location of testing, variety of…

  19. Only watching others making their experiences is insufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis and water maze performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iggena, Deetje; Klein, Charlotte; Garthe, Alexander; Winter, York; Kempermann, Gerd; Steiner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the context of television consumption and its opportunity costs the question arises how far experiencing mere representations of the outer world would have the same neural and cognitive consequences than actively interacting with that environment. Here we demonstrate that physical interaction and direct exposition are essential for the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment. In our experiment, the mice living in a simple standard cage placed in the centre of a large enriched environment only indirectly experiencing the stimulus-rich surroundings (IND) did not display increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In contrast, the mice living in and directly experiencing the surrounding enriched environment (DIR) and mice living in a similar enriched cage containing an uninhabited inner cage (ENR) showed enhanced neurogenesis compared to mice in control conditions (CTR). Similarly, the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on learning performance in the Morris Water maze depended on the direct interaction of the individual with the enrichment. In contrast, indirectly experiencing a stimulus-rich environment failed to improve memory functions indicating that direct interaction and activity within the stimulus-rich environment are necessary to induce structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. PMID:26369255

  20. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Matthew A; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  1. Impact of Mild Head Injury on Neuropsychological Performance in Healthy Older Adults: Longitudinal Assessment in the AIBL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suggested to be a significant risk factor for dementia. However, little research has been conducted into long-term neuropsychological outcomes after head trauma. Participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) who had recovered after sustaining a mild TBI involving loss of consciousness more than 5 years previously were compared with matched controls across a 3-year period. Bayesian nested-domain modeling was used to estimate the effect of TBI on neuropsychological performance. There was no evidence for a chronic effect of mild TBI on any neuropsychological domain compared to controls. Within the TBI group, there was some evidence suggesting that the age that the head trauma occurred and the duration of unconsciousness were modulators of episodic memory. However, these findings were not robust. Taken together, these findings indicate that adults who have sustained a TBI resulting in loss of consciousness, but who recover to a healthy level of cognitive functioning, do not experience frank deficits in cognitive ability. PMID:27242516

  2. Budget Blues: The Situation May Not Be Worse than in the Early 1990S, but Public Libraries Are Definitely Hurting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2004-01-01

    Public libraries are suffering budget cuts in most states nationwide, according to an informal LJ survey, with a significant segment--though not a majority characterizing the strictures as worse than in the early 1990s, the last time libraries were hit hard. LJ contacted state library agencies and, in some-cases, state library associations, for a…

  3. Influences of early thyroid hormone manipulations: delays in pup motor and exploratory behavior are evident in adult operant performance.

    PubMed

    Brosvic, Gary M; Taylor, Jodi N; Dihoff, Roberta E

    2002-04-15

    The effects of thyroid hormone depletion and enhancement on litter size, survival, body mass, ambulation, quadrant crossing, home orientation, day of eye opening, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined in Study 1. In Study 2, the effects of the timing of prenatal insult and the level of thyroid hormone depletion on litter size, survival, body mass, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined. Upon the completion of Study 1, randomly selected pups were maintained on ad-libitum water and food for 2 years, and performance was evaluated on fixed and variable ratio schedules, fixed and variable interval schedules, and probability and reversal learning tasks (Study 3). In Study 4, human subjects diagnosed with and treated for either congenital hypothyroidism or congenital hyperthyroidism were tested on the operant procedures used in Study 3, as well as on a series of simple reaction time, serial timing, and conjunctive and disjunctive search tasks. Dose-dependent decreases in survival and delays in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone depletion; dose-dependent accelerations in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone enhancement. Pups that had been prenatally exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) 1-2 years after the return of thyroid hormones to baseline levels were significantly less accurate at timing on fixed and variable interval schedules, demonstrated an inability to allocate responding on probability tasks, and committed more errors during original learning (OL) and on each reversal problem. Similar deficits were observed in follow-up tests with humans diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism, as were deficits in serial timing and visual searching. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that the pervasive and negative effects of prenatal thyroid deficiency on early behavior are also expressed during adult operant performance. PMID:12020735

  4. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. Methods IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. Results The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. Conclusions The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings. PMID:23283063

  5. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  6. Environment learning using descriptions or navigation: The involvement of working memory in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Martinelli, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana

    2016-05-01

    This study examined age-related differences between young and older adults in the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM) when paths are learned from verbal and visuo-spatial inputs. A sample of 60 young adults (20-30 years old) and 58 older adults (60-75 years old) learned two paths from the person's point of view, one displayed in the form of a video showing the path, the other presenting the path in a verbal description. During the learning phase, participants concurrently performed a verbal task (articulatory suppression, AS group), or a visuo-spatial task (spatial tapping, ST group), or no secondary task (control, C group). After learning each path, participants completed tasks that involved the following: (1) recalling the sequential order and the location of landmarks; and (2) judging spatial sentences as true or false (verification test). The results showed that young adults outperformed older adults in all recall tasks. In both age groups performance in all types of task was worse in the AS and ST groups than in the C group, irrespective of the type of input. Overall, these findings suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial components of WM underpin the processing of environmental information in both young and older adults. The results are discussed in terms of age-related differences and according to the spatial cognition framework. PMID:26280566

  7. Reactogenicity profile of tetanus-diphtheria (adult-type) vaccine: results of a naturalistic study performed at an adult vaccination center.

    PubMed

    Vilella, A; Dal-Ré, R; Simó, D; García-Corbeira, P; Diego, P; Bayas, J M

    2000-11-01

    A prospective observational naturalistic study was conducted at a vaccination center to assess the reactogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria (adult-type) (Td) vaccine. In 1 year, 3072 adult subjects were invited to participate, of whom 1977 (62% women, mean age [+/- SD]: 39 [+/- 14.5] years [range: 18-85 years]) actively did so. A follow-up diary card was provided to all subjects to record all local and general symptoms experienced during the following 4 days after vaccination. Of the study population (n = 1977), 280 received a second Td dose, and 30 received a third dose: the total number of diary cards collected was 2287. Td was always administered (i.m. route) in the left arm. The study population was grouped by age: 52%, 41%, and 7% were ages 18 to 35, 36 to 65, and > 65 years, respectively, most of them being travelers to developing countries. Close to two-thirds of subjects received up to nine different vaccines (mainly hepatitis B, hepatitis A, and typhoid) in addition to Td. Adverse reactions were classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Overall, 50% of subjects reported some type of adverse reaction. Pain, discomfort with arm movement, swelling, malaise, and fever (axillary temperature > or = 38 degrees C) were recorded in 43%, 14%, 3.8%, 5.1%, and 1.7% of all diary cards, respectively. Local and general reactions were considered as mild by almost two-thirds of vaccinees and lasted < or = 48 hours in about three-fourths of them. The incidence of moderate plus severe local reactions was significantly (p < 0.01) more commonly reported in the 18- to 35-year-old group than in the 36- to 65-year-old group. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the incidence of general adverse reactions of those receiving Td alone with those receiving additional vaccines or when comparing the duration and intensity by age groups. Only 5.2% of subjects required analgesic/antipyretic treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that Td vaccine is

  8. Correlation Between Caregiver Reports of Physical Function and Performance-based Measures in a Cohort of Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD. PMID:26191966

  9. Performance measures, hours of caregiving assistance, and risk of adverse care outcomes among older adult users of Medicaid home and community-based services

    PubMed Central

    Danilovich, Margaret K; Corcos, Daniel M; Marquez, David X; Eisenstein, Amy R; Hughes, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study used validated physical performance measures to examine function, risk of adverse health outcomes, and the relationship with allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance among older adults receiving home and community-based services through a Medicaid waiver program. Methods: Older adults (n = 42) completed physical performance measures including grip strength, 30-s chair rise, Timed Up and Go, and gait speed. Demographic information including age, gender, and allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance were also collected. Results: A majority, 72% of females and 86% of males, had weak grip strength, 57% met criteria for fall risk based on their Timed Up and Go score, 83% had lower extremity strength impairments, and 98% were unable to ambulate more than 1.0 m/s. Frailty was prevalent in the sample with 72% of clients meeting Fried’s frailty criteria. The most significant predictors of allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance approved for clients were race and gait speed. Conclusion: Based on scores on physical performance measures, clients are at risk of falls, hospitalization, and mortality, and scores indicate an urgent need to assess performance in addition to self-reported activities of daily living limitations for this population. Performance measures associated with quantifiable risk of adverse outcomes can be critical indicators for referrals and services needed to enhance the safety and improve care outcomes for homebound older adults. PMID:27092257

  10. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor-based sleep assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor-based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and the month prior to a neuropsychological evaluation on cognitive performance. Results showed that mildly disturbed sleep the week prior and month prior to cognitive testing was associated with reduced working memory on cognitive evaluation. One night of mild sleep disturbance was not associated with decreased cognitive performance the next day. Sleep duration was unrelated to cognition. In-home, unobtrusive, sensor monitoring technologies provide a novel method for objective, long-term, and continuous assessment of sleep behavior and other everyday activities that might contribute to decreased or variable cognitive performance in healthy older adults. PMID:25642948

  11. Effect of PMSG dosage on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs bred at a progestagen-PMSG synchronized estrus.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, L; Shrestha, J N

    1985-11-01

    The effect of dose of pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on the reproductive performance of adult ewes and ewe lambs and lamb survival at birth after treatment with fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and PMSG (250 IU or 500 IU) to synchronize estrus was evaluated. Ewes were exposed to rams for breeding at the synchronized and subsequent estrous cycles. The flock, comprised of three synthetic strains and two control breeds, was maintained in a controlled environment and exposed to an artificial light regimen which alternated at 4-mo intervals from 16h of light daily to 9h of light daily. Trials were conducted during January, May and September at the end of a 9-h daylength cycle. Adult ewes were bred in May and 8 mo later in January. Ewe lambs were bred in September at 6.5 to 7.5 mo of age. The overall reproductive performance of the adult ewes was similar at the two breedings: fertility approximately 90%, prolificacy approximately 2.7, fecundity approximately 240% and lambs born alive approximately 2.4. Dosage of PMSG had no effect. Reproductive performance of ewe lambs was lower and there was a strain x treatment interaction, suggesting greater variability in response. The results indicate there is no advantage to using a higher dose of PMSG in ewes with a natural relatively high fecundity. Moreover, the use of the artificial photoperiod appears to overcome the natural seasonal variation in reproductive performance. PMID:16726102

  12. Preserved fine-tuning of face perception and memory: evidence from the own-race bias in high- and low-performing older adults

    PubMed Central

    Komes, Jessica; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Wiese, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests specific deficits in face perception and memory in older adults, which could reflect a dedifferentiation in the context of a general broadening of cognitive architecture with advanced age. Such dedifferentiation could manifest in a less specialized face processing system. A promising tool to investigate the fine-tuning of face processing in older age is the own-race bias (ORB), a phenomenon reflecting more accurate memory for own-relative to other-race faces, which is related to an expertise-based specialization of early perceptual stages. To investigate whether poor face memory in older age is accompanied by reduced expertise-based specialization of face processing, we assessed event-related brain potential correlates of the ORB in high- vs. low-performing older adults (mean age = 69 years; N = 24 per group). Intriguingly, both older groups demonstrated an equivalent pattern of a behavioral ORB, and a parallel increase in N170 for other-race faces, reflecting less efficient early perceptual processing for this face category. Group differences only emerged independent of face ethnicity: whereas low-performers exhibited a right-lateralized N170, high-performers showed a more bilateral response. This finding may suggest a compensatory mechanism counteracting age-related decline in face perception enabling more efficient encoding into memory in high performers. Overall, our results demonstrate that even a less efficient face processing system in older adults can exhibit preserved expertise-related specialization toward own-race faces. PMID:24772080

  13. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples. PMID:21132592

  14. The role of font size and font style in younger and older adults' predicted and actual recall performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Jodi; McElroy, Kelsey; Martin, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We examined how font sizes (18pt., 48 pt.) and font styles (regular, italic, bold) influenced younger and older adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall. In Experiment 1 younger adults gave higher JOLs and obtained higher recall than older adults. However, JOLs and recall varied for both age groups as a function of font size and font style manipulations despite a tendency for both groups to predict higher recall for items in large and in regular and italic styles than for small and bold fonts and achieve higher recall for regular than italic or bold items. No age differences were found in relative accuracy, with near-perfect calibration in absolute accuracy for younger and older adults. Experiment 2 presented a description of Experiment 1 and asked participants to predict recall for the various font size/style combinations. Younger and older adults predicted higher recall for large than small font items, regardless of font style, and higher recall for bold than regular or italic styles, regardless of font size. Memory predictions did not align across experiments, suggesting that memory beliefs combine with processing fluency to affect JOLs and recall. PMID:26513175

  15. Pay attention to impulsivity: modelling low attentive and high impulsive subtypes of adult ADHD in the 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in female rats.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Harte, Michael K; Barnes, Samuel A; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2014-08-01

    Varying levels of attention and impulsivity deficits are core features of the three subtypes of adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, little is known about the neurobiological correlates of these subtypes. Development of a translational animal model is essential to improve our understanding and improve therapeutic strategies. The 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in rats can be used to examine different forms of attention and impulsivity. Adult rats were trained to pre-set 5C-CPT criterion and subsequently separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, premature responding and response disinhibition in the 5C-CPT. The behavioural subgroups were selected to represent the different subtypes of adult ADHD. Consequently, effects of the clinically used pharmacotherapies (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) were assessed in the different subgroups. Four subgroups were identified: low-attentive (LA), high-attentive (HA), high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine produced differential effects in the subgroups. Methylphenidate increased sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced premature responding in HI animals. Atomoxetine also improved sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced response disinhibition and premature responding in HI animals. This is the first study using adult rats to demonstrate the translational value of the 5C-CPT to select subgroups of rats, which may be used to model the subtypes observed in adult ADHD. Our findings suggest that this as an important paradigm to increase our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of adult ADHD-subtypes and their response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:24882551

  16. Ischemic Colitis Is a Common Cause of Severe Hematochezia and Patient Outcomes Are Worse Than with Other Colonic Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Jensen, Dennis M.; Kovacs, Thomas O.G.; Jutabha, Rome; Dulai, Gareth; Ohning, Gordon; Machicado, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcomes of severe hematochezia from ischemic colitis vs. other colonic diagnoses have not been well studied. Objective Our purposes were: 1) to compare demographics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe hematochezia from ischemic colitis vs. other colonic diagnoses, 2) to compare inpatient vs. outpatient start of bleeding from ischemic colitis, 3) to describe potential risk factors. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral academic centers. Patients Patients referred for gastroenterology consultation about severe hematochezia. Interventions Colonoscopic therapy was provided as indicated. Main outcome measurements Rebleeding, surgery and length of hospital stay Results Of 550 patients in the last 12 years with severe colonic hematochezia, 65 were caused by ischemia. Major 30 day outcomes of ischemic colitis patients were significantly worse than patients with other colonic diagnoses. Patients with inpatient (vs. outpatient) ischemic colitis had significantly more and severe comorbidities at baseline and significantly higher rates of rebleeding, surgery & more hospital & intensive care unit days. Limitations Two-center study Conclusions Ischemic colitis was found more often in females and patients with anticoagulant usage, severe lung disease, higher creatinine, higher glucose, & more fresh frozen plasma transfused. Five patients with focal lesions had colonoscopic hemostasis. Major 30 day outcomes of ischemic colitis patients were significantly worse than patients with other colonic diagnoses. Comparing outpatient vs. inpatient start of ischemic colitis, inpatients had significantly worse outcomes. PMID:21839438

  17. Poor Sleep at Baseline Predicts Worse Mood Outcomes in Patients with Co-Occurring Bipolar Disorder and Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Putnins, Susan I.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sleep problems are common to patients with bipolar disorder and have been shown to predict subsequent mood symptoms, and have also been shown to lead to worse substance use outcomes in those with substance use disorders. However, the relationship between sleep and clinical outcomes in a population with co-occurring bipolar disorder and substance use disorder is unclear. Method 60 outpatients meeting DSM-IV (SCID) criteria for both bipolar disorder and substance use disorder participated in a randomized trial comparing integrated group therapy for bipolar disorder and substance use disorder to group drug counseling for substance use disorder alone. Poor sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which provides 7 component subscores and an overall sleep score. Results When controlling for baseline mood, substance use, and treatment condition, baseline sleep score predicted mood over the course of treatment and the 6-month follow-up: worse sleep was associated with worse mood outcomes. Sleep was not associated with substance use outcomes. Conclusion Impaired sleep is a prognostic factor for mood outcomes in patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Further investigation is warranted into the long-term clinical outcomes of poor sleep in this population with co-occurring bipolar disorder and substance use disorder so that appropriate interventions can be developed. This clinical trial has been registered in a public trials registry at clinicaltrials.gov (identifier is NCT00227838). PMID:22313797

  18. Associations Between Physical Performance and Executive Function in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Gait Speed and the Timed “Up & Go” Test

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Valerie E.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Engel, Joyce M.; Teri, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed “Up & Go” Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Methods Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Results Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=−0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=−0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed “Up & Go” Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, P<.001) and Stroop-Interference (β=0.228, P=.002) measures, indicating that a longer time on the TUG was associated with lower executive function performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of

  19. For Better or Worse: The Health Implications of Marriage Separation Due to Migration in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feinian; Liu, Hui; Vikram, Kriti; Guo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Massive rural-to-urban migration in China has led to spatial separation of millions of married couples. In this article, we examine the question of whether the well-documented health benefits of marriage extend to left-behind individuals in rural China who are spatially separated from their spouses. Using longitudinal data that span 16 years (China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006), we compare the self-reported health trajectories of adults across different marital statuses while taking into account the physical location of their spouses. Our results suggest a clear health disadvantage of married individuals whose spouses are absent compared with those whose spouses are living in the same household. Further, longer spousal absence is more harmful to an individual’s health. Finally, spousal absence and longer physical separation from their spouses induce stronger health deficits for married men than for married women, suggesting that a gendered process is at work. PMID:26100981

  20. The effect of beta-amyloid on face processing in young and old adults: A multivariate analysis of the BOLD signal.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Jenny R; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Devous, Michael D; Park, Denise C

    2015-07-01

    The recent ability to measure in vivo beta-amyloid (Aβ), a marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has led to an increased focus on the significance of Aβ deposition in clinically normal adults. Evidence suggests that healthy adults with elevated cortical Aβ show differences in neural activity associated with memory encoding-specifically encoding of face stimuli. Here, we examined if Aβ deposition in clinically normal adults was related to differences in neural activity in ventral visual cortex during face viewing. Our sample included 23 high-Aβ older adults, 23 demographically matched low-Aβ older adults, and 16 young adults. Participants underwent cognitive testing, Aβ positron emission tomography imaging with (18) F-Florbetapir, and functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity while participants passively viewed photographs of faces. Using barycentric discriminant analysis-a between-groups classification technique-we found that patterns of neural activity in the left fusiform gyrus, a region highly responsive to faces, distinguished Aβ status of participants. Older adults with elevated Aβ were characterized by decreased activity in left fusiform compared to Aβ-negative older adults. Further, we found that the degree to which older adults expressed decreased fusiform activity was related to worse performance on tasks of processing speed. Our results provide unique evidence that, in addition to previously studied memory and default regions, decreased neural activity in a region important for face perception was associated with elevated Aβ and may be an early manifestation of AD. PMID:25832770

  1. When the Future Feels Worse than the Past: A Temporal Inconsistency in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Eugene M.

    2010-01-01

    Logically, an unethical behavior performed yesterday should also be unethical if performed tomorrow. However, the present studies suggest that the timing of a transgression has a systematic effect on people's beliefs about its moral acceptability. Because people's emotional reactions tend to be more extreme for future events than for past events,…

  2. How children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps.

    PubMed

    Chihak, Benjamin J; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2014-06-01

    We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection, 12-year-olds exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks, and 10-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants needed to either speed up or slow down on all intersections or needed to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all age groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. The adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. The 10-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition but performed worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually available and remembered information in complex perception-action tasks. PMID:24576506

  3. Albuminuria is Independently Associated with Cardiac Remodeling, Abnormal Right and Left Ventricular Function, and Worse Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Daniel H.; Burns, Jacob A.; Aguilar, Frank G.; Beussink, Lauren; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between albuminuria and cardiac structure/function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Background Albuminuria, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in HFpEF. However, the relationship between albuminuria and cardiac structure/function in HFpEF has not been well studied. Methods We measured urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and performed comprehensive echocardiography, including tissue Doppler imaging and right ventricular (RV) evaluation, in a prospective study of 144 patients with HFpEF. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to determine the association between UACR and echocardiographic parameters. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the association between UACR and outcomes. Results The mean age was 66±11 years, 62% were female, and 42% were African-American. Higher UACR was associated with greater left ventricular (LV) mass, lower preload-recruitable stroke work, and lower global longitudinal strain. Higher UACR was also significantly associated with RV remodeling (for each doubling of UACR, RV wall thickness was 0.9 mm higher [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.14 mm; P=0.001, adjusted P=0.01]) and worse RV systolic function (for each doubling of UACR, RV fractional area change was 0.56% lower [95% CI 0.14–0.98%; P=0.01, adjusted P=0.03]. The association between UACR and RV parameters persisted after excluding patients with macroalbuminuria (UACR > 300 mg/g). Increased UACR was also independently associated with worse outcomes. Conclusions In HFpEF, increased UACR is a prognostic marker and is associated with increased RV and LV remodeling, and longitudinal systolic dysfunction. PMID:25282032

  4. Being Playful and Smart? The Relations of Adult Playfulness with Psychometric and Self-Estimated Intelligence and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relation between subjectively assessed adult playfulness and psychometric and self-estimated intelligence in a sample of 254 students. As expected, playfulness existed widely independently from psychometric intelligence. Correlations pointed in the direction of higher expressive playfulness and numeric intelligence and lower…

  5. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults Is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data…

  6. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  7. Use of Portable Electronic Assistive Technology to Improve Independent Job Performance of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Poor employment outcomes for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) persist, despite the development of legal policies designed to enhance access to gainful employment and to promote increased community integration. Recent data suggest that only 37% of young adults with ID obtain paid employment outside of the home. Among persons with ID who…

  8. Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R; Dupaul, George I; Bush, Tracie

    2002-07-01

    Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly more traffic citations, particularly for speeding, vehicular crashes, and license suspensions than the CC group, with most of these differences corroborated in the official DMV records. Cognitively, the ADHD group was less attentive and made more errors during a visual reaction task under rule-reversed conditions than the CC group. The ADHD group also obtained lower sceres on a test of driving rules and decision-making but not on a simple driving simulator. Both self- and other-ratings showed the CC group employed safer routine driving habits than the ADHD group. Relationships between the cognitive and driving measures and the adverse outcomes were limited or absent, calling into question their use in screening ADHD adults for driving risks. Several executive functions also were significantly yet modestly related to accident frequency and total traffic violations after controlling for severity of ADHD. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing significant driving problems are associated with ADHD. This study found that these driving difficulties were not a function of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, depression, anxiety, or frequency of alcohol or illegal drug use. Findings to date argue for the development of interventions to reduce driving risks among adults with ADHD. PMID:12164675

  9. Peripheral arterial disease in the Middle East: Underestimated predictor of worse outcome

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PAD in the developed world is approximately 12% among adult population, which is age-dependent and with men being affected slightly more than women. Despite the strikingly high prevalence of PAD, the disease is underdiagnosed. Surprisingly, more than 70% of primary health care providers in the US were unaware of the presence of PAD in their patients. The clinical presentation of PAD may vary from asymptomatic to intermittent claudication, atypical leg pain, rest pain, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Claudication is the typical symptomatic expression of PAD. However, the disease may remains asymptomatic in up to 50% of all PAD patients. PAD has also been reported as a marker of poor outcome among patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the fact that the prevalence of atherosclerotic disease is increasing in the Middle East with increasing cardiovascular risk factors (tobacco use, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome), data regarding PAD incidence in the Middle East are scarce. PMID:24689007

  10. When two obese parents are worse than one! Impacts on embryo and fetal development.

    PubMed

    McPherson, N O; Bell, V G; Zander-Fox, D L; Fullston, T; Wu, L L; Robker, R L; Lane, M

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in reproductive-age adults is increasing worldwide. While the effects of either paternal or maternal obesity on gamete health and subsequent fertility and pregnancy have been reported independently, the combination of having both parents overweight/obese on fecundity and offspring health has received minimal attention. Using a 2 × 2 study design in rodents we established the relative contributions of paternal and maternal obesity on fetal and embryo development and whether combined paternal and maternal obesity had an additive effect. Here, we show that parental obesity reduces fetal and placental weights without altering pregnancy establishment and is not dependent on an in utero exposure to a high-fat diet. Interestingly combined parental obesity seemed to accumulate both the negative influences of paternal and maternal obesity had alone on embryo and fetal health rather than an amplification, manifested as reduced embryo developmental competency, reduced blastocyst cell numbers, impaired mitochondrial function, and alterations to active and repressive embryonic chromatin marks, resulting in aberrant placental gene expression and reduced fetal liver mtDNA copy numbers. Further understanding both the maternal cytoplasmic and paternal genetic interactions during this early developmental time frame will be vital for understanding how developmental programming is regulated and for the proposition of interventions to mitigate their effects. PMID:26199280

  11. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  12. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  13. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

  14. The Impact of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Wells, Rebecca E.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Summarize and critically evaluate research on the effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in older adults. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. SETTING Community and residential care. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and over (with the exception of one study) with and without cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Cognitive ability using a variety of neuropsychological testing. RESULTS Twenty eligible studies with a total of 2,553 participants were identified that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 11 of the 20 eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 was a prospective non-randomized controlled study, 4 were prospective non-controlled observational studies, and 4 were cross-sectional studies. Overall quality of RCTs was modest, with 3 of 11 trials categorized as high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of outcomes related to executive function in RCTs of cognitively healthy adults indicated a large effect size when Tai Chi was compared to non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.90; p=0.043) and moderate effect size when compared to exercise controls (Hedge’s g=0.51; p=0.003). Meta-analyses of outcomes related to global cognitive function in RCTs of cognitively impaired adults, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, showed smaller but statistically significant effects when Tai Chi was compared to both non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.35; p=0.004) and other active interventions (Hedge’s g=0.30; p=0.002). Findings from non-randomized studies add further evidence that Tai Chi may positively impact these and other domains of cognitive function. CONCLUSION Tai Chi shows potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults, particularly in the realm of executive functioning and in those individuals without significant impairment. Larger and methodologically sound trials with longer follow-up periods are needed before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24383523

  15. ‘It could be worse … lot's worse!’ Why health-related quality of life is better in older compared with younger individuals with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Debra K.; Heo, Seongkum; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Hammash, Muna; Riegel, Barbara; Lennie, Terry A.; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Albert, Nancy; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is markedly impaired in patients with heart failure (HF). Despite worse prognosis and physical status, older patients have better HRQOL than younger patients. Objective: to determine reasons for differences in HRQOL in older compared with younger HF patients. Methods: a mixed methods approach was used. HRQOL was assessed using the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire and compared among HF patients (n = 603) in four age groups (≤53, 54–62, 63–70 and ≥71 years). Socio-demographic/clinical and psychological factors related to HRQOL were determined in four groups using multiple regressions. Patients (n = 20) described their views of HRQOL during semi-structured interviews. Results: HRQOL was worse in the youngest group, and best in the two oldest groups. The youngest group reported higher levels of depression and anxiety than the oldest group. Anxiety, depression and functional capacity predicted HRQOL in all age groups. Qualitatively, patients in all age groups acknowledged the negative impact of HF on HRQOL; nonetheless older patients reported that their HRQOL exceeded their expectations for their age. Younger patients bemoaned the loss of activities and roles, and reported their HRQOL as poor. Conclusions: better HRQOL among older HF patients is the result, in part, of better psychosocial status. The major factor driving better HRQOL among older patients is a change with advancing age in expectations about what constitutes good HRQOL. PMID:23832262

  16. Comparison of Performance of Transcranial Contralateral Routing of Signal, Pre-Implanted Trimmer Digital and Digital Bone Anchored Hearing Aid in Adults with Unilateral Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Chatni, Suma; Ramadevi, Kasetty Jagannathaiah S.; Fakruddin, Darga Baba

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with unilateral hearing loss of severe-profound degree face listening difficulties while localizing a sound source and while perceiving speech in the presence of noise. The objective was to compare the efficacy of the digitally programmable bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA), trimmer digital BAHA and the transcranial contralateral routing of signal (T-CROS) in improving the listening performance in adults with unilateral hearing loss. Twenty-four adults with unilateral hearing loss was assessed for sound field thresholds, speech perception performance in quiet and noise (direct and indirect conditions) and the subjective quality rating of speech in unaided and aided with either T-CROS or digitally programmable BAHA or trimmer digital BAHA attached to the headband. Results indicated that the participants performed better with both the digitally programmable and the trimmer digital BAHA than the T-CROS in both quiet and noise. However, the digitally programmable BAHA performed better when the speech arrived from the poorer ear side. The current study helps in prioritizing the hearing amplification devices for the trial and also helps in arriving at the appropriate hearing amplification device for the individuals with unilateral hearing loss. PMID:26779328

  17. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  18. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  19. Cognitive adaptations to stressful environments: When childhood adversity enhances adult executive function.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sung, Sooyeon; Young, Ethan S

    2015-10-01

    Can growing up in a stressful childhood environment enhance certain cognitive functions? Drawing participants from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds, we tested how adults who grew up in harsh or unpredictable environments fared on 2 types of executive function tasks: inhibition and shifting. People who experienced unpredictable childhoods performed worse at inhibition (overriding dominant responses), but performed better at shifting (efficiently switching between different tasks). This finding is consistent with the notion that shifting, but not inhibition, is especially useful in unpredictable environments. Importantly, differences in executive function between people who experienced unpredictable versus predictable childhoods emerged only when they were tested in uncertain contexts. This catalyst suggests that some individual differences related to early life experience are manifested under conditions of uncertainty in adulthood. Viewed as a whole, these findings indicate that adverse childhood environments do not universally impair mental functioning, but can actually enhance specific types of cognitive performance in the face of uncertainty. PMID:26414842

  20. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  1. Impact of Oral Sildenafil on Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Fontan Operation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David J.; French, Benjamin; McBride, Michael G.; Marino, Bradley S.; Mirarchi, Nicole; Hanna, Brian D.; Wernovsky, Gil; Paridon, Stephen M.; Rychik, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Background Children and young adults with single ventricle physiology have abnormal exercise capacity after Fontan operation. A medication capable of decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance should allow for improved cardiac filling and improved exercise capacity. Methods and Results This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial conducted in children and young adults after Fontan. Subjects were randomized to receive placebo or sildenafil (20 mg tid) for 6 weeks. After a 6-week washout, subjects crossed over for an additional 6 weeks. Each subject underwent an exercise stress test at the start and finish of each phase. Following sildenafil subjects had a significantly decreased respiratory rate and decreased minute ventilation at peak exercise. At the anaerobic threshold subjects had significantly decreased ventilatory equivalents of carbon dioxide. There was no change in oxygen consumption during peak exercise although there was a suggestion of improved oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold. Improvement at the anaerobic threshold was limited to the subgroup with single left or mixed ventricular morphology and to the subgroup with baseline serum brain natriuretic peptide levels ≥ 100 pg/ml. Conclusion In this cohort, sildenafil significantly improved ventilatory efficiency during peak and sub-maximal exercise. There was also a suggestion of improved oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold in two subgroups. These findings suggest that sildenafil may be an important agent to improve exercise performance in children and young adults with single ventricle physiology following Fontan operation. PMID:21382896

  2. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns. PMID:25255846

  3. The Effect of Positive Mindset Trigger Words on the Performance Expression of Non-Expert Adult Singers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomhead, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most musicians strive to create performances that are both technically correct and musically expressive. They make specific changes to their performance to bring out the music's expressive potential. Researchers have attempted to identify these particular changes in order to better understand how expressive performances are created. This is an…

  4. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  5. Is Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Worse During Days of National Academic Meetings in Japan? A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Izawa, Junichi; Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) might be worse during academic meetings because many medical professionals attend them. Methods This nationwide population-based observation of all consecutively enrolled Japanese adult OHCA patients with resuscitation attempts from 2005 to 2012. The primary outcome was 1-month survival with a neurologically favorable outcome. Calendar days at three national meetings (Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, and Japanese Circulation Society) were obtained for each year during the study period, because medical professionals who belong to these academic societies play an important role in treating OHCA patients after hospital admission, and we identified two groups: the exposure group included OHCAs that occurred on meeting days, and the control group included OHCAs that occurred on the same days of the week 1 week before and after meetings. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. Results A total of 20 143 OHCAs that occurred during meeting days and 38 860 OHCAs that occurred during non-meeting days were eligible for our analyses. The proportion of patients with favorable neurologic outcomes after whole arrests did not differ during meeting and non-meeting days (1.6% [324/20 143] vs 1.5% [596/38 855]; adjusted odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.88–1.19). Regarding bystander-witnessed ventricular fibrillation arrests of cardiac origin, the proportion of patients with favorable neurologic outcomes also did not differ between the groups. Conclusions In this population, there were no significant differences in outcomes after OHCAs that occurred during national meetings of professional organizations related to OHCA care and those that occurred during non-meeting days. PMID:26639754

  6. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  7. E-learning module on chronic low back pain in older adults: evidence of effect on medical student objective structured clinical examination performance.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Debra K; Morone, Natalia E; Spallek, Heiko; Karp, Jordan F; Schneider, Michael; Washburn, Carol; Dziabiak, Michael P; Hennon, John G; Elnicki, D Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine has highlighted the urgent need to close undergraduate and graduate educational gaps in treating pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common pain conditions, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to potential morbidities associated with misinformed treatment. An e-learning case-based interactive module was developed at the University of Pittsburgh Center of Excellence in Pain Education, one of 12 National Institutes of Health-designated centers, to teach students important principles for evaluating and managing CLBP in older adults. A team of six experts in education, information technology, pain management, and geriatrics developed the module. Teaching focused on common errors, interactivity, and expert modeling and feedback. The module mimicked a patient encounter using a standardized patient (the older adult with CLBP) and a pain expert (the patient provider). Twenty-eight medical students were not exposed to the module (Group 1) and 27 were exposed (Group 2). Their clinical skills in evaluating CLBP were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Mean scores were 62.0 ± 8.6 for Group 1 and 79.5 ± 10.4 for Group 2 (P < .001). Using an OSCE pass-fail cutoff score of 60%, 17 of 28 Group 1 students (60.7%) and 26 of 27 Group 2 students (96.3%) passed. The CLBP OSCE was one of 10 OSCE stations in which students were tested at the end of a Combined Ambulatory Medicine and Pediatrics Clerkship. There were no between-group differences in performance on eight of the other nine OSCE stations. This module significantly improved medical student clinical skills in evaluating CLBP. Additional research is needed to ascertain the effect of e-learning modules on more-advanced learners and on improving the care of older adults with CLBP. PMID:24833496

  8. E-Learning Module on Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: Evidence of Effect on Medical Student Objective Structured Clinical Examination Performance

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Debra K.; Morone, Natalia E.; Spallek, Heiko; Karp, Jordan F.; Schneider, Michael; Washburn, Carol; Dziabiak, Michael P.; Hennon, John G.; Elnicki, D. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has highlighted the urgent need to close undergraduate and graduate educational gaps in treating pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common pain conditions, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to potential morbidities associated with misinformed treatment. An e-learning case-based interactive module was developed at the University of Pittsburgh Center of Excellence in Pain Education, one of 12 National Institutes of Health–designated centers, to teach students important principles for evaluating and managing CLBP in older adults. A team of six experts in education, information technology, pain management, and geriatrics developed the module. Teaching focused on common errors, interactivity, and expert modeling and feedback. The module mimicked a patient encounter using a standardized patient (the older adult with CLBP) and a pain expert (the patient provider). Twenty-eight medical students were not exposed to the module (Group 1) and 27 were exposed (Group 2). Their clinical skills in evaluating CLBP were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Mean scores were 62.0 ± 8.6 for Group 1 and 79.5 ± 10.4 for Group 2 (P < .001). Using an OSCE pass–fail cutoff score of 60%, 17 of 28 Group 1 students (60.7%) and 26 of 27 Group 2 students (96.3%) passed. The CLBP OSCE was one of 10 OSCE stations in which students were tested at the end of a Combined Ambulatory Medicine and Pediatrics Clerkship. There were no between-group differences in performance on eight of the other nine OSCE stations. This module significantly improved medical student clinical skills in evaluating CLBP. Additional research is needed to ascertain the effect of e-learning modules on more-advanced learners and on improving the care of older adults with CLBP. PMID:24833496

  9. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Barry R.; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0

  10. How Staff Pursue Questions to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, W. M. L.; Antaki, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When support staff use questions to instruct, advise or guide adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), or to solicit information from them, the interaction does not always proceed smoothly, particularly when replies are ambiguous, absent or not obviously relevant. That can lead to interactional trouble and dissatisfaction, or worse.…

  11. Association between executive function and physical performance in older Korean adults: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoonseok; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Ah; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Reduced executive function and physical performance are common age-related conditions. This study evaluated the associations between executive function and physical performance in a representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a population-based sample of 629 men and women aged 65 or older and living in one typical city in Korea. Specific aspects of executive function were assessed using the trail making test, digit span test, and lexical fluency test to measure set shifting, working memory and cognitive flexibility functions. Physical performance was measured using performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) scores and isokinetic muscle strength. Subjects' self-efficacy was also assessed using the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. Results of the lexical fluency test were associated with POMA scores and muscle strength, independent of age, gender, education, comorbidity, physical activity status, depression, and global cognition, suggesting that reduced cognitive flexibility is associated with reduced physical performance and muscle strength. Self-efficacy was also independently associated with physical performance and muscle strength. Clinicians need to consider the association between executive function and physical performance when working to improve physical functioning in an aged population. PMID:21075462

  12. Aggregating validity indicators embedded in Conners' CPT-II outperforms individual cutoffs at separating valid from invalid performance in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Roth, Robert M; Kirsch, Ned L; Lajiness-O'neill, Renee; Medoff, Brent

    2014-08-01

    Continuous performance tests (CPT) provide a useful paradigm to assess vigilance and sustained attention. However, few established methods exist to assess the validity of a given response set. The present study examined embedded validity indicators (EVIs) previously found effective at dissociating valid from invalid performance in relation to well-established performance validity tests in 104 adults with TBI referred for neuropsychological testing. Findings suggest that aggregating EVIs increases their signal detection performance. While individual EVIs performed well at their optimal cutoffs, two specific combinations of these five indicators generally produced the best classification accuracy. A CVI-5A ≥3 had a specificity of .92-.95 and a sensitivity of .45-.54. At ≥4 the CVI-5B had a specificity of .94-.97 and sensitivity of .40-.50. The CVI-5s provide a single numerical summary of the cumulative evidence of invalid performance within the CPT-II. Results support the use of a flexible, multivariate approach to performance validity assessment. PMID:24957927

  13. Worse Health Status and Higher Incidence of Health Disorders in Rhesus Negative Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Dammann, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects) showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26495842

  14. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ari L.; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). 44 (21%) of patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were 10 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions. PMID:24323716

  15. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  16. Perioperative Allogenenic Blood Transfusion is Associated With Worse Clinical Outcome for Patients Undergoing Gastric Carcinoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Zhu, Dajian; Chen, Xiaowu; Huang, Yanfeng; Ouyang, Manzhao; Zhang, Weijie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whether perioperative allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) has adverse effect on patients with gastric carcinoma (GC) surgery or not, that is controversial. Our study evaluated the association between ABT and some clinical outcomes of GC surgery patients. Data of relevant studies were based on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library search. The relative risk (RR) of 5-year survival rates, tumor recurrence, and postoperative complications were performed; subgroup analyses included district, transfusion rates, age, participants, sex, and tumor stage. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First People's Hospital of Shunde. In total, 9189 participants from 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The 5-year survival rate was decreased for the GC patients with ABT (RR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69–0.79), the risk of tumor recurrence was significantly higher for ABT patients (RR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.32–2.51), and postoperative complications increased in ABT patients (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.02–1.81), respectively; in subgroup analyses, 5-year survival rates were not associated with the transfusion rates (χ2 = 0.37, P = 0.54). Transfusion for patients undergoing GC surgery, even low transfusion rates, would reduce the 5-year survival rates, and elevated the risk of tumor recurrence and postoperative complication. PMID:26426632

  17. Limited Health Literacy and Decline in Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Shwetha S.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Bickmore, Timothy W.; Henault, Lori E.; Winter, Michael R.; Nelson, Kerrie; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with worse executive function, but the association between limited health literacy and decline in executive function has not been established because of a lack of longitudinal studies. The authors aimed to examine this association by studying a prospective cohort in the setting of a randomized controlled trial to promote walking in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (65 years of age or older) who scored 2 or more on the Mini-Cog, without depression (score of less than 15 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), and who completed baseline and 12-month evaluations (n = 226). Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Executive function measured at baseline and 12 months using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Category Fluency. The associations between health literacy and 12-month decline in each test of executive function were modeled using multivariate linear regression. Health literacy was found to be limited in 37% of participants. Limited health literacy was associated with reduced performance on all 3 executive function tests. In fully adjusted models, limited health literacy was associated with greater 12-month decline in performance on the TMT than higher health literacy (p = .01). In conclusion, older adults with limited health literacy are at risk for more rapid decline in scores on the TMT, a measure of executive function. PMID:24093352

  18. The Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale for Older Adults: Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Nancy W.; Santanasto, Adam J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the development of the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) and establish its reliability and concurrent and convergent validity against performance measures. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Scale development sample: 1,013 individuals aged 60 and older from two registries; validation sample: 483 adults aged 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). MEASUREMENTS The scale development sample and BLSA participants self-administered an initial 26-item perceived fatigability scale. BLSA participants also completed measures of performance fatigability (perceived exertion from a standard treadmill task and performance deterioration from a fast-paced long-distance corridor walk), a 6-m usual-paced corridor walk, and five timed chair stands. RESULTS Principal components analysis with varimax rotation reduced the 26-item scale to the 10-item PFS. The PFS showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.88) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation 0.86). In the validation sample, PFS scores, adjusted for age, sex, and race, were greater for those with high performance fatigability, slow gait speed, worse physical function, and lower fitness, with differences between high and low fatigability ranging from 3.2 to 5.1 points (P < .001). CONCLUSION The 10-item PFS physical fatigability score is a valid and reliable measure of perceived fatigability in older adults and can serve as an adjunct to performance- based fatigability measures for identifying older adults at risk of mobility limitation in clinical and research settings. PMID:25556993

  19. Diabetes Is Associated with Worse Clinical Presentation in Tuberculosis Patients from Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, Lucas S.; Daltro, Carla; Castro, Simone; Kornfeld, Hardy; Netto, Eduardo M.; Andrade, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, especially in developing countries, and the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as a major public health issue in these same regions, emphasize the importance of investigating this association. Here, we compared the clinical profile and disease outcomes of TB patients with or without coincident DM in a TB reference center in Brazil. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB patient cohort (treatment naïve) of 408 individuals recruited at a TB primary care center in Brazil between 2004 and 2010. Data on diagnosis of TB and DM were used to define the groups. The study groups were compared with regard to TB disease presentation at diagnosis as well as to clinical outcomes such as cure and mortality rates upon anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) initiation. A composite score utilizing clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters was used to compare TB severity between the groups. Results DM patients were older than non-diabetic TB patients. In addition, diabetic individuals more frequently presented with cough, night sweats, hemoptysis and malaise than those without DM. The overall pattern of lung lesions assessed by chest radiographic examination was similar between the groups. Compared to non-diabetic patients, those with TB-diabetes exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli in sputum samples more frequently at diagnosis and at 30 days after ATT initiation. Notably, higher values of the TB severity score were significantly associated with TB-diabetes comorbidity after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, during ATT, diabetic patients required more frequent transfers to TB reference hospitals for complex clinical management. Nevertheless, overall mortality and cure rates were indistinguishable between the study groups. Conclusions These findings reinforce the idea that diabetes negatively impacts pulmonary TB severity. Our study argues for the systematic screening for DM in TB

  20. Why do patients with weight loss have a worse outcome when undergoing chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies?

    PubMed

    Andreyev, H J; Norman, A R; Oates, J; Cunningham, D

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether weight loss at presentation, in patients who were to receive chemotherapy for gastrointestinal carcinomas, influences outcome and whether nutritional intervention would be worthwhile. This study was a retrospective review of prospectively gathered data. The outcomes of patients with or without weight loss and treated for locally advanced or metastatic tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon or rectum were compared. In 1555 such consecutive patients treated over a 6-year period, weight loss at presentation was reported more commonly by men than women (51 versus 44%, P = 0.01). Although patients with weight loss received lower chemotherapy doses initially, they developed more frequent and more severe dose limiting toxicity--specifically plantar-palmar syndrome (P < 0.0001) and stomatitis (P < 0.0001)--than patients without weight loss. Consequently, patients with weight loss on average received 1 month (18%) less treatment (P < 0.0001). Weight loss correlated with shorter failure-free (P < 0.0001, hazard ratio = 1.25) and overall survival (P < 0.0001, hazard ratio = 1.63), decreased response (P = 0.006), quality of life (P < 0.0001) and performance status (P < 0.0001). Patients who stopped losing weight had better overall survival (P = 0.0004). Weight loss at presentation was an independent prognostic variable (hazard ratio = 1.43). The poorer outcome from treatment in patients with weight loss appears to occur because they receive significantly less chemotherapy and develop more toxicity rather than any specifically reduced tumour responsiveness to treatment. These findings provide a rationale for attempting randomised nutritional intervention studies in these patients. PMID:9713300

  1. Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult men: Effect on gait performance.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Uros; Kavcic, Voyko; Giordani, Bruno; Gerževič, Mitja; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged physical inactivity or bed rest (BR) due to illness or other factors can result in significant declines in physical health and even cognitive functions. Based on random selection, 7 healthy older adult men received computerized spatial navigation training, while 8 served as active controls during 14-day BR. Greater post-BR declines were seen in normal and complex (dual-task) walking for the control as compared to intervention group, suggesting that computerized spatial navigation training can successfully moderate detrimental BR effects. Findings underline the generalization of cognitive-based intervention to the motor domain and potentially support their use to supplement BR interventions (e.g., exercise and nutrition). PMID:25938245

  2. Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tomasz; Ilott, Nicholas; Brolese, Giovana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Asherson, Philip J E; Stolerman, Ian P

    2011-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a wide variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, including increased infant mortality and decreased birth weight. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, of which nicotine is a major teratogenic component, has also been linked to the acceleration of the risk for different psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether this increased risk is influenced by the direct effects of gestational nicotine exposure on the developing fetus remains uncertain. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on measures of attention and impulsivity in adult male rats. Offspring of females exposed during pregnancy to 0.06 mg/ml nicotine solution as the only source of water (daily consumption: 69.6±1.4 ml/kg; nicotine blood level: 96.0±31.9 ng/ml) had lower birth weight and delayed sensorimotor development measured by negative geotaxis, righting reflex, and grip strength. In the 5-choice serial reaction time test, adult rats showed increased numbers of anticipatory responses and omissions errors, more variable response times, and lower accuracy with evidence of delayed learning of the task demands when the 1 s stimulus duration was introduced. In contrast, prenatal nicotine exposure had no effect on exploratory locomotion or delay-discounting test. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased expression of the D5 dopamine receptor gene in the striatum, but did not change expression of other dopamine-related genes (DRD4, DAT1, NR4A2, and TH) in either the striatum or the prefrontal cortex. These data suggest a direct effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on important aspects of attention, inhibitory control, or learning later in life. PMID:21289608

  3. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  4. Long-term Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 or Worse Following Human Papillomavirus Infection: Role of Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type–specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types. Methods A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time. Results For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative

  5. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  6. Concurrent Preoperative Presence of Hydronephrosis and Flank Pain Independently Predicts Worse Outcome of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Jan, Hau-Chern; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Ke, Hung-Lung; Huang, Shu-Pin; Liu, Chia-Chu; Lee, Yung-Chin; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Liang, Peir-In; Huang, Chun-Nung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of preoperative hydronephrosis and flank pain on prognosis of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Methods In total, 472 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma managed by radical nephroureterectomy were included from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital Healthcare System. Clinicopathological data were collected retrospectively for analysis. The significance of hydronephrosis, especially when combined with flank pain, and other relevant factors on overall and cancer-specific survival were evaluated. Results Of the 472 patients, 292 (62%) had preoperative hydronephrosis and 121 (26%) presented with flank pain. Preoperative hydronephrosis was significantly associated with age, hematuria, flank pain, tumor location, and pathological tumor stage. Concurrent presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain was a significant predictor of non-organ-confined disease (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.10, P = 0.025). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly poorer overall and cancer-specific survival in patients with preoperative hydronephrosis (P = 0.005 and P = 0.026, respectively) and in patients with flank pain (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) than those without. However, only simultaneous hydronephrosis and flank pain independently predicted adverse outcome (hazard ratio = 1.98, P = 0.016 for overall survival and hazard ratio = 1.87, P = 0.036 for and cancer-specific survival, respectively) in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. In addition, concurrent presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain was also significantly predictive of worse survival in patient with high grade or muscle-invasive disease. Notably, there was no difference in survival between patients with hydronephrosis but devoid of flank pain and those without hydronephrosis. Conclusion Concurrent preoperative presence of hydronephrosis and flank pain predicted non-organ-confined status of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. When

  7. Obesity is associated with worse overall survival in women with low grade papillary serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Rebecca; Kilgore, Joshua; Craven, Renatta; Broadwater, Gloria; Bean, Sarah; Wobker, Sara; DiFurio, Megan; Bae-Jump, Victoria; Gehrig, Paola A.; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate prognostic risk factors for survival in women with low grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (LGSC). Methods A multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with LGSC was conducted. Potential epidemiologic risk factors evaluated included obesity, age, parity, race, smoking, oral contraceptive pill and/or hormonal replacement therapy use, and previous hysterectomy or surgery on fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. Additional factors included stage, extent of debulking, residual disease, and disease status. Results Eighty-one patients were identified, and pathological diagnosis was independently confirmed. Median age of diagnosis was 56 years (range: 21 to 86). Thirty-four percent were obese, and 80% had optimally debulked disease. Forty-six percent were alive, 14% with disease; while 25% were dead of disease; 2% died of intercurrent disease; and 27% had an unknown status. In a univariate analysis, optimal surgical debulking was associated with improved PFS (p=0.01), DSS (p=0.03), and OS (p<0.001 and BMI with worse OS (p=0.05). On multivariate analysis, obesity (HR=2.8; 95% CI=1.05-7.3; p=0.04) and optimal tumor debulking (HR=0.05; 95% CI=0.008-0.29; p=0.001) were a significant predictor of OS. Conclusions In a multivariate analysis, obesity and optimal tumor cytoreduction were significant predictors of OS. However, obesity was not associated with worse DSS, suggesting that mortality of obese patients with LGSC may result from other co-morbidities. Interventions addressing obesity may improve survival for women diagnosed with LGSC and further study is warranted to address the role of obesity in LGSC. PMID:24614825

  8. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; He, Du; Yang, Liang; Wen, Bo; Dai, Jinfen; Zhang, Qian; Kang, Jian; He, Weiyang; Ding, Qianshan; He, De

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • TRIM26 is down-regulated in liver cancer samples and functions as a novel tumor suppressor. • Down-regulation of TRIM26 is associated with worse prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Knockdown of TRIM26 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. • TRIM26 may function in abnormal metabolic progress of HCC.

  9. Extremes of Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression Associate with Worse Outcomes in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Caceres, Silvia M; Kret, Jennifer E; Poch, Katie R; Strand, Matthew; Faino, Anna V; Nichols, David P; Saavedra, Milene T; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Geraci, Mark W; Burnham, Ellen L; Fessler, Michael B; Suratt, Benjamin T; Abraham, Edward; Moss, Marc; Malcolm, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) severity may be influenced by heterogeneity of neutrophil activation. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons, often as a response to viral infections, which evokes extensive immunomodulation. We tested the hypothesis that over- or under-expression of immunomodulatory ISG by neutrophils is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of circulating neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 19) were used to characterize ISG expression. Hierarchical clustering of expression identified 3 distinct subject groups with Low, Mid and High ISG expression. ISG accounting for the greatest variability in expression were identified (MX1, IFIT1, and ISG15) and used to analyze a prospective cohort at the Colorado ARDS Network site. One hundred twenty ARDS patients from four urban hospitals were enrolled within 72 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from patients and expression of ISG determined by PCR. Samples were stratified by standard deviation from the mean into High (n = 21), Mid, (n = 82) or Low (n = 17) ISG expression. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with High or Low ISG expression to those with Mid-range expression. At enrollment, there were no differences in age, gender, co-existing medical conditions, or type of physiologic injury between cohorts. After adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI, patients with either High or Low ISG expression had significantly worse clinical outcomes than those in the Mid for number of 28-day ventilator- and ICU-free days (P = 0.0006 and 0.0004), as well as 90-day mortality and 90-day home with unassisted breathing (P = 0.02 and 0.004). These findings suggest extremes of ISG expression by circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients recovered early in the syndrome are associated

  10. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry), muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press) and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days) will be assessed at baseline (Week 0), following the intervention (Week 11), and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24) by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the effects of progressive

  11. Relationships of posttraumatic stress symptoms and sleep measures to cognitive performance in young-adult African Americans.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Brown, Tyish S Hall; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and disrupted sleep have been independently linked to cognitive deficits; however, synergistic effects of PTSD and poor sleep on cognition have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms and objectively measured disruptions to sleep on cognitive function. Forty-four young-adult African American urban residents comprised the study sample. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995) was utilized to determine the severity of PTSD symptoms. Participants underwent 2 consecutive nights of polysomnography. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (Reeves, Winter, Bleiberg, & Kang, ) was utilized to assess sustained attention and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Schmidt, ) was used to evaluate verbal memory. PTSD symptom severity, r(42) = .40, p = .007, was significantly associated with omission errors on the sustained attention task, and sleep duration, r(42) = .41, p = .006, and rapid eye movement sleep, r(42) = .43, p = .003, were positively correlated with verbal memory. There was an interaction of PTSD symptom severity and sleep duration on omission errors such that more than 7 hours 12 minutes of sleep mitigated attentional lapses that were associated with PTSD. PMID:24740871

  12. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  13. Similarities and Differences in the Determinants of Trips Outdoors Performed by UK Urban- and Rural-Living Older Adults.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Jolanthe L; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of trips outdoors is a strong indicator of older adults' physical activity levels. This qualitative study compared and contrasted determinants of trips outdoors between rural- (n = 13) and urban-living (n = 15) people aged 65 and older living in England. Interview transcripts were analyzed through directed and summative content analysis employing the Ecological Model framework. Some personal-level determinants (age-related barriers) and environment-level factors (car dependence, bus services) were shared across samples. The main differences were seen in how a community-based social network instigated trips outdoors for rural participants while family ties mostly led to trips outdoors for urban-living participants. Urban participants used and valued recreational facilities, but rural participants did not report them as important in determining trips outdoors. Strategies to improve public transport and minimize age-related barriers may translate from urban to rural contexts. However, social and/or physical environment interventions could be more effective if they were rural-grounded, not urban-translated. PMID:25562468

  14. Clinical assessment of spectral modulation detection for adult cochlear implant recipients: A non-language based measure of performance outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Spahr, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Spectral modulation detection (SMD) provides a psychoacoustic estimate of spectral resolution. The SMD threshold for an implanted ear is highly correlated with speech understanding and is thus a non-linguistic, psychoacoustic index of speech understanding. This measure, however, is time and equipment intensive and thus not practical for clinical use. Thus the purpose of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of a quick SMD task with the following three study aims: (1) to investigate the correlation between the long psychoacoustic, and quick SMD tasks, (2) to determine the test/retest variability of the quick SMD task, and (3) to evaluate the relationship between the quick SMD task and speech understanding. Design This study included a within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Study sample Seventy-six adult cochlear implant recipients participated. Results The results were as follows: (1) there was a significant correlation between the long psychoacoustic, and quick SMD tasks, (2) the test-retest variability of the quick SMD task was highly significant and, (3) there was a significant positive correlation between the quick SMD task and monosyllabic word recognition. Conclusions The results of this study represent the direct clinical translation of a research-proven task of SMD into a quick, clinically feasible format. PMID:24456178

  15. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms. PMID:22253623

  16. Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczysław; Klimańska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

  17. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  18. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of oral pain and eating problems among adult and senior Spaniards in the national survey performed in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio; Llodra, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain and chewing difficulties have been identified as the strongest predictors of oral disadvantage. The aim of this study is to analyze and quantify the sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical factors modulating the oral pain and eating difficulties reported by Spanish adults and elderly Spanish people in the last National Oral Health Survey performed in 2010. Material and Methods Data concerning pain and chewing difficulties were acquired on a Likert‑scale format from a representative sample of the Spanish general population with ages between 35-44 years (n=391) and 65‑74 years (n=405). Risk factors were identified using bivariate analysis, after which the crude association between risk factors (sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical) and outcome variables (pain and eating problems) was assessed by adjusted odds ratios, calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Results Eating problems and oral pain were mainly associated with prosthetic and caries treatment needs as clinical predictors, but female sex was also seen to be a relevant and significant risk factor for suffering pain and eating restrictions. Paradoxically, after taking into account all the aforementioned predictors, the adults had an almost two‑fold higher risk of reporting pain or eating difficulties than the elderly subjects. Conclusions In agreement with the results from the last national oral health survey, prosthetic and caries treatment needs should be considered key factors in determining the oral well‑being of the Spanish population. In sociodemographic terms, the women and adults were seen to be at a significantly higher risk of suffering pain and eating restrictions. Key words: Oral pain, eating difficulties, oral health‑related quality of life, epidemiological studies, self‑assessment. PMID:25858078

  19. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  20. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  1. Performance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    High performance is difficult to maintain because it is dynamic and not well understood. Based on a synthesis of many sources, a model is proposed where performance is a function of the balance between capacity and challenge. Too much challenge produces coping (or a crash); excess capacity results in boredom. Over time, peak performance drifts toward boredom. Performance can be managed by adjusting our level of ability, our effort, the opportunity to perform, and the challenge we agree to take on. Coping, substandard but acceptable performance, is common among professionals and its long-term side effects can be debilitating. A crash occurs when coping mechanisms fail. PMID:17020177

  2. Dark Energy, or Worse

    ScienceCinema

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2010-01-08

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  3. Dark Energy, or Worse

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Sean

    2006-11-13

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  4. Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Liu, Xingbo; Sim, Don; Benner, Chance M; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Qian, Yanrong; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kim, Jason K; Kopchick, John J

    2016-05-01

    GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1. PMID:27035649

  5. Improved motor and cognitive performance with sodium nitrite supplementation is related to small metabolite signatures: a pilot trial in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    DeVan, Allison E.; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Reisdorph, Nichole; Bassett, Candace J.; Evans, Trent D.; Brooks, Forrest A.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Giordano, Tony; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with reductions in nitric oxide bioavailability and changes in metabolic activity, which are implicated in declines in motor and cognitive function. In preclinical models, sodium nitrite supplementation (SN) increases plasma nitrite and improves motor function, whereas other nitric oxide-boosting agents improve cognitive function. This pilot study was designed to translate these findings to middle-aged and older (MA/O) humans to provide proof-of-concept support for larger trials. SN (10 weeks, 80 or 160 mg/day capsules, TheraVasc, Inc.) acutely and chronically increased plasma nitrite and improved performance on measures of motor and cognitive outcomes (all p<0.05 or better) in healthy MA/O adults (62 ± 7 years). Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that SN significantly altered 33 (160 mg/day) to 45 (80 mg/day) different metabolites, 13 of which were related to changes in functional outcomes; baseline concentrations of 99 different metabolites predicted functional improvements with SN. This pilot study provides the first evidence that SN improves aspects of motor and cognitive function in healthy MA/O adults, and that these improvements are associated with, and predicted by, the plasma metabolome. Our findings provide the necessary support for larger clinical trials on this promising pharmacological strategy for preserving physiological function with aging. PMID:26626856

  6. Improved motor and cognitive performance with sodium nitrite supplementation is related to small metabolite signatures: a pilot trial in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Justice, Jamie N; Johnson, Lawrence C; DeVan, Allison E; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Reisdorph, Nichole; Bassett, Candace J; Evans, Trent D; Brooks, Forrest A; Bryan, Nathan S; Chonchol, Michel B; Giordano, Tony; McQueen, Matthew B; Seals, Douglas R

    2015-11-01

    Advancing age is associated with reductions in nitric oxide bioavailability and changes in metabolic activity, which are implicated in declines in motor and cognitive function. In preclinical models, sodium nitrite supplementation (SN) increases plasma nitrite and improves motor function, whereas other nitric oxide-boosting agents improve cognitive function. This pilot study was designed to translate these findings to middle-aged and older (MA/O) humans to provide proof-of-concept support for larger trials. SN (10 weeks, 80 to 160 mg/day capsules, TheraVasc, Inc.) acutely and chronically increased plasma nitrite and improved performance on measures of motor and cognitive outcomes (all p<0.05 or better) in healthy MA/O adults (62 ± 7 years). Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that SN significantly altered 33 (160 mg/day) to 45 (80 mg/day) different metabolites, 13 of which were related to changes in functional outcomes; baseline concentrations of 99 different metabolites predicted functional improvements with SN. This pilot study provides the first evidence that SN improves aspects of motor and cognitive function in healthy MA/O adults, and that these improvements are associated with, and predicted by, the plasma metabolome. Our findings provide the necessary support for larger clinical trials on this promising pharmacological strategy for preserving physiological function with aging. PMID:26626856

  7. The effect of early musical training on adult motor performance: evidence for a sensitive period in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Penhune, Virginia; Watanabe, Donald; Savion-Lemieux, Tal

    2005-12-01

    This experiment demonstrates that musicians who began training before age seven perform better on a rhythmic tapping task than musicians who began after the age of seven, when the two groups are matched for years of experience. These results support the idea that there may be a sensitive period in childhood for motor training, similar to that observed for language learning. PMID:16597774

  8. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic...

  9. Nurses' Perceptions of Role, Team Performance, and Education Regarding Resuscitation in the Adult Medical-Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Sharon C; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Fealy, Natalie; Saba, Christine R; Smith, Stacey; McHugh, Allison T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perception of their roles, team performance, and educational needs during resuscitation using an electronic survey. Findings provide direction for clinical practice, nursing education, and future research to improve resuscitation care. PMID:26665866

  10. Experienced stress produces inhibitory deficits in old adults' Flanker task performance: First evidence for lifetime stress effects beyond memory.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R; Geeraert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Studies regarding aged individuals' performance on the Flanker task differ with respect to reporting impaired or intact executive control. Past work has explained this discrepancy by hypothesising that elderly individuals use increased top-down control mechanisms advantageous to Flanker performance. This study investigated this mechanism, focussing on cumulative experienced stress as a factor that may impact on its execution, thereby leading to impaired performance. Thirty elderly and thirty young participants completed a version of the Flanker task paired with electroencephalographic recordings of the alpha frequency, whose increased synchronisation indexes inhibitory processes. Among high stress elderly individuals, findings revealed a general slowing of reaction times for congruent and incongruent stimuli, which correlated with alpha desynchronisation for both stimulus categories. Results found high performing (low stress) elderly revealed neither a behavioural nor electrophysiological difference compared to young participants. Therefore, rather than impacting on top-down compensatory mechanisms, findings indicate that stress may affect elderly participants' inhibitory control in attentional and sensorimotor domains. PMID:26542527

  11. Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Dodd, Fiona L; Robertson, Bernadette C; Okello, Edward J; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Haskell, Crystal F

    2011-08-01

    Extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis/lavandulaefolia) with terpenoid constituents have previously been shown to inhibit cholinesterase and improve cognitive function. The current study combined an in vitro investigation of the cholinesterase inhibitory properties and phytochemical constituents of a S. lavandulaefolia essential oil, with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study assessing the effects of a single dose on cognitive performance and mood. In this latter investigation 36 healthy participants received capsules containing either 50 µL of the essential oil or placebo on separate occasions, 7 days apart. Cognitive function was assessed using a selection of computerized memory and attention tasks and the Cognitive Demand Battery before the treatment and 1-h and 4-h post-dose. The essential oil was a potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and consisted almost exclusively of monoterpenoids. Oral consumption lead to improved performance of secondary memory and attention tasks, most notably at the 1-h post-dose testing session, and reduced mental fatigue and increased alertness which were more pronounced 4-h post-dose. These results extend previous observations of improved cognitive performance and mood following AChE inhibitory sage extracts and suggest that the ability of well-tolerated terpenoid-containing extracts to beneficially modulate cholinergic function and cognitive performance deserves further attention. PMID:20937617

  12. An Accelerometer-Based Handheld System to Reduce Breaks in Performance of Young Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Zhi-Zhan

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a system that reduced breaks in performance. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  13. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale…

  14. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism is Associated with Verbal but not Visual Memory Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-03-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific

  15. Home based exercise to improve turning and mobility performance among community dwelling older adults: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Turning is a common activity for older people, and is one of the activities commonly associated with falls during walking. Falls that occur while walking and turning have also been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in older people. Despite the importance of stability during turning, there has been little focus on identifying this impairment in at risk older people, or in evaluating interventions aiming to improve this outcome. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 week tailored home based exercise program in older adults aged (50 years and above) who were identified as having unsteadiness during turning. Methods/Design A single blind randomized controlled trial will be conducted, with assessors blind to group allocation. Study participants will be aged 50 years and above, living in the community and have been identified as having impaired turning ability [outside of age and gender normal limits on the Step Quick Turn (180 degree turn) task on the Neurocom® Balance Master with long plate]. After a comprehensive baseline assessment, those classified as having balance impairment while turning will be randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive a 16 week individualized balance and strength home exercise program, based on the Otago Exercise Program with additional exercises focused on improving turning ability. Intervention group will attend four visit to the assessment centre over 16 weeks period, for provision, monitoring, modification of the exercise and encourage ongoing participation. Participants in the control group will continue with their usual activities. All participants will be re-assessed on completion of the 16 week program. Primary outcome measures will be the Step Quick Turn Test and Timed-Up and Go test. Secondary outcomes will include other clinical measures of balance, psychological aspects of falls, incidence of falls and falls risk factors. Discussion Results of this study

  16. Skeletal muscle myofilament adaptations to aging, disease, and disuse and their effects on whole muscle performance in older adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Callahan, Damien M.; Toth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with aging, disease, and disuse. In vivo muscle contractile function depends on a variety of factors, but force, contractile velocity and power generating capacity ultimately derive from the summed contribution of single muscle fibers. The contractile performance of these fibers are, in turn, dependent upon the isoform and function of myofilament proteins they express, with myosin protein expression and its mechanical and kinetic characteristics playing a predominant role. Alterations in myofilament protein biology, therefore, may contribute to the development of functional limitations and disability in these conditions. Recent studies suggest that these conditions are associated with altered single fiber performance due to decreased expression of myofilament proteins and/or changes in myosin-actin cross-bridge interactions. Furthermore, cellular and myofilament-level adaptations are related to diminished whole muscle and whole body performance. Notably, the effect of these various conditions on myofilament and single fiber function tends to be larger in older women compared to older men, which may partially contribute to their higher rates of disability. To maintain functionality and provide the most appropriate and effective countermeasures to aging, disease, and disuse in both sexes, a more thorough understanding is needed of the contribution of myofilament adaptations to functional disability in older men and women and their contribution to tissue level function and mobility impairment. PMID:25309456

  17. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  18. An age-related shift of resting-state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: a potential mechanism for compensating motor performance decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathys, Christian; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Caspers, Julian; Caspers, Svenja; Südmeyer, Martin; Grefkes, Christian; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Langner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline in basic motor functioning and higher motor control. Here, we investigated age-related differences in the brain-wide functional connectivity (FC) pattern of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which plays an important role in motor response control. As earlier studies revealed functional coupling between STN and basal ganglia, which both are known to influence the conservativeness of motor responses on a superordinate level, we tested the hypothesis that STN FC with the striatum becomes dysbalanced with age. To this end, we performed a seed-based resting-state analysis of fMRI data from 361 healthy adults (mean age: 41.8, age range: 18–85) using bilateral STN as the seed region of interest. Age was included as a covariate to identify regions showing age-related changes of FC with the STN seed. The analysis revealed positive FC of the STN with several previously described subcortical and cortical regions like the anterior cingulate and sensorimotor cortex, as well as not-yet reported regions including central and posterior insula. With increasing age, we observed reduced positive FC with caudate nucleus, thalamus, and insula as well as increased positive FC with sensorimotor cortex and putamen. Furthermore, an age-related reduction of negative FC was found with precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. We suggest that this reduced de-coupling of brain areas involved in self-relevant but motor-unrelated cognitive processing (i.e. precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) from the STN motor network may represent a potential mechanism behind the age-dependent decline in motor performance. At the same time, older adults appear to compensate for this decline by releasing superordinate motor control areas, in particular caudate nucleus and insula, from STN interference while increasing STN-mediated response control over lower level motor areas like sensorimotor cortex and putamen. PMID:25100995

  19. A Structural Examination of Academic Integration, Perceived Stress, Academic Performance, and Goal Commitment from an Elaborated Model of Adult Student Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    The effects of selected variables on the academic persistence of adult students were examined in a study of a random sample of 469 adult students aged 24 years or older enrolled in a four-year college. The survey questionnaire, the Adult Student Experiences Survey, collected data regarding 12 endogenous variables and 13 exogenous variables…

  20. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  1. A functional variant in MIR137, a candidate gene for schizophrenia, affects Stroop test performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; González-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Forero, Diego A

    2016-02-28

    MIR137, a brain expressed miRNA, has been identified as a top novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). 230 healthy participants completed the Stroop test and were genotyped for a functional Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) in MIR137 gene. MIR137 VNTR genotypes were associated with differences in Stroop facilitation and accuracies in congruent trials and for the total number of errors. This is the first study of the functional VNTR in MIR137 gene and Stroop test performance in healthy subjects. Our results could have important implications for the identification of genetic candidates for endophenotypes for SZ. PMID:26778630

  2. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Thomas, Enlli M.; Kennedy, Ivan; Prys, Cynog; Young, Nia; Viñas Guasch, Nestor; Roberts, Emily J.; Hughes, Emma K.; Jones, Leah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorting, Simon, and a metalinguistic judgment task (650, 557, and 354 participants, respectively) reveal little support for a bilingual advantage, either in relation to control or globally. Primarily there is no difference in performance across groups, but there is occasionally better performance by monolinguals or persons dominant in the language being tested, and in one case-in one condition and in one age group-lower performance by the monolinguals. The lack of evidence for a bilingual advantage in these simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals suggests the need for much closer scrutiny of what type of bilingual might demonstrate the reported effects, under what conditions, and why. PMID:24550853

  3. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks.

    PubMed

    Gathercole, Virginia C Mueller; Thomas, Enlli M; Kennedy, Ivan; Prys, Cynog; Young, Nia; Viñas Guasch, Nestor; Roberts, Emily J; Hughes, Emma K; Jones, Leah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorting, Simon, and a metalinguistic judgment task (650, 557, and 354 participants, respectively) reveal little support for a bilingual advantage, either in relation to control or globally. Primarily there is no difference in performance across groups, but there is occasionally better performance by monolinguals or persons dominant in the language being tested, and in one case-in one condition and in one age group-lower performance by the monolinguals. The lack of evidence for a bilingual advantage in these simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals suggests the need for much closer scrutiny of what type of bilingual might demonstrate the reported effects, under what conditions, and why. PMID:24550853

  4. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management. PMID:25819519

  5. Age and physical activity effects on reaction time and digit symbol substitution performance in cognitively active adults.

    PubMed

    Lupinacci, N S; Rikli, R E; Jones, C J; Ross, D

    1993-06-01

    University professors (N = 56), divided into two age groups (< 50 years and > 50 years) and two physical activity level groups (high and low), were tested on three tasks requiring increasingly complex cognitive processing--simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), and on a digit symbol substitution test (DSST). A significant main effect for exercise, with high active subjects performing better than low active subjects, was found for SRT (p < .001) and CRT (p < .01) but not for DSST (p < .09). Significant main effects for age, with younger subjects performing better than older subjects, were found on DSST (p < .01) and CRT (p < .05) but not for SRT (p < .09). The observation that the effect of age was more pronounced with increasing task complexity is consistent with previous research. However, the tendency for exercise effects to decrease with increasing task complexity is not consistent with former findings, suggesting that perhaps the controlled high level of cognitive activity of subjects in this study may have offset the usual effects of exercise on information processing speed. No significant Age x Activity Level interactions were found on any of the dependent raw score data. However, compared to normative scores of the population at large, there was a slight increase in DSST percentile ranks with age for the older aerobically active professors, whereas a decrease occurred for the inactive subjects. PMID:8341837

  6. Social determinants of health and periodontal disease in Brazilian adults: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, increasing importance has been placed on the social determinants of health and disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in Brazilian adults and identify possible relationships with social determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 743 adults (aged 35–49 years) living in an urban area of a large city in southeastern Brazil. The condition of the periodontium was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to the diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The variables related to social determinants were collected using a structured questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of all study variables was performed. Multiple correspondence analysis was subsequently performed to identify relationships between periodontal disease and the social determinants of health. Results The periodontal exams showed that 36.5% of adults had a healthy periodontium, 2.0% had gingival bleeding, 47.1% had calculus and 9.5% had periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. Periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more were the worst periodontal condition found (affecting only 2.1% of the participants). The correspondence analysis enabled us to form three groups with different profiles. The first group was distinguished by the presence of bleeding (gingivitis) or a healthy periodontium. The members of this group were typically aged 35 to 39 years and had 9–12 years or more than 12 years of education. The second group consisted of subjects with calculus and periodontal pockets of 4–5 mm. The members of this group were typically white men aged 40–44 years with incomes greater than $ 300.00. The third group was distinguished by the presence of periodontal pockets of 6 mm or more. The members of this group were typically adult females, black and mixed individuals who had 8 years or less of schooling, individuals with incomes ≤ $ 300.00 and widowers

  7. Massive Gains in IQ Do Not Appear to Extend to the Elderly: A Note on Adult Australian Inpatient Performance on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1938) and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivison, David

    1990-01-01

    Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Simpson Adult Vocabulary Scale were administered to 400 Australian hospitalized adults without psychiatric or neurological impairment in 4 age groups from 30 to 69 years. Compared to pre-1964 data, the subjects did not show gains in intelligence quotient as did younger age groups. (SLD)

  8. CAVEOLIN-1 expression in brain metastasis from lung cancer predicts worse outcome and radioresistance, irrespective of tumor histotype

    PubMed Central

    Pittaro, Alessandra; Verdun di Cantogno, Ludovica; Stella, Giulia; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zorzetto, Michele; Mantovani, Cristina; Papotti, Mauro; Cassoni, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases develop in one-third of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and are associated with a dismal prognosis, irrespective of surgery or chemo-radiotherapy. Pathological markers for predicting outcomes after surgical resection and radiotherapy responsiveness are still lacking. Caveolin 1 has been associated with chemo- and radioresistance in various tumors, including non-small-cell lung cancer. Here, caveolin 1 expression was assessed in a series of 69 brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer and matched primary tumors to determine its role in predicting survival and radiotherapy responsiveness. Only caveolin 1 expression in brain metastasis was associated with poor prognosis and an increased risk of death (log rank test, p = 0.015). Moreover, in the younger patients (median age of <54 years), caveolin 1 expression neutralized the favorable effect of young age on survival compared with the older patients. Among the radiotherapy-treated patients, an increased risk of death was detected in the group with caveolin 1-positive brain metastasis (14 out of 22 patients, HR=6.839, 95% CI 1.849 to 25.301, Wald test p = 0.004). Overall, caveolin 1 expression in brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer is independently predictive of worse outcome and radioresistance and could become an additional tool for personalized therapy in the critical subset of brain-metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer patients. PMID:26315660

  9. Do patients with isolated Pierre Robin Sequence have worse outcomes after cleft palate repair: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wan, Teng; Chen, Yang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-08-01

    Cleft palate repair for Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) patients has always been a challenge for surgeons and anesthetists. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the outcome of cleft palate repair for PRS patients compared with cleft palate-only patients. All papers published before October 2014 were searched in the databases PubMed and MEDLINE. Search terms included "Pierre Robin Sequence," "cleft palate repair," and "speech result." Additional studies were identified by hand searching the reference lists of the papers retrieved from electronic search. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the studies. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. All but one study had multiple deficiencies in study designs. Four studies assessed the fistula rate of both groups, and all studies assessed some aspect of the speech results. Conflicting results and a lack of high-quality and long-term outcomes of reviewed studies provided no conclusive scientific evidence about whether the outcome of cleft palate repair for PRS patients was better or worse than cleft palate-only patients. Further well-designed, well-controlled, and long-term studies are needed. PMID:26187812

  10. CASP8 SNP D302H (rs1045485) Is Associated with Worse Survival in MYCN-Amplified Neuroblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rihani, Ali; De Wilde, Bram; Zeka, Fjoralba; Laureys, Geneviève; Francotte, Nadine; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Coco, Simona; Versteeg, Rogier; Noguera, Rosa; Schulte, Johannes H.; Eggert, Angelika; Stallings, Raymond L.; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Van Maerken, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer that exhibits a wide clinical spectrum ranging from spontaneous regression in low-risk patients to fatal disease in high-risk patients. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help explain the heterogeneity of neuroblastoma and assist in identifying patients at higher risk for poor survival. SNPs in the TP53 pathway are of special importance, as several studies have reported associations between TP53 pathway SNPs and cancer. Of note, less than 2% of neuroblastoma tumors have a TP53 mutation at diagnosis. Patients and Methods We selected 21 of the most frequently studied SNPs in the TP53 pathway and evaluated their association with outcome in 500 neuroblastoma patients using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Results and Conclusion We investigated the impact of 21 SNPs on overall survival, event-free survival, age at diagnosis, MYCN status, and stage of the disease in 500 neuroblastoma patients. A missense SNP in exon 10 of the CASP8 gene SNP D302H was associated with worse overall and event-free survival in patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma tumors. PMID:25502557

  11. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally. PMID:26404018

  12. Ultra-Rapid Categorization of Meaningful Real-Life Scenes in Adults With and Without ASD.

    PubMed

    Vanmarcke, Steven; Van Der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-02-01

    In comparison to typically developing (TD) individuals, people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to be worse in the fast extraction of the global meaning of a situation or picture. Ultra-rapid categorization [paradigm developed by Thorpe et al. (Nature 381:520-522, 1996)] involves such global information processing. We therefore tested a group of adults with and without ASD, without intellectual disability, on a set of ultra-rapid categorization tasks. Individuals with ASD performed equally well as TD individuals except when the task required the categorization of social interactions. These results argue against a general deficit in ultra-rapid gist perception in people with ASD, while suggesting a more specific problem with the fast processing of information about social relations. PMID:26349920

  13. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation. PMID:24587400

  14. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  15. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875

  16. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  17. Effects of long-term agomelatine treatment on the cognitive performance and hippocampal plasticity of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Demir Özkay, Ümide; Söztutar, Erdem; Can, Özgür Devrim; Üçel, Umut İrfan; Öztürk, Yusuf; Ulupinar, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a distinct pharmacological mechanism of action as an MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. We evaluated the chronic effects of agomelatine administration (40 mg/kg, 20 weeks) on the cognitive performance of rats in the Morris water maze task. We applied unbiased stereological quantification methods to estimate the total numbers of granular and pyramidal neurons located in the dorsal hippocampus. We also analyzed the dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region using the Golgi-Cox impregnation method. The agomelatine-treated group found the hidden platform more quickly than did the control group and spent significantly more time in the target quadrant. Agomelatine administration caused significant volumetric and numerical enhancements in granular and pyramidal neurons in the dentate gyrus and CA1-3 subregions, respectively. Increased densities of the mushroom and stubby types of spines, with no alteration in the thin-shaped spines, were observed in the agomelatine-treated group. These results showed that long-term agomelatine administration induced a nootropic effect supported by structural changes. Enhancement of the more stable types of dendritic spines might indicate improved adaptive capacity in hippocampal neurons. Future studies will provide a better understanding of the effect of this drug on synaptic plasticity. PMID:26110225

  18. Emotion recognition in depression: An investigation of performance and response confidence in adult female patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Fieker, Martina; Moritz, Steffen; Köther, Ulf; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-08-30

    Abnormalities in emotion recognition are frequently reported in depression. However, emotion recognition is not compromised in some studies, and confidence judgments, which are essential for social interaction, have not been considered to date. Due to the high prevalence rate of depression in women, and sex differences in emotion recognition, the aim of the present study was to investigate emotion recognition and confidence judgments in women with depression. A sample of female patients with depressive disorders (n=45) was compared with female healthy controls (n=30) in their ability to correctly identify facial emotion expressions along with confidence judgments. Groups performed similarly on emotional face recognition and showed no difference regarding confidence ratings. A negative correlation between self-assessed depression and response confidence was found. While some limitations of the study must be taken in consideration (e.g., small number of items per emotion category, low severity of depression), abnormalities in emotion recognition do not seem to be a major feature of depression. As self-assessed depression is accompanied by low response confidence for emotional faces, it is crucial to further examine the role of confidence judgments in emotion recognition, as underconfidence may foster interpersonal insecurity in depression. PMID:27294796

  19. Puzzling With Online Games (BAM-COG): Reliability, Validity, and Feasibility of an Online Self-Monitor for Cognitive Performance in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Maria A E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    ) respectively. The game Viewpoint provided less desirable results with an AFR ICC of .167, CV rho=.202 (P=.15), and DV rho=−.162 (P=.21). Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of the BAM-COG test battery as a feasible, reliable, and valid tool to monitor cognitive performance in healthy adults in an online setting. Three out of four games have good psychometric characteristics to measure working memory, visuospatial short-term memory, and planning capacity. PMID:24300212

  20. Effects of low-pass filtering on the perception of word-final plurality markers in children and adults with normal hearing

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Hodson, Hannah; McCreery, Ryan W.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Buss, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-pass filtering on the detection of word-final /s/ and /z/ for children and adults with normal hearing. Method Stimuli were nouns from the UWO Plurals Test (Glista & Scollie, 2012), low-pass filtered with five different cutoff frequencies: 8000, 5000, 4000, 3000, and 2000 Hz. Listeners were children (age range = 7 to 13 years) and adults with normal hearing. The task was a two-alternative forced-choice with a picture-pointing response. Results Performance was worse for lower than for higher low-pass filter cutoff frequencies, but the effect of low-pass filtering was similar for children and adults. Nearly all listeners achieved 100%-correct performance when stimuli were low-pass filtered with cutoff frequencies of 8000 or 5000 Hz. Performance remained well above chance even for the most severe filtering condition (2000 Hz). Restricting high-frequency audibility influenced performance for plural items to a greater extent than for singular items. Conclusions The results indicate that children and adults with normal hearing can use acoustic information below the spectral range of frication noise typically associated with /s/ and /z/ to discriminate between singular and plural forms of nouns in the context of the UWO Plurals Test. PMID:25036654

  1. Inability to perform because of pain/injury in elite adult Irish dance: A prospective investigation of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, R; O'Sullivan, P; Purtill, H; Bargary, N; Ni Bhriain, O; O'Sullivan, K

    2016-06-01

    Previous research in Irish dancing (ID) has recorded high levels of pain/injury. Screening protocols in other genres have been developed to identify at-risk dancers. The aims of the study were to examine the factors that relate to absence from dancing because of musculo-skeletal pain/injury in ID, and to inform guidelines for the development of an evidence-based screening protocol. Baseline subjective data (n = 85) and physical data (n = 84) were gathered. Subjects completed a monthly online questionnaire for 1 year providing data on general physical and psychological health and rates of pain/injury. Subjects were allocated to a "More Time Absent (MTA)" or "Less Time Absent (LTA)" category depending on their duration of absence from performance over the year. Eighty-four subjects completed the year-long follow-up (MTA: n = 32; LTA: n = 52). Two hundred seventy-eight complaints of pain/injury were recorded. Factors significantly associated with membership of the MTA group included greater anger-hostility (P = 0.003), more subjective health complaints (P = 0.026), more severe previous pain/injury (P = 0.017), more general everyday pain (P = 0.020), more body parts affected by pain/injury (P = 0.028), always/often dancing in pain (P = 0.028), and insufficient sleep (P = 0.043). Several biopsychosocial factors appear to be associated with absence from ID because of pain/injury. Biopsychosocial screening protocols and prevention strategies may best identify at-risk dancers. PMID:26040202

  2. Prenatal exposure to 900 MHz, cell-phone electromagnetic fields had no effect on operant-behavior performances of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bornhausen, M; Scheingraber, H

    2000-12-01

    To clarify potential health risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) used in cellular telephone technology to the developing brain, Wistar rats were continuously exposed during pregnancy to a low-level (0.1 mW/cm(2)) 900 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulated EMF that approximated the highest legal exposure of normal populations to the radiation of base antennas of the GSM digital cell-phone technology. Whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) values for the freely roaming, pregnant animals were measured in models; they ranged between 17.5 and 75 mW/kg. The offspring of exposed and of sham-exposed dams were coded and tested later as adults in a battery of ten simultaneously operated test chambers (Skinner boxes) during night time. Eight groups of ten coded animals in each group were tested for learning deficits in a sequence of nine, computer-controlled, 15 h sessions of the food-reinforced contingency Differential Reinforcement of Rate with increasing performance requirements. Two different sets of events were recorded: The food-reinforced lever-pressing activity of the animals and the inter-response intervals (IRIs) between consecutive lever presses. IRI-occurence patterns discriminated consistently between "learners" and "non-learners". Analyses of performance scores and of IRI-patterns both showed that exposure in-utero to the GSM field did not induce any measurable cognitive deficits. PMID:11102946

  3. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Detects Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction among Adult Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anthony F.; Raikhelkar, Jayant; Zabor, Emily C.; Tonorezos, Emily S.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Adsuar, Roberto; Mara, Elton; Huie, Kevin; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Steingart, Richard M.; Liu, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) provides a sensitive measure of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and may aid in the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity. 2DSTE was performed in a cross-sectional study of 134 patients (mean age: 31.4 ± 8.8 years; 55% male; mean time since diagnosis: 15.4 ± 9.4 years) previously treated with anthracyclines (mean cumulative dose: 320 ± 124 mg/m2), with (n = 52) or without (n = 82) mediastinal radiotherapy. The prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction, defined as fractional shortening < 27%, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 55%, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) ≤ 16%, was 5.2%, 6.0%, and 23.1%, respectively. Abnormal GLS was observed in 24 (18%) patients despite a normal LVEF. Indices of LV systolic function were similar regardless of anthracycline dose. However, GLS was worse (18.0 versus 19.0, p = 0.003) and prevalence of abnormal GLS was higher (36.5% versus 14.6%, p = 0.004) in patients treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. Mediastinal radiotherapy was associated with reduced GLS (p = 0.040) after adjusting for sex, age, and cumulative anthracycline dose. In adult survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, 2DSTE frequently detects LV systolic dysfunction despite a normal LVEF and may be useful for the long-term cardiac surveillance of adult cancer survivors. PMID:26942202

  4. Executive function impairment and recidivism in adult protective services clients referred for a decision making capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Katherine A; Aamodt, Whitley W; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if recidivistic Adult Protective Services (APS) cases referred for a decision-making capacity assessment were more cognitively impaired than nonrecidivistic cases. A retrospective medical record review of neuropsychological and demographic data was gathered during decisional capacity assessments. Recidivistic clients were those referred to APS more than once; those with a single open case were nonrecidivistic. Mean neuropsychological test scores were compared between recidivistic (n = 138) and nonrecidivistic (n = 95) subjects. No significant differences were found for age, gender, ethnicity, education, or dwelling status. Both recidivistic and nonrecidivistic cases performed poorly in all cognitive domains. Recidivistic clients performed significantly worse on measures of executive function (CLOX1, EXIT25). Executive function impairments seem to be one risk factor for recidivism in APS referrals. With 60% of cases referred for decision capacity assessments being recidivistic, identifying risk factors may help identify when targeted interventions are indicated to preclude recurrence of abuse. PMID:25495662

  5. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  6. Sweet potato resistance to Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): larval performance adversely effected by adult's preference to tuber for food and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Yasuda, K; Sakai, T; Ichinose, K

    2014-08-01

    The preferences of the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), to tubers of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), for food and for oviposition were evaluated, and correlated to sweet potato's resistance to immatures. Adults (parent) were released in a plastic box containing tubers of sweet potato cultivars and maintained for 5 d, after which the adults on each tuber were counted. All adults were then removed and each tuber was maintained separately. New adults that emerged from the tubers were counted. Cultivars were grouped by cluster analyses using the number of parent adults on the tubers and the number of new adults emerging from the tubers, adjusted for the weight of each tuber. Cultivars were divided into five groups: average level of preference, preferred, preferred for oviposition but not for food, preferred for food but not for oviposition, and not preferred. New adults from the first two groups took less time to eclose than those from the other groups, and their body size was smaller. In a second experiment, one to five cultivars were selected from each group and inoculated each tuber with 10 weevil eggs on each cultivar. Although the proportion of eclosed adults was not significantly different between cultivars, the time to eclosion was shorter and body size was smaller on preferred cultivars. The selection of tubers by parent adults was not linearly related with larval development, and did not reduce the survival of the immatures. PMID:25195460

  7. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with altered n-back activation and performance in healthy adults: implications for a commonly used working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, S. Louisa; Albright, Sarah E.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that a history of early life stress (ELS) impacts working memory (WM) in adulthood. Despite the widespread use of WM paradigms, few studies have evaluated whether ELS exposure, in the absence of psychiatric illness, also impacts WM-associated brain activity in ways that might improve sensitivity to these ELS effects or provide insights into the mechanisms of these effects. This study evaluated whether ELS affects WM behavioral performance and task-associated activity by acquiring 3T functional images from 27 medication-free healthy adults (14 with ELS) during an N-back WM task that included 0- and 2-back components. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis was performed to evaluate WM activation, followed by region of interest analyses to evaluate relationships between activation and clinical variables. ELS was associated with poorer accuracy during the 2-back (79 %±19 vs. 92 %±9, p=0.049); accuracy and response time otherwise did not differ between groups. During the 0-back, ELS participants demonstrated increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus/insula, left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (both corrected p<0.001), and middle temporal and parahippocampal gyrus (MTG/PHG)(corrected p<0.010). During the 2-back, ELS was associated with greater activation in the IPL, MTG/PHG and inferior frontal gyrus (corrected p<0.001), with a trend towards precuneus activation (p=0.080). These findings support previous research showing that ELS is associated with impaired neurobehavioral performance and changes in brain activation, suggesting recruitment of additional cognitive resources during WM in ELS. Based on these findings, ELS screening in future WM imaging studies appears warranted. PMID:25804310

  8. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with altered n-back activation and performance in healthy adults: implications for a commonly used working memory task.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, S Louisa; Albright, Sarah E; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that a history of early life stress (ELS) impacts working memory (WM) in adulthood. Despite the widespread use of WM paradigms, few studies have evaluated whether ELS exposure, in the absence of psychiatric illness, also impacts WM-associated brain activity in ways that might improve sensitivity to these ELS effects or provide insights into the mechanisms of these effects. This study evaluated whether ELS affects WM behavioral performance and task-associated activity by acquiring 3T functional images from 27 medication-free healthy adults (14 with ELS) during an N-back WM task that included 0- and 2-back components. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis was performed to evaluate WM activation, followed by region of interest analyses to evaluate relationships between activation and clinical variables. ELS was associated with poorer accuracy during the 2-back (79 % ± 19 vs. 92 % ± 9, p = 0.049); accuracy and response time otherwise did not differ between groups. During the 0-back, ELS participants demonstrated increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus/insula, left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (both corrected p < 0.001), and middle temporal and parahippocampal gyrus (MTG/PHG)(corrected p < 0.010). During the 2-back, ELS was associated with greater activation in the IPL, MTG/PHG and inferior frontal gyrus (corrected p < 0.001), with a trend towards precuneus activation (p = 0.080). These findings support previous research showing that ELS is associated with impaired neurobehavioral performance and changes in brain activation, suggesting recruitment of additional cognitive resources during WM in ELS. Based on these findings, ELS screening in future WM imaging studies appears warranted. PMID:25804310

  9. Measuring the Performance of Attention Networks with the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB): Methodology and Reliability in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephanie A. H.; Butler, Beverly C.; Kintzel, Franziska; Johnson, Anne; Klein, Raymond M.; Eskes, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Attention is an important, multifaceted cognitive domain that has been linked to three distinct, yet interacting, networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. The measurement of attention and deficits of attention within these networks is critical to the assessment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions in both research and clinical settings. The Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB) was created to assess attentional functions related to the three attention networks using a range of tasks including: simple reaction time, go/no-go, choice reaction time, dual task, flanker, item and location working memory, and visual search. The current study provides preliminary normative data, test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations) and practice effects in DalCAB performance 24-h after baseline for healthy young adults (n = 96, 18–31 years). Performance on the DalCAB tasks demonstrated Good to Very Good test-retest reliability for mean reaction time, while accuracy and difference measures (e.g., switch costs, interference effects, and working memory load effects) were most reliable for tasks that require more extensive cognitive processing (e.g., choice reaction time, flanker, dual task, and conjunction search). Practice effects were common and pronounced at the 24-h interval. In addition, performance related to specific within-task parameters of the DalCAB sub-tests provides preliminary support for future formal assessment of the convergent validity of our interpretation of the DalCAB as a potential clinical and research assessment tool for measuring aspects of attention related to the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. PMID:27375517

  10. Post-exercise pulse pressure is a better predictor of executive function than pre-exercise pulse pressure in cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Maye, Jacqueline; Jones, Jacob; Thomas, Kelsey; Mangal, Paul C; Trifilio, Erin; Hass, Chris; Marsiske, Michael; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-07-01

    Exercise "stress tests" are widely used to assess cardiovascular function and to detect abnormalities. In line with the view of exercise as a stressor, the present study examined the relationship between cognitive function and cardiovascular activity before and after light physical exercise in a sample of 84 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Based on known relationships between hypertension, executive function and cerebral white matter changes, we hypothesized that greater post-exercise reactivity, as indexed by higher pulse pressure, would be more related to worse performance on frontal-executive tasks than pre-exercise physiologic measures. All participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and underwent a Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), with blood pressure (BP) measures obtained immediately before and after the walk. Pulse pressure (PP) was derived from BP as an indicator of vascular auto-regulation and composite scores were computed for each cognitive domain assessed. As predicted, worse executive function scores exhibited a stronger relationship with post-exercise PP than pre-exercise PP. Results suggest that PP following system stress in the form of walking may be more reflective of the state of vascular integrity and associated executive dysfunction in older adults than baseline physiologic measures. PMID:26629911

  11. Post-exercise pulse pressure is a better predictor of executive function than pre-exercise pulse pressure in cognitively normal older adults

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bonnie M.; Maye, Jacqueline; Jones, Jacob; Thomas, Kelsey; Mangal, Paul C.; Trifilio, Erin; Hass, Chris; Marsiske, Michael; Bowers, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise “stress tests” are widely used to assess cardiovascular function and to detect abnormalities. In line with the view of exercise as a stressor, the present study examined the relationship between cognitive function and cardiovascular activity before and after light physical exercise in a sample of 84 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Based on known relationships between hypertension, executive function and cerebral white matter changes, we hypothesized that greater post-exercise reactivity, as indexed by higher pulse pressure, would be more related to worse performance on frontal-executive tasks than pre-exercise physiologic measures. All participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and underwent a Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), with blood pressure (BP) measures obtained immediately before and after the walk. Pulse pressure (PP) was derived from BP as an indicator of vascular auto-regulation and composite scores were computed for each cognitive domain assessed. As predicted, worse executive function scores exhibited a stronger relationship with post-exercise PP than pre-exercise PP. Results suggest that PP following system stress in the form of walking may be more reflective of the state of vascular integrity and associated executive dysfunction in older adults than baseline physiologic measures. PMID:26629911

  12. Holistic face perception in young and older adults: effects of feedback and attentional demand

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists for age-related decline in face cognition ability. However, the extents to which attentional demand and flexibility to adapt viewing strategies contribute to age-related decline in face cognition tests is poorly understood. Here, we studied holistic face perception in older (age range 65–78 years, mean age 69.9) and young adults (age range 20–32 years, mean age 23.1) using the complete design for a sequential study-test composite face task (Richler et al., 2008b). Attentional demand was varied using trials that required participants to attend to both face halves and to redirect attention to one face half during the test (high attentional demand), and trials that allowed participants to keep a pre-adjusted focus (low attentional demand). We also varied viewing time and provided trial-by-trial feedback or no feedback. We observed strong composite effects, which were larger for the elderly in all conditions, independent of viewing time. Composite effects were smaller for low attentional demand, and larger for high attentional demand. No age-related differences were found in this respect. Feedback also reduced the composite effects in both age groups. Young adults could benefit from feedback in conditions with low and high attentional demands. Older adults performed better with feedback only in trials with low attentional demand. When attentional demand was high, older adults could no longer use the feedback signal, and performed worse with feedback than without. These findings suggest that older adults tend to use a global focus for faces, albeit piecemeal analysis is required for the task, and have difficulties adapting their viewing strategies when task demands are high. These results are consistent with the idea that elderly rely more on holistic strategies as a means to reduce perceptual and cognitive load when processing resources are limited (Konar et al., 2013). PMID:25386138

  13. Relative-size Magnification versus Relative-distance Magnification: Effect on the Reading Performance of Adults with Normal and Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovie-Kitchen, Jan; Whittaker, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This Australian study compared effects of relative-size magnification and relative-distance magnification on the reading rates of 24 adults with normal vision and 22 adults with low vision. For the subjects with low vision, the magnification method did not affect their reading rates, although subjects with normal vision showed slower reading at…

  14. Promoting Full-Time Attendance among Adults in Community College: Early Impacts from the Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn; Sommo, Colleen; Welbeck, Rashida

    2011-01-01

    Many adult students struggle to finance their educations, often contending with work and child care expenses in addition to the extra cost of remedial courses. Moreover, there is little need-based grant aid to help. This report presents early findings from an evaluation of a program in New York City targeted to low-income adults (ages 22 to 35)…

  15. The Relationship of the Component Skills of Reading to IALS Performance: Tipping Points and Five Classes of Adult Literacy Learners. NCSALL Reports #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strucker, John; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kirsch, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    This study's aim was to understand the relationship of the component skills of reading, such as word recognition, vocabulary, and spelling, to large-scale measures of literacy, such as the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) (Kirsch, Jungleblut, Jenkins, & Kolstad, 1993) and the closely related International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)…

  16. Risk-reducing Apolipoprotein E and Clusterin genotypes protect against the consequences of poor vascular health on executive function performance and change in nondemented older adults.

    PubMed

    McFall, G Peggy; Sapkota, Shraddha; McDermott, Kirstie L; Dixon, Roger A

    2016-06-01

    We examined independent and cumulative effects of 2 Alzheimer's-related genetic polymorphisms, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and Clusterin (CLU), in relation to the deleterious effects of poor vascular health (pulse pressure [PP]) on executive function (EF) performance and change in nondemented older adults. Using a sample (n = 593; age range = 53-95 years) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, we applied latent growth modeling to test the effect of PP, as moderated by APOE and CLU, on an EF latent variable. EF was affected by higher levels of PP but differentially less so for carriers of low-risk alleles (APOE ɛ2+; CLU TT) than for moderate- or high-risk alleles (APOE ɛ2-; CLU C+). The cumulative genetic risk of APOE plus CLU provided similar moderation of PP level effects on EF. Future research may focus on how APOE and CLU might provide different but complementary contributions to predicting EF level and change. Vascular health risk in synergistic association with risk-related polymorphisms can elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive trajectories in nondemented aging. PMID:27143425

  17. HLA-C Antigen mismatches are associated with worse outcomes in unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Woolfrey, Ann; Klein, John P.; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen; Petersdorf, Effie; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Gajewski, James; Hale, Gregory A.; Horan, John; Battiwalla, Minoo; Marino, Susana R.; Setterholm, Michelle; Ringden, Olle; Hurley, Carolyn; Flomenberg, Neal; Anasetti, Claudio; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and outcome in unrelated donor, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has not been established. Patients and Methods 1933 unrelated donor-recipient pairs transplanted between 1999-2006 for AML, ALL, MDS or CML and who had high resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 were included in the analysis. Outcomes were compared between HLA-matched and HLA-mismatched pairs, adjusting for patient and transplant characteristics. Results Matching for HLA-A, -B, -C and DRB1 alleles [8/8 match] was associated with better survival at one year compared with 7/8 HLA-matched pairs (56% vs. 47%). Using 8/8 HLA-matched patients as the baseline (n=1243), HLA-C antigen mismatches (n=189) were statistically significantly associated with lower LFS (RR 1.36 [95% CI 1.13-1.64] p=0.0010), and increased risk for mortality (RR=1.41 [1.16-1.70], p=0.0005), treatment-related mortality (RR=1.61 [1.25-2.08], p=0.0002), and grades III-IV graft-versus-host disease (RR=1.98 [1.50-2.62], p<0.0001). HLA-B antigen or allele mismatching was associated with a higher risk for acute GVHD grades III-IV. No statistically significant differences in outcome were observed for HLA-C allele mismatch (n=61), nor for mismatches at HLA-A antigen/allele (n=136), HLA-DRB1 allele (n=39) or HLA-DQ antigen/allele (n=114) compared to 8/8 HLA-matched pairs. HLA mismatching was not associated with relapse or chronic GVHD. Conclusion HLA-C antigen mismatched unrelated PBSC donors are associated with worse outcomes compared with 8/8 HLA-matched donors. Limited power due to small sample sized prevents comment about other mismatches. PMID:20870028

  18. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  19. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  20. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs