Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A
Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.
Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R
Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.
Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J
This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.
Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward
This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.
Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.
Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…
Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C
This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.
Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc
Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID
The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…
Wampler, Meredith A.; Galantino, Mary Lou; Huang, Sujuan; Gilchrist, Laura S.; Marchese, Victoria G.; Morris, G. Stephen; Scalzitti, David A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
INTRODUCTION Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcoma are largely physically inactive, a behavior which potentially compounds their health burden. Altering this behavior requires understanding those factors that contribute to their physical inactivity. Therefore, this investigation sought to identify factors associated with inactivity in this subpopulation of cancer survivors. METHODS Demographic, personal, treatment and physical activity information from adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas was obtained from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables that best identified those individuals who were physically inactive. RESULTS Only 41% of survivors met Center for Disease Control (CDC) activity guidelines. Survivors were 1.20 (95% CI 1.11–1.30) more likely compared to CCSS sibling cohort and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10–1.15) times more likely than the general population to fail to meet CDC guidelines. Significant predictors of physical inactivity included female sex, hemipelvectomy surgery, and platinum and vinca alkaloid chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS The primary findings of this study are that survivors of childhood onset lower-extremity sarcoma are 1) highly likely to be physically inactive and 2) less likely than their siblings or the general population to regularly exercise. This study has identified treatment related risk factors associated with inactivity that will help health and wellness practitioners develop successful exercise interventions to help these survivors achieve recommended levels of physical activity for health. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS These results suggest that physical activity interventions for adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas should be sex specific and responsive to unique physical late effects experienced by these survivors. PMID:21681405
We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...
de Andrade Bastos, Afranio; Salguero, Alfonso; González-Boto, René; Marquez, Sara
The present investigation examined the validity and reliability of a questionnaire which assessed motives of Brazilian adults for participation in physical activities, compared motives for participation in walking and fitness programs, and examined differences by sex, age, and education. Participants were 100 men and 138 women, ages 16 to 60 years (M=30.5, SD=11.4). Factor analysis identified four factors which were fairly consistent with previous research. Improvement in physical appearance and enjoyment were rated significantly more important reasons for participants in fitness programs than for walkers. Men were more motivated by social experience than women. Young adults rated importance lower in health and fitness and rated enjoyment, social experience, and improvement in appearance of higher importance. Health and fitness were considered more important by participants with more education. These results are consistent with previous research on the factors underlying motives for regular exercise and support the importance of considering differences associated with culture.
Chasens, Eileen R; Yang, Kyeongra
This secondary analysis study examines the relationship between physical activity and symptoms of insomnia among adults with prediabetes (N = 958) from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample of participants were generally obese, middle-aged, and racially diverse. NHANES questions included symptoms of insomnia, sleep duration, and sleep latency. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight; at least 2 days of ActiGraph activity monitor data determined mean steps walked. Men walked more steps than women; however, women had more insomnia symptoms. There were significant associations between insomnia symptoms and increased sleep latency and decreased sleep duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that younger age, lower BMI, higher self-rated health, high school education, and fewer insomnia symptoms were significantly related to increased steps walked. The findings indicate that insomnia in adults with prediabetes may be a barrier to their adapting an active lifestyle.
Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.
Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.
Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543
Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj
Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.
Leslie, David K., Ed.
This book on physical education for the older adult is divided into three parts. The first part contains a chapter that introduces the reader to the topic of aging in American society and ties that topic to the interests of health professionals. Chapters 2 through 6 address the foundation areas of health, physical education, recreation and dance…
Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken
Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…
Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry
The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…
Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff
The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...
Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.
Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…
Ostrander, Rachel E; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George
Physical activity has many benefits for older adults; however, motivating older adults to engage in and maintain optimal levels of physical activity can be challenging for health care providers. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether any evidence-based methods of delivery or particular content for targeted messaging exist that result in actual improvements in physical activity of older adults. Findings of the review demonstrate that messaging directed toward older adults to be physically active resulted in improvements in physical activity up to 1 year. Across studies many different modes of message delivery were shown to be effective. Message content, whether tailored or not, resulted in significant increases in physical activity. There is evidence to support the use of environmentally mediated messaging (i.e., local walking paths) for stronger results. Targeting the client's stage of change, having an activity partner if preferred, and scheduling physical activity also contribute to improved effects.
Holliday, Katelyn M; Lin, Dan Yu; Chakladar, Sujatro; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Evenson, Kelly R; Marquez, David X; Qi, Qibin; Shay, Christina M; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Vidot, Denise C; Zeng, Donglin; Avery, Christy L
Understanding demographic differences in transitions across physical activity (PA) levels is important for informing PA-promoting interventions, yet few studies have examined these transitions in contemporary multi-ethnic adult populations. We estimated age-, race/ethnicity-, and sex-specific 1-year net transition probabilities (NTPs) for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012, n=11,556) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011, n=15,585) adult participants using novel Markov-type state transition models developed for cross-sectional data. Among populations with ideal PA (≥150min/week; ranging from 56% (non-Hispanic black females) to 88% (non-Hispanic white males) at age 20), NTPs to intermediate PA (>0-<149min/week) generally increased with age, particularly for non-Hispanic black females for whom a net 0.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 0.2) transitioned from ideal to intermediate PA at age 20; by age 70, the NTP rose to 3.6% (95% CI: 2.3, 4.8). Heterogeneity in intermediate to poor (0min/week) PA NTPs also was observed, with NTPs peaking at age 20 for Hispanic/Latino males and females [age 20 NTP=3.7% (95% CI: 2.0, 5.5) for females and 5.0% (1.2, 8.7) for males], but increasing throughout adulthood for non-Hispanic blacks and whites [e.g. age 70 NTP=7.8% (95% CI: 6.1, 9.6%) for black females and 8.1% (4.7, 11.6) for black males]. Demographic differences in PA net transitions across adulthood justify further development of tailored interventions. However, innovative efforts may be required for populations in which large proportions have already transitioned from ideal PA by early adulthood.
Hubbard, E.; Slater, M.; Jeste, D.
Physical activity interventions to improve the physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but not available. Older adults with schizophrenia may have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of older adults with schizophrenia about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 older adults with schizophrenia. Data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Participants expressed interest in becoming more physically active for a variety of perceived benefits including psychiatric symptom management and maintenance of basic function. Key barriers and facilitators to physical activity emerged in five broad categories: Mental Health, No longer a spring chicken, Pride and Sense of Well-being, Comfort and Safety, and Belonging. Interventions in this population should address negative attitudes towards aging and promote routine physical activities that enhance well-being and companionship. PMID:23748553
Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.
Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…
Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.
Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…
Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.
Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…
Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.
Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…
Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger
This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…
Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie
Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…
Schmidt, Laurie; Rempel, Gwen; Murray, Terra C.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Vallance, Jeff K.
Objective As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69–94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Results Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis), and family members (e.g., encouraged to “take it easy”) as barriers to physical activity. Conclusion Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults. PMID:27834180
Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604
Background: A large proportion of adults are insufficiently physically active, and researchers have yet to determine the factors that enable individuals to maintain adequate levels of physical activity throughout adulthood. Purpose: This study sought to identify the key variables linked with consistent physical activity in adulthood as elucidated…
Kaczynski, Andrew T; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Besenyi, Gina M; Child, Stephanie
We examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the observed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) of youth and adults in diverse areas of 4 parks in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2009. Male youth were more active on playgrounds and pools or splashpads than female youth. White youth were less active than nonwhite youth in open spaces and on paved trails. Male adults were more active in open spaces than female adults, and white adults were more active on paved trails than nonwhite adults. Understanding variations in MVPA between user groups can inform park design efforts to foster increased activity among all visitors.
Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C
The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.
Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy
Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115
Lachenmayr, Sue; Mackenzie, Geraldine
Although 25% of U.S. adults are physically inactive, this percentage increases dramatically for older adults. Organizational change theory guided a state health department in identifying system gaps and developing strategies to expand programming for seniors. A survey of provider agencies in New Jersey assessed (a) capacity for physical activity programs for older adults, (b) accessibility of programs, and (c) barriers to providing programs. One hundred sixty agencies provided physical activity programs to almost 184,000 individuals annually. Fewer than one half of the agencies provided exercise programs for people with disabilities, and only 44% provided in-home programs. Eighty-two percent of program providers wanted to expand programming but cited lack of trained instructors and peer leaders, inadequate facility space, insufficient funding, and limited transportation resources as barriers. Sustaining older adult behavior change requires infrastructure that will ensure access to diverse physical activities. This article provides strategies to expand access to physical activity programs for older adults.
Nicholls, Elaine E.; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.; Foster, Nadine E.
Objectives. To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. Methods. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. Results. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Conclusion. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. PMID:25187640
Toto, Pamela E; Raina, Ketki D; Holm, Margo B; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Rogers, Joan C
This single-group repeated-measures pilot study evaluated the effects of a 10-wk, multicomponent, best-practice exercise program on physical activity, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), physical performance, and depression in community-dwelling older adults from low-income households (N = 15). Comparison of pretest and posttest scores using a one-tailed paired-samples t test showed improvement (p < .05) for 2 of 3 ADL domains on the Activity Measure-Post Acute Care and for 6 physical-performance measures of the Senior Fitness Test. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for 3 of 8 physical activity measures using the Yale Physical Activity Scale. Retention rate was 78.9%, and the adherence rate for group sessions was 89.7%. Results suggest that participation in a multicomponent, best-practice physical activity program may positively affect sedentary, community-dwelling older adults' physical activity, ADL performance, and physical performance.
The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…
Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.
Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…
Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Prohaska, Thomas R.
Purpose: Over the past two decades, a consensus has formed that increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults are important for physical and cognitive health. Although there is strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases, a major concern is ensuring that…
Gothe, Neha P.; Kendall, Bradley J.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults. PMID:28138500
Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng
Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…
Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…
Winters, Meghan; Ashe, Maureen C.; Clarke, Philippa; McKay, Heather
Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation. PMID:26783370
Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.
Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.
There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842
Ryan, Jennifer M; Crowley, Vivion E; Hensey, Owen; Broderick, Julie M; McGahey, Ailish; Gormley, John
Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to participate in reduced levels of total physical activity. There is no information available however, regarding levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in this population. Reduced participation in MVPA is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study was firstly to compare levels of sedentary, light, MVPA and total activity in adults with CP to adults without CP. Secondly, the objective was to investigate the association between physical activity components, sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with CP. Adults with CP (n=41) age 18-62 yr (mean ± SD=36.5 ± 12.5 yr), classified in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I (n=13), II (n=18) and III (n=10) participated in this study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry in adults with CP and in age- and sex-matched adults without CP over 7 days. Anthropometric indicators of obesity, blood pressure and several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease were also measured in adults with CP. Adults with CP spent less time in light, moderate, vigorous and total activity, and more time in sedentary activity than adults without CP (p<0.01 for all). Moderate physical activity was associated with waist-height ratio when adjusted for age and sex (β=-0.314, p<0.05). When further adjustment was made for total activity, moderate activity was associated with waist-height ratio (β=-0.538, p<0.05), waist circumference (β=-0.518, p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.592, p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.636, p<0.05). Sedentary activity was not associated with any risk factor. The findings provide evidence that relatively young adults with CP participate in reduced levels of MVPA and spend increased time in sedentary behavior, potentially increasing their risk of developing cardiometabolic disease.
van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.
Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain…
Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jillian; Melville, Craig; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Mantry, Dipali
Background: Lack of regular physical activity is globally one of the most significant risks to health. The main aims of this study were to describe the types and levels of regular physical activity undertaken by adults with intellectual disabilities, and to investigate the factors predicting low activity. Materials and Methods: Interviews were…
Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob
Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.
Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Umar, Maimuna; Oguche, Friday; Aliyu, Salamatu U.; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.
Introduction Accurate assessment of physical activity to identify current levels and changes within the population is dependent on the precision of the measurement tools. The aim of this study was to compare components of physical activity measured with an adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF) and the accelerometer in a sample of Nigeria adults. Methods One hundred and forty-four participants (Mean age = 32.6±9.9 years, 40.3% women) in a cross-sectional study wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and completed the Hausa IPAQ-SF questionnaire on the eighth day. Total physical activity, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) and sedentary time assessed by Hausa IPAQ-SF and accelerometer were compared. The absolute and criterion- related validity of the Hausa IPAQ-SF was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman Correlation Coefficients, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated to classify individuals according to the global standard guideline for sufficient physical activity. Results Compared with the accelerometer, higher time in MVPA and total physical activity were reported on the Hausa IPAQ-SF (p<0.001), while low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.03–0.38) were found between the two methods. The 95% limits of agreement were wide between methods for total physical activity (−23019 to 20375 METmin.d−1) and sedentary time (−510 to 150 min.d−1). The sensitivity (76.2%) of Hausa IPAQ-SF to identify insufficiently active people was good, but its specificity (33.3%) to correctly classify sufficiently active people was low. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF overestimated components of physical activity among Nigerian adults, and demonstrated poor to moderate evidence of absolute and criterion validity. Further evaluation of IPAQ and other self-report physical activity instruments in other Africa populations could enhance accurate evaluation of physical activity data
Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H
Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.
Ready, Rebecca E; Marquez, David X; Akerstedt, Anna
Older adults may have superior emotion regulation skills than younger adults and the authors suggest that as emotion regulation capacities increase with age, emotions may be less swayed by external events or even by internal traits. The current retrospective and prospective study further tested this hypothesis by determining if the emotions of younger adults were more reactive to two behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sleep) than for older adults. Results supported predictions. Specifically, retrospective self-reports and prospective diary data about physical activity and sleep exhibited stronger associations with emotion for younger than older persons. Implications for emotional well-being across the life span are discussed.
Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Hung, Tsung-Min
This study examined the effects of physical activity on working memory in older adults using both behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Older adults were assigned to either a higher or lower physical activity group, and event-related potentials were recorded during assessments of a modified Sternberg task. The results indicated that older adults in the higher physical activity group exhibited shorter response times, independent of the working memory load. Enhanced P3 and N1 amplitudes and a decreased P3 latency were observed in the higher physical activity group. These findings suggested that physical activity facilitates working memory by allocating more attentional resources and increasing the efficiency of evaluating the stimulus during the retrieval phase as well as engaging more attentional resources for the early discriminative processes during the encoding phase of a working memory task.
Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S
The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.
Fraser, Sarah J; Chapman, Justin J; Brown, Wendy J; Whiteford, Harvey A; Burton, Nicola W
The life expectancy of adults with mental illness is worse than that of the general population and is largely due to poor physical health status. Physical activity has been consistently recommended for the prevention and management of many chronic physical health conditions and can also have benefits for mental health. This cross sectional study assessed the attitudes towards and preferences for physical activity among inpatient adults with mental illness, and differences by distress and gender. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 101 patients. Findings indicated that inpatient adults with mental illness are interested in doing physical activity while in hospital, primarily to maintain good physical health and improve emotional wellbeing. Fewer than half of participants agreed that physical activity has benefits for serious mental illness. Participants indicated a preference for walking and physical activity that can be done alone, at a fixed time and with a set routine and format. Major barriers were fatigue and lack of motivation. Females were more likely than males to prefer activities done with others of the same gender (P = 0.001) and at the same level of ability (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences by level of distress. These findings can inform physical activity intervention programming in hospital settings, which may contribute to decreasing the chronic disease burden and improve the psychological wellbeing in adults with mental illness.
Cheadle, Allen; Egger, Ruth; LoGerfo, James P; Walwick, Julie; Schwartz, Sheryl
This article describes a community organizing approach to promoting physical activity among underserved older adults in southeast Seattle: the Southeast Senior Physical Activity Network (SESPAN). The organizing strategy involves networking with a variety of community-based organizations, with two broad objectives: (a) program objective-to make connections between two (or more) community-based organizations to create senior physical activity programs where none existed before; and (b) coalition objective-to build a broader network or coalition of groups and organizations to assist in making larger scale environmental and policy changes. Networking among organizations led to the creation of a number of potentially sustainable walking and exercise programs that are reaching previously underserved communities within Southeast Seattle. In addition, a major community event led to the establishment of a health coalition that has the potential to continue to generate new broad-based programs and larger scale environmental changes.
van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.
Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268
Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C
Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking.
Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen
Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…
Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.
The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…
de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler
This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature…
Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven
Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…
Fang, Jing; Keenan, Nora L.; Dai, Shifan
Objectives: To determine whether hypercholesterolemic adults followed healthy eating and appropriate physical activity. Methods: Using the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we measured greater than or equal to 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day and "Healthy People 2010" recommended physical activity. Results: Of 363,667 adults…
Jáuregui, Alejandra; Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera, Juan A; Pratt, Michael
Environmental factors have been associated with specific physical activity domains, including leisure-time and transport physical activity, in some high income countries. Few studies have examined the environmental correlates for domain-specific physical activity in low-and middle-income countries, and results are inconsistent. We aimed to estimate the associations between perceived environment and self-reported leisure-time walking, moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity among adults living in Cuernavaca, Mexico. A population-based study of adults 20 to 64years old was conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico in 2011 (n=677). Leisure and transport physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Perceptions of neighborhood environment were obtained by questionnaire. Hurdle regression models estimated the association between environmental perceptions and participation and time spent in each physical activity domain. High perceived aesthetics were positively correlated with participation and time spent in leisure-time walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. SES differences existed for aesthetics in relation to participation in leisure-time walking. Participation in transport physical activity was positively associated with easy access to large parks, while closer distance to large parks was a negative correlate for participation and time-spent in this physical activity domain. Results suggest that perceived environmental characteristics related with physical activity are domain specific. High perceived aesthetics were an important correlate for leisure-time activities among Mexican adults, suggesting that policy strategies aimed at improving this environmental perception may be warranted. Patterns of associations between environmental correlates and transport physical activity differed from those reported in commonly studied high income countries.
Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta
Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM.
Akber, Aalia; Portale, Anthony A.
Summary Background and objectives Data on physical activity are limited in children with CKD. The objectives of this study were to measure the level and correlates of physical activity in children and young adults with CKD and to determine the association of physical activity with physical performance and physical functioning. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Physical activity was measured for 7 days using pedometers; physical performance was measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and physical functioning with the PedsQL 4.0. Results Study participants were 44 patients 7–20 years of age who had CKD stage 1–4 (n=12), had ESRD and were undergoing dialysis (n=7), or had undergone kidney transplantation (n=25). Participants were very sedentary; they walked 6218 (interquartile range, 3637, 9829) steps per day, considerably less than recommended. Physical activity did not differ among participants in the CKD stage 1–4, ESRD, and transplant groups. Females were less active than males (P<0.01), and physical activity was 44% lower among young adults (18–20 years) than younger participants (P<0.05). Physical activity was associated positively with maternal education and hemoglobin concentration and inversely with body mass index. Respective 6MWD in males and females was 2 and approximately 4 SDs below expected. Low levels of physical activity were associated with poor physical performance and physical functioning, after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Conclusions In most participants with CKD, physical activity was considerably below recommended levels. Future studies are needed to determine whether increasing physical activity can improve physical performance and physical functioning. PMID:22422539
Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts
Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.
Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)
Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin
Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141
Simoes, E J; Byers, T; Coates, R J; Serdula, M K; Mokdad, A H; Heath, G W
Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other. PMID:7856785
Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T
Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.
This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958
Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong
Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883
Hubbard, Erin M.; Dowling, Glenna A.
Abstract Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect® for Xbox® 360 game system (Microsoft®, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Results: Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Conclusions: Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population. PMID:26192371
Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332
Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee
Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.
Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.
Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…
Smith, Webb A; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; Mihalko, William M; Williams, Michael; Loftin, Mark; Gurney, James G
Obese patients are more likely to have osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This investigation sought to evaluate physical function, activity level, and quality of life (QOL). Obese participants near 1-year postsurgical follow-up appointment were recruited. Evaluation included QOL and activity questionnaire, medical histories, anthropometrics, strength, and aerobic capacity. Sixty participants completed assessments. Obese TKA patients have physical performance limitations and low physical activity levels 1 year after surgery and completion of postoperative rehabilitation.
King, Abby C; Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Ahn, David K; Chapman, James E; Gill, Thomas M; Fielding, Roger A; Demons, Jamehl; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Rosso, Andrea; Pahor, Marco; Frank, Lawrence D
While neighborhood design can potentially influence routine outdoor physical activities (PA), little is known concerning its effects on such activities among older adults attempting to increase their PA levels. We evaluated the effects of living in neighborhoods differing in compactness on changes in routine outdoor activities (e.g., walking, gardening, yard work) among older adults at increased mobility disability risk participating in the LIFE-Pilot PA trial (2003-07; ages 70-89years; from Dallas, TX, San Francisco Bay area, Pittsburgh, PA, and Winston-Salem, NC). Analyses were conducted on the 400 LIFE-Pilot participants randomized to a one-year endurance-plus-strengthening PA intervention or health education control that completed one-year PA assessment (CHAMPS questionnaire). Outcomes of interest were exercise and leisure walking, walking for errands, and moderate-intensity gardening. Neighborhood compactness was assessed objectively using geographic information systems via a subsequent grant (2008-12). PA increased weekly exercise and leisure walking relative to control, irrespective of neighborhood compactness. However, walking for errands decreased significantly more in PA relative to control (net mean [SD] difference=16.2min/week [7.7], p=0.037), particularly among those living in less compact neighborhoods (net mean [SD] difference=29.8 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.006). PA participants living in less compact neighborhoods maintained or increased participation in gardening and yard work to a greater extent than controls (net mean [SD] difference=29.3 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.007). The results indicate that formal targeting of active transport as an adjunct to structured PA programs may be important to diminish potential compensatory responses in functionally impaired older adults. Structured endurance-plus-strengthening PA may help older adults maintain or increase such routine activities over time.
Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy
Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure  but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations . After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.
Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L
Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time.
Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A
Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total scale correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the scale's reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical activity is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation in adults with functional limitations.
Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.
This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…
Madeira, Marina Cordeiro; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Dilélio, Alitéia; Piccini, Roberto Xavier
Evidence in the literature shows that physical activity associated with commuting (routine coming and going) can have a positive impact on health. The current study describes physical activity during commuting and some associated factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 12,402 adults and 6,624 elderly in 100 municipalities (counties) from 23 States of Brazil. The outcome was based on the commuting section from the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Prevalence of insufficient physical activity during commuting (< 150 minutes per week) was 66.6% in adults and 73.9% in the elderly. Among the elderly, the very old showed 25 times higher odds of being insufficiently active as compared to younger elders. Individuals with self-reported "white" skin color were less active in commuting. The findings show that prevalence of physical activity in commuting in Brazil is low, and that encouraging physically active commuting can be an effective strategy for increasing levels of physical activity and improving health.
Brumpton, Ben M; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei
Objective We aimed to investigate the associations of physical activity and change in physical activity with incident asthma in a cohort of Norwegian adults. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study using data on self-reported physical activity from 3 waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Physical activity was reported at the first and second surveys (1985–1986 and 1995–1997). Physical activity was defined from the second survey as inactive or active and the active group was further defined as very low, low, moderate and high. Change in physical activity was defined from the first and second surveys. Setting A large population-based health survey in Norway. Participants We followed 18 894 adults over 11 years who were free from asthma at baseline in 1995–1997. Outcome Incident asthma was reported in the third survey (2006–2008). Results The cumulative incidence of asthma was 3.6% over the 11 years. The adjusted OR for incident asthma among active participants compared with inactive participants was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.34). The adjusted OR for those who were active in the first or second survey versus those who were inactive in both surveys was 0.64 (95% CI 0.34 to 1.38); however, this association was strongly attenuated in sensitivity analysis (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.09). Conclusions We did not observe statistically significant associations of physical activity or change in physical activity with incident asthma in adults over the 11-year follow-up. PMID:27864254
Background Neighborhood safety is inconsistently related to physical activity, but is seldom studied in developing countries. This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity among Nigerian adults. Methods In a cross-sectional study, accelerometer-based physical activity (MVPA), reported walking, perceived crime and traffic safety were measured in 219 Nigerian adults. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the odds ratio for meeting health guidelines for MVPA and walking was calculated in relation to four safety variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Sufficient MVPA was related to more perception of safety from traffic to walk (OR=2.28, CI=1.13- 6.25) and more safety from crime at night (OR=1.68, CI=1.07-3.64), but with less perception of safety from crime during the day to walk (OR=0.34, CI=0.06- 0.91). More crime safety during the day and night were associated with more walking. Conclusions Perceived safety from crime and traffic were associated with physical activity among Nigerian adults. These findings provide preliminary evidence on the need to provide safe traffic and crime environments that will make it easier and more likely for African adults to be physically active. PMID:22520066
Purath, Janet; Keller, Colleen S; McPherson, Sterling; Ainsworth, Barbara
This primary care-based study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a 24-week intervention on physical activity and physical fitness in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Secondary aims were to determine the effect of the intervention on self-efficacy and barriers to physical activity. Intervention participants (n = 36) received an exercise prescription based on physical fitness test results and personal choice. Comparison participants (n = 36) received a nutrition intervention. Both groups received 10 follow-up telephone calls. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses showed no direct effects of the intervention on the primary outcomes of physical activity or physical fitness in the intervention group (p > 0.05). Secondary analyses with ANCOVA that included potential moderating variables of age, gender, income, BMI, and support for physical activity showed that the intervention group significantly increased frequency of all physical activity (F = 3.50, p < 0.05) as well as the fitness outcomes of lower body strength (F = 3.63, p < 0.05) and aerobic endurance (F = 4.03, p < 0.05). This is one of the first studies to evaluate the use of fitness measures to increase physical activity and fitness in the primary care setting. The intervention improved some aspects of physical activity and fitness for selected participants.
White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward
Background Physical activity has been consistently associated with enhanced quality of life (QOL) in older adults. However, the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. In this study of community dwelling older adults, we examined the proposition that physical activity influences global QOL through self-efficacy and health-status. Methods Participants (N = 321, M age = 63.8) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, global QOL, physical self worth, and disability limitations. Data were analyzed using covariance modeling to test the fit of the hypothesized model. Results Analyses indicated direct effects of a latent physical activity variable on self-efficacy but not disability limitations or physical self-worth; direct effects of self-efficacy on disability limitations and physical self worth but not QOL; and direct effects of disability limitations and physical self-worth on QOL. Conclusion Our findings support the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and QOL as well as an expanded QOL model including both health status indicators and global QOL. These findings further suggest future PA promotion programs should include strategies to enhance self-efficacy, a modifiable factor for improving QOL in this population. PMID:19200385
Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan
The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing executive control, visuospatial functions, and processing speed, to measure the cognitive impact of the program. They were also given a battery of functional fitness tests to measure the physical impact of the program. The trainees improved significantly in measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in measures of physical function and cognitive measures of executive control and processing speed, but not on visuospatial measures. It was encouraging to observe that, engagement in physically simulated sport games yielded benefits to cognitive and physical skills that are directly involved in functional abilities older adults need in everyday living (e.g., Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999).
Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Sarmento, Hugo; Ramos, Madalena; Diniz, José; Costa, Francisco Carreiro da
This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females) were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001) was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85). Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009) was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.
Saebu, M; Sørensen, M
The purpose of this study was to examine: (1) total physical activity and (2) the relative importance of functioning and disability, environmental and personal factors for total physical activity among young adults with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health developed by the World Health Organization was used as a structural framework for a cross-sectional survey, based on a questionnaire. The population studied was 327 young adults (age 18-30) with a disability who were members of interest organizations for persons with disabilities. Using an adapted version of the self-administered short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the sample reported some differences in physical activity related to the type and the onset of disability. Linear regression analyses revealed that personal factors demonstrated more power in explaining the variance in physical activity than both the environmental factors and factors related to functioning and disability. As for the able-bodied, intrinsic motivation and identity as an active person were the factors most strongly associated with physical activity behavior. This should have important consequences for how professionals try to motivate people with disabilities for physical activity, and how they plan and implement rehabilitation.
Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Darukhanavala, Amy P; Whitmore, Harry R; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Pamen D
Adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes have high metabolic morbidity, which is exacerbated by physical inactivity. Self-reported sleep <6 h/day is associated with increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, which may be mediated in part by sleep-loss-related reduction in physical activity. We examined the relationship between habitual sleep curtailment and physical activity in adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (27 F/21 M; mean (s.d.) age 26 (4) years; BMI 23.8 (2.5) kg/m(2)) each completed 13 (2) days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of total daily activity counts between participants with habitual sleep <6 vs. ≥6 h/night. Secondary measures included daily time spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Short sleepers had no sleep abnormalities and showed signs of increased sleep pressure consistent with a behavioral pattern of habitual sleep curtailment. Compared to participants who slept ≥6 h/night, short sleepers had 27% fewer daily activity counts (P = 0.042), spent less time in moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity (-43 min/day; P = 0.010), and remained more sedentary (+69 min/day; P = 0.026). Our results indicate that young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have less daily physical activity and more sedentary living, which may enhance their metabolic risk.
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Vinogradov, Sophia
Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to…
Mourão, Ana Raquel de Carvalho; Novais, Francini Vilela; Andreoni, Solange; Ramos, Luiz Roberto
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of physical activity of older adults by commuting and leisure time and associated factors. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study carried out with a population-based sample of 319 older individuals in Maceió, AL, Northeastern Brazil, in 2009. The level of physical activity in leisure and commuting was measured by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long version. The variables analyzed were: age, schooling, sex, per capita income and perceived health. We used descriptive analysis, Fisher's exact test and multiple regression analysis of prevalence rates. RESULTS We classified 87.5% as insufficiently active in commuting, being significantly higher among those individuals with older ages, with more education and who feel dissatisfied with their physical health. The prevalence of older people who are insufficiently active in leisure time activity was 76.2%, being more frequent in women, in men with advanced age; older adults with lower per capita income, and dissatisfaction with comparative physical health and self-perceived mental health. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of insufficiently active was high in commuting and leisure time activities. Factors such as age, gender and income should be considered, especially with regards leisure, in order to ensure fairness in the development of policies to promote health and physical activity in this population. PMID:24626549
Stahl, Sarah T.; Albert, Steven M.
Objective This study describes gender differences in the level and pattern of physical activity in groups of older adults who were frequent fallers, intermittent fallers, or non-fallers. Methods Interviews were conducted with adults aged 50 years and older (N = 1834) at senior centers across Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2011. Self-reported falls and validated measures of physical activity were collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results Complete follow-up data were available for 1487 participants. Men who fell frequently decreased in recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work compared to the intermittent fallers and non-fallers. This association remained even when controlling for baseline health status. All women—regardless of fall group—engaged in similar levels of recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work over time. For both men and women, frequent fallers also showed a greater decrease in walking activities compared to intermittent fallers and non-fallers. Discussion Frequent falling among older adults is associated with declines in common leisure, household, and walking activities. The effect of falling frequency on physical activity appears to affect men and women differently, generating the hypothesis that interventions to promote physical activity among fallers need to be gender specific. PMID:25535677
Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine
The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.
Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie
Purpose Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. Methods In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. Findings While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). Conclusions The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies. PMID:26554376
Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.
A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…
Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen
Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…
Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.
This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…
We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3x weekly for 8 weeks, 2x weekly for weeks 9-24 and we...
Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…
Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest.
Morphy, Lorraine Y; Goodwin, Donna
This exploratory study described the experiences of choice in physical activity contexts for adults with mobility impairments. The experiences of 3 female and 2 males with mobility impairments between 18 and 23 years of age were described using the interpretive phenomenological methods of individual interviews, written stories, and field notes. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) interpreting the setting described participants' interpretation of the environment, person, and task when making movement choices; (b) alternative selection described how participants actively engaged in analyzing alternatives and choosing among them; and (c) implications of choices made described participants' evaluations of good and bad choices and what was learned. Evidence of effective choice making among adults with physical impairments suggests the potential efficacy of ecological task analysis as a pedagogical tool in physical activity contexts.
Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia
The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.
The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890
Takahashi, Masaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Tahara, Yu; Aoki, Natsumi; Fukazawa, Mayuko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Takashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Shibata, Shigenobu
The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week. The timings of breakfast, lunch, and dinner were also recorded. Hair follicle cells were then collected over a 24 h period at 4 h intervals. The amplitude of PER3 expression was positively correlated with moderate and vigorous physical activity (r = 0.582, p = 0.007) and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.481, p = 0.032), but these correlations were not observed for NR1D1 or NR1D2. No association was noted between meal times and the amplitude or the acrophase for any of these three clock genes. These findings suggest that rhythmic expression of the circadian clock gene PER3 is associated with the amount of daily physical activity and physical fitness in older adults. PMID:28045078
Kang, Sung-Wan; Xiang, Xiaoling
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and health services utilization and costs among adults aged 18 or older in the U.S. Data came from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household component from 2007 through 2011 (n=117,361). Regular physical activity was defined as spending half an hour or more in moderate or vigorous physical activity at least three times a week. The following categories of self-reported health services utilization and costs were examined: preventive, office-based, outpatient, inpatient, emergency department, home health, and prescription medicines. The association of physical activity and health services utilization and costs was estimated using two-part models. Adults who engaged in regular physical activity were more likely to use preventive (ORs ranged from 1.06 to 1.34, p<0.05) and office-based services (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01-1.10, p<0.05). Combining results from both parts of the two-part models, physically active adults incurred significantly lower utilization of inpatient (0.09 vs 0.12 visit per person), emergency room (0.18 vs 0.19 visit per person), home health care (1.21 vs 1.92 visit per person), and prescription medicines (12.66 vs 13.75 number of prescriptions per person) and spent $27 less per capita expenditures for office-based visits, $351 less for inpatient visits, and $52 less for home health care visits. Promoting regular physical activity may reduce health care costs through decreasing demand for secondary and tertiary care services.
Lee, Yunhwan; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Eun Sook; Chae, Songi; Ryu, Mikyung; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Ju
Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity may be beneficial in preserving cognition in late life. This study examined the association between baseline and changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people. Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, with 2605 aged 65 years and older subjects interviewed in 2006 and followed up for 2 years. Cognitive decline was defined by calculating the Reliable Change Index using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity levels were categorized as sedentary, low, or high. Changes in physical activity were classified as inactive, decreaser, increaser, or active. Logistic regression analysis of baseline and changes in physical activity with cognitive decline was performed. Compared with the sedentary group at baseline, both the low and high activity groups were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The active (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.68) and increaser (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI 0.27-0.74) group, compared with the inactive counterpart, demonstrated a significantly lower likelihood of cognitive decline. Older adults who remained active or increased activity over time had a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in physical activity in late life may have cognitive health benefits.
Howie, Erin K.; Barnes, Timothy L.; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.; Clarkson, John; Meriwether, Rebecca A.
Background Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of physical inactivity, yet little is known about the prevalence of facilitators and barriers in the built environment contributing to these high rates. Objective To describe the physical activity resources available to adults with ID in both the home and day programs outside of the home. Methods Demographic information was collected on a sample of adults with ID. A survey checklist of the physical activity environment at the participants’ home and the facility or workplace where the participant spent his/her weekdays was collected by trained research staff. Differences in the prevalence of environmental resources between those living in group homes and those living alone or with family were tested using χ2 tests. Results A total of 103 participants had complete demographic and environmental data. Of these, only 37.9% had exercise equipment available, 39.8% had sports equipment, and 15.5% had a bicycle in the home environment. At the facility where the individual attended a day program or where the individual was employed, 55.4 had sports equipment, 50.5% had an outdoor recreation area, 41.8% had an indoor recreation area, and 41.8 had organized physical activities. Those who lived in group homes were more likely to have access to basketball hoops, sports fields, and recreation centers than those who lived alone or with family (p < .01). Conclusions Adults with ID have few physical activity environmental resources and opportunities available to them, especially those not living in group homes. Future interventions are needed to increase physical activity opportunities in this underserved population. PMID:22226297
Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.
The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…
Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga
Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.
Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.
Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…
Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne
The current study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (i.e., active transport and screen time) in a sample of urban, primarily Hispanic, older adults (N=2,514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision=0.67, recall=0.69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision=0.60, recall=0.63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to access health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions.
Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy
Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…
Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426
Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee
Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050
Bonomi, Alberto G.; Westerterp, Klaas R.
Background Ageing is associated with a declining physical activity level (PAL) and changes in the diurnal activity pattern. Changes in the activity pattern might help explaining the age-associated reduction of physical activity. Objective The aims were to investigate diurnal activity patterns within groups of older adults classified by PAL, to investigate diurnal activity patterns within age-groups and to investigate the association between the drop in activity and aerobic fitness. Methods Thirty-one healthy subjects aged between 52 and 83y were recruited for the study. Subjects were divided in sedentary (PAL<1.75), moderately active (1.75
Bolívar, Julia; Daponte, Antonio; Rodríguez, Miguel; Sánchez, José Juan
A person's physical and social environment is considered as an influencing factor in terms of rates of engagement in physical activity. This study analyses the influence of socio-demographic, physical and social environmental factors on physical activity reported in the adult population in Andalusia. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected in the Andalusia Health Survey in 1999 and 2003. In addition to the influence of the individual's characteristics, if there are no green spaces in the neighbourhood it is less likely that men and women will take exercise (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.41). Likewise, a higher local illiteracy rate also has a negative influence on exercise habits in men (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.59) and in women (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.40). Physical activity is influenced by individuals' characteristics as well as by their social and physical environment, the most disadvantaged groups are less likely to engage in physical activity.
Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger
Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in
This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated critically. Literature was obtained through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE), cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. For inclusion in our systematic review articles must have at least 3 levels of physical activity and the concomitant risk for each chronic disease. The quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black tool. Through this search we identified a total of 254 articles that met the eligibility criteria related to premature all-cause mortality (N = 70), cardiovascular disease (N = 49), stroke (N = 25), hypertension (N = 12), colon cancer (N = 33), breast cancer (N = 43), type 2 diabetes (N = 20), and osteoporosis (N = 2). Overall, the current literature supports clearly the dose-response relationship between physical activity and the seven chronic conditions identified. Moreover, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk for premature all-cause mortality. The current Canadian guidelines appear to be appropriate to reduce the risk for the seven chronic conditions identified above and all-cause mortality. PMID:20459783
Hunnell, Nathan A; Rockcastle, Nathan J; McCormick, Kristen N; Sinko, Laurel K; Sullivan, Elinor L; Cameron, Judy L
Physical activity is an important physiological variable impacting on a number of systems in the body. In rodents and several species of domestic animals, levels of physical activity have been reported to vary across the estrous cycle; however, it is unclear whether such changes in activity occur in women and other primates across the menstrual cycle. To determine whether significant changes in activity occur over the menstrual cycle, we continuously measured physical activity in seven adult female rhesus monkeys by accelerometry over the course of one menstrual cycle. Monkeys were checked daily for menses, and daily blood samples were collected for measurement of reproductive hormones. All monkeys displayed ovulatory menstrual cycles, ranging from 23 to 31 days in length. There was a significant increase in estradiol from the early follicular phase to the day of ovulation (F(1.005,5.023) = 40.060, P = 0.001). However, there was no significant change in physical activity across the menstrual cycle (F(2,12) = 0.225, P = 0.802), with activity levels being similar in the early follicular phase, on the day of the preovulatory rise in estradiol and during the midluteal phase. Moreover, the physical activity of these monkeys was not outside the range of physical activity that we measured in 15 ovariectomized monkeys. We conclude that, in primates, physical activity does not change across the menstrual cycle and is not influenced by physiological changes in circulating estradiol. This finding will allow investigators to record physical activity in female primates without the concern of controlling for the phase of the menstrual cycle.
Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.
McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Hu, Liang; Marquez, David X
We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.
van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A
Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain insight into facilitators and barriers to engaging into PA. Fourteen in-depth interviews and four focus groups were undertaken, with a total of 40 older adults with mild and moderate ID included in the analysis. NVivo software was used for analysing the transcribed verbatim interviews. In total, 30 codes for facilitators and barriers were identified. Themes concerning facilitators to PA were enjoyment, support from others, social contact and friendship, reward, familiarity, and routine of activities. Themes concerning barriers to PA were health and physiological factors, lack of self-confidence, lack of skills, lack of support, transportation problems, costs, and lack of appropriate PA options and materials. The results of the present study suggest that older adults with ID may benefit from specific PA programs, adapted to their individual needs and limitations. Results can be used for developing feasible health promotion programs for older adults with ID.
Ryan, Cormac G; Schofield, Patricia; Martin, Denis J
Negative views of older adults can lead to suboptimal care. For older adults with persistent low back pain (LBP), promotion of physical activity by health care professionals is important. Health care professionals' views of older adults are influenced by their training. This study aimed to compare recommendations for physical activity for managing persistent LBP offered by students in physiotherapy and occupational therapy to an older person vs. a younger person. In a cross-sectional online survey, participants (N = 77) randomly received a vignette of either a 40-yr-old or 70-yr-old patient with persistent LBP. Other than age, the vignettes were identical. There was no difference between the younger and older vignettes in the likelihood of participants making overall appropriate physical activity recommendations--63% vs. 59%, OR (95% CI) = 1.19 (0.48-2.99), p = .71--although there was a trend toward age bias on recommendations specific to daily activity. Postqualification education may be where ageist views need to be addressed.
Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M
Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention.
Bethancourt, Hilary J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Beatty, Tara; Arterburn, David E.
Objective Regular physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional health. However, few older adults engage in routine PA, and even fewer take advantage of programs designed to enhance PA participation. Though most managed Medicare members have free access to the Silver Sneakers and EnhanceFitness PA programs, the vast majority of eligible seniors do not utilize these programs. The goal of this qualitative study was to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of PA and participation in PA programs among older adults. Design This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews. Setting Focus groups took place at three Group Health clinics in King County, Washington. Participants Fifty-two randomly selected Group Health Medicare members between the ages of 66 to 78 participated. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 13 participants each. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach and a social-ecological framework. Results Men and women were nearly equally represented among the participants, and the sample was largely white (77%), well-educated (69% college graduates), and relatively physically active. Prominent barriers to PA and PA program participation were physical limitations due to health conditions or aging, lack of professional guidance, and inadequate distribution of information on available and appropriate PA options and programs. Facilitators included the motivation to maintain physical and mental health and access to affordable, convenient, and stimulating PA options. Conclusion Older adult populations may benefit from greater support and information from their providers and health care systems on how to safely and successfully improve or maintain PA levels through later adulthood. Efforts among health care systems to boost PA among older adults may need to consider patient-centered adjustments to current PA programs, as
Lampert, T; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S
The study analyses the distribution of physical and sporting activity among the adult population in Germany. The data came from the "German Health Update 2009" survey, which is based on 21,262 telephone interviews conducted by the Robert Koch Institute between July 2008 and June 2009. The study shows that 56% of men aged 18 and over and 38% of women in the same age group engaged in physical activity with an intensity that made them sweat or be out of breath for at least 2.5 h/week. In addition, 64% of both men and women stated that they had actively engaged in sporting activities over the previous 3 months. Comparing 1998 and 2003, participation in sport was observed to have increased among men and women in all age groups over time. Furthermore, socio-economic differences were observed, indicating lower physical activity among higher-status groups and lower sporting activity among lower-status groups. Measures to promote physical activity and sport prove to be especially necessary for people who are not physically active (19% of men and 26% of women) or who do not engage in sport at all (36% of both men and women).
Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.
Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833
Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965
Pelclová, Jana; Frömel, Karel; Řepka, Emil; Bláha, Ladislav; Suchomel, Aleš; Fojtík, Igor; Feltlová, Dana; Valach, Petr; Horák, Svatopluk; Nykodým, Jiří; Vorlíček, Michal
Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25–65 years) from 2008 to 2013. Participants were Czech national citizens whose physical activity was assessed objectively using a Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for seven consecutive days in the period 2008 to 2013. The final sample was 4647 Czech adults [M age 41.4 ± 10 years; M body mass index (BMI) 25.1 ± 3.7 kg/m2]. The results showed that men took more steps/day (M (Mean) = 10,014; 95% CI (Confidence Interval) = 9864–10,164) than women (M = 9448; 95% CI = 9322–9673) in all age and BMI groups. Mean steps/day declined from 2008 to 2013 by 852 steps/day in men and 1491 steps/day in women. In the whole sample, the proportion of participants who had a sedentary lifestyle (<5000 steps/day) increased by 5.8%; the proportion taking ≥10,000 steps/day decreased by 15.8%. In 2013, men and women were 2.67 and 2.05 times, respectively, more likely to have a physically inactive lifestyle (<7500 steps/day) than in 2008. Conversely, in 2008, men and women were 1.68 and 2.46 times, respectively, less likely to have very active lifestyle (>12,500 steps/day). In conclusion, this study suggests that there has been a substantial reduction in physical activity in Czech adults over time. PMID:27783062
Hoang, Tina D.; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine
Importance Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early-to-middle adulthood. Objective To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and mid-life cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 3,247 adults (black and white race, aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985 to August 31, 2011). Main Outcome and Measures We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/day) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at Year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (323 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23); Stroop, 1.56 (1.13-2.14) but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, (1.47 1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low
Zisko, Nina; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe
Introduction Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for general health. As a result, adults around the world are recommended to undertake regular PA of either absolute or relative intensity. Traditionally, adherence to PA recommendation is assessed by accelerometers that record absolute intensity thresholds. Since ageing often results in a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), older adults (aged > 65 years) might be more susceptible to not meeting the PA recommendation when measured in absolute terms. The aim of the present study was to compare the adherence to the PA recommendation using both absolute and relative thresholds. Additionally, we aimed to report the reference values for overall PA in a large sample of Norwegian older adults. Methods PA was assessed for 7 days using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer in 1219 older adults (624 females) aged 70–77 years. Overall PA was measured as counts per minute (CPM) and steps. Absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) thresholds were applied to quantify adherence to PA recommendation. The relative MVPA thresholds were developed specifically for the Generation 100 population sample. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Results Proportions meeting PA recommendation were 29% and 71% when utilizing absolute and relative MVPA, respectively. More females met the relative PA recommendation compared to males. Overall PA was higher among the youngest age group. Older adults with medium- and high levels of CRF were more physically active, compared to those with the lowest levels of CRF. Conclusion This is the first study to compare adherence to PA recommendation, using absolute and relative intensity thresholds among older adults. The present study clearly illustrates the consequences of using different methodological approaches to surveillance of PA across age, gender and CRF in a population of older adults. PMID:27893785
Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej
The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to
McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.
Attenuating the physical decline and increases in disability associated with the aging process is an important public health priority. Evidence suggests that regular physical activity participation improves functional performance, such as walking, standing balance, flexibility, and getting up out of a chair, and also plays an important role in the disablement process by providing a protective effect against functional limitations. Whether these effects are direct or indirect has yet to be reliably established. In this review, the authors take the perspective that such relationships are indirect and operate through self-efficacy expectations. They first provide an introduction to social cognitive theory followed by an overview of self-efficacy's reciprocal relationship with physical activity. They then consider the literature that documents the effects of physical activity on functional performance and functional limitations in older adults and the extent to which self-efficacy might mediate these relationships. Furthermore, they also present evidence that suggests that self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in a model in which the protective effects conferred by physical activity on functional limitations operate through functional performance. The article concludes with a brief section making recommendations for the development of strategies within physical activity and rehabilitative programs for maximizing the major sources of efficacy information. PMID:24353482
Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.
OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982
Background While physical activity (PA) provides many physical, social, and mental health benefits for older adults, they are the least physically active age group. Ecological models highlight the importance of the physical environment in promoting PA. However, results of previous quantitative research revealed inconsistencies in environmental correlates of older adults’ PA that may be explained by methodological issues. Qualitative studies can inform and complement quantitative research on environment-PA relationships by providing insight into how and why the environment influences participants’ PA behaviors. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review of qualitative studies exploring the potential impact of the physical environment on older adults’ PA behaviors. Methods A systematic search was conducted in databases of various disciplines, including: health, architecture and urban planning, transportation, and interdisciplinary databases. From 3,047 articles identified in the physical activity, initial search, 31 articles published from 1996 to 2012 met all inclusion criteria. An inductive content analysis was performed on the extracted findings to identify emerging environmental elements related to older adults’ PA. The identified environmental elements were then grouped by study methodologies [indoor interviews (individual or focus groups) vs spatial methods (photo-voice, observations, walk-along interviews)]. Results This review provides detailed information about environmental factors that potentially influence older adults’ PA behaviors. These factors were categorized into five themes: pedestrian infrastructure, safety, access to amenities, aesthetics, and environmental conditions. Environmental factors especially relevant to older adults (i.e., access to facilities, green open spaces and rest areas) tended to emerge more frequently in studies that combined interviews with spatial qualitative methods. Conclusions Findings showed that
Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole
Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…
Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal
Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco
Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of
Park, S M
The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations.
Stieglitz, Jonathan; Madimenos, Felicia; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael
Sedentary lifestyle contributes to osteoporosis and fragility fracture risks among modern humans, but whether such risks are prevalent in physically active pre-industrial societies with lower life expectancies is unclear. Osteoporosis should be readily observable in pre-industrial societies if it was regularly experienced over human history. In this study of 142 older adult Tsimane forager-horticulturalists (mean age±SD=62.1±8.6, range=50-85, 51% female) we use calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (qUS) to assess bone status, document prevalence of adults with reduced bone status, and identify factors (demographic, anthropometric, immunological, kinesthetic) associated with reduced bone status. Men (23%) are as likely as women (25%) to have reduced bone status, although age-related decline in qUS parameters is attenuated for men. Adiposity and fat-free mass positively co-vary with qUS parameters for women but not men. Leukocyte count is inversely associated with qUS parameters controlling for potential confounders; leukocyte count is positively correlated within adults over time, and adults with persistently low counts have higher adjusted qUS parameters (6-8%) than adults with a high count. Reduced bone status characteristic of osteoporosis is common among active Tsimane with minimal exposure to osteoporosis risk factors found in industrialized societies, but with energetic constraints and high pathogen burden. PMID:26460548
Panza, Gregory A.; Taylor, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Erhard, Liv; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Chipkin, Stuart; Keadle, Justin; White, C. Michael; Pescatello, Linda S.
Purpose Statin therapy can result in muscle pain, cramps, and weakness that may limit physical activity although reports are mixed. We conducted a randomized control trial to examine the effect of atorvastatin on habitual physical activity levels among a large sample of healthy adults. Methods Participants (n=418) were statin-naïve adults [44.0±16.1yr (X±SD)] that were randomized and double-blinded to 80mg per day of atorvastatin or placebo for 6 months. Accelerometers were worn for 96hr before and after drug treatment. Repeated measures analysis tested physical activity levels after versus before drug treatment among groups with age and VO2max as covariates. Results Among the total sample, sedentary behavior increased (19.5±5.1min·d−1), while light (9.1±3.0min·d−1) and moderate intensity (9.7±2.8min·d−1) physical activity decreased, as did total activity counts (17.8±6.3·d−1×10−3) over 6 months (P<0.01), with no differences between groups. The atorvastatin group increased sedentary behavior (19.8±7.4min·d−1), and decreased light (10.7±4.3min·d−1) and moderate (8.5±4.0min·d−1) intensity physical activity (P<0.05); while the placebo group increased sedentary behavior (19.2±7.1min·d−1), and decreased moderate intensity (11.0±3.8min·d−1) and total physical activity counts (−23.8±8.8×10−3·d−1) (p<0.05). Conclusion Time being sedentary increased and physical activity levels decreased among the total sample over 6 months of drug treatment, independent of group assignment. Our results suggest that statins do not influence physical activity levels any differently than placebo, and the lack of inclusion of a placebo condition may provide insight into the inconsistencies in the literature. PMID:26197031
Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie
As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903
Acosta, Wendy; Meek, Thomas H; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early-life exercise on adult physical activity (wheel running, home-cage activity), body mass, food consumption, and circulating leptin levels in males from four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR) and their four non-selected control (C) lines. Half of the mice were given wheel access shortly after weaning for three consecutive weeks. Wheel access was then removed for 52 days, followed by two weeks of adult wheel access for all mice. A blood sample taken prior to adult wheel testing was analyzed for circulating leptin concentration. Early-life wheel access significantly increased adult voluntary exercise on wheels during the first week of the second period of wheel access, for both HR and C mice, and HR ran more than C mice. During this same time period, activity in the home cages was not affected by early-age wheel access, and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. Throughout the study, all mice with early wheel access had lower body masses than their sedentary counterparts, and HR mice had lower body masses than C mice. With wheel access, HR mice also ate significantly more than C mice. Early-life wheel access increased plasma leptin levels (adjusted statistically for fat-pad mass as a covariate) in C mice, but decreased them in HR mice. At sacrifice, early-life exercise had no statistically significant effects on visceral fat pad, heart (ventricle), liver or spleen masses (all adjusted statistically for variation in body mass). Results support the hypothesis that early-age exercise in mice can have at least transitory positive effects on adult levels of voluntary exercise, in addition to reducing body mass, and may be relevant for the public policy debates concerning the importance of physical education for children.
Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar
Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure activities. Although the use of VR in rehabilitation has grown over the past decade, few applications have been reported for people with ID. Thirty-three men and women with moderate ID and severe cerebral palsy participated in the study. Each participant in the experimental group (n=17) took part in VR activity two to three times weekly for 12 weeks. Virtual games were provided via GestureTek's Gesture Xtreme video capture VR system. The VR-based activities were perceived by the participants to be enjoyable and successful. Moreover, participants demonstrated clear preferences, initiation and learning. They performed consistently and maintained a high level of interest throughout the intervention period. VR appears to provide varied and motivating opportunities for leisure activities among young adults with intellectual and physical disabilities. Its ease of use and adaptability make it a feasible option for this population.
Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Motl, Robert W; Pilutti, Lara A; Duggan, Mary; Wheeler, Garry; Persad, Ravin; Smith, Karen M
Most adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) are physically inactive. Physical activity guidelines are an important tool for exercise prescription, promotion, and monitoring. This article describes the application of international standards for guideline development in the creation of evidence-based physical activity guidelines for people with MS. The development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II instrument. The evidence base for the guidelines consisted of a systematic review of research examining the effects of exercise on fitness, fatigue, mobility, and health-related quality of life among people with MS. A multidisciplinary consensus panel deliberated the evidence and generated the guidelines and a preamble. Expert and stakeholder reviews of the materials led to refinement of the wording of both components of the guidelines. The resulting guidelines state that to achieve important fitness benefits, adults with MS who have mild to moderate disability need at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity 2 times per week and strength training exercises for major muscle groups 2 times per week. Meeting these guidelines may also reduce fatigue, improve mobility, and enhance elements of health-related quality of life. People with MS and health professionals are encouraged to adopt these rigorously developed guidelines.
MacDonald, Dany J.; Horton, Sean; Kraemer, Krista; Weir, Patricia; Deakin, Janice M.; Cote, Jean
This paper reports the results of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine if lifestyle variables and past involvement in physical activity was related to current activity levels in master athletes and sedentary older adults. Retrospective interviews were conducted with 12 master athletes and 12 sedentary older adults. Results…
Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ponce, Ninez A; Rodriguez, Michael; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J
Migrant studies of physical activity (PA) can provide insight into the prevention of chronic disease. It is unclear, however, whether PA increases or decreases the longer migrants live in their host country. In the US, studies on immigrants' length of residence in the US and PA are inconclusive and many studies do not adequately consider the role of socioeconomic status (SES). Using California data, we examine relationships between immigrant generation and physical activity (PA) among Mexican, Chinese and Filipino adults, who represent the three largest immigrant groups in the US, and the extent to which the relationships are confounded by SES. Data from the 2000 US Census was linked with data on adults 18 years and older from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. PA was measured in three different domains: leisure time (LTPA), non-leisure time (NLTPA) and any PA. Logistic regression was used to examine whether a wide range of SES factors, measured at the respondent and neighborhood levels, influenced the relationship between immigrant generation and PA in all domains and in different ethnic origin groups. Generation was significantly associated with LTPA among Mexican and Chinese adults and with NLTPA among all 3 ethnic origin groups; however the nature of the relationships varied. After adjusting for individual and neighborhood SES factors, a positive association between generation and LTPA remained among Mexican adults, and negative association between generation and NLTPA remained among Chinese and Filipino adults. These results underscore the importance of comparative studies of immigrant generation and PA and consideration of SES factors to identify pathways linking generation to PA. In the context of increasing rates of chronic disease, the study of transitions in PA among immigrants will continue to be critical to promoting the public health of diverse populations in countries such as the US.
Massoudi, Barbara L; Olmsted, Murrey G; Zhang, Yuying; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Barlow, Carolyn E; Huber, Rachel
Physical inactivity is an important contributor to the development of numerous chronic conditions and alone is an independent risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression and yet, most Americans consistently fail to achieve the recommended amount of physical activity. As part of Project HealthDesign, we designed and prototyped a personal health record application (PHA) that delivers and supports a highly individualized, behaviorally based lifestyle physical activity intervention for sedentary adults. Through a user centered design approach, we engaged consumers, health care providers, and personal trainers for multiple facilitated group discussions and structured interviews to determine their needs and wants related to an activity PHA. The PHA was developed to include elements of evidence-based approaches which help participants adopt cognitive and behavioral skills such as goal-setting, self-monitoring, accepting social support, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, decisional balance, and relapse prevention. This PHA demonstrated the potential for research-based behavioral interventions to be delivered via a web portal. This finding is important for both consumers and their providers who have the desire to implement physical activity recommendations, but lack the tools to facilitate or undertake such interventions.
Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...
Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F
Few studies have examined how young adult cancer survivors use online social media. The objective of this study was to characterize Facebook engagement by young adult cancer survivors in the context of a physical activity (PA) intervention program. Young adult cancer survivors participated in one of two Facebook groups as part of a 12-week randomized trial of a PA intervention (FITNET) compared to a self-help comparison (SC) condition. A moderator actively prompted group discussions in the FITNET Facebook group, while social interaction was unprompted in the SC group. We examined factors related to engagement, differences in engagement by group format and types of Facebook posts, and the relationship between Facebook engagement and PA outcomes. There were no group differences in the number of Facebook comments posted over 12 weeks (FITNET, 153 vs. SC, 188 p = 0.85) or the proportion of participants that reported engaging within Facebook group discussions at least 1-2 days/week. The proportion of participants that made any posts decreased over time in both groups. SC participants were more likely than FITNET participants to agree that group discussions caused them to become physically active (p = 0.040) and that group members were supportive (p = 0.028). Participant-initiated posts elicited significantly more comments and likes than moderator-initiated posts. Responses posted on Facebook were significantly associated with light PA at 12 weeks (β = 11.77, t(85) = 1.996, p = 0.049) across groups. Engagement within Facebook groups was variable and may be associated with PA among young adult cancer survivors. Future research should explore how to promote sustained engagement in online social networks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01349153.
Gouveia, Élvio R; Maia, José A; Beunen, Gaston P; Blimkie, Cameron J; Fena, Ercília M; Freitas, Duarte L
The purposes of this study were to generate functional-fitness norms for Portuguese older adults, to determine age and sex differences, and to analyze the physical activity-associated variation in functional fitness. The sample was composed of 802 older adults, 401 men and 401 women, age 60-79 yr. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test. Physical activity level was estimated via the Baecke questionnaire. The P50 values decreased from 60 to 64 to 75 to 79 yr of age. A significant main effect for age group was found in all functional-fitness tests. Men scored significantly better than women in the chair stand, 8-ft up-and-go, and 6-min walk. Women scored significantly better than men in chair sit-and-reach and back scratch. Active participants scored better in functional-fitness tests than their average and nonactive peers. This study showed a decline in functional fitness with age, better performance of men, and increased proficiency in active participants.
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…
Cizkova, Dasa; Nagyova, Miriam; Slovinska, Lucia; Novotna, Ivana; Radonak, Jozef; Cizek, Milan; Mechirova, Eva; Tomori, Zoltan; Hlucilova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Sulla, Igor; Vanicky, Ivo
Ependymal cells (EC) in the spinal cord central canal (CC) are believed to be responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis following pathological or stimulatory conditions. In this study, we have analyzed the proliferation of the CC ependymal progenitors in adult rats processed to compression SCI or enhanced physical activity. To label dividing cells, a single daily injection of Bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered over a 14-day-survival period. Systematic quantification of BrdU-positive ependymal progenitors was performed by using stereological principles of systematic, random sampling, and optical Dissector software. The number of proliferating BrdU-labeled EC increased gradually with the time of survival after both paradigms, spinal cord injury, or increased physical activity. In the spinal cord injury group, we have found 4.9-fold (4 days), 7.1-fold (7 days), 4.9-fold (10 days), and 5.6-fold (14 days) increase of proliferating EC in the rostro-caudal regions, 4 mm away from the epicenter. In the second group subjected to enhanced physical activity by running wheel, we have observed 2.1-2.6 fold increase of dividing EC in the thoracic spinal cord segments at 4 and 7 days, but no significant progression at 10-14 days. Nestin was rapidly induced in the ependymal cells of the CC by 2-4 days and expression decreased by 7-14 days post-injury. Double immunohistochemistry showed that dividing cells adjacent to CC expressed astrocytic (GFAP, S100beta) or nestin markers at 14 days. These data demonstrate that SCI or enhanced physical activity in adult rats induces an endogenous ependymal cell response leading to increased proliferation and differentiation primarily into macroglia or cells with nestin phenotype.
Iversen, Maura D; Brawerman, Marisa; Iversen, Christina N
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are twice as likely as their healthy peers to suffer from cardiovascular disease. RA is also a major cause of disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical trials of exercise and physical activity interventions demonstrate positive effects on muscle strength, function, aerobic capacity, mood and disability. While RA management guidelines emphasize the role of exercise and physical activity in the management of RA, the description of physical activity and exercise is vague and patients with RA remain less physically active than their healthy counterparts. This review discusses the benefits of physical activity and current physical activity recommendations in RA, describes measurement techniques to assess physical activity, and synthesizes the data from interventions to promote physical activity and improve health outcomes in adults with RA. PMID:23538738
Objective. Test whether a micro-environment park intervention in Grand Forks, ND, movement of seating away from a playground, would increase the physical activity and length of stay of park users. Method. STUDY 1, summer 2012: physical activity of children and adults was assessed during baseline (...
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael
Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…
Maher, Jaclyn P; Rhodes, Ryan E; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Intille, Stephen; Dunton, Genevieve F
Research attempting to elucidate physical activity (PA) intention-behavior relations has focused on differences in long-term behavior forecasting between people. However, regular PA requires a repeated performance on a daily or within-daily basis. An empirical case study application is presented using intensive longitudinal data from a study of PA in adults to (a) describe the extent to which short-term intention-behavior coupling occurs and (b) explore time-varying predictors of intention formation and short-term intention-behavior coupling. Adults (n = 116) participated in three 4-day waves of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Each day, participants received EMA questionnaires assessing short-term PA intentions and wore accelerometers to assess whether they engaged in ≥10 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 3-hour period after each EMA prompt. Concurrent affective states and contexts were also assessed through EMA. Participants reported having short-term intentions to engage in PA in 41% of EMA prompts. However, participants only engaged in ≥10 min of MVPA following 16% of the prompts that short-term PA intentions were reported indicating an intention-behavior gap of 84%. Odds of intentions followed by PA were greater on occasions when individuals reported higher levels of positive affect than was typical for them. This study is the first to take an EMA approach to describe short-term intention-behavior coupling in adults. Results suggest that adults have difficulty translating intentions into behavior at the momentary level, more so than over longer timescales, and that positive affect may be a key to successfully translating intentions into behavior.
Fazeli, Pariya L.; Marquine, Maria J.; Dufour, Catherine; Henry, Brook L.; Montoya, Jessica; Gouaux, Ben; Moore, Raeanne C.; Letendre., Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.; Moore, David J.
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p=0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p=0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p=0.03). While these cross-sectional findings suggest PA is associated with better neurocognitive and everyday functioning in older HIV+ adults, longitudinal studies utilizing objective PA methods are needed to evaluate directionality and mechanisms. PMID:25731660
Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias
Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.
Brandon, Caitlin A; Gill, Dawn P; Speechley, Mark; Gilliland, Jason; Jones, Gareth R
Adequate daily physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining functional capacity and independence in older adults. However, most older adults in Canada do not engage in enough PA to sustain fitness and functional independence. Environmental influences, such as warmer daytime temperatures, may influence PA participation; however, few studies have examined the effect of summertime temperatures on PA levels in older adults. This investigation measured the influence of summertime weather variables on PA in 48 community-dwelling older adults who were randomly recruited from a local seniors' community centre. Each participant wore an accelerometer for a single 7-consecutive-day period (between 30 May and 9 August 2006) during waking hours, and completed a PA logbook to remark on major daily PA events. Local weather variables were collected from a national weather service and compared with PA counts per minute. Regression analysis revealed a curvilinear relationship between log-transformed PA and mean daily temperature (r2 = 0.025; p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures nested within individuals were performed for monthly periods, meteorological variables, sex, age, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption, with PA as the dependent variable. Age and Air Quality Index remained significant variables within the model. Higher fitness levels had no effect on allowing individuals to perform more vigorous PA in warmer temperatures.
Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A
This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.
Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M
The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.
Background Though exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common among asthmatics, physical activity (PA) seems important in asthma management. Still, various studies point at avoidance of sports and certain daily life activities like walking stairs, even by patients with mild symptoms. We aimed to compare physical activity levels between healthy subjects and asthmatics with controlled and uncontrolled disease. Methods Data on asthma and PA were drawn from the Portuguese National Asthma Survey. The short telephone version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA levels. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma and at least one of these criteria: one or more asthma symptoms in the last twelve months, currently taking asthma medication or an asthma medical appointment in the previous twelve months. Controlled asthma was defined as a CARAT global score > 24 or a CARAT second factor score ≤ 16. Healthy subjects were defined as individuals without atopy, heart disease or any respiratory symptom. X2 and Mann–Whitney/Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relations between asthma status and PA dimensions. Results A total of 606 non-asthmatics, 125 controlled and 78 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects were included. In both genders, overall PA level did not differ significantly between groups. Controlled (men) and uncontrolled (women) asthmatics did more vigorous PA than healthy respondents. Male controlled asthmatics also did more moderate PA. Crude logistic regression showed positive relations between daily sitting time, vigorous and moderate PA and controlled asthma in men and between vigorous PA and uncontrolled asthma in women. After adjustments for confounders, moderate PA remained a predictor of controlled asthma in men, while vigorous PA doubled the risk of uncontrolled asthma in women. Conclusion Our study showed that adult asthmatics, independent
Wang, Chun Hao; Tsai, Chia Liang
The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.
Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui
Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Gilham, Ben; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and hearing sensitivity among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with diabetes. Method: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. One hundred eighty-four U.S. adults with diabetes…
Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca
The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p < 0.05). Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9) compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98). Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults. PMID:27293891
Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.
Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056
Gelaye, Bizu; Tafur, Luis Revilla; Lopez, Tania; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between physical activity and MetS. However, these findings were inconsistent; and few investigators have examined these associations among South Americans. We estimated the prevalence of MetS and its association with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study of 1,675 individuals (619 men and 1056 women) was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Information about LTPA, socio-demographic, and other lifestyle characteristics were collected by interview. The presence of MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.9% and was more common among women (29.9%) than men (21.6%). Habitual participation in LTPA was associated with a 23% reduced risk of MetS (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.60–1.03). There was an inverse trend of MetS risk with amount of LTPA (p=0.016). Compared with non-exercisers, those who exercised < 150 minutes/week had a 21% reduced risk of MetS (AOR= 0.79; 95% CI 0.60–1.04). Individuals who exercised ≥ 150 minutes/week, compared with non-exercisers, had a 42% reduced risk of MetS (AOR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36–0.93). Associations of similar magnitudes were observed when men and women were studied separately. Conclusion These data document a high prevalence of MetS and suggest an association with LTPA among urban dwelling Peruvians. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations and to examine interventions that may promote increased physical activity in this population. PMID:19563445
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity.
Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M
The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.
Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan
Physical activity shows promise for protection against cognitive decline in older adults with and without Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To better understand barriers to adoption of physical activity in this population, a clear understanding of daily and weekly activity patterns is needed. Most accelerometry studies report average physical activity over an entire wear period without considering the potential importance of the variability of physical activity. This study evaluated individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity and determined whether these differences could be predicted by AD status, day of wear, age, gender, education, and cardiorespiratory capacity. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+) over one week in 86 older adults with and without AD (n = 33 and n = 53, respectively). Mixed-effects location-scale models were estimated to evaluate and predict individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with AD averaged 21% less activity, but averaged non-significantly greater intra-individual variability. Women and men averaged similar amounts of physical activity, but women were significantly less variable. The amount of physical activity differed significantly across days of wear. Increased cardiorespiratory capacity was associated with greater average amounts of physical activity. Investigation of individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity provided insight into differences by AD status, days of monitor wear, gender, and cardiovascular capacity. All individuals regardless of AD status were equally consistent in their physical activity, which may have been due to a highly sedentary sample and/or the early disease stage of those participants with AD. These results highlight the value of considering individual differences in both the amount
Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael
Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391
Dumith, Samuel C; Gigante, Denise P; Domingues, Marlos R
Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC) are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community. PMID:17555603
Prince, Stéphanie A; Adamo, Kristi B; Hamel, Meghan E; Hardt, Jill; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Tremblay, Mark
Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary) and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water) assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals the need for valid, accurate
Foong, Yi Chao; Chherawala, Nabil; Aitken, Dawn; Winzenberg, Tania; Jones, Graeme
Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between accelerometer‐determined physical activity (PA), muscle mass, and lower‐limb strength in community‐dwelling older adults. Methods Six hundred thirty‐six community‐dwelling older adults (66 ± 7 years) were studied. Muscle mass was measured using dual‐energy x‐ray absorptiometry, whilst lower limb strength was measured via dynamometry. We measured minutes/day spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Results Participants spent a median of 583(Interquartile ratio (IQR) 522–646), 225(176–271), 27(12–45) and 0(0–0) min in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, respectively. PA intensity was positively associated with both lean mass percentage and lower limb strength in a dose–response fashion. Sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but not lower‐limb strength. There was a positive association between PA and appendicular lean mass in men only. There was an interaction between age and activity; as age increased, the magnitude of the association of PA with lean mass percentage decreased. Those who adhered to the Australian Department of Health PA guidelines (moderate/vigorous PA >/=150 min/week) had greater lean mass percentage, appendicular lean mass, and lower limb strength. Conclusions Using accelerometer technology, both the amount and intensity of accelerometer‐determined PA had an independent, dose–response relationship with lean mass percentage and lower limb strength, with the largest effect for vigorous activity. Time spent in sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but was not associated with lower limb strength. The magnitude of the association between PA and lean mass percentage decreased with age, suggesting that PA programmes may need to be modified with increasing age. PMID:27239404
Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca
Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying…
Boucard, Geoffroy K; Albinet, Cédric T; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Bouquet, Cédric A; Clarys, David; Audiffren, Michel
The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of physical activity on three different executive functions (shifting, inhibition, and updating) and to examine whether cardiovascular fitness was a good mediator of the positive link(s) between these variables. Sixty-three young adults (18-28 years), 30 young-old adults (60-70 years) and 30 old adults (71-81 years) were divided into physically active and sedentary groups according to physical activity level (assessed from an accelerometer and the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire). Cardiovascular fitness was assessed by VO2max from the Rockport 1 mile. Each executive function was assessed through three different experimental tasks. ANCOVAs revealed that the effect of physical activity level was specific to the old adults and significant for inhibition, but not for updating and shifting. Mediation analysis showed that this positive effect in the old adults group was mediated by cardiovascular fitness level. The present findings highlight the positive linkages among physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and inhibition in aging.
Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M; Temple, Jennifer L
Caffeine is a commonly used stimulant thought to have ergogenic properties. Most studies on the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been conducted in athletes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and increases liking of physical activity in sedentary adults. Participants completed treadmill walking at 60% to 70% of their maximal heart rate at baseline and for 6 subsequent visits, during which half of the participants were given caffeine (3 mg/kg) and half given placebo in a sports drink vehicle. To investigate the potential synergistic effects of acute and chronic caffeine on self-determined exercise duration, participants were rerandomized to either the same or different condition for the last visit, creating 4 chronic/acute treatment groups (placebo/placebo, placebo/caffeine, caffeine/placebo, caffeine/caffeine). Participants rated how much they liked the activity and perceived exertion at each visit. There was a main effect of time on liking of physical activity, with liking increasing over time and an interaction of sex and caffeine treatment on liking, with liking of activity increasing in female participants treated with caffeine, but not with placebo. There was no effect of caffeine on ratings of perceived exertion. Individuals who received caffeine on the final test day exercised for significantly longer than those who received placebo. These data suggest that repeated exposure to physical activity significantly increases liking of exercise and reduces ratings of perceived exertion and that caffeine does little to further modify these effects.
Cheadle, Allen; Egger, Ruth; LoGerfo, James P; Schwartz, Sheryl; Harris, Jeffrey R
Researchers have identified as effective and worthy of broader dissemination a variety of intervention strategies to promote physical activity among older adults. This paper reports results of a community-organizing approach to disseminating evidence-based interventions in a sustainable way: The Southeast Seattle Senior Physical Activity Network (SESPAN). SESPAN was implemented in Southeast Seattle, a group of multicultural neighborhoods extending 8 miles southeast of downtown Seattle, with a population of 56,469 in 2000, with 12% (7,041) aged 65 and older. The SESPAN organizing strategy involved networking to: (1) make connections between two or more community organizations to create new senior physical activity programs; and (2) build coalitions of community groups and organizations to assist in making larger scale environmental and policy changes to increase senior physical activity. The SESPAN evaluation used an uncontrolled prospective design focusing on sustainable community changes, including new or modified programs, policies, and practices. Networking among organizations led to the creation of 16 ongoing exercise classes and walking groups, serving approximately 200 older adults in previously underserved Southeast Seattle communities. In addition, the project's health coalition is sustaining current activities and generating new programs and environmental changes. The success of the SESPAN organizing model depended on identifying and involving champions in partner organizations who provided support and resources for implementing programs.
Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C.; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M.; Hoppmann, Christiane A.
Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599
Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.
Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873
Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer
Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults’ thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals are more active than others, and how PA is incorporated into daily life after retirement. Design: Seven focus groups of older adults (N = 37, M = 64, SD = 5.20; males = 20) representing a range of PA levels and retirement length participated in one of seven focus groups. Results: Aligned with SCT, self-efficacy beliefs along with perceptions about barriers and benefits of PA were among the major determinants of PA. Findings highlighted the importance of social support, positive outcome expectations and self-regulatory strategies as motivators. The lack of structure in retirement was a hindrance to incorporating PA into daily routine but, when incorporated, PA provided a sense of purpose in the lives of retired individuals. Conclusion: It is important to understand the meaning of retirement as a life transition and how it affects beliefs about PA to inform SCT-based health promotion interventions targeting individuals in retirement age. PMID:26964473
Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga
Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037
Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul
This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158
Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK
Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037
Plow, Matthew A; Finlayson, Marcia; Cho, Chi
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is commonly used to understand physical activity (PA) behavior in the general population; however, few researchers have explored its relevance for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the relative importance of health (symptoms and mobility impairments) and TTM constructs (behavioral and cognitive processes of change) in influencing stages of change placement for PA in a sample of 303 persons with MS using discriminant function analysis. The overall accuracy of predicting stages of change was 58.75%. Behavioral (r(2) = .35) and cognitive processes (r(2) = .17) accounted for the most variance, followed by mobility (r(2) = .11) and self-efficacy (r(2) = .05). Results provide support for evaluating whether TTM-based interventions can promote PA in adults with MS.
ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Pahor, Marco; Buford, Thomas W.; Dodson, John A.; Forman, Daniel E.; Gill, Thomas M.
Background Elevated resting pulse rate (RPR) is a well-recognized risk factor for adverse outcomes. Epidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of regular exercise for lowering RPR, but studies are mainly confined to persons younger than 65 years. We set out to evaluate the utility of a physical activity (PA) intervention for slowing RPR among older adults. Methods A total of 424 seniors (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate intensity PA intervention or an education-based “successful aging” (SA) health program. RPR was assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Longitudinal differences in RPR were evaluated between treatment groups using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, reporting unstandardized beta coefficients (β) with robust standard errors (SE). Results Increased frequency and duration of aerobic training was observed for the PA group at 6 and 12 months as compared with the SA group (P <0.001). In both groups, RPR remained unchanged over the course of the 12-month study period (P =0.67). No significant improvement was observed (β [SE] = 0.58 [0.88], P =0.51) for RPR when treatment groups were compared using the GEE method. Comparable results were found after omitting participants with a pacemaker, cardiac arrhythmia, or who were receiving beta-blockers. Conclusions Twelve months of moderate intensity aerobic training did not improve RPR among older adults. Additional studies are needed to determine whether physical activity of longer duration and/or greater intensity can slow RPR in older persons. PMID:25262271
Westgate, Kate; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brage, Soren
Background Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Methods 1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing). Results Wrist acceleration explained 44–47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34–39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7]) but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y) and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2). Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1). Conclusions A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed. PMID:27936024
Pennathur, Arunkumar; Magham, Rohini; Contreras, Luis Rene; Dowling, Winifred
The objective of the work reported in this paper is to assess test-retest reliability of Yale Physical Activity Survey Total Time, Estimated Energy Expenditure, Activity Dimension Indices, and Activities Check-list in older Mexican American men and women. A convenience-based healthy sample of 49 (42 women and 7 men) older Mexican American adults recruited from senior recreation centers aged 68 to 80 years volunteered to participate in this pilot study. Forty-nine older Mexican American adults filled out the Yale Physical Activity Survey for this study. Fifteen (12 women and 3 men) of the 49 volunteers responded twice to the Yale Physical Activity Survey after a 2-week period, and helped assess the test-retest reliability of the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Results indicate that based on a 2-week test-retest administration, the Yale Physical Activity Survey was found to have moderate (rhoI= .424, p < .05) to good reliability (rs = .789, p < .01) for physical activity assessment in older Mexican American adults who responded.
Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim
Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, P<.001). However, statistical differences between groups for total weekly MVPA and walking time were lost at the 20-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in vigorous physical activity, nor overall quality of life or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. Conclusions An online, social networking physical activity intervention with
Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru
We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.
Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.
Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185
Bond, Vernon; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; Franks, B. Don; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard
The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African-American males. Peak oxygen consumption varied as a function of physical activity, and was significantly higher in the physically active than in the physically inactive subjects (54.5 ± 1.5 vs 36.8 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) (P<.05). During the cold pressor test, consisting of immersing the foot in ice water, the change in cardiovascular responses were similar between the physically active and the physically inactive groups. These results suggest that regular physical activity may not contribute to an attenuated blood pressure response to behavioral stress of the cold pressor test in normotensive young adult African-American males. PMID:11455996
Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander
The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11-17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity.
Jekauc, Darko; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Herrmann, Christian; Hegazy, Khaled; Woll, Alexander
The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11–17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity. PMID:28045914
Lang, Wei; Tate, Deborah F.; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.
Background. This study examines factors associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in young adults (18–35 years) and compares objective and subjective assessment measures of PA and SB. Methods. 595 young adults (27.7 ± 4.4 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) enrolled in the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial. Hours/day spent in SB (<1.5 METs) and minutes/week spent in bout-related moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA; ≥3 METs and ≥10 min) were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Demographic factors associated with SB and MVPA were also explored (i.e., age, gender, BMI, ethnicity, work and relationship status, and number of children). Results. Objective MVPA (263 ± 246 min/wk) was greater than self-report estimates (208 ± 198 min/wk; p < 0.001) and differed by 156 ± 198 min/wk at the individual level (i.e., the absolute difference). Females, overweight participants, African Americans, and those with children participated in the least amount of MVPA. Objective estimates of SB (9.1 ± 1.8 hr/day; 64.5% of wear time) were lower than subjective estimates (10.1 ± 3.5 hr/day; p < 0.001), differing by 2.6 ± 2.5 hr/day for each participant. Conclusion. Young adults interested in weight gain prevention engage in both high levels of MVPA and SB, with participants self-reporting fewer MVPA minutes and more SB compared to objective estimates. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01183689). PMID:28116151
Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.
Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…
Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward
The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.
Ng, S W; Howard, A-G; Wang, H J; Su, C; Zhang, B
Previous studies have linked work, home production, travel activities and inactivity with weight and health outcomes. However, these focused on average physical activity (PA) over time rather than changes in PA and associated sociodemographic and economic factors and urbanicity. Using the 1991-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey data, we estimated the metabolic equivalent of task hours per week for individuals in occupational, domestic, travel and active leisure domains and sedentary hours per week. We present the distributions among adult men and women (aged 18-60), and use quantile regression models to explore factors associated with these trends. Trend analyses on the distribution of PA show declines along the whole distribution of occupational PA for men and women and domestic PA for women in China. These patterns remain consistent after adjusting for individual- and household-level factors. Controlling for urbanicity mitigated the decrease in occupational PA, particularly for men, but not the decrease in domestic PA. Given China's rapid urbanization and its association with occupational PA declines and the strong time trend in domestic PA, there is a need to invest in interventions and policies that promote PA during leisure and travel times.
Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained
Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M
High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of
Temple, Viviene A.
The aim was to identify factors associated with physical activity participation among active (i.e. more than or equal to 10 000 steps per day) individuals with intellectual disability. Staff at day program and supported employment organizations were asked to identify individuals they believed were physically active. To verify participants were…
Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.
Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-ε4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307
Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.
Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455
Evans, A B; Sleap, M
Older adults' participation in Physical Activity (PA) in the United Kingdom remains low. Moreover, although the subjective and narrative elements of aging are increasingly studied, promotion of healthy behaviours such as aquatic PA still frequently reduces older adults to passive recipients who rely on health professionals for their wellbeing. Using a figurational perspective, the relationship between participants' perceptions of the aging body and participation in aquatic activity was investigated. Interviews were completed with 22 adults aged over 50 years (7 men, 15 women). Participants highlighted a number of perceptual barriers that were contoured by wider social representations of older adults. Perceptions focussed upon the perceived limitations of the aging body. The need for regular participation in PA was recognised. However the potential for angst when wearing a bathing costume in the presence of 'others' was expressed, particularly amongst those considering themselves overweight. Participants objectified their bodies and compared them with those of other participants. The difficulties of managing physical (e.g. injury and illness) and environmental risk were described. At the same time, participants experienced the development of new webs of interdependence. These webs were both enabling and constraining. Some participants felt empowered. However, the exclusivity of many aquatic activity sessions re-emphasised the status of older adults as outsiders in the wider figuration of physical activity.
Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.
Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697
BACKGROUND: Losing the ability to walk safely and independently is a major concern for many older adults. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders study recently demonstrated that a physical activity (PA) intervention can delay the onset of major mobility disability. Our objective is ...
Trampisch, Ulrike Sonja; Platen, Petra; Trampisch, Matthias; Moschny, Anna; Thiem, Ulrich; Hinrichs, Timo
There is general consensus that physical activity is important for preserving functional capacities of older adults and positively influencing quality of life. While accelerometry is widely accepted and applied to assess physical activity in studies, several problems with this method remain (e.g., low retest reliability, measurement errors). The aim of this study was to test the intra-instrumental retest reliability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in a 3-day measurement of physical activity in older adults and to compare different estimators. A sample of 123 older adults (76.5 ± 5.1 years, 59 % female) wore a uniaxial accelerometer continuously for 1 week. The data were split into two repeated measurement values (week set) of 3 days each. The sum, the 80-99th quantiles and the 80-99th trimmed sums were built for each week set. Retest reliability was assessed for each estimator and graphically demonstrated by Bland-Altman plots. The intraclass correlation of the retest reliability ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. Retest reliability increases when a more robust estimator than the overall sum is used. Therefore, the trimmed sum can be recommended as a conservative estimate of the physical activity level of older adults.
Garn, Alex C.; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel L.; Kaseta, Michele; Maljak, Kim; Whalen, Laurel; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane
Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives of factors that contribute to effective voluntary after-school physical activity clubs. Data were collected over two-years via field observations (n= 115) and interviews with students (n= 278) and adult leaders (n= 126). Results…
Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc
With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…
Background Activity friendly environments have been identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity levels in the population. Associations between perceived environmental attributes and physical activity in Latin America may vary from those observed in high income countries. The objective of this systematic review is to identify which perceived environmental attributes are associated with physical activity in Latin America. Methods Systematic literature search of articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in four databases was conducted (PubMed, Virtual Health Library, EBSCO, and Web of Science). Associations with environmental attributes were analyzed separately for physical activity domains. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. Results All studies had cross-sectional designs. The majority of associations were statistically non-significant, and only four associations were found in the unexpected direction. Leisure-time and transport-related physical activity were the domains most frequently included in the studies and had higher number of associations in the expected direction. Leisure-time physical activity showed a convincing association in the expected direction with safety during the day. Transport-related physical activity had a convincing association with presence of street lighting. Conclusions This study shows that perceived environmental attributes and their relationship with physical activity appears to be domain, and context specific. In addition, findings from this study show inconsistencies with the information gathered from high-income countries. PMID:24171897
Marshall, Alan; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew; Scholes, Shaun
Background Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty. Objective We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous) performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood’s Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25). Methods Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50–54; 55–59; 60–64; 65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80+) on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above) and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults. Conclusion Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories. PMID:28152084
Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…
Cobb, Laura K.; Godino, Job G.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Coresh, Josef; Koton, Silvia
Low physical activity levels are a public health concern. Few studies have assessed the concordance of physical activity change among spouses. We studied this concordance during a 6-year period (baseline: 1987–1989; follow-up: 1993–1995) in 3,261 spousal pairs from the US-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Linear regression was used to examine the association between change in individuals' sport/exercise and leisure physical activity indices (ranging from 1 (low) to 5 (high)) and change in his or her spouse's indices. The association between individual and spousal changes in meeting physical activity recommendations was assessed with logistic regression. Individual changes in the sport/exercise and leisure indices were positively associated with spousal changes. For every standard deviation increase in their wives' sport/exercise index, men's exercise index increased by 0.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.12) standard deviation; for every standard deviation increase in their wives’ leisure index, men's leisure index increased by 0.08 standard deviation. Results were similar for women. Individuals had higher odds of meeting physical activity recommendations if their spouse met recommendations at both visits or just follow-up. In conclusion, changes in an individual's physical activity are positively associated with changes in his or her spouse's physical activity. Physical activity promotion efforts should consider targeting couples. PMID:26337074
Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Duquet, William; Philippaerts, Renaat; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire (FPACQ) in employed/unemployed and retired people. The FPACQ was developed to assess detailed information on several dimensions of physical activity and sedentary behavior over a usual week. A…
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).
Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Kalak, Nadeem; Shamsi, Mahin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Objective The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT) refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA) and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1) to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2) to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women. Methods A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18–37 years) took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA. Results Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively). DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy), while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes. Conclusion DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless. PMID:26869790
Fanning, Jason; Roberts, Sarah; Hillman, Charles H; Mullen, Sean P; Ritterband, Lee; McAuley, Edward
Rapid technological development has challenged researchers developing mobile moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) interventions. This 12-week randomized factorial intervention aimed to determine the individual and combined impact of a self-monitoring smartphone-app (tracking, feedback, education) and two theory-based modules (goal-setting, points-based feedback) on MVPA, key psychosocial outcomes, and application usage. Adults (N = 116; M age = 41.38 ± 7.57) received (1) a basic self-monitoring app, (2) the basic app plus goal setting, (3) the basic app plus points-based feedback, or (4) the basic app plus both modules. All individuals increased MVPA by more than 11 daily minutes. Those with points-based feedback demonstrated still higher levels of MVPA and more favorable psychosocial and app usage outcomes across the intervention. Those with access to in-app goal setting had higher levels of app usage relative to those without the component. It is imperative that effective digital intervention "ingredients" are identified, and these findings provide early evidence to this effect. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02592590.
Millstein, Rachel A.
Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513
Molina, Luis; Sarmiento, Manuel; Peñafiel, Judith; Donaire, David; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez, Miquel; Ble, Mireia; Ruiz, Sonia; Frances, Albert; Schröder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto
Objective To develop and validate a short questionnaire to estimate physical activity (PA) practice and sedentary behavior for the adult population. Methods The short questionnaire was developed using data from a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 6352) that included the Minnesota leisure-time PA questionnaire. Activities that explained a significant proportion of the variability of population PA practice were identified. Validation of the short questionnaire included a cross-sectional component to assess validity with respect to the data collected by accelerometers and a longitudinal component to assess reliability and sensitivity to detect changes (n = 114, aged 35 to 74 years). Results Six types of activities that accounted for 87% of population variability in PA estimated with the Minnesota questionnaire were selected. The short questionnaire estimates energy expenditure in total PA and by intensity (light, moderate, vigorous), and includes 2 questions about sedentary behavior and a question about occupational PA. The short questionnaire showed high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.79 to 0.95. The Spearman correlation coefficients between estimated energy expenditure obtained with the questionnaire and the number of steps detected by the accelerometer were as follows: 0.36 for total PA, 0.40 for moderate intensity, and 0.26 for vigorous intensity. The questionnaire was sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.34). Conclusion The REGICOR short questionnaire is reliable, valid, and sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA. This questionnaire could be used in daily clinical practice and epidemiological studies. PMID:28085886
Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao
Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.
Harrison, Roger A; Gemmell, Islay; Heller, Richard F
Area-based interventions offer the potential to increase physical activity for many sedentary people in countries such as the UK. Evidence on the effect of individual and area/neighbourhood influences on physical activity is in its infancy, and despite its value to policy makers a population focus is rarely used. Data from a population-based health and lifestyle survey of adults in northwest England were used to analyse associations between individual and neighbourhood perceptions and physical activity. The population effect of eliminating a risk factor was expressed as a likely effect on population levels of physical activity. Of the 15,461 responders, 21,923 (27.1%) were physically active. Neighbourhood perceptions of leisure facilities were associated with physical activity, but no association was found for sense of belonging, public transport or shopping facilities. People who felt safe in their neighbourhood were more likely to be physically active, but no associations were found for vandalism, assaults, muggings or experience of crime. The number of physically active people would increase by 3290 if feelings of "unsafe" during the day were removed, and by 11,237 if feelings of "unsafe" during the night were removed. An additional 8342 people would be physically active if everyone believed that they were "very well placed for leisure facilities". Feeling safe had the potential largest effect on population levels of physical activity. Strategies to increase physical activity in the population need to consider the wider determinants of health-related behaviour, including fear of crime and safety.
Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily
Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.
Watt, Jennifer C.; Grove, George A.; Wollam, Mariegold E.; Uyar, Fatma; Mataro, Maria; Cohen, Neal J.; Howard, Darlene V.; Howard, James H.; Erickson, Kirk I.
Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children). However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1) explicit relational memory, (2) executive control, and (3) implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults. The main finding was that physical activity was positively associated with explicit relational memory and executive control (replicating previous research), but negatively associated with implicit learning, particularly in females. These results raise the intriguing possibility that physical activity upregulates some cognitive processes, but downregulates others. Possible implications of this pattern of results for physical health and health habits are discussed. PMID:27584059
Background People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have lower levels of physical activity and quality of life and they have a lot of barriers to face when taking part in physical activity. Other problems are the poor adherence to physical activity such people have so this study is designed to improve adherence to physical activity for people with intellectual disabilities with the assistance of an application for smartphones. The aim of the study will be to improve physical activity and physical condition after multimodal intervention and to analyse the promotion of adherence to physical activity through a multimodal intervention and an app intervention (mHealth) in people with ID. Methods A two-stage study will be conducted. In stage 1 a multimodal intervention will take place will be done with physical activity and educational advice over eight weeks, two days a week. Data will be measured after and before the intervention. In stage 2 a randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In the intervention group we will install an application to a smartphone; this application will be a reminder to do a physical activity and they have to select whether they have or haven’t done a physical activity every day. This application will be installed for 18 weeks. Data will be measured after and before the application is installed in two groups. We will measure results 10 weeks later when the two groups don’t have the reminder. The principal outcome used to measure the adherence to physical activity will be the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; secondary outcomes will be a fun-fitness test and self-report survey about quality of life, self-efficacy and social support. Samples will be randomized by sealed envelope in two groups, with approximately 20 subjects in each group. It’s important to know that the therapist will be blinded and won’t know the subjects of each group. Discussion Offering people with ID a multimodal intervention and tool to
Nurnazahiah, Ali; Lua, Pei Lin; Shahril, Mohd Razif
The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to ‘objectively measured’ physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed. PMID:28090175
Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R
Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645
Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís
Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, p<0.001), emotional wellbeing (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), functioning (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), vitality (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), supportive relationships (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), and wellbeing total score (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001). Physical activity frequency was linearly associated with self-rated wellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (p<0.001). Attaining recommended physical activity levels is related to better self-rated wellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.
Strub, Peg; Xiao, Lan; Lavori, Philip W.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Buist, A. Sonia; Haskell, William L.; Lv, Nan
Rationale: The effect of weight loss on asthma in obese adults warrants rigorous investigation. Objectives: To examine an evidence-based, practical, and comprehensive lifestyle intervention targeting modest weight loss and increased physical activity for asthma control. Methods: The trial randomized 330 obese adults with uncontrolled asthma to receive usual care enhanced with a pedometer, a weight scale, information about existing weight management services at the participating clinics, and an asthma education DVD, or with these tools plus the 12-month intervention. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores from baseline to 12 months. Participants (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [12.4] yr) were 70.6% women, 20.0% non-Hispanic black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latino, and 8.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. At baseline, they were obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [5.9] kg/m2) and had uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, 15.1 [3.8]). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants achieved significantly greater mean weight loss (±SE) (intervention, −4.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. control, −2.1 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.01) and increased leisure-time activity (intervention, 418.2 ± 110.6 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk vs. control, 178.8 ± 109.1 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk; P = 0.05) at 12 months. But between-treatment mean (±SE) differences were not significant for ACQ changes (intervention, –0.3 ± 0.1 vs. control, –0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.92) from baseline (mean [SD], 1.4 [0.8]), nor for any other clinical asthma outcomes (e.g., spirometric results and asthma exacerbations). Among all participants regardless of treatment assignment, weight loss of 10% or greater was associated with a Cohen d effect of 0.76 and with 3.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.72–8.31) times the odds of achieving clinically significant reductions (i.e., ≥0.5) on ACQ as stable weight (<3% loss or gain from
Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, Kerry
Considerable evidence has indicated that group-based physical activity may be a promising approach to reducing and preventing age-related illness. However, this research has not examined the mechanisms by which cohesion may impact on behaviour. The purpose of the present research was to utilise the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the mechanism by which group cohesion may affect physical activity intention. Participants were recruited from an existing physical activity intervention studying the effects of group cohesion on physical activity behaviour. The outcomes of this intervention are reported elsewhere. This paper presents data from a sub-sample of the intervention population (N=74) that examined the mediating relationships between the theory of planned behaviour and group cohesion on physical activity intention. Analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between specific group cohesion concepts and physical activity intention. The direct measure of subjective norm failed to display a mediating relationship. The mediating relationships displayed between attitude and perceived behavioural control and physical activity intention provide insight into potential mechanisms by which group cohesion may affect behaviour.
Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo
[Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions. PMID:28356633
Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo
[Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.
Foy, Capri G.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Case, L. Douglas; Harris, Susan J.; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J.; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie
Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. PMID:23876672
Ganesh, Shankar; Mishra, Chittaranjan
Objectives: The complete rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprises both physical and psychosocial factors. This study therefore aimed to assess physical activity and quality of life (QOL) among paraplegic patients with SCI in Odisha, India. Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2013. All paraplegic patients treated at the Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research in Odisha, India, during the study period who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study (n = 364). Structured face-to-face interviews were held with participants and QOL and physical activity were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization QOL instrument and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, respectively. Results: A total of 84 people participated in the study (response rate: 23.1%). The mean age was 32.54 ± 10.75 years and 90.5% of the participants were male. Participants had a low mean metabolic equivalent score (18.18 ± 10.68 hours/day). Additionally, low mean scores were noted for the physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment QOL domains (49.76 ± 18.74, 48.57 ± 17.04, 57.88 ± 17.04 and 49.85 ± 17.77, respectively). There was a strong positive association between levels of physical activity and all QOL domains (P <0.050). Physical activity and employment status were significant predictors of all QOL domains (P <0.001). Conclusion: Low physical activity levels and QOL were noted among the paraplegic subjects. Interventions promoting physical activity and employment may help to improve QOL among this patient group. PMID:26909214
Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.
de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S
The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.
To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...
van Schijndel-Speet, M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van Wijck, R.; van Montfort, K. C. A. G. M.; Echteld, M. A.
Background: The physical activity level of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is extremely low, and their fitness levels are far beneath accepted norms for older people with normal intelligence and comparable with frail older people. A physical activity programme, including an education programme, was developed for older adults with…
Ronnenberg, Alayne G.; Zagarins, Sofija E.; Houghton, Serena C.; Takashima-Uebelhoer, Biki B.; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.
Introduction It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8–20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear. Methods We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18–31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report. Results Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6–3.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.4), respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85). Conclusions We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:28081191
Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios—OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval—95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies. PMID:26915091
Gomes, Crizian Saar; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
The physical activity practice is highlighted as a strategy to health promotion and to avoid chronic diseases. In addition to individual factors, environmental characteristics in which people live, may offer opportunities or barriers in adopting healthy habits and this is related to the physical activity (PA) practice among individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between neighborhood environment and leisure-time physical activity in adults. This is a cross-sectional study, developed using the database of Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL 2008/2010) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Individuals with the habit of practicing PA for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week in leisure time were classified as active in leisure time. To characterize the built and social environment we used georeferenced data of public and private places for physical activity, population density, residential density, homicide rate and total income of the coverage area of the basic health units. The covered area of the basic health units was used as context unit. For data analysis, we used multilevel logistic regression. The study included 5779 adults, 58.77% female. There was variability of physical activity in leisure time between area covered by the basic health units (Median Odds ratio = 1.30). After adjusting for individual characteristics, the increase of density of private places for physical activity (Odds ratios-OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval-95% CI: 1.15 to 1.48) and the smaller homicide rate (OR = 0.82; IC95%: 0.70 to 0.96) in the neighborhood increased physical activity in leisure time. The evidence of this study shows that neighborhood environment may influence the physical activity practice in leisure time and should be considered in future interventions and health promotion strategies.
Cory, Julia M.; Schaeffer, Michele R.; Wilkie, Sabrina S.; Ramsook, Andrew H.; Puyat, Joseph H.; Arbour, Brandon; Basran, Robbi; Lam, Michael; Les, Christian; MacDonald, Benjamin; Jensen, Dennis
Understanding sex differences in the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea may provide insight into why women are more affected by this symptom than men. This study explored the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of dyspnea in 70 healthy, young, physically active adults (35 M and 35 F). Participants rated the intensity of their breathing discomfort (Borg 0-10 scale) and selected phrases that best described their breathing from a standardized list (work/effort, unsatisfied inspiration, and unsatisfied expiration) throughout each stage of a symptom-limited incremental-cycle exercise test. Following exercise, participants selected phrases that described their breathing at maximal exercise from a list of 15 standardized phrases. Intensity of breathing discomfort was significantly higher in women for a given ventilation, but differences disappeared when ventilation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation. The dominant qualitative descriptor in both sexes throughout exercise was increased work/effort of breathing. At peak exercise, women were significantly more likely to select the following phrases: “my breathing feels shallow,” “I cannot get enough air in,” “I cannot take a deep breath in,” and “my breath does not go in all the way.” Women adopted a more rapid and shallow breathing pattern and had significantly higher end-inspiratory lung volumes relative to total lung capacity throughout exercise relative to men. These findings suggest that men and women do not differ in their perceived quality of dyspnea during submaximal exercise, but subjective differences appear at maximal exercise and may be related, at least in part, to underlying sex differences in breathing patterns and operating lung volumes during exercise. PMID:26338458
Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae
[Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446
Physical activity is known as a preventative method for preventing life-style-related diseases. Smartphone applications for health and fitness intervention have released with rapid increase of innovative technology. Reviews of recent publications on mobile application have been conducted to observe feasibility and applicability for physical activity intervention. Bibliographic searches of PubMed and ScienceDirect were conducted with key terms, ‘physical activity,’ ‘fitness,’ ‘smart-phone,’ and ‘health’ between the years 2014 and 2017 to obtain 5,087 publications. Out of 5,087 articles, five articles on sensor-based applications and five articles on user entry-based applications were obtained through the inclusion and exclusion processes. Accuracy of the physical activity assessments were reported to be high in comparison to the conventional assessment tools. The overall subject rating on the app motivational ratings were positive with high correlation between physical activity and treats and cues. The adherence rates to the apps significantly dropped prior to 3 months. Publications that elucidate feasibility and accuracy of smartphone applications that motivates physical activity seem limited with adequately conducted study designs. Large-scaled, control-compared, long-term randomized control trials should be conducted to elucidate the effects of the app interventions. PMID:28349027
Physical activity is known as a preventative method for preventing life-style-related diseases. Smartphone applications for health and fitness intervention have released with rapid increase of innovative technology. Reviews of recent publications on mobile application have been conducted to observe feasibility and applicability for physical activity intervention. Bibliographic searches of PubMed and ScienceDirect were conducted with key terms, 'physical activity,' 'fitness,' 'smart-phone,' and 'health' between the years 2014 and 2017 to obtain 5,087 publications. Out of 5,087 articles, five articles on sensor-based applications and five articles on user entry-based applications were obtained through the inclusion and exclusion processes. Accuracy of the physical activity assessments were reported to be high in comparison to the conventional assessment tools. The overall subject rating on the app motivational ratings were positive with high correlation between physical activity and treats and cues. The adherence rates to the apps significantly dropped prior to 3 months. Publications that elucidate feasibility and accuracy of smartphone applications that motivates physical activity seem limited with adequately conducted study designs. Large-scaled, control-compared, long-term randomized control trials should be conducted to elucidate the effects of the app interventions.
Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O’Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.
Background Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. Objectives To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Design Expert panel survey. Setting Web-based platform. Participants Eleven experts from eight academic medical centers and 300 community dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery from two academic medical centers. Methods Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Main Outcome Measurements Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychological tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Results Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, while walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychological performance (r=0.13–0.23, p<.05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r=0.15–0.46, p<.05). Conclusions Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, post-acute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. PMID:25661463
Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne
This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.
Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk
Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253
Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes
Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han
Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346
Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han
Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.
Grant, P Margaret; Granat, Malcolm H; Thow, Morag K; Maclaren, William M
This study measured objectively the postural physical activity of 4 groups of older adults (> or =65 yr). The participants (N = 70) comprised 3 patient groups--2 from rehabilitation wards (city n = 20, 81.8 +/- 6.7 yr; rural n = 10, 79.4 +/- 4.7 yr) and the third from a city day hospital (n = 20, 74.7 +/- 7.9 yr)--and a healthy group to provide context (n = 20, 73.7 +/- 5.5 yr). The participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL) for a week. A restricted maximum-likelihood-estimation analysis of hourly upright time (standing and walking) revealed significant differences between day, hour, and location and the interaction between location and hour (p < .001). Differences in the manner in which groups accumulated upright and sedentary time (sitting and lying) were found, with the ward-based groups sedentary for prolonged periods and upright for short episodes. This information may be used by clinicians to design appropriate rehabilitation interventions and monitor patient progress.
Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N
We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.
Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.
We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845
Mooney, Stephen J; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Kennedy, Gary J; Beard, John R; Rundle, Andrew G
Background: Few older adults achieve recommended physical activity levels. We conducted a "neighborhood environment-wide association study (NE-WAS)" of neighborhood influences on physical activity among older adults, analogous, in a genetic context, to a genome-wide association study.Methods: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and sociodemographic data were collected via telephone survey of 3,497 residents of New York City aged 65 to 75 years. Using Geographic Information Systems, we created 337 variables describing each participant's residential neighborhood's built, social, and economic context. We used survey-weighted regression models adjusting for individual-level covariates to test for associations between each neighborhood variable and (i) total PASE score, (ii) gardening activity, (iii) walking, and (iv) housework (as a negative control). We also applied two "Big Data" analytic techniques, LASSO regression, and Random Forests, to algorithmically select neighborhood variables predictive of these four physical activity measures.Results: Of all 337 measures, proportion of residents living in extreme poverty was most strongly associated with total physical activity [-0.85; (95% confidence interval, -1.14 to -0.56) PASE units per 1% increase in proportion of residents living with household incomes less than half the federal poverty line]. Only neighborhood socioeconomic status and disorder measures were associated with total activity and gardening, whereas a broader range of measures was associated with walking. As expected, no neighborhood meaZsures were associated with housework after accounting for multiple comparisons.Conclusions: This systematic approach revealed patterns in the domains of neighborhood measures associated with physical activity.Impact: The NE-WAS approach appears to be a promising exploratory technique. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 495-504. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial
King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse
Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use
Taliaferro, Andrea R; Hammond, Lindsay
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.
Ferrand, Claude; Nasarre, Sandra; Hautier, Christophe; Bonnefoy, Marc
The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of physically active older adults and to achieve a better understanding of their perceived motives to explain their regular physical activity behavior in relation to self-determination theory (SDT). To address these aims, this study used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Older adults (n = 92; M = 74.95, SD = 4.6) completed the French version of the Sport Motivational Scale. A cluster analysis showed two motivational profiles with differential motivational patterns. The first was named the high combined profile, with high scores on intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation and low levels of external regulation. The second profile was the low to moderate motivational profile, with low scores on intrinsic motivation and moderate scores on introjected regulation. The qualitative study's results demonstrate the usefulness of SDT in explaining the relationship between these motivational profiles and the intertwining of the three basic psychological needs.
Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis
Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413
Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans
Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate
Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B
The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.
Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B
At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.
Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Duquet, William; Philippaerts, Renaat; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire (FPACQ) in employed/unemployed and retired people. The FPACQ was developed to assess detailed information on several dimensions of physical activity and sedentary behavior over a usual week. A triaxial accelerometer, the RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker (RT3), in combination with a written 7-day activity record, was used as the objective criterion measure. In employed/unemployed people, 2-week test-retest reliability for several activity variables calculated from the FPACQ was good to excellent with intraclass correlations (ICCs) ranging from .67 to .99. In retired people ICCs were lower but, except for time spent eating, still fair to excellent, ranging from .57 to .96. Except for time spent in leisure time activities for men and the average energy expenditure related to sports participation in women, correlations between the RT3 and the FPACQ generally supported the relative validity of the FPACQ for employed/unemployed people (r ranging from .37 to .88). Values for retired people were somewhat lower (r ranging from .15 to .85), but most variables still reached at least moderate correlations. Concerning absolute validity, the FPACQ generally overestimated physical activity and underestimated sedentary behavior compared to the RT3. From this study, it can be concluded that the FPACQ is a reliable and reasonably valid questionnaire for assessing different dimensions of physical activity and sedentary behavior.
Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971
Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung
Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329
Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
On May 1, 2001, a coalition of national organizations released a major planning document designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was developed with input from 46 organizations with expertise in health, medicine, social and behavioral sciences, epidemiology, gerontology/geriatrics, clinical science, public policy, marketing, medical systems, community organization, and environmental issues. The Blueprint notes that, despite a wealth of evidence about the benefits of physical activity for mid-life and older persons, there has been little success in convincing age 50+ Americans to adopt physically active lifestyles. The Blueprint identifies barriers in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical systems, public policy and advocacy, and marketing and communications. In addition to identifying barriers, the Blueprint proposes a number of concrete strategies that could be employed in order to overcome the barriers to physical activity in society at large. This report summarizes the outcome of the National Blueprint Consensus Conference that was held in October 2002. In this conference, representatives of more than 50 national organizations convened in Washington, D.C. with the goal of identifying high priority and high feasibility strategies which would advance the National Blueprint and which could be initiated within the next 12 to 24 months. Participants in the consensus conference were assigned to one of five breakout groups: home and community, marketing, medical systems, public policy, and research. Each breakout group was charged with identifying the three highest priority strategies within their area for effectively increasing physical activity levels in the mid-life and older adult population. In addition to the 15 strategies identified by the breakout groups, three
Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to consider the perspective of the mental health staff about barriers and facilitators to physical activity to design a feasible intervention. Purpose of This Study: To describe the perceptions of mental health staff about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function among older adults with schizophrenia. Design and Method: We conducted qualitative interviews with 23 mental health staff that care for older adults with schizophrenia. The data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Results: The participants were interested in promoting physical activity with older adults with schizophrenia. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity identified were mental health, role models and rewards, institutional factors, and safety. Implications: In order to design successful physical activity interventions for this population, the intervention may need to be a routine part of the mental health treatment program and patients may need incentives to participate. Staff should be educated that physical activity may provide the dual benefit of physical and mental health treatment. PMID:22936534
Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.
Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997
Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III
We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...
Barnes, Patricia M; Schoenborn, Charlotte A
The Healthy People 2020 objectives for physical activity include two objectives for increasing the proportion of physician office visits that include counseling or education related to exercise (see http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx). Physician counseling for exercise has not previously been tracked by the Healthy People initiative. The present report looks at this emerging health issue from the vantage point of adults in the general population who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months and had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or other physical activity. About 8 in 10 adults had seen a health professional in the past 12 months during 2000 (80.6%), 2005 (81.2%), and 2010 (79.8%), although estimates varied by demographic subgroups (10–12). Over time, estimates of the percentage of adults being advised to exercise could be influenced by major changes in the characteristics of adults seeing a health professional. In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to exercise or do other physical activity, which reflects an upward trend since 2000, moving in the direction of meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. In relative terms, there has been more than a 40% increase—from 22.6% of adults in 2000 to 32.4% in 2010. Although increases were noted for every population and health condition group studied, these increases were larger for some groups than others. The increase in the percentage of adults receiving exercise advice is particularly noteworthy for the oldest age group. In 2000, 15.3% of adults aged 85 and over had been advised to exercise; by 2010, the percentage had increased to 28.9%. Across the chronic health conditions studied, adults with diabetes were the most likely, and those with cancer were the least likely, to have been advised by their physician to exercise. An upward trend of 8–10 percentage points, however
Adams, Marc A.; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hekler, Eric B.; Perata, Elyse
Background Physical activity (PA) interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. Objective To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. Methods Participants (N = 20) were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1) static intervention (SI) or 2) adaptive intervention (AI). Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9±9.2 years, 35% non-white) in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. Results A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001) and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p = .017). The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74). Conclusions The adaptive
Cendelín, Jan; Korelusová, Ivana; Vozeh, Frantisek
Lurcher mutant mice represent a model of olivocerebellar degeneration. They are used to investigate cerebellar functions, consequences of cerebellar degeneration and methods of therapy influencing them. The aim of the work was to assess the effect of foetal cerebellar graft transplantation, repeated enforced physical activity and the combination of both these types of treatment on motor skills, spontaneous motor activity and spatial learning ability in adult B6CBA Lurcher mice. Foetal cerebellar grafts were applied into the cerebellum of Lurchers in the form of solid tissue pieces. Enforced motor activity was realised through rotarod training. Motor functions were examined using bar, ladder and rotarod tests. Spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Spontaneous motor activity in the open field was observed. The presence of the graft was examined histologically. Enforced physical activity led to moderate improvement of some motor skills and to a significant amelioration of spatial learning ability in Lurchers. The transplantation of cerebellar tissue did not influence motor functions significantly but led to an improvement of spatial learning ability. Mutual advancement of the effects of both types of treatment was not observed. Spontaneous motor activity was influenced neither by physical activity nor by the transplantation. Physical activity did not influence the graft survival and development. Because nerve sprouting and cell migration from the graft to the host cerebellum was poor, the functional effects of the graft should be explained with regard to its trophic influence rather than with any involvement of the grafted cells into neural circuitries.
Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B
Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875
Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...
The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of...
Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.
Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…
Temple, Viviene A.; Stanish, Heidi I.
Pedometers are objective, inexpensive, valid, and reliable measures of physical activity. The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate average weekly step counts was investigated. Seven days of pedometer data were collected from 154 ambulatory men and women ("ns" = 88 and 66, respectively) with intellectual disability.…
Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien
This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults' PA and limit SB.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688
Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter A.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bosworth, Mark; Acock, Alan; Johnson-Shelton, Deborah; Moore, Jane M.
Background Few studies have investigated the built environment and its association with health—especially excess adiposity—and physical activity in the immediate pre-Baby Boom/early-Baby Boom generations, soon to be the dominant demographic in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship. Methods This study used a cross-sectional, multilevel design with neighborhoods as the primary sampling unit (PSU). Residents (N=1221; aged 50–75) were recruited from 120 neighborhoods in Portland OR. The independent variables at the PSU level involved GIS-derived measures of land-use mix, distribution of fast-food outlets, street connectivity, access to public transportation, and green and open spaces. Dependent variables included resident-level measures of excess adiposity (BMI ≥25), three walking activities, and physical activity. Data were collected in 2006–2007 and analyzed in 2007. Results Each unit (i.e., 10%) increase in land-use mix was associated with a 25% reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. However, a 1-SD increase in the density of fast-food outlets was associated with a 7% increase in overweight/obesity. Higher mixed-use land was positively associated with all three types of walking activities and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. Neighborhoods with high street connectivity, high density of public transit stations, and green and open spaces were related in varying degrees to walking and the meeting of physical activity recommendations. The analyses adjusted for neighborhood- and resident-level sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Findings suggest the need for public health and city planning officials to address modifiable neighborhood-level, built-environment characteristics to create more livable residential communities aimed at both addressing factors that may influence unhealthy eating and promoting active, healthy lifestyles in this rapidly growing population. PMID:18541175
Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; Vitório, Rodrigo; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of muscle fatigue in active and inactive young adults on the kinematic and kinetic parameters of normal gait and obstacle crossing. Twenty male subjects were divided into active (10) and inactive (10), based on self-reported physical activity. Participants performed three trials of two tasks (normal gait and obstacle crossing) before and after a fatigue protocol, consisting of repeated sit-to-stand transfers until the instructed pace could no longer be maintained. MANOVAs were used to compare dependent variables with the following factors: physical activity level, fatigue and task. The endurance time in the fatigue protocol was lower for the inactive group. Changes of gait parameters with fatigue, among which increased step width and increased stride speed were the most consistent, were independent of task and physical activity level. These findings indicate that the kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait are affected by muscle fatigue irrespective of the physical activity level of the subjects and type of gait. Inactive individuals used a slightly different strategy than active individuals when crossing an obstacle, independently of muscle fatigue.
Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge
The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.
Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Puri, Shipra; Rogers, Sandy; Richards, Kathy C.
Objectives To determine the effect of 7-weeks of resistance training and walking on the apneahypopnea index (AHI) in institutionalized older adults compared to a usual care control group. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled-trial. Setting Ten nursing and three assisted living facilities in Arkansas. Participants Institutionalized older adults. Interventions Exercise group (EG) performed supervised resistance training to arm and hip extensors on 3 days a week with additional 2 days a week of light walking. Usual care group (UC) participated in the usual activities provided within their living facility. Measurements 2 nights of polysomnography before and following 7-week intervention. Results Adjusted means in the EG group showed a decrease in AHI from 20.2 (SD±1.3) at baseline to 16.7 (SD±0.9) at 7 weeks. Absolute strength gains were not associated with improved AHI. Conclusion Supervised resistance training and light walking reduced the severity of OSA in institutionalized older adults. PMID:25294621
Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.
Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…
Matthews, Charles E.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Han, Xijing; Xiao, Qian; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.
There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40–79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs. <9.7 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had lower risks of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76. 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.85), cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.98), and cancer (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94). In whites, a higher physical activity level was associated with a lower risk of death from all causes (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.90) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.99) but not cancer (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.34). Spending more time being sedentary (>12 hours/day vs. <5.76 hours/day) was associated with a 20%–25% increased risk of all-cause mortality in blacks and whites. Blacks who reported the most time spent being sedentary (≥10.5 hours/day) and lowest level of physical activity (<12.6 metabolic equivalent-hours/day) had a greater risk of death (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.71). Our study provides evidence that suggests that health promotion efforts to increase physical activity level and decrease sedentary time could help reduce mortality risk in black adults. PMID:25086052
Adair, L S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Du, S F; Zhang, B; Popkin, B M
Strong secular declines in physical activity, increased fat and salt intake, and increased obesity, especially abdominal obesity, mark China's recent nutrition transition. The China Health and Nutrition 2009 Survey collected anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood samples from more than 9,000 individuals ≥ 7 years of age. We focus on elevated blood pressure and plasma markers of diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. We used international definitions of cardiometabolic risk and estimated age- and sex-specific prevalence ratios for each outcome for high waist circumference or overweight. We used logistic regression to assess each risk factor's association with diet, physical activity, overweight and abdominal obesity. Cardiometabolic risk prevalence was high in all age groups Prevalence ratios for most risk factors were nearly doubled for overweight or high waist circumference groups. Prevalence ratios were higher in younger than older adults. Low physical activity consistently predicted higher cardiometabolic risk across most outcomes and age-sex groups. The co-occurrence of overweight and high waist circumference was highly predictive of dyslipidemia, elevated glycated haemoglobin and diabetes. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their strong association with weight status and abdominal obesity in young adults portend increases in cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Early interventions will be required to reverse trends.
Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells PT, Chris L.; Boltz, Marie; Holtzman, Lauren
By 2050 it is anticipated that close to half (40%) of all trauma patients will be over the age of 65. Recovery post trauma for these individuals is more complicated than among younger individuals. Specifically there is an increased risk for: (1) functional decline; (2) higher mortality rates; (3) longer length of stay; (4) greater resource consumption; (5) nursing home placement; (6) adverse events such as infections, pressure ulcers and falls; and (7) rehospitalization post discharge. Early mobilization has been shown to improve outcomes. Unfortunately, there are many challenges to early mobilization. The Function Focused Care Intervention was developed to overcome these challenges. The purpose of this paper was to describe the initial recruitment of the first 25 participants and delineate the challenges and successes associated with implementation of this intervention. Overall the intervention was implemented as intended and recruitment rates were consistent with other studies. Most patients were female, white and on average 79 years of age. Optimizing physical activity of patients was a low priority for the nurses with patient safety taking precedence. Patients spent most of the time in bed. Age, depression and tethering were the only factors that were associated with physical activity and functional outcomes of patients. Ongoing work is needed to keep patients physically active in the immediate post trauma recovery period. PMID:26547682
Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita
Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p < 0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex.
Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita
Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p<0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value<0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966
Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.
Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867
Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin
Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population.
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M
Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed
Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga
Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.
Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi
Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211
Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta
Loprinzi, Paul D; Loenneke, Jeremy P
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mortality (outcome variable), with consideration by physical activity behaviour. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed (N = 6,611; 20-85 yrs), with follow-up mortality assessment through 31 December 2006. DNA was extracted from whole blood to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared to those in the first LTL tertile, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for those in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) LTL tertiles, respectively, was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.60-1.12; P = .22) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.50-1.14; P = .18). However, after adjustments, LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1) was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.93; P = .03) for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise. Similarly, LTL was associated with CVD-specific mortality for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise (HR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04-0.73; P = .02). Longer telomeres are associated with increased survival, particularly among men and those who are active, underscoring the importance of promotion of physical activity behaviour.
Background In May 2013, the iTunes and Google Play stores contained 23,490 and 17,756 smartphone applications (apps) categorized as Health and Fitness, respectively. The quality of these apps, in terms of applying established health behavior change techniques, remains unclear. Methods The study sample was identified through systematic searches in iTunes and Google Play. Search terms were based on Boolean logic and included AND combinations for physical activity, healthy lifestyle, exercise, fitness, coach, assistant, motivation, and support. Sixty-four apps were downloaded, reviewed, and rated based on the taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in the interventions. Mean and ranges were calculated for the number of observed behavior change techniques. Using nonparametric tests, we compared the number of techniques observed in free and paid apps and in iTunes and Google Play. Results On average, the reviewed apps included 5 behavior change techniques (range 2–8). Techniques such as self-monitoring, providing feedback on performance, and goal-setting were used most frequently, whereas some techniques such as motivational interviewing, stress management, relapse prevention, self-talk, role models, and prompted barrier identification were not. No differences in the number of behavior change techniques between free and paid apps, or between the app stores were found. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that apps promoting physical activity applied an average of 5 out of 23 possible behavior change techniques. This number was not different for paid and free apps or between app stores. The most frequently used behavior change techniques in apps were similar to those most frequently used in other types of physical activity promotion interventions. PMID:25059981
Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W
Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change.
Park, Hyuntae; Park, Sungjin; Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi
We tested the hypothesis that a low level of regular daily physical activity in elderly individuals would be associated with a clinically significant degree of sarcopenia. Subjects were 78 male and 97 female free-living Japanese, aged 65-84 years. A pedometer/accelerometer measured continuously the number of steps taken and the intensity of activity 24 h/day for 1 year. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan assessed skeletal muscle mass in the upper and lower extremities at the end of the year. Sarcopenia was defined as a muscle mass/height(2) value >1 SD below the mean for healthy young Japanese. Linear and exponential regressions showed that after controlling data for age and/or sex, muscle mass was associated with physical activity, more closely for the legs than for the arms, and for duration of moderate activity (>3 METs) than for step count. Muscle mass increased progressively with daily activity, although when data were categorized into quartiles, muscle mass was not significantly greater in men and women who exceeded, respectively, 8,000 and 6,900 steps/day and/or 22 and 19 min/day at >3 METs. All participants meeting such criteria exceeded our sarcopenia threshold. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions predicted that individuals who walked <5,300 steps/day and/or spent <15 min/day at >3 METs were, respectively, 2.00-2.66 and/or 2.03-4.55 times more likely to show sarcopenia than those who walked >7,800 steps/day and/or spent >23 min/day at >3 METs. Our hypothesis was proven correct: seniors who walked at least 7,000-8,000 steps/day and/or spent 15-20 min/day at an intensity of >3 METs were likely to have a muscle mass above the sarcopenia threshold.
Nahas, Markus V.; Goldfine, Bernie; Collins, Mitchell A.
Reviews factors that influence high school and college students' physical activity adoption and/or maintenance based on recent behavioral research. Relevant determinants of physical activity include self-efficacy, intentions, perceived barriers, enjoyment, stages of change, and social support. Suggestions for behavior modifications to increase…
Landry, Glenn J.; Falck, Ryan S.; Beets, Michael W.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
Given the world’s aging population, the staggering economic impact of dementia, the lack of effective treatments, and the fact a cure for dementia is likely many years away – there is an urgent need to develop interventions to prevent or at least delay dementia’s progression. Thus, lifestyle approaches to promote healthy aging are an important line of scientific inquiry. Good sleep quality and physical activity (PA) are pillars of healthy aging, and as such, are an increasing focus for intervention studies aimed at promoting health and cognitive function in older adults. However, PA and sleep quality are difficult constructs to evaluate empirically. Wrist-worn actigraphy (WWA) is currently accepted as a valid objective measure of sleep quality. The MotionWatch 8© (MW8) is the latest WWA, replacing the discontinued Actiwatch 4 and Actiwatch 7. In the current study, concurrent measurement of WWA and indirect calorimetry was performed during 10 different activities of daily living for 23 healthy older adults (aged 57–80 years) to determine cut-points for sedentary and moderate-vigorous PA – using receiver operating characteristic curves – with the cut-point for light activity being the boundaries between sedentary and moderate to vigorous PA. In addition, simultaneous multi-unit reliability was determined for the MW8 using inter-class correlations. The current study is the first to validate MW8 activity count cut-points – for sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA – specifically for use with healthy older adults. These cut-points provide important context for better interpretation of MW8 activity counts, and a greater understanding of what these counts mean in terms of PA. Hence, our results validate another level of analysis for researchers using the MW8 in studies aiming to examine PA and sleep quality concurrently in older adults. PMID:26379546
Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha
This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community.
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Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T
It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87-2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers.
Beavers, Kristen M; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Serra, Monica C; Yank, Veronica; Pahor, Marco; Nicklas, Barbara J
Observational studies show a relationship between elevated serum uric acid (UA) and better physical performance and muscle function. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether regular participation in an exercise intervention, known to improve physical functioning, would result in increased serum UA. For this study, 424 older adults at risk for physical disability were randomized to participate in either a 12-mo moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention. UA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 mo (n = 368, 341, and 332, respectively). Baseline UA levels were 6.03 ± 1.52 mg/dl and 5.94 ± 1.55 mg/dl in the PA and SA groups, respectively. The adjusted mean UA at month 12 was 4.8% (0.24 mg/dl) higher in the PA compared with the SA group (p = .028). Compared with a health education intervention, a 1-yr PA intervention results in a modest increase in systemic concentration of UA in older adults at risk for mobility disability.
Reineck, Elizabeth; Rolston, Brice; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Salberg, Lisa; Baty, Linda; Kumar, Suwen; Wheeler, Matthew T; Ashley, Euan; Saberi, Sara; Day, Sharlene M
The clinical expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is undoubtedly influenced by modifying genetic and environmental factors. Lifestyle practices such as tobacco and alcohol use, poor nutritional intake, and physical inactivity are strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality in the general population. Before addressing the direct effect of such modifiable factors on the natural history of HC, it is critical to define their prevalence in this population. A voluntary survey, drawing questions in part from the 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), was posted on the HC Association website and administered to patients with HC at the University of Michigan. Propensity score matching to NHANES participants was used. Dichotomous and continuous health behaviors were analyzed using logistic and linear regression, respectively, and adjusted for body mass index and propensity score quintile. Compared to the matched NHANES participants, the patients with HC reported significantly less alcohol and tobacco use but also less time engaged in physical activity at work and for leisure. Time spent participating in vigorous or moderate activity was a strong predictor of self-reported exercise capacity. The body mass index was greater in the HC cohort than in the NHANES cohort. Exercise restrictions negatively affected emotional well-being in most surveyed subjects. In conclusion, patients with HC are less active than the general United States population. The well-established relation of inactivity, obesity, and cardiovascular mortality might be exaggerated in patients with HC. More data are needed on exercise in those with HC to strike a balance between acute risks and the long-term health benefits of exercise.
Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660
Jansen, Marijke; Ettema, Dick; Pierik, Frank; Dijst, Martin
Physical activity (PA) is influenced by the built environment. However, little is known about the types of built environment where adults spend their time, and at what levels of PA they engage in those environments. Understanding the effect of the built environment on PA requires insight into PA behavior at different types of locations (e.g., home, work, shopping centers, and sports facilities). Therefore, this study describes where adults aged 45-65 years were active with moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), and examines associations of socio-demographic factors and neighborhood with MVPA at these locations. Participants' (N = 308) PA was measured for seven days using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Adults spent most minutes of MVPA at home and work. Highest MVPA-ratios of total time spent at a location were achieved in sports facilities and during transport. Neighborhood characteristics and socio-demographic factors such as work status, health status and household structure, had significant effects on MVPA at various locations and on total MVPA. Understanding PA behavior at various locations may provide insights that allow professionals in different domains (e.g., health, landscaping, urban planning) to develop strategies to stimulate PA.
Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J
Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.
Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice
Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity. PMID:23662053
Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice
Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity.
Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet
We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.
Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo
The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.
Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520
Turi, Bruna Camilo; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Ribeiro Lemes, Ítalo; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Lynch, Kyle Robinson; Asahi Mesquita, Camila Angélica; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after six years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioural covariates were considered as potential confounders. After six years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95%CI= 7.4% to 11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (p-value= 0.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (rho= 0.188; p-value= 0.001), overall PA score (rho= -0.128; p-value= 0.001) and TV viewing (rho= 0.086; p-value= 0.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after six years of follow-up (p-value= 0.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR= 1.447 [1.019 to 2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of physical activity and other variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wang, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tseng, Philip; Yang, Albert C; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Liang, Wei-Kuang
Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F
Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship
Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S
Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that
Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary
Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…
Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar
Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.
Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C
As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided.
Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian
This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities.
Garcia, Jeanette M; Cox, Daniel; Rice, David J
Purpose To examine the association between change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) over a 6-month period with physiological and psychological factors in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants included 26 middle-aged (mean age=56.1±10.8 years; 42% women), overweight/obese (mean body mass index (BMI) =37.22±8.78 kg/m2) adults who had been diagnosed with T2D within the past 5 years (mean HbA1c=7.81%). Participants underwent a physical examination, blood tests, and psychological questionnaires, including a self-report questionnaire that assessed the consumption of high glycemic and low glycemic load foods. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days to assess MVPA and SB. All measures were collected at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. Spearman rank correlations and regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between activity variables, and the association of activity measures with health outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Results Decreases in duration of SB bouts and increases in MVPA were associated with decreased levels of HbA1c (p<0.05). Over 50% of the variance in HbA1c levels could be attributed to changes in MVPA and SB. Conclusions MVPA and SB were independently associated with diabetes-related health outcomes. Results suggest that emphasis should be placed on increasing MVPA while decreasing SB, particularly duration of SB bouts. This suggests that even small changes in daily behavior may contribute to improvement in diabetes-related health outcomes.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Mertens, Lieze; Cardon, Greet; De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB)and their determinants, and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group' and therefore having too few tailored PA initiatives available. Furthermore, participants were not aware of the negative health effects of SB and not motivated to decrease their SB. Concerning new PA interventions, very diverse ideas were put forward, reflecting the diversity of the target group. It seems that a dynamic intervention in which participants can choose which PA type they want to increase is preferable for recently retired adults.
Fuentes Bravo, Manuel; Zúñiga Paredes, Francisca; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando Javier; Cristi-Montero, Carlos
Introducción: Las actividades durante la jornada laboral, pueden diferenciarse entre sí por su gasto energético y algunos de ellos podrían beneficiar la salud de acuerdo a sus características. Objetivo: Analizar y comparar la composición corporal y las características de la actividad física, a través de la acelerometría en las jornadas laborales de las trabajadoras administrativas y trabajadoras auxiliares de aseo de la Universidad Viña del Mar. Métodos: Se realiza un registro en jornadas de 10 hrs. por cuatro días seguidos del gasto energético a través de acelerómetros triaxiales a 8 secretarias y 8 auxiliares de aseo. Además se hace una evaluación antropométrica y se aplica el IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). Resultados: Según el IPAQ, ambos grupos se encuentran en categoría de sedentarias, pero la acelerometría determina que las auxiliares caminan más pasos, tienen más quiebres sedentarios y realizan un nivel de actividad física más alto que las secretarias. Discusión: Hay trabajos que pueden favorecer el estado de salud, a pesar de no cumplir con la norma para considerarse “no sedentario”, como es el caso de las auxiliares de aseo. El gasto energético es mayor en las personas que realizan actividades que implican ejercicio de baja intensidad, lo que podría ayudar a reducir los niveles de adiposidad y mantener la masa muscular de las personas.
Jaggers, Jason R; Prasad, Vivek K; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Blair, Steven N; Sui, Xuemei; Burgess, Stephanie; Hand, Gregory A
Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1 = 0-1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender, and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality.
Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Dudgeon, Wesley; Blair, Steven N.; Sui, Xuemei; Burgess, Stephanie; Hand, Gregory A.
Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1=0–1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality. PMID:24861098
Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen
The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…
Taylor, Michael J; Taylor, David; Gamboa, Patricia; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara
Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at high risk of being in poor health as a result of exercising infrequently; recent evidence indicates this is often due to there being a lack of opportunities to exercise. This pilot study involved an investigation of the use of motion-sensor game technology to enable and encourage exercise for this population. Five adults (two female; 3 male, aged 34-74 [M = 55.20, SD = 16.71] with ID used motion-sensor games to conduct exercise at weekly sessions at a day-centre. Session attendees reported to have enjoyed using the games, and that they would like to use the games in future. Interviews were conducted with six (four female; two male, aged 27-51 [M = 40.20, SD = 11.28]) day-centre staff, which indicated ways in which the motion-sensor games could be improved for use by adults with ID, and barriers to consider in relation to their possible future implementation. Findings indicate motion-sensor games provide a useful, enjoyable and accessible way for adults with ID to exercise. Future research could investigate implementation of motion-sensor games as a method for exercise promotion for this population on a larger scale.
Nelson, Rachael K; Horowitz, Jeffrey F
Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of habitual and acute exercise on key markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in overweight adults. We compared insulin sensitivity index (ISI) using an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and systemic inflammatory cytokines in 12 overweight to mildly obese adults (BMI: 27-34 kg/m(2)) who exercise regularly (EX; >2.5 h exercise per week) with a well-matched cohort of 12 nonexercisers (Non-EX). Baseline measurements in EX were performed exactly 3 days after exercise, whereas Non-EX remained sedentary. We repeated these measurements the day after a session of exercise in both groups. At baseline, ISI was significantly greater in EX versus Non-EX (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2; p = 0.02), but BP, blood lipids, and plasma concentration of the systemic inflammatory cytokines we measured were not different between groups. Acute exercise increased ISI the next morning in Non-EX (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.03) but not EX. As a result, ISI was similar between groups the morning after exercise. In summary, exercising regularly was accompanied by a persistent improvement in insulin sensitivity that lasted at least 3 days after exercise in overweight adults, but just one session of exercise increased insulin sensitivity among sedentary overweight adults to levels equivalent to the regular exercisers.
Nelson, Rachael K.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.
Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of habitual and acute exercise on key markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in overweight adults. We compared insulin sensitivity index (ISI) using an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and systemic inflammatory cytokines in 12 overweight to mildly obese adults (BMI: 27–34 kg/m2) who exercise regularly (EX; >2.5 h exercise per week) with a well-matched cohort of 12 nonexercisers (Non-EX). Baseline measurements in EX were performed exactly 3 days after exercise, whereas Non-EX remained sedentary. We repeated these measurements the day after a session of exercise in both groups. At baseline, ISI was significantly greater in EX versus Non-EX (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2; p = 0.02), but BP, blood lipids, and plasma concentration of the systemic inflammatory cytokines we measured were not different between groups. Acute exercise increased ISI the next morning in Non-EX (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.03) but not EX. As a result, ISI was similar between groups the morning after exercise. In summary, exercising regularly was accompanied by a persistent improvement in insulin sensitivity that lasted at least 3 days after exercise in overweight adults, but just one session of exercise increased insulin sensitivity among sedentary overweight adults to levels equivalent to the regular exercisers. PMID:24773370
Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi
Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age.
Lin, Ching-Hung; Liao, Chen-Chung; Huang, Chi-Huang; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Huang, Chi-Chang
Globally, the proportion of older adults is increasing. Older people face chronic conditions such as sarcopenia and functional decline, which are often associated with disability and frailty. Proteomics assay of potential serum biomarkers of frailty in older adults. Older adults were divided into non-frail and frail groups (n = 6 each; 3 males in each group) in accordance with the Chinese-Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. Adults were measured for grip power and the 6-min walk test for physical activity, and venous blood was sampled after adults fasted for 8 h. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for proteomics assay. The groups were compared for levels of biomarkers by t test and Pearson correlation analysis. Non-frail and frail subjects had mean age 77.5±0.4 and 77.7±1.6 years, mean height 160.5±1.3 and 156.6±2.9 cm and mean weight 62.5±1.2 and 62.8±2.9 kg, respectively. Physical activity level was lower for frail than non-frail subjects (grip power: 13.8±0.4 vs 26.1±1.2 kg; 6-min walk test: 215.2±17.2 vs 438.3±17.2 m). Among 226 proteins detected, for 31, serum levels were significantly higher for frail than non-frail subjects; serum levels of Ig kappa chain V-III region WOL, COX7A2, and albumin were lower. The serum levels of ANGT, KG and AT were 2.05-, 1.76- and 2.22-fold lower (all p < 0.05; Figure 1A, 2A and 3A) for non-frail than frail subjects and were highly correlated with grip power (Figure 1B, 2B and 3B). Our study found that ANGT, KG and AT levels are known to increase with aging, so degenerated vascular function might be associated with frailty. In total, 226 proteins were revealed proteomics assay; levels of angiotensinogen (ANGT), kininogen-1 (KG) and antithrombin III (AT) were higher in frail than non-frail subjects (11.26±2.21 vs 5.09±0.74; 18.42±1.36 vs 11.64±1.36; 22.23±1.64 vs 9.52±0.95, respectively, p < 0.05). These 3 factors were highly correlated with grip
Herbolsheimer, Florian; Mosler, Stephanie; Peter, Phil Richard
Objectives: Social relationships have a powerful effect on physical activity. However, it is unclear how physical activity patterns are associated with perceived social isolation. Methods: A cohort study was performed on 1,162 community-dwelling older adults. In cross-sectional analyses, social isolation was screened using the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6). Physical activity was measured by an accelerometer (activPAL). Participants kept a contemporary physical activity diary to report outdoor physical activity timeframes. Results: Low levels of physical activity were associated with perceived social isolation. Low indoor physical activity was associated with being socially isolated from family and low outdoor physical activity was associated with being socially isolated from friends and neighbors (-4.5 minutes; p=.012). Discussion: These findings suggest the need for a more nuanced assessment of non-kin networks and a differentiated analysis of the locations in which physical activity is done in order to understand how social isolation affects everyday physical activity.
Baxter, S; Johnson, M; Payne, N; Buckley-Woods, H; Blank, L; Hock, E; Daley, A; Taylor, A; Pavey, T; Mountain, G; Goyder, E
It has been argued that transition points in life, such as the approach towards, and early years of retirement present key opportunities for interventions to improve the health of the population. Research has also highlighted inequalities in health status in the retired population and in response to interventions which should be addressed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to synthesise international evidence on the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among people around the time of retirement. A systematic review of literature was carried out between February 2014 and April 2015. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, and citation searching. Systematic search of the literature identified 104 papers which described study populations as being older adults. However, we found only one paper which specifically referred to their participants as being around the time of retirement. The intervention approaches for older adults encompassed: training of health care professionals; counselling and advice giving; group sessions; individual training sessions; in-home exercise programmes; in-home computer-delivered programmes; in-home telephone support; in-home diet and exercise programmes; and community-wide initiatives. The majority of papers reported some intervention effect, with evidence of positive outcomes for all types of programmes. A wide range of different measures were used to evaluate effectiveness, many were self-reported and few studies included evaluation of sedentary time. While the retirement transition is considered a significant point of life change, little research has been conducted to assess whether physical activity interventions at this time may be effective in promoting or maintaining activity, or reducing health
Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward
Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief intervention targeting self-efficacy and self-regulation to increase physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Older adults (Mage = 61.8 ± 6.4) with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome were randomized into a titrated physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online health education course (n = 58). The intervention included walking exercise and theory-based group workshops. Self-efficacy, self-regulation and physical activity were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and a follow-up. Results indicated a group by time effect for self-regulation [F(2,88) = 14.021, p < .001, η (2) = .24] and self-efficacy [F(12,77) = 2.322, p < .05, η (2) = .266] with increases in the intervention group. The intervention resulted in short-term increases in physical activity (d = .76, p < .01), which were partially maintained at the 6-month follow-up (d = .35, p < .01). The intervention increased short-term physical activity but was not successful at maintaining increases in physical activity. Similar intervention effects were observed in self-efficacy and self-regulation. Future research warrants adjusting intervention strategies to increase long-term change.
... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...
President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973
This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…
Frizzell, Linda Bane
This paper reports evidence indicating that adapted exercise has a preventive effect on the incidence and progression of chronic diseases which are often related to the aging process. Exercise is known to preserve many physiological responses in the healthy elderly, yet those with physical impairments are often discouraged from exercising because…
Background This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18–65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated. Results A total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced. Conclusions The direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA. PMID:22992350
Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.
[Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391
Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation, and insulin sensitivity are associated with physical function in functionally-limited older adults
Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Chalé, Angela; Fielding, Roger A
Identification of mechanisms underlying physical function will be important for addressing the growing challenge that health care will face with physical disablement in the expanding aging population. Therefore, the goals of the current study were to use metabolic profiling to provide insight into biologic mechanisms that may underlie physical function by examining the association between baseline and the 6-month change in serum mass spectrometry-obtained amino acids, fatty acids, and acylcarnitines with baseline and the 6-month change in muscle strength (leg press one repetition maximum divided by total lean mass, LP/Lean), lower extremity function [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], and mobility (400 m gait speed, 400-m), in response to 6 months of a combined resistance exercise and nutritional supplementation (whey protein or placebo) intervention in functionally-limited older adults (SPPB ≤ 10; 70–85 years, N = 73). Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, phenol sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, serotonin, N-methylproline, hydrocinnamate, dimethylglycine, trans-urocanate, valerate) that are altered in response to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) activation (α-hydroxyisocaproate, α-hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, indolelactate, serotonin, 2-hydroxypalmitate, glutarylcarnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, cinnamoylglycine) and that are related to insulin sensitivity (monounsaturated fatty acids: 5-dodecenoate, myristoleate, palmitoleate; γ-glutamylamino acids: γ-glutamylglutamine, γ-glutamylalanine, γ-glutamylmethionine, γ-glutamyltyrosine; branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine) were associated with function at baseline, with the 6-month change in function or were identified in backward elimination regression predictive models. Collectively, these data suggest that gut microbial metabolism, PPAR-α activation, and insulin sensitivity may be involved in
Background Environmental characteristics are known to be associated with patterns of physical activity (PA). Although several validated tools exist, to measure the environment characteristics, these instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings especially in a developing country. This study was carried out to develop and validate an instrument named the “Physical And Social Environment Scale – PASES” to assess the physical and social environmental factors associated with PA. This will enable identification of various physical and social environmental factors affecting PA in Sri Lanka, which will help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Sri Lanka. Methods The PASES was developed using a scientific approach of defining the construct, item generation, analysis of content of items and item reduction. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and rating of the items generated by experts were conducted. A cross sectional survey among 180 adults was carried out to assess the factor structure through principal component analysis. Another cross sectional survey among a different group of 180 adults was carried out to assess the construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed with test re-test reliability and internal consistency using Spearman r and Cronbach's alpha respectively. Results Thirty six items were selected after the expert ratings and were developed into interviewer administered questions. Exploration of factor structure of the 34 items which were factorable through principal component analysis with Quartimax rotation extracted 8 factors. The 34 item instrument was assessed for construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis which confirmed an 8 factor model (x2 = 339.9, GFI = 0.90). The identified factors were infrastructure for walking, aesthetics and facilities for cycling
Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.
Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man
Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464
Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man
Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients' cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior.
... Physical Activity in Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, During and ... Activity Recommendations in Adults - Types of Fitness - The Price of Inactivity - Food as Fuel; Before, During or ...
Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Teri, Linda
Purpose: For individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), memory loss may prevent successful engagement in exercise, a key factor in preventing additional disability. The Resources and Activities for Life Long Independence (RALLI) program uses behavioral principles to make exercise more accessible for these individuals. Exercises are broken…
In, Sangwoo; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived physical health status of Korean adolescents, adults, and elderly adults and their frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. In 2012, 1,144 adolescents (under 18 years old), 6,474 adults (19-64 years old), and 1,382 elderly adults (over 65 years old) participated in the Korean Survey on Citizens' Sports Participation Project (N = 9,000). The association between self-reported health status and exercise was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sex and age. The study found that the health status of adolescents showed little or no association with the frequency, intensity, time, or duration of exercise. However, the health status of adults and elderly Koreans was associated with the frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. The physical condition and health status of adolescents was better than that of adults and the elderly, many of whom had declining health. Our findings show the need for exercise-promotion programs customized for particular age groups. The limitations and strengths of the study are discussed, as well as the implications for future research and managerial applications for promoting exercise in each age group.
In, Sangwoo; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived physical health status of Korean adolescents, adults, and elderly adults and their frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. In 2012, 1,144 adolescents (under 18 years old), 6,474 adults (19–64 years old), and 1,382 elderly adults (over 65 years old) participated in the Korean Survey on Citizens’ Sports Participation Project (N = 9,000). The association between self-reported health status and exercise was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sex and age. The study found that the health status of adolescents showed little or no association with the frequency, intensity, time, or duration of exercise. However, the health status of adults and elderly Koreans was associated with the frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. The physical condition and health status of adolescents was better than that of adults and the elderly, many of whom had declining health. Our findings show the need for exercise-promotion programs customized for particular age groups. The limitations and strengths of the study are discussed, as well as the implications for future research and managerial applications for promoting exercise in each age group. PMID:25964829
Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Cheung, Martin M C; Lai, Poh-chin; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y
Introduction The neighbourhood environment can assist the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle and affect the physical and mental well-being of older adults. The psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms through which the environment may affect physical and mental well-being are currently poorly understood. Aim This observational study aims to examine associations between the physical and social neighbourhood environments, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Chinese Hong Kong older adults. Methods and analyses An observational study of the associations of measures of the physical and social neighbourhood environment, and psychosocial factors, with physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in 900 Hong Kong older adults aged 65+ years is being conducted in 2012–2016. The study involves two assessments taken 6 months apart. Neighbourhood walkability and access to destinations are objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems and environmental audits. Demographics, socioeconomic status, walking for different purposes, perceived neighbourhood and home environments, psychosocial factors, health status, social networks, depressive symptoms and quality of life are being assessed using validated interviewer-administered self-report measures and medical records. Physical functionality is being assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are also being objectively measured in approximately 45% of participants using accelerometers over a week. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, quality of life and depressive symptoms are being assessed twice (6 months apart) to examine seasonality effects on behaviours and their associations with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the University of Hong Kong Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties (EA270211) and the Department
Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem
Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…
Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.
Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411
Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.
Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549
Objective: To issue a recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed to improve and maintain health in older adults. Participants: A panel of scientists with expertise in public health, behavioral science, epidemiology, exercise science, medicine, and gerontology. Evidence: The ...
Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.
The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…
BACKGROUND: This subgroup analysis of the Lifestyle Intervention and Independence for Elders trial evaluates the impact of a long-term physical activity (PA) intervention on rates of major mobility disability (MMD) among older adults according to their antihypertensive medication use. METHODS: Lifes...
Petosa, R. Lingyak; Silfee, Valerie
Background: Studies have revealed that overweight adults with type 2 diabetes have low rates of physical activity and are resistant to change. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use construct validation of intervention methods to examine the impact of a 4-week behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation skills for physical…
Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston
The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…
Background Empirical evidence suggests that an association between the built environment and physical activity exists. This evidence is mostly derived from cross-sectional studies that do not account for other causal explanations such as neighborhood self-selection. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs can be used to isolate the effect of the built environment on physical activity, but in their absence, statistical techniques that adjust for neighborhood self-selection can be used with cross-sectional data. Previous reviews examining the built environment-physical activity relationship have not differentiated among findings based on study design. To deal with self-selection, we synthesized evidence regarding the relationship between objective measures of the built environment and physical activity by including in our review: 1) cross-sectional studies that adjust for neighborhood self-selection and 2) quasi-experiments. Method In September 2010, we searched for English-language studies on built environments and physical activity from all available years in health, leisure, transportation, social sciences, and geographical databases. Twenty cross-sectional and 13 quasi-experimental studies published between 1996 and 2010 were included in the review. Results Most associations between the built environment and physical activity were in the expected direction or null. Land use mix, connectivity and population density and overall neighborhood design were however, important determinants of physical activity. The built environment was more likely to be associated with transportation walking compared with other types of physical activity including recreational walking. Three studies found an attenuation in associations between built environment characteristics and physical activity after accounting for neighborhood self-selection. Conclusion More quasi-experiments that examine a broader range of environmental attributes in relation to context-specific physical
Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A
This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.
... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...
Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.
Marmeleira, Jose; Laranjo, Luis; Marques, Olga; Batalha, Nuno
This article describes the results of a recommendation from the World Health Organization (2004) that it was important to examine whether high-risk groups meet the current general recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate or greater physical activity per day. Doing so required an accurate measurement of physical activity for supporting the…
Bragg, Marie A.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Kaye, Lily B.; Desmond, Frederic
Background: Obesity rates are rising in the United States, especially among low-income and racial/ethnic minority individuals. Exploring motivators and barriers relative to engaging in physical activity is imperative. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers relative to engagement in physical activity as reported…
Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael
This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.
Dufour, Catherine A; Marquine, María J; Fazeli, Pariya L; Umlauf, Anya; Henry, Brook L; Zlatar, Zvinka; Montoya, Jessica L; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J
Higher levels of physical activity (PA) have been linked to better neurocognitive functioning in many populations. The current study examines the longitudinal association between PA and neurocognitive functioning among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Community-dwelling adults (N = 291) self-reported level of PA and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two to four study visits (Mean follow-up time = 2.6 years). Participants were divided into three PA groups: "No PA" (no PA at any visit), "consistent PA" (PA at ≥50% of visits), and "inconsistent PA" (PA < 50% of visits). A mixed effect model, adjusting for significant covariates showed that all PA groups had statistically significant, yet modest, neurocognitive decline over time; and, the consistent PA group began with, and maintained, significantly better neurocognitive function compared to the other two PA groups. This effect was evident among both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected persons, despite the fact that HIV-infected persons showed lower baseline neurocognitive function. PA is a modifiable lifestyle behavior that may help to protect against neurocognitive impairment regardless of HIV status, however, given the proportion of HIV-infected individuals who evidence neurocognitive difficulties, a focus on increasing PA seems warranted.
Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M
Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution
Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo
The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.
Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health.
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Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Kolossa, Silvia; Woolhead, Clara; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Moschonis, George; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Goris, Annelies; Hoonhout, Jettie; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Martinez, J Alfredo; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM
Background The high prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide calls for innovative and more effective ways to promote physical activity (PA). There are limited objective data on the effectiveness of Web-based personalized feedback on increasing PA in adults. Objective It is hypothesized that providing personalized advice based on PA measured objectively alongside diet, phenotype, or genotype information would lead to larger and more sustained changes in PA, compared with nonpersonalized advice. Methods A total of 1607 adults in seven European countries were randomized to either a control group (nonpersonalized advice, Level 0, L0) or to one of three personalized groups receiving personalized advice via the Internet based on current PA plus diet (Level 1, L1), PA plus diet and phenotype (Level 2, L2), or PA plus diet, phenotype, and genotype (Level 3, L3). PA was measured for 6 months using triaxial accelerometers, and self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire. Outcomes were objective and self-reported PA after 3 and 6 months. Results While 1270 participants (85.81% of 1480 actual starters) completed the 6-month trial, 1233 (83.31%) self-reported PA at both baseline and month 6, but only 730 (49.32%) had sufficient objective PA data at both time points. For the total cohort after 6 months, a greater improvement in self-reported total PA (P=.02) and PA during leisure (nonsport) (P=.03) was observed in personalized groups compared with the control group. For individuals advised to increase PA, we also observed greater improvements in those two self-reported indices (P=.006 and P=.008, respectively) with increased personalization of the advice (L2 and L3 vs L1). However, there were no significant differences in accelerometer results between personalized and control groups, and no significant effect of adding phenotypic or genotypic information to the tailored feedback at month 3 or 6. After 6 months, there were small but significant improvements in the objectively
Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0
Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats
Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.
Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and
Garmendia, ML; Dangour, AD; Albala, C; Eguiguren, P; Allen, E; Uauy, R
Objectives The effectiveness of community level interventions depends to a great extent on adherence. Currently, information on factors related to adherence in older adults from developing countries is scarce. Our aim was to identify factors associated to adherence to a physical activity intervention in older adults from a post-transitional middle income country. Design, setting and participants Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods we studied 996 older Chilean subjects (65-67.9 years at baseline) with low to medium socioeconomic status from 10 health centers randomized to receive a physical activity intervention as part of the CENEX cluster trial (ISRCTN48153354). Measurements Using a multilevel regression model, the relationship between adherence (defined a priori as attendance at a minimum of 24 physical activity classes spread over at least 12 months) and individual, intervention-related and contextual factors was evaluated. We also conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with older adults (n=36) and instructors (n=4). Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify barriers and facilitators to adherence. Results Adherence to physical activity intervention was 42.6% (CI 95% 39.5 to 45.6). Depression, diabetes mellitus, percentage of impoverished households and rate of arrests for violent crimes in the neighborhood predicted less adherence (p<0.05) while being retired, participation in physical activity prior to the intervention, and green areas per habitant were positively associated with adherence (p<0.05). The qualitative interviews identified three primary barriers to adherence: current health problems, lack of time due to commitments for caring for family members, and being employed, and two primary facilitators to adherence: the health benefits attributed to the intervention and the opportunity the classes provided for social interaction with others. Conclusion In order to enhance effectiveness of
Etnier, Jennifer L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Karper, William B; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C; Dudley, William N; Rulison, Kelli L
Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan; Owen, Neville; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L; Schofield, Grant; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F
The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA.
Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.
Chriqui, Jamie F.; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J.
Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA. PMID:27587898
Gallaway, Patrick J.; Miyake, Hiroji; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Shimada, Mieko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Kim, Angela S.; Hongu, Nobuko
A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA) with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA’s role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research. PMID:28230730
Gallaway, Patrick J; Miyake, Hiroji; Buchowski, Maciej S; Shimada, Mieko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Kim, Angela S; Hongu, Nobuko
A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA) with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA's role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research.
Background Retirement represents a major transitional life stage in middle to older age. Changes in physical activity typically accompany this transition, which has significant consequences for health and well-being. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for the effect of interventions to promote physical activity in adults aged 55 to 70 years, focusing on studies that reported long-term effectiveness. This systematic review adheres to a registered protocol (PROSPERO CRD42011001459). Methods Randomized controlled trials of interventions to promote physical activity behavior with a mean/median sample age of 55 to 70 years, published between 2000 and 2010, were identified. Only trials reporting the long-term effect (≥ 12 months) on objective or self-reported physical activity behavior were included. Trials reporting physiological proxy measures of physical activity were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted when trials provided sufficient data and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify potential confounding effects of trials of poor methodological quality or with attrition rates ≥ 30%. Results Of 17,859 publications identified, 32 were included which reported on 21 individual trials. The majority of interventions were multimodal and provided physical activity and lifestyle counselling. Interventions to promote physical activity were effective at 12 months (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 1.99, pedometer step-count, approximating to an increase of 2,197 steps per day; SMD = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.28, self-reported physical activity duration outcome), but not at 24 months based on a small subset of trials. There was no evidence for a relationship between intervention effectiveness and mode of delivery or number of intervention contacts; however, interventions which involved individually tailoring with personalized activity goals or provision of information about local
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W; Tolstrup, J S
Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who were sedentary. Among sedentary or lightly physically active participants, inverse associations between total daily sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness were found, while there was no association between sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness among moderately or vigorously physically active participants. These data on cardiorespiratory fitness can serve as useful reference material. Although reluctant to conclude on causality, sitting time might impact cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with low levels of leisure time physical activity.
Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963
Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael
Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.
Swartz, Maria C; Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Martinez, Eloisa; Jennings, Kristofer
Background As adults age, their physical activity decreases and sedentary behavior increases, leading to increased risk of negative health outcomes. Wearable electronic activity monitors have shown promise for delivering effective behavior change techniques. However, little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of non-Fitbit wearables (Fitbit, Inc, San Francisco, California) combined with telephone counseling among adults aged more than 55 years. Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect on physical activity of an intervention combining a wearable physical activity monitor, tablet device, and telephone counseling among adults aged 55-79 years. Methods Adults (N=40, aged 55-79 years, body mass index=25-35, <60 min of activity per week) were randomized to receive a 12-week intervention or to a wait list control. Intervention participants received a Jawbone Up24 monitor, a tablet with the Jawbone Up app installed, and brief weekly telephone counseling. Participants set daily and weekly step goals and used the monitor’s idle alert to notify them when they were sedentary for more than 1 h. Interventionists provided brief counseling once per week by telephone. Feasibility was measured using observation and study records, and acceptability was measured by self-report using validated items. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured using ActivPAL monitors following standard protocols. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, and fitness was measured using a 6-min walk test. Results Participants were 61.48 years old (SD 5.60), 85% (34/40) female, 65% (26/40) white. Average activity monitor wear time was 81.85 (SD 3.73) of 90 days. Of the 20 Up24 monitors, 5 were reported broken and 1 lost. No related adverse events were reported. Acceptability items were rated at least 4 on a scale of 1-5. Effect sizes for most outcomes were small, including stepping time per day (d
Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda
Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249
Morrisroe, Shelby N; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Smith, Ariana L; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A
The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among older urban Latinos is high. Insight into etiologies of and contributing factors to the development of this condition is needed. This longitudinal cohort study identified correlates of 1-year incidence of UI in older community-dwelling Latino adults participating in a senior center-based physical activity trial in Los Angeles, California. Three hundred twenty-eight Latinos aged 60 to 93 participating in Caminemos, a randomized trial to increase walking, were studied. Participants completed an in-person survey and physical performance measures at baseline and 1 year. UI was measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence item: "How often do you leak urine?" Potential correlates of 1-year incidence of UI included sociodemographic, behavioral, medical, physical, and psychosocial characteristics. The overall incidence of UI at 1 year was 17.4%. Incident UI was associated with age, baseline activity of daily living impairment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), mean steps per day, and depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that improvement in physical performance score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.95) and high baseline physical (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40-0.89) and mental (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.91) HRQoL were independently associated with lower rates of 1-year incident UI. An increase in depressive symptoms at 1 year (OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.02-19.68) was independently associated with a higher rate of incident UI. One-year UI incidence in this population of older urban Latino adults participating in a walking trial was high but was lower in those who improved their physical performance. Interventions aimed at improving physical performance may help prevent UI in older Latino adults.
Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.
The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre–post quasi-experimental design, with 430 randomly selected older adults participating in the intervention group and 213 in a control group at baseline. The intervention included a local media campaign and environmental approaches (e.g. community involvement) and was implemented during a 3-month high-intensity period, followed by a 6-month low-intensity one. Levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months after baseline. At the follow-up measurements, the intervention had reached respectively 68 and 69% of the participants in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the intervention group and the control group in changes to any outcome except for transport-related PA at 3 and 9 months follow-up. The systematically developed community-based intervention reached a relatively large proportion of the participants, but had only small effects on the levels of physical activity and healthy eating in older adults in the short and medium term. PMID:26675175
Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes
Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484
Schneller, Mikkel B; Pedersen, Mogens T; Gupta, Nidhi; Aadahl, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas
We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen participants performed a standardized and semi-standardized protocol including seven daily life activity types, while having their EE measured by indirect calorimetry. Simultaneously, physical activity was quantified by an ActivPAL3, two ActiGraph GT3X+'s and an Actiheart. EE was estimated by the standard ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated physical activities EE by Actiheart (MSE = 2.05) and AGthigh + Acti4 (MSE = 0.25) were not significantly different from measured EE by indirect calorimetry, while significantly underestimated by ActiGraph, ActivPAL and AGhip + Acti4. AGthigh + Acti4 and Actiheart explained 77% and 45%, of the individual variations in measured physical activity EE by indirect calorimetry, respectively. This study concludes that combining accelerometer data from a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ with activity type recognition improved the accuracy of activity specific EE estimation against indirect calorimetry in semi-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only.
Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.
This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…
Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.
This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160
Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino
This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267
Moss, S. J.
Background: Regular physical activity is one of the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). With an increasing age profile and similar patterns of morbidity to the general population, persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their caregivers would benefit from data that indicate CHD risk factors. Knowledge of the CHD risk…
Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.
Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…
Etnier, Jennifer L.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Karper, William B.; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T.; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M.; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C.; Dudley, William N.; Rulison, Kelli L.
Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by ApoEe4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting ApoE e4 carriers are discussed. PMID:25594264
Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…
Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes
Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality
Bria, S; Zeppilli, P
A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Cerin, Ester; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Deforche, Benedicte; Veitch, Jenny
Previous studies have reported mixed findings on the relationship between park proximity and recreational physical activity (PA), which could be explained by park quality and the surrounding neighborhood environment. We examined whether park quality and perceptions of the neighborhood physical and social environment moderated associations between park proximity and recreational PA among mid-older aged adults. Cross-sectional self-reported data on park proximity, park quality, neighborhood physical and social environmental factors, recreational walking and other moderate- to vigorous-intensity recreational physical activity (MVPA) were collected among 2700 Australian adults (57–69 years) in 2012. Main effects between park proximity and measures of recreational PA were non-significant. Park proximity was positively related to engagement in recreational walking among participants who reported average and high social trust and cohesion, but not among those reporting low social trust and cohesion. No other moderating effects were observed. Current findings suggest synergistic relationships between park proximity and social trust and cohesion with mid-older aged adults’ recreational walking. More research is needed to unravel the complex relationship between parks, recreational PA and the social context of neighborhoods. PMID:28216609
Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre
This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote
Duckham, Rachel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Johnston, James D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Cooper, David; Kontulainen, Saija
The long-term benefits of habitual physical activity during adolescence on adult bone structure and strength are poorly understood. We investigated whether physically active adolescents had greater bone size, density, content, and estimated bone strength in young adulthood when compared to their peers who were inactive during adolescence. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure the tibia and radius of 122 (73 females) participants (age mean ± SD, 29.3 ± 2.3 years) of the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS). Total bone area (ToA), cortical density (CoD), cortical area (CoA), cortical content (CoC), and estimated bone strength in torsion (SSIp ) and muscle area (MuA) were measured at the diaphyses (66% tibia and 65% radius). Total density (ToD), trabecular density (TrD), trabecular content (TrC), and estimated bone strength in compression (BSIc ) were measured at the distal ends (4%). Participants were grouped by their adolescent physical activity (PA) levels (inactive, average, and active) based on mean PA Z-scores obtained from serial questionnaire assessments completed during adolescence. We compared adult bone outcomes across adolescent PA groups in each sex using analysis of covariance followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments. When adjusted for adult height, MuA, and PA, adult males who were more physically active than their peers in adolescence had 13% greater adjusted torsional bone strength (SSIp , p < 0.05) and 10% greater adjusted ToA (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis. Females who were more active in adolescence had 10% larger adjusted CoA (p < 0.05), 12% greater adjusted CoC (p < 0.05) at the tibia diaphysis, and 3% greater adjusted TrC (p < 0.05) at the distal tibia when compared to their inactive peers. Benefits to tibia bone size, content, and strength in those who were more active during adolescence seemed to persist into young adulthood
Smith, Amanda E.; McMullen, Kara; Jensen, Mark P.
Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of quality of life in individuals with disabilities, yet little is known about what factors contribute to sexual satisfaction as these individuals age. Method: Middle-aged adults with physical disabilities completed a cross-sectional survey that included measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction. Results: Consistent with studies of able-bodied adults, sexual function was the strongest predictor of satisfaction. However, depression also predicted sexual satisfaction for women. Use of aids for sexual activity varied by disability type and was generally associated with better function. Lowest levels of sexual satisfaction were reported by men with SCI. Conclusion: Depression may negatively impact sexual satisfaction in women, beyond contributions of sexual dysfunction, and effective use of sexual aids may improve function in this population. PMID:26363589
Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le
Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094
Brown, Tamara; Smith, Sarah; Bhopal, Raj; Kasim, Adetayo; Summerbell, Carolyn
Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway and South Asian school
Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.
Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…
... U.S. adults and varies substantially across population subgroups. Definitions Body mass index : Based on respondent-reported height ... and CDC in each of these years. (See "Definitions" for question wording.) The unweighted numbers of adults ...
Muldoon, Matthew F.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Jakicic, John M.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Sekikawa, Akira; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Manuck, Stephen B.
Greater consumption of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce risk for cardiovascular disease events, yet their effects on metabolic risk factors and diabetes remain unclear. This cross-sectional study used a community volunteer sample to test whether the associations between n3 fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk vary as a function of physical activity. Participants were 344 generally healthy adults, 30–54 y of age, not taking fish oil supplements or confounding medications. Serum phospholipid EPA and DHA were used together (EPA+DHA) as a biomarker of n3 fatty acid exposure. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as a continuous measure based on standardized distributions of blood pressure, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and a simple count of risk factors. Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostatic model assessment. Physical activity was found to predict cardiometabolic risk (P ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P ≤ 0.02) and to moderate the association between EPA+DHA and both cardiometabolic risk (P-interaction ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P-interaction ≤ 0.02). Specifically, higher EPA+DHA was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in persons engaged in regular physical activity but not in relatively inactive individuals. These findings were noted in several components of cardiometabolic risk, in men and women separately, and in models adjusted for overall diet quality. In midlife adults, habitual physical activity may be necessary to unmask the salutary effects of n3 fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance. PMID:23884386
Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.
Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053
de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Ferrandez, Anne-Marie
Studies that investigated stability of PA in older populations are scarce. Moreover, no studies used dynamic indicators to predict PA trajectories. The purpose of the present study were to investigate PA stability overtime, and to examine if changes in self-reported physical function (dynamic indicator) are better predictors of trajectories of PA than baseline measures of physical function (static indicator). This is a prospective postal survey with two time-point follow-ups: 12 and 38 months. Participants were older adults aged ≥ 60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. They responded to a self-report questionnaire on PA and general health status at three different times: baseline, 12- and 38-month follow-ups (n=243 for the 12-month follow-up; n=164 for the 38-month follow-up). Overtime analyses of PA showed a moderate-to-good stability with regard to both duration and volume of PA; however, a decrease in stability for vigorous PA was found between 12- and 38-month follow-ups. Both baseline measure and changes in physical function predicted PA trajectories, but magnitudes of associations were stronger for the dynamic indicator. Moreover, change in physical function was the only predictor of both becoming active compared with Inactive (reduced probability) and becoming inactive compared to Active (increased probability). In conclusion, a dynamic indicator of physical function is a better predictor of PA variation than static indicators.
Zhang, Xuehong; Eliassen, A. Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hazra, Aditi; Beck, Andrew H.; Brown, Myles; Collins, Laura C.; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E.
Background Obesity and physical activity have been hypothesized to affect breast cancer risk partly via the androgen signaling pathway. We conducted the first study to evaluate these associations by tumor androgen receptor (AR) status. Methods Height, weight, and physical activity were assessed using questionnaires in the Nurses’ Health Study. AR, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status were determined using immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue and medical/pathology reports. Results 1,701 AR+ and 497 AR- cases were documented during 26 years of follow-up of 103,577 women. After adjusting for ER/PR status and other risk factors, the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI) were 1.07(1.01–1.13) for AR+ and 1.16(1.05–1.29) for AR- tumors (p-heterogeneity=0.17). The RRs(95%CIs) per 5 hours of brisk walking/week were 0.87(0.73–1.04) for AR+ and 0.67(0.45–0.99) for AR- tumors (p-heterogeneity=0.22). Further, BMI, but not physical activity, associations differed significantly across ER/PR/AR subtypes (p-heterogeneity=0.04 and 0.63, respectively). The RRs(95%CIs) for 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI were 1.23(1.04–1.45) for ER+PR+AR−, 1.19(1.01–1.39) for ER−PR−AR−, 1.15(1.08–1.23) for ER+PR+AR+, 0.88(0.75–1.03) for ER+PR−AR+ tumors. Conclusions Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of both AR+ and AR− breast tumors in postmenopausal women, while physical activity, including brisk walking, was associated with a reduced risk of both subtypes. Additionally, a significant positive association was observed between higher BMI and ER−PR−AR− tumors. Impact The similar associations observed by AR status suggest that mechanisms other than androgen signaling underlie these two breast cancer risk factors. PMID:25855627
... A Guide for Adults Based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Be Active, Healthy, and Happy! ... is for you. Read how you can fit physical activity into your life—your way. Decide the number ...
Lee, Kayla; Cooke, Julie; Cooper, Gabrielle; Shield, Alison
Osteoarthritis is a common progressive disease in older adults, and those affected often have impaired physical function, co-existing disease states, and reduced quality of life. In patients with osteoarthritis, pain is reported as a primary cause of mobility limitation, and guidelines recommend a mix of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies for pain management. The benefits of exercise in the management of osteoarthritis are well established; however, pain appears to be the biggest barrier to patients engaging in, and adhering to, physical activity programs. Attitudes towards the use of pain medications differ widely, and lack of efficacy or fear of side effects may lead to sub-therapeutic dosing. Furthermore, a recent review suggesting that short-term paracetamol use is ineffective for osteoarthritis has added to the confusion. This narrative review investigates limitations of current medications, summarizes patient attitudes toward the use of analgesics for osteoarthritis pain (with a focus on paracetamol), and explores the uptake of physical activity for osteoarthritis management. Evidence suggests that, despite clear guidelines, symptoms of osteoarthritis generally remain poorly managed. More research is required to investigate clinical outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis through optimized medication plans to better understand whether longer-term analgesic use in conjunction with physical activity can assist patients to overcome mobility limitations.
Marquez, David X.; Aguiñaga, Susan; Campa, Jeanine; Pinsker, Eve; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Hernandez, Rosalba
BACKGROUND Ethnic/racial minorities often live in neighborhoods that are not conducive to physical activity (PA) participation. We examined perceived factors related to walking/PA among Spanish- and English-speaking older Latinos in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood. METHODS Exploratory focus group study with Latinos stratified by preferred language and gender: English speaking women (n=7, M age=74.6); English speaking men (n=3, M age=69.3); Spanish speaking women (n=5, M age=66.4); Spanish speaking men (n=5, M age=74.0). Focus group audio files were transcribed, and qualitative research software was used to code and analyze documents. RESULTS At the individual-level, reasons for exercising (improved health) and positive health outcome expectancies (weight loss and decreased knee pain) were discussed. Neighborhood/environmental factors of safety (fear of crime), neighborhood changes (lack of jobs and decreased social networks), weather, and destination walking were discussed. DISCUSSION Individual and environmental factors influence physical activity of older, urban Latinos, and should be taken into consideration in health promotion efforts. PMID:24832017
Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.
People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.
Sink, Kaycee M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Cohen, Ron; Dodson, John A.; Guralnik, Jack; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Jennings, Janine; Katula, Jeffery; Lopez, Oscar L.; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F.; Rushing, Julia; Verghese, Joe; Rapp, Stephen; Williamson, Jeff D.
Importance Epidemiologic evidence suggests that physical activity benefits cognition, but results from randomized trials are limited and mixed. Objective To determine whether a 24-month physical activity program results in better cognitive function and/or lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia compared to a health education program. Design, Setting, and Participants The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1635 community-living participants at 8 centers in the U.S. from February 2010 until December 2011. Participants were sedentary adults aged 70–89 years at risk for mobility disability, but able to walk 400m. Intervention Participants were randomized to a structured, moderate-intensity physical activity program (n=818) that included walking, resistance training, and flexibility exercises or to a health education program (n=817) of educational workshops and upper extremity stretching. Outcomes and Measures Pre-specified secondary outcomes of the LIFE study included cognitive function measured by the Digit Symbol Coding task (0–133 scale, higher=better) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (12-word list recall) assessed in 1,476 (90.3%) participants. Tertiary outcomes included global and executive cognitive function and incident MCI or dementia at 24 months. Pre-specified subgroups analyses were performed based on age, sex, baseline physical performance, and baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score. Results At 24 months, DSC and HVLT-R scores (adjusted for clinic site, gender, and baseline values) were not different between groups. Mean DSC scores were 46.26 points for physical activity vs. 46.28 for health education; mean difference −0.014 points, 95% CI −0.80 to 0.77, p= 0.97. Mean HVLT-R delayed recall scores were 7.22 for physical activity vs. 7.25 for health education; mean difference −0.03 words, 95% CI −0.29 to 0.24, p= 0
Cunha, Fábio da Silva; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo
We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect