NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK
Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.
Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.
This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…
Onarheim, Henning; Vindenes, Hallvard A
This study investigated the long-term mortality in 1182 burn patients admitted at a single burn centre in 1984-2003. One thousand and forty-nine patients were discharged alive, of which 999 (95.2% of all discharged) were available for follow-up (mean observation time: 9.6+/-5.5 (S.D.) years). One hundred and twenty-two patients had died after discharge but before follow-up. For 111 patients, the official information recorded from their death certificates revealed that 83 patients (mainly in the higher age groups) had died due to a variety of natural causes. Twenty-three patients (M:F=18:5) (age: 37.7+/-11.3 years), previously hospitalised for burns, had later suffered accidental or violent deaths, including suicide (5), assault (2), and deaths related to substance and/or alcohol abuse (12). Additionally, five other deaths were recorded as sudden death, with no additional specific information as to the cause of death. This study shows that the rates of accidental or violent death in previously burned adult patients (around 40 deaths per 1000 years at risk) may be an order of magnitude higher than that in the average Norwegian population.
McWilliams, J Michael; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z
In contrast to a previous study we conducted and other evidence, a recent study found no significant effects of Medicare coverage after age 65 on overall health for previously uninsured adults and significant adverse effects on survival for some of these adults. We discuss explanations for these inconsistent findings, particularly the different ways in which deaths were handled, a key methodological challenge in longitudinal analyses of health. We demonstrate that analytic approaches suitable for examining effects of coverage on health measures may not be suitable for effects on mortality. Thus, estimates may be misleading when these different outcomes are jointly modeled. We also present new survival analyses that suggest Medicare coverage significantly attenuated the rising risk of death for previously uninsured adults. PMID:20337735
Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.
This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy…
Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N
Ambient noise differs considerably between habitats. Increased ambient noise can affect the physiology and behavior in a variety of taxa. Previous acoustic experience can modify behavior and potentially affect research conclusions in natural and laboratory environments. Acoustic conditions should thus be accounted for, especially in experiments involving experimental sound stimuli. Methods sections should contain acoustic specifications, and a consensus should be achieved over which measurements to include for comparability between researchers. Further investigation of how previous and repeated exposure to sound affects behavior and research conclusions is needed to improve our knowledge of acoustic long-term effects in animal welfare and conservation.
Campion, Thomas R.; Blau, Vanessa L.; Brown, Scott W.; Izcovich, Daniel; Cole, Curtis L.
Clinical research management systems (CRMSs) can facilitate research billing compliance and clinician awareness of study activities when integrated with practice management and electronic health record systems. However, adoption of CRMSs remains low, and optimal approaches to implementation are unknown. This case report describes one institution’s successful approach to organization, technology, and workflow for CRMS implementation following previous failures. Critical factors for CRMS success included organizational commitment to clinical research, a dedicated research information technology unit, integration of research data across disparate systems, and centralized system usage workflows. In contrast, previous failed approaches at the institution lacked a mandate and mechanism for change, received support as a business rather than research activity, maintained data in separate systems, and relied on inconsistent distributed system usage workflows. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe CRMS implementation success and failures, which can assist practitioners and academic evaluators. PMID:25954570
Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen
To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017
Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A
Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community.
Zheng, Zhuojun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yuandong; Gu, Weiying; Xie, Xiaobao; Jiang, Jingting
This study was designed to perform an acceptable prognostic nomogram for acute myeloid leukemia. The clinical data from 311 patients from our institution and 165 patients generated with Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network were reviewed. A prognostic nomogram was designed according to the Cox's proportional hazard model to predict overall survival (OS). To compare the capacity of the nomogram with that of the current prognostic system, the concordance index (C-index) was used to validate the accuracy as well as the calibration curve. The nomogram included 6 valuable variables: age, risk stratifications based on cytogenetic abnormalities, status of FLT3-ITD mutation, status of NPM1 mutation, expression of CD34, and expression of HLA-DR. The C-indexes were 0.71 and 0.68 in the primary and validation cohort respectively, which were superior to the predictive capacity of the current prognostic systems in both cohorts. The nomogram allowed both patients with acute myeloid leukemia and physicians to make prediction of OS individually prior to treatment. PMID:27689396
Vander Mey, B J
The evidence available at this time indicates that male children are more likely to be abused by nonfamily rather than family members. Residing in a neglectful home or a mother-headed household and having previous homosexual contact tend to heighten risk for sexual abuse by nonfamily members. Familial sexual abuse appears related to residence in a home where other siblings are being abused, where the father was a victim of sexual abuse as a child, and where parents suffer myriad personal and social adjustment difficulties. Effects of male child sexual abuse appear to be serious and long lasting. The scant writings available at this time imply that the sexually abused male child experiences a range of adjustment and self-esteem problems as an adult and may be at heightened risk to become a child sexual abuser.
Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.
This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative…
Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.
This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…
Yuen, Kevin C J; Heaney, Anthony P; Popovic, Vera
Previous studies have shown that GH and IGF-I may enhance tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation in humans and animals. Evidence supporting this notion is derived from animal model studies, epidemiological studies, experience from patients with acromegaly, molecular therapeutic manipulation of GH and IGF-I actions, and individuals with GH receptor and congenital IGF-I deficiencies. Prior exposure to radiation therapy, aging, family history of cancer, and individual susceptibility may also contribute to increase this risk. Therefore, the use of GH replacement in patients with a history of cancer raises hypothetical safety concerns for patients, caregivers, and providers. Studies of GH therapy in GH-deficient adults with hypopituitarism and childhood cancer survivors have not convincingly demonstrated an increased cancer risk. Conversely, the risk of occurrence of a second neoplasm (SN) in childhood cancer survivors may be increased, with meningiomas being the most common tumor; however, this risk appears to decline over time. In light of these findings, if GH replacement is to be considered in patients with a previous history of cancer, we propose this consideration to be based on each individual circumstance and that such therapy should only be initiated at least 2 years after cancer remission is achieved with the understanding that in some patients (particularly those with childhood cancers), GH may potentially increase the risk of SNs. In addition, close surveillance should be undertaken working closely with the patient's oncologist. More long-term data are thus needed to determine if GH replacement in GH-deficient adults with a history of cancer is associated with the development of de novo tumors and tumor recurrence.
... Economic Research Service Notice of Intent To Request Revision of the Previously Requested Experimental Economic Research--A New Generic Clearance for Information Collection AGENCY: Economic Research Service... changes that the Economic Research Service intends to make to a previously request for a new...
Research in the field of adult ESOL internationally is both spasmodic and fragmentary. The papers in this special issue therefore constitute a major contribution to the field by providing new insights into ESOL research from the perspective of current pedagogical practices in the British context. In this paper, I provide a response to this…
La Rue, Asenath; Markee, Taryn
Methodological issues in geropsychological assessment research are discussed and illustrated through recent investigations. Cross-sectional studies are needed to extend and diversify age norms, and short-term longitudinal studies should be planned to assess the predictive validity of test outcomes and diagnostic profiles of older adults. (SLD)
Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Röbken, Heinke; Ehrenspeck-Kolasa, Yvonne; von Ossietzky, Carl
This study builds upon a Delphi study carried out by Zawacki-Richter (2009) which posited a validated classification of research areas in the special area of distance education. We now replicate the study for the broader field of adult and continuing education (ACE). The aims of this paper are: firstly, to develop a categorisation of research…
THE 177 REPORTS COMPRISING THIS RESEARCH REVIEW DEAL WITH SUCH AREAS AND TOPICS AS LEARNING-RELATED ABILITIES, INTERESTS, AND MOTIVES, PROGRAM PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION, LEARNING FORMATS AND ENVIRONMENTS, INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, ADULT BASIC EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, MANAGEMENT AND THE PROFESSIONS, INSTITUTIONAL SPONSORS…
Grant, R W; Mariani, R A; Vieira, V J; Fleshner, M; Smith, T P; Keylock, K T; Lowder, T W; McAuley, E; Hu, L; Chapman-Novakofski, K; Woods, J A
Based upon a prior cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that an aerobic exercise intervention in sedentary older adults would improve a primary T cell-dependent immune response. Participants were a subset of older subjects from a large, ongoing exercise intervention study who were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise (Cardio, n=30, 68.9+0.8 years) or flexibility/balance (Flex, n=20, 69.9+1.2 years) intervention. The intervention consisted of either three aerobic sessions for 30-60 min at 55-70% VO(2 max) or two 60 min flexibility/balance sessions weekly for 10 months. Eight months into the intervention, samples were collected before intramuscular administration of KLH (125 microg), followed by sampling at 2, 3, and 6 weeks post-KLH. Serum anti-KLH IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 was measured by ELISA. Physiological and psychosocial measures were also assessed pre- and post-intervention. While there was no difference in the anti-KLH IgG2 response between groups, Cardio displayed significantly (p<0.05) higher anti-KLH IgG1 (at weeks 2, 3, and 6 post) and IgM responses when compared to Flex. Despite cardiovascular intervention-induced improvement in physical fitness (approximately 11% vs. 1% change in VO(2 peak) in Cardio vs. Flex, respectively), we found no relationship between improved fitness and enhanced anti-KLH antibody responses. Optimism, perceived stress, and affect were all associated with enhanced immune response. We have shown for the first time that cardiovascular training in previously sedentary elderly results in significantly higher primary IgG1 and IgM antibody responses, while having no effect on IgG2 production.
Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.
This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education…
Moore, Linda Weaver
Due to the frequency of eye disorders among older adults, qualitative researchers who involve older individuals in their work must be sensitive to the multiple ways in which visual deficits can influence the research process. The author addresses some of the difficulties encountered, insights gained, and strategies developed while conducting a phenomenological study in which all the participants were severely visually impaired. The author's insights, drawn from personal experiences, reflections, and log entries kept throughout the study, are shared to help other researchers design and implement studies in which the voices of individuals with severe visual impairments can be skillfully tapped.
... HUMAN SERVICES Draft Guidance on Considerations in Transferring a Previously- Approved Research Project to a New IRB or Research Institution AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office for Human Research...
Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Liu, Xiufeng; Neumann, Knut
This manuscript presents a systematic review of the research on how students conceptualise matter. Understanding the structure and properties of matter is an essential part of science literacy. Over the last decades the number of studies on students' conceptions of matter published in peer-reviewed journals has increased significantly. These…
Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.
Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…
Since 1997, the identity of the research field of adults learning mathematics has been debated; the research field has grown in quantity and quality; and the research forum Adults Learning Mathematics (ALM) has established an international journal. In practice, the researchers answer the question about identity and quality of research papers in…
Even, Mary Jane
The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)
Kasworm, Carol E.; Blowers, Sally S.
A research study examined the complex roles of adult life in relation to the student role, the nature of adult undergraduate engagement in learning, and adult perceptions of involvement. Adult students were interviewed in three types of institutions: 38 at two liberal arts colleges, 29 at two community colleges, and 23 at two public universities.…
Niemi, John A., Ed.; And Others
This annotated bibliography includes 787 items of research or investigation in adult education, mostly dated from 1973-75. They cover information sources; philosophy, policies, general objectives; legislation; finance costs; studies and planning--state, regional, and national; history; adult education as a field of study; adult education research;…
Cole, Suzanne L.; Dunning, Jake; Kok, Wai Ling; Benam, Kambez Hajipouran; Benlahrech, Adel; Martinez, Fernando O.; Drumright, Lydia; Powell, Timothy J.; Bennett, Michael; Elderfield, Ruth; Thomas, Catherine; Dong, Tao; McCauley, John; Liew, Foo Y.; Taylor, Stephen; Zambon, Maria; Barclay, Wendy; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Openshaw, Peter J.; McMichael, Andrew J.
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of n = 60 patients recruited). We found a sustained increase in a specific subset of proinflammatory monocytes, with high TNF-α expression and an M1-like phenotype (independent of viral titers), in these previously healthy patients with severe disease. The relationship between M1-like monocytes and immunopathology was strengthened using murine models of influenza, in which severe infection generated using different models (including the high-pathogenicity H5N1 strain) was also accompanied by high levels of circulating M1-like monocytes. Additionally, a raised M1/M2 macrophage ratio in the lungs was observed. These studies identify a specific subtype of monocytes as a modifiable immunological determinant of disease severity in this subgroup of severely ill, previously healthy patients, offering potential novel therapeutic avenues.
Charters, Alexander N.
The author states that the coming of age of adult and continuing education has brought the role of research into focus. Two aspects of the research role are explored: What research has been done on the continuing education of adult educators, and what should be the roles of research? The major portion of this report is devoted to a review of the…
Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.
The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…
Tonorezos, Emily S; Oeffinger, Kevin C
Every year in Canada and the United States, about 26,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) between ages 15 and 29 years are diagnosed with cancer. Although the majority of AYA cancer patients will survive their primary cancer, many will develop serious health problems or die prematurely secondary to their curative cancer therapy. Much is known about the long-term health outcomes after adolescent cancer. In contrast, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the long-term outcomes after most young adult cancers. To optimize the health and quality of life of AYA cancer survivors and improve upon curative cancer therapy, it is essential to further investigate the long-term outcomes of this population. Before embarking upon this endeavor, it is important for the investigator and the funding agency to be cognizant about some of the unique challenges in research of AYA cancer survivors. To this end, the authors present a brief overview of some of the key research challenges, discuss the strengths and limitations of using available AYA cohorts and databases, and highlight potential future directions.
Gardner, Morgan; Brown, Linda; Young, Elizabeth; Young, Allie; McCann, Ann; Myles, Carol
Participatory action research (PAR) lacks concerted attention to what makes youth-adult teams feel like genuine partners. This paper explores our youth-adult PAR team's experience of what made us feel like partners during our five-year study of youth voice in educational change. Our findings reveal that we felt like research partners when our…
Shaw, Doris Smith
Discusses computer-aided instruction (CAI) for adult learners and describes research conducted at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory to study the impact of CAI on design professionals, i.e., architects and engineers. Attitudes of adult professionals are examined, and design requirements for a CAI system for professionals…
... in Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What’s New in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? Researchers ... have the Philadelphia chromosome. Gene expression profiling This new lab technique is being studied to help identify ...
Connell, C M
A review of articles published in two health education journals is provided to examine the extent to which older adults were included in published research. The review suggests that older adults were included in about 15% of the research articles published in Health Education and Behavior and Health Education Research. Of the articles that include older adults, age differences in study processes and outcomes are rarely examined, and very few studies advance specific hypotheses based on a theoretical or conceptual model of aging or older adulthood. Several recommendations for health education research are suggested.
Weed, Latricia Diane
The relationship between research and practice is increasingly important. The research interview is part of the foundation of quality research and evidence-based practice decisions. Thorough preparation and planning is required for a successful research interview with an older adult.
Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica
There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…
As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…
Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919
Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.
Kasworm, Carol E.
Adult undergraduate student identities at research extensive universities were uniquely coconstructed, shaped by this selective and competitive youth-oriented cultural context. Drawing upon social constructivist theory, this study explored this coconstruction through positional and relational adult student identities. Positional identities were…
Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.
This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…
Syracuse Univ., NY. Publications Program in Continuing Education.
This publication contains descriptions of 53 research collections in adult and continuing education housed at Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York) Collection strengths have been identified as the history of adult education as a profession, field, and practice; literacy; and civic education. Each collection is described, and the number of boxes…
Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.
Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…
Accountability plays a key role in the field of adult literacy. Indeed, practitioners often juggle multiple accountabilities--to funders, taxpayers, learners, boards of directors, the community, and their profession. These may be in tension with each other, as when teachers' accountability to learners conflicts with their accountability to deliver…
Pastores, Gregory M; Shankar, Suma P; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Amato, Dominick J; Szer, Jeffrey; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari
Taliglucerase alfa is the first available plant cell-expressed human recombinant therapeutic protein. It is indicated for treatment of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) in adult and pediatric patients in several countries. Study PB-06-002 examined the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa for 9 months in patients who previously received imiglucerase. The results of adult patients from Study PB-06-002 who continued receiving taliglucerase alfa in extension Study PB-06-003 for up to 36 months are reported here. Eighteen patients received at least one dose of taliglucerase alfa in Study PB-06-003; 10 patients completed 36 total months of therapy, and four patients who transitioned to commercial drug completed 30-33 months of treatment. In patients who completed 36 total months of treatment, mean percent (±standard error) changes from baseline/time of switch to taliglucerase alfa to 36 months were as follows: hemoglobin concentration, -1.0% (±1.9%; n = 10); platelet count, +9.3% (±9.8%; n = 10); spleen volume measured in multiples of normal (MN), -19.8% (±9.9%; n = 7); liver volume measured in MN, +0.9% (±5.4%; n = 8); chitotriosidase activity, -51.5% (±8.1%; n = 10); and CCL18 concentration, -36.5 (±8.0%; n = 10). Four patients developed antidrug antibodies, including one with evidence of neutralizing activity in vitro. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate and transient. The 36-month results of switching from imiglucerase to taliglucerase alfa treatment in adults with GD provide further data on the clinical safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa beyond the initial 9 months of the original study. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:661-665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shankar, Suma P.; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Amato, Dominick J.; Szer, Jeffrey; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill‐Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari
Taliglucerase alfa is the first available plant cell‐expressed human recombinant therapeutic protein. It is indicated for treatment of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) in adult and pediatric patients in several countries. Study PB‐06‐002 examined the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa for 9 months in patients who previously received imiglucerase. The results of adult patients from Study PB‐06‐002 who continued receiving taliglucerase alfa in extension Study PB‐06‐003 for up to 36 months are reported here. Eighteen patients received at least one dose of taliglucerase alfa in Study PB‐06‐003; 10 patients completed 36 total months of therapy, and four patients who transitioned to commercial drug completed 30–33 months of treatment. In patients who completed 36 total months of treatment, mean percent (±standard error) changes from baseline/time of switch to taliglucerase alfa to 36 months were as follows: hemoglobin concentration, −1.0% (±1.9%; n = 10); platelet count, +9.3% (±9.8%; n = 10); spleen volume measured in multiples of normal (MN), −19.8% (±9.9%; n = 7); liver volume measured in MN, +0.9% (±5.4%; n = 8); chitotriosidase activity, −51.5% (±8.1%; n = 10); and CCL18 concentration, −36.5 (±8.0%; n = 10). Four patients developed antidrug antibodies, including one with evidence of neutralizing activity in vitro. All treatment‐related adverse events were mild or moderate and transient. The 36‐month results of switching from imiglucerase to taliglucerase alfa treatment in adults with GD provide further data on the clinical safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa beyond the initial 9 months of the original study. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:661–665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102949
Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches.
New Brunswick Dept. of Education, Fredericton (Canada).
Research studies conducted in Canada are emphasized in this annotated bibliography of adult education research conducted from 1983-1988, although a few studies from the United States and England are included. The entries, arranged in alphabetical order by author's last name, are in English and, occasionally, French. (CML)
Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith
Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…
Beder, Hal; Tomkins, Jessica; Medina, Patsy; Riccioni, Regina; Deng, Weiling
This research brief highlights findings from a qualitative study of the contextual factors that shape engagement in adult literacy education. Engagement is mental effort focused on learning and is a precondition to learning progress. Some researchers focus on engagement as a cognitive, or mental, process closely related to such things as…
Adult learners undertaking a coursework masters are understandably nervous about undertaking research projects. However if done well, such projects represent a way to encourage the quantity and quality of practitioner research, which is important in all management disciplines, not only the emerging discipline of coaching. This paper offers an…
Marchant, Maurice P.
This book discusses the motivations that cause adults to go to the public library. It is grouped into eight sections concerning: (1) the research methodology and results used to determine four motivators that were good predictors of library use; (2) the development of library research; (3) several characteristics of library users in terms of…
Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike
Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders.
New Brunswick Dept. of Education, Fredericton (Canada).
A study collected information about research on adult education conducted in Canada from 1983-1988 and identified themes that emerged from the research studies, projects, and activities. Sources of information searched were electronic databases, bibliographic compilations of reports and articles in adult education and related fields, journals, and…
Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W
Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse. PMID:26645625
Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W
Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse.
The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.
Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo
Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners.
Glantz, Meyer D., Ed.; And Others
This book, on the nature and problems of inappropriate drug use by older adults, provides researchers and health practitioners with an up-to-date survey and overview of the literature on drug use, misuse, and abuse among the elderly. The volume provides abstracts of 100 selected scientific articles on the major topic areas in the field. The…
Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda
Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)
Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.
The Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT) was a project conducted by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) at Wayne State University in 1993-1994 to develop and pilot a user-friendly program model for evaluating literacy operations of community-based organizations throughout Michigan under the provisions of…
Cotts, Timothy; Khairy, Paul; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; John, Anitha S.; Valente, Anne Marie; Zaidi, Ali N.; Cook, Stephen C.; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Ting, Jennifer Grando; Gurvitz, Michelle; Landzberg, Michael J.; Verstappen, Amy; Kay, Joseph; Earing, Michael; Franklin, Wayne; Kogon, Brian; Broberg, Craig S.
Background Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) clinicians are hampered by the paucity of data to inform clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to identify priorities for clinical research in ACHD. Methods A list of 45 research questions was developed by the Alliance for Adult Research in Congenital Cardiology (AARCC), compiled into a survey, and administered to ACHD providers. Patient input was sought via the Adult Congenital Heart Association at community meetings and online forums. The 25 top questions were sent to ACHD providers worldwide via an online survey. Each question was ranked based on perceived priority and weighted based on time spent in ACHD care. The top 10 topics identified are presented and discussed. Results The final online survey yielded 139 responses. Top priority questions related to tetralogy of Fallot (timing of pulmonary valve replacement and criteria for primary prevention ICDs), patients with systemic right ventricles (determining the optimal echocardiographic techniques for measuring right ventricular function, and indications for tricuspid valve replacement and primary prevention ICDs), and single ventricle/Fontan patients (role of pulmonary vasodilators, optimal anticoagulation, medical therapy for preservation of ventricular function, treatment for protein losing enteropathy). In addition, establishing criteria to refer ACHD patients for cardiac transplantation was deemed a priority. Conclusions The ACHD field is in need of prospective research to address fundamental clinical questions. It is hoped that this methodical consultation process will inform researchers and funding organizations about clinical research topics deemed to be of high priority. PMID:24411207
Gal, Iddo, Ed.
This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…
Remes, Pirkko, Ed.; And Others
The 13 papers in this yearbook discuss 4 broad subject areas: questions of competence, evaluating quality, professional cultures, and learning and trends in adult education. The following papers are included: "Human Resource Development (HRD) Practitioners Analyzing Their Work"(Tuija Valkeavaara); "Life Competence in a World of…
Understandings of "literacy" broadened after the United Nations Development Decade of the 1960s. The corresponding research into the benefits of literacy also widened its focus beyond economic growth. The effects of adult literacy and its correlates appeared diffuse with the rise of New Literacy Studies, and the scholarship on consequences seemed less essential to advocates following the rise of a human rights perspective on education. In 2016 the agenda for literacy research has returned - but at a higher level - to concern over its benefits. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have reintegrated literacy research within an agenda to understand the channels through which literacy skills might effect change. This article briefly reviews progress in adult literacy, touches on existing perspectives on literacy, and then illustrates four recent sources of information useful in the revitalised agenda offered by the SDGs. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Values Survey (WVS), and the World Bank's Skills Toward Employment and Productivity (STEP) study are now available to researchers wishing to link educational change with attitudinal and behavioural change. Another important resource are the emerging data on mobile learning. By integrating literacy into the SDGs, literacy researchers can reveal the channels through which literacy can contribute to social welfare and transformation.
Narang, H. L.
This bibliography of masters' theses and doctoral dissertations concerning adult education in Canada contains 36 entries. Topics of the research include illiteracy, ABE, adult educators, TESL, higher education for adults, women's education, and instructional techniques. (KM)
Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, London (England).
This bibliography of research in adult literacy and basic skills is selective, covering research undertaken in industrialized countries in the 20 years between 1972 and 1992. It concentrates primarily on research into basic skills undertaken in English-speaking countries, although it also has a European dimension. Entries are categorized under 18…
Beckstrom, Edward S.
Heuristic research is a highly autobiographical investigation of one's experience with a question or problem. This article examines the basic concepts and processes of heuristic research (in adult education), including self-dialog, tacit knowing, inverted perspective, intuition, indwelling, and focusing. Heuristic research design phases involve…
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed.
González, Christian R; Reyes, Carolina; Rada, Viviana
Male and female adults of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi are redescribed, and the 4th-instar larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time. Culex articularis is compared with other species of the subgenus Culex. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the female, male genitalia, 4th-instar larva, and pupa are also provided.
dose 2 serum at 23 days a ose but prior to receiving a second dose of vaccine and did not provide a post-dos to the JE vaccine-naïve group ( pno ...previous) post-dose 2. Noninfe- iority was supported if the lower-bound of the 2-tailed 95% CI for previous − pno previous was ≥ −0.10 . Solicited...thresholda Value (95% CI) Seroprotectionb pprevious − pno previous ≥−0.10 0.07 (−0.01, 0.17) GMT ratio GMTprevious/GMTno previous >1/1.5 3.99 (2.16, 7.36) JE
Norquist, Josephine M; Khawaja, Shazia S; Kurian, Cizely; Mast, T Christopher; Liaw, Kai-Li; Robertson, Michael N; Evans, Barbara; Gutsch, David; Saddier, Patricia
The Adult/Adolescent Vaccination Report Card (VRC) was developed and validated by Merck in 1998 for use in vaccine clinical trials to collect information from trial subjects on complaints for both local and systemic events after vaccination. This short report describes the revision to the original validated VRC in order to align with the guidelines outlined in the 2007 FDA Toxicity Grading Scale for Healthy Adult and Adolescent Volunteers Enrolled in Preventive Vaccine Clinical Trials. Since the VRC elicits trial subjects' self-reports of any adverse experiences (AE) occurring post vaccination, it was important that subsequent modifications of the VRC retained the original user-friendly characteristics while gathering the appropriate information to align with the FDA Guidance. A convenience sample of 15 participants (71% females, 87% white and mean (SD) age 45 (13) years was recruited to obtain feedback in order to revise the Adult/Adolescent VRC. Based on the feedback received, the following were slightly revised: ruler for the measurements of local systemic reactions, severity ratings, and general instructions. The revised VRC is currently being used in Merck vaccine clinical trials.
Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…
Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.
This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…
Sharma, Rajiv; Ahlm, Clas; Ostergaard, Lars; Dowell, Anthony; Tran, Clément; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile
Hepatitis B vaccines do not generate protective immune responses in older adults as effectively as they do in children and young adults. Improved formulations of existing vaccines may have the potential to improve this. This study investigated the persistence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens (anti-HBs) 3.1–3.5 years following primary vaccination with 3 doses of HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in healthy adults aged ≥50 years who were further challenged with 1 dose of recombinant hepatitis B antigen. This was an open-label extension study. Individuals (N = 204) with a mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment of 63.7 (7.0) years receiving HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in a randomized, double-blind primary study were challenged with 1 dose of HBvaxPRO® (10 μg). Anti-HBs were measured pre- and 30 days post-challenge. 45.5% (34.8, 56.4 [95% CI]) of individuals who received HBvaxPRO® in the per protocol set (PPS) had anti-HBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL pre-challenge and 85.2% (76.1, 91.9) 1-month post-challenge. In those who received Engerix B™ in the primary vaccination series, the results were 58.8% (48.6, 68.5) and 88.3% (80.5, 93.8), respectively. The challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was generally well tolerated. Subjects aged ≥50 years receiving a challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® demonstrated immune memory against hepatitis B 3 years after a 3-dose primary. The safety profile of this challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was consistent with the well-established safety profile of the vaccine HBvaxPRO®. PMID:25996838
A Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, switchover trial to assess the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa, a plant cell-expressed recombinant human glucocerebrosidase, in adult and pediatric patients with Gaucher disease previously treated with imiglucerase.
Pastores, Gregory M; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Szer, Jeffrey; Deegan, Patrick B; Amato, Dominick J; Mengel, Eugen; Tan, Ee Shien; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari
Taliglucerase alfa is a β-glucosidase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) approved in the US and other countries for the treatment of Gaucher disease (GD) in adults and is approved in pediatric and adult patients in Australia and Canada. It is the first approved plant cell-expressed recombinant human protein. A Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, 9-month study assessed safety and efficacy of switching to taliglucerase alfa in adult and pediatric patients with GD treated with imiglucerase for at least the previous 2years. Patients with stable disease were offered taliglucerase alfa treatment using the same dose (9-60U/kg body weight) and regimen of administration (every 2weeks) as imiglucerase. This report summarizes results from 26 adult and 5 pediatric patients who participated in the trial. Disease parameters (spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and biomarker levels) remained stable through 9months of treatment in adults and children following the switch from imiglucerase. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient in nature. Exploratory parameters of linear growth and development showed positive outcomes in pediatric patients. These findings provide evidence of the efficacy and safety profile of taliglucerase alfa as an ERT for GD in patients previously treated with imiglucerase. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT00712348.
BURRICHTER, ARTHUR; JENSEN, GLENN
THIS COMPILATION OF ABSTRACTS OF ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED IN NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA, NEVADA, UTAH, IDAHO, WYOMING, AND COLORADO COVERS COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ADULT EDUCATION, PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT PROGRAMS (MAINLY SECONDARY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION), VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING (INCLUDING INDUSTRIAL INSERVICE TRAINING), ADULT…
Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.
"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and…
McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.
Including adults with intellectual disability in research promotes direct benefits to participants and larger societal benefits. Stakeholders may have different views of what count as benefits and their importance. We compared views on benefits in research with adults with intellectual disability among adults with intellectual disability, family…
Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Pedraza, Carmen; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J
The hippocampus is a key brain structure involved in the short- and long-term processing of declarative memory. Since adult hippocampal neurogenesis was first found, numerous studies have tried to establish the contribution of newborn neurons to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. However, this large amount of research has generated contradictory results. In this paper, we review the body of evidence investigating the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and learning to conclude the functional role of adult-born hippocampal neurons. First, factors that could explain discrepancies among experiments are taken into account. Then, in addition to methodological differences, we emphasize the importance of the age of the newborn neurons studied, as to how their maturation influences both their properties and potential functionality. Next, we discuss which declarative memory components could require involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, taking into consideration the representational demands of the task, its difficulty and the level of performance reached by the subject. Finally, other factors that could modulate neurogenesis and memory, such as stress levels or previous experience of the animal, should also be taken into consideration in interpreting experiments focused on neurogenesis. In conclusion, our analysis of published studies suggests that new adult-born neurons, under certain circumstances, have a crucial and irreplaceable role in hippocampal learning.
Blunt, Adrian; And Others
A study determined the extent to which graduate students have contributed to the body of adult education knowledge through published research. It described content of graduate research articles and identified graduate programs, faculty who supported its production, and levels of graduate study involved in research publication. The study also…
The aim of that publication was the presentation of previous and planned research concerning selected vascular plants and soils near Olkusz (Southern Poland). The extremely high concentration of heavy metals in soils from that region was caused by the natural geochemical aureoles of dispersed metals (due to weathering of Zn-Pb-Fe ore sulphides) and mining and processing of shallowly occurring metalliferous deposits (containing Ag-Pb and Zn-Pb ores) since XII century. The condition of stress in metals, shortage of water and some plant nutrition led to formation of some adaptable vegetation features by plants growing in that region. Some species called metallophytes have been already detailed investigated. Moreover some geochemical and pedological research of soil have been already done. However the conditions of habitat of pioneering species such as Koeleria glauca and Corynephorus canescens are not still recognized.
Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi
Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…
The Center of Research for Education of Adults (CREA) in Spain is working to overcome the constrictions of adult education theories through three orientations: it works in a horizontal and communicative way, it attempts to correct common misunderstandings, and its main focus is to develop a new critical theory for adult education. Research…
McClelland, Jerry; Saeed, Fouzia
The literature on adult, vocational, and distance education was reviewed to identify areas needing research in order to guide decisions on the use of distance delivery in adult vocational education in Minnesota. Literature on participation in and barriers to participation in adult education was reviewed as was literature on the clientele served by…
Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan
Major objectives of this Adult Education Research Conference workshop were sixfold: to examine in detail the Stake Countenance Model of Evaluation as a potential conceptual framework for adult education evaluation; practice using it to identify and categorize relevant variables and relationships; design evaluation plans for typical adult education…
Klenovsek, Tanja Vilic, Ed.; Olesen, Henning Salling, Ed.
This book contains papers, reports, and welcoming speeches from a seminar for European adult education researchers. The following are included: "Background and Thematic Outline for the ESREA (European Society for Research on the Education of Adults) Seminar on Research into Adult Education and the Labor Market" (Olesen); "Welcoming…
Winokur, Patricia L; Patel, Shital M; Brady, Rebecca; Chen, Wilbur H; El-Kamary, Samer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Creech, C Buddy; Frey, Sharon; Keitel, Wendy A; Belshe, Robert; Walter, Emmanuel; Bellamy, Abbie; Hill, Heather
Influenza A(H5N1) vaccination strategies that improve the speed of the immunological response and cross-clade protection are desired. We compared the immunogenicity of a single 15-μg or 90-μg dose of A/H5N1/Indonesia/05/05 (clade 2) vaccine in adults who were previously primed with A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 (clade 1) vaccine. High-dose vaccine resulted in significantly higher titers to both clade 1 and 2 antigens. Clade 2 titers were unaffected by the previous dose of clade 1 vaccine. Low-dose priming with a mismatched pandemic influenza A(H5N1) vaccine would improve the rapidity, magnitude, and cross-reactivity of the immunological response following a single high-dose, unadjuvanted, pandemic vaccine.
Williams, David M; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J; Monti, Peter M; Emerson, Jessica
Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)--an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants' natural environments.
Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…
McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.
Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with…
Coben, Diana, Ed.; O'Donoghue, John, Ed.; FitzSimons, Gail E., Ed.
This book contains 22 papers that are designed to situate research and practice in adults learning mathematics within the wider field of lifelong learning and lifelong education. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Diana Coben, Gail E. FitzSimons, John O'Donoghue); "Review of Research on Adults Learning…
Many adults who need an understanding of statistical concepts have limited mathematical skills. They need a teaching approach that includes as little mathematical context as possible. Iterative participatory qualitative research (action research) was used to develop a statistical literacy course for adult learners informed by teaching in…
Weiss, Margaret; Safren, Steven A.; Solanto, Mary V.; Hechtman, Lily; Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell; Murray, Candice
Background: A literature search found five empirical studies of psychological treatment for adults with ADHD, out of 1,419 articles on ADHD in adults. Practice guidelines to date all recommend multimodal intervention, given that a significant number of patients cannot tolerate, do not respond to, or fail to reach optimal outcomes with medication…
Tate, Eugene D.
This paper contains partial data from an investigation of adults and television conducted for the Canadian Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. The first section of the paper offers a discussion of the viewing behaviors of adult Canadians derived from interview data, while the second section examines the "mean world…
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011
Serving the needs of adult learners in today's economic environment is becoming a greater priority for colleges and universities. Student satisfaction is considered a core element for higher education institutions serving traditional-age students. More colleges and universities are expanding this assessment activity to adult students as well. As…
Blunt, Adrian; Lee, Jo-Anne
Two surveys (1979, n=129; 1989, n=117) give responses from graduate students who contributed to "Adult Education"/"Adult Education Quarterly," 1969-88. Total of 113 students published 128 articles; 70 were sole author; 46% of all articles were by graduate students. Nine departments accounted for 60% of articles. Males and…
Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.
"Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and…
Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.
Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve
Research, Teaching, Learning: Making Connections in the Education of Adults. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults (28th, Exeter, England, July 6-8, 1998).
Benn, Roseanne, Ed.
This document contains 43 papers presented at a conference on research in teaching adults at the University of Exeter, England, in 1998. Among the papers are the following: "Reconstructing Academic Practice: Research and Teaching in a University School of Adult Education" (David Boud); "Re-searching Adult Education Practice:…
... Leukemia (AML) About Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) What’s New in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment? Researchers ... benefit from current treatments. Researchers are studying many new chemo drugs for use in AML, including: Sapacitabine, ...
Barker, Rosalin; Lewis, David B.
Years of meticulous research work can be lost when projects are discontinued. Institutional support can make all the difference. The Whitby Research Group coordinates projects, provides access to computers, and enables researchers to share their work in seminars. (JOW)
MARQUARDT, WILLIAM F.
A REVIEW OF RESEARCH CATEGORIZES LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AS FOLLOWS--(1) GENERAL REPORTS OF THE NUMBERS AND OCCUPATIONAL TYPES OF ILLITERATES IN EACH COUNTRY--(2) REPORTS OF THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IN PROMOTING LITERACY AND ADULT BASIC…
Condelli, Larry; Kirshstein, Rita; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Reder, Stephen; Wrigley, Heide Spruck
Research has identified the barriers adult learners face in attaining their education and English proficiency goals, entering and advancing in employment, succeeding in postsecondary education and training, and navigating service systems. Most adult learners face long odds in trying to meet these goals. What would it take to address these barriers…
Papers from numerous research areas in the adult education field are presented. The proceedings contain thirty-five papers, five symposia, one alternate symposium, and eighteen alternate papers. Among the papers included are "A Comparison of Approaches to Measuring Outcomes in Adult Basic Education,""A Critical Analysis of Hill's…
Toso, Blaire Willson; Prins, Esther; Drayton, Brendaly; Gungor, Ramazan; Gnanadass, Edith
Although adult educators espouse values such as inclusion and ownership, adult learners seldom play a substantive role in programmatic decision making. This collaborative research project explored family literacy participants' experiences in their program's parent advisory council (PAC). The study shows that involvement in the PAC enhanced program…
Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John
Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…
Flannery, Daniele, Ed.
Among the papers included are the following: "Exploring Literacy through Theater" (Andruske); "Heuristic Research" (Beckstrom); "Self-Direction in Adult Undergraduates" (Blowers); "Commodification of Adult Education" (Briton, Plumb); "Collective Group Learning" (Brooks); "Psychosocial Development of Women" (Caffarella, Barnett); "Writing Wrongs"…
Collette, Pauline, Comp.; And Others
These proceedings contain 54 papers and an abstract of a panel discussion on women's issues in adult education that were presented at a conference on adult education research. The following are among the papers included: "Reducing Dropout in Distance Education" (Belawati); "Examination of the Validity of the Education Participation…
Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.
This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…
Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.
Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…
Considers teachers' research into adult/pupil dialog. Questions the way teachers converse with students. Asks how teachers listen to what children say and how teachers reciprocate. Studies language facility as an age-related phenomenon and considers whether conversation is led and developed in linguistic context by the adult. (HB)
Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.
This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…
Gutman, Carolyn; Hantman, Shira; Ben-Oz, Miriam; Criden, Wendy; Anghel, Roxana; Ramon, Shula
This article examines the contribution of older adults as co-researchers to the evaluation of a gerontological social work course. The evaluation was conducted at an Israeli college as part of a collaborative project with a United Kingdom university. Here, we follow the older adults who are service users through their transition to the role of…
This literature review provides a portrait of the current state of theory, instruction, assessment, and professional development of numeracy education for Adult Basic Education (ABE) students. It addresses the following five research questions by summarizing key findings from the literature: (1) How does adult numeracy develop and how does it…
Lim, K G
A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m(2) for overweight and 27.0 kg/m(2) for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention
Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda
The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…
In 1989, a province-wide survey was conducted to assess public opinion concerning adult education and the New Brunswick Community College System (NBCCS). A random sample of 800 respondents between the ages of 18 and 65 was surveyed regarding the quality of education, the quality of job-related education and training, experiences within the…
Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.
It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…
Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN.
This model is designed to be used as a guide by all teachers and designers of adult vocational consumer and homemaking courses who usually function as program planners. Chapter 1 contains an operational definition, the rationale, and description of intended users. Chapter 2 presents the model description with an overview and discussion of the…
Lesgold, Alan M., Ed.; Welch-Ross, Melissa, Ed.
A high level of literacy in both print and digital media is required for negotiating most aspects of 21st-century life, including supporting a family, education, health, civic participation, and competitiveness in the global economy. Yet, more than 90 million U.S. adults lack adequate literacy. Furthermore, only 38 percent of U.S. 12th graders are…
Wilson, R.; Hooper, P.
A project was conducted to increase the use of microcomputers in basic adult education in Australia. The aims of the project were as follows: to establish an information network of practitioners working within Australia's Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system who have an interest in using computer-assisted learning in basic adult…
Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.
This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…
McCormick, Cynthia B.
Focus group discussions were held to determine the perceptions of 8 male and 28 female adult students regarding the quality of their undergraduate evening program at a medium-sized public liberal arts college. The students voluntarily participated in one of three group sessions at which the following topics were discussed: whether evening students…
Washington State Univ., Pullman. Coll. of Education.
The document presents an annotated bibliography of Master's degree theses in Adult and Continuing Education, Washington State University, 1974-76. Abstracts for the following 12 theses are presented: (1) Agrarian Reform in Chile: A Case Study; (2) An Analysis of the Activities and the Needs of the Senior Citizens in Garfield, Washington and the…
King, Kathleen P., Ed.; Ferro, Trenton R., Ed.
This conference provided researchers and practitioners with a forum for sharing research findings that focus on the link between research and practice in adult, continuing, and community education. The proceedings consists of 17 papers and a symposium. The agenda is provided. The three invited papers are as follows: "Imprisoned Bodies--Free Minds:…
King, Kathleen P., Ed.; Ferro, Trenton R., Ed.
These proceedings consist of 18 papers from a conference to provide researchers and practitioners with a forum for sharing research findings that focus on the link between research and practice in adult, continuing, and community education. The five invited papers are as follows: "Towards a Pedagogy of Ethical Coercion" (Ian Baptiste); "Circuit of…
Shifferraw, Maigenet; Burton, Janet
Excited about the possibilities of action research, these authors decided to develop a project that would test the effectiveness of action research as a professional development model for adult basic education teachers in the District of Columbia. The objectives of this action research were to: (1) Provide opportunities for teachers to be engaged…
Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele
Within the last four decades, our view of the mature vertebrate brain has changed significantly. Today it is generally accepted that the adult brain is far from being fixed. A number of factors such as stress, adrenal and gonadal hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, certain drugs, environmental stimulation, learning, and aging change neuronal structures and functions. The processes that these factors may induce are morphological alterations in brain areas, changes in neuron morphology, network alterations including changes in neuronal connectivity, the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis), and neurobiochemical changes. Here we review several aspects of neuroplasticity and discuss the functional implications of the neuroplastic capacities of the adult and differentiated brain with reference to the history of their discovery. PMID:24883212
Funnell, Robert, Ed.
This handbook, which was written by researchers with expertise in Australia's technical and further education (TAFE) system, provides background information about the following: approaches to research in vocational education and training (VET); the range of methods normally used in research and their the application to VET; and procedures for…
Volkman, John D.
This book presents an approach for school librarians to use to introduce basic research tools to students in grades 7-12. Twelve "Excursions" (i.e., library research projects) are described. Excursions 1 and 2 provide an introduction to reference books, and Excursions 3 and 4 explore note-taking and basic organization of research papers. The…
Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...
McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S
Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.
Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Alveolar Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Embryonal Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Embryonal-botryoid Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently
Guy, Talmadge C., Ed.; And Others
The following papers were presented at a research preconference on the implications of Afrocentrism for adult education: "The African American Adult Education Pre-Conference: Historical Reflections" (Colin); "The Perspective 'Is' the Paradigm: The Congruence of World View and Research Methodology" (Dozier-Henry);…
Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.
Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…
Brown, Rachel; And Others
A study investigated the effectiveness of the Students Achieving Independent Learning (SAIL) program, an educator-developed approach to transactional strategies instruction (TSI). Five groups of six previously low-achieving second-grade students received a year of transactional strategies instruction and five groups of six students received a year…
Monroe, Martha C.
Research in the disciplines of education, science education, and environmental education has a rich history. While research in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) may be related to these traditions, there is a need for ESD to carve a new niche that promotes high quality and effective ESD programmes. With an eye towards practice and applied…
Candy, Philip C.
Argues that there are four areas where metaphors may be of use in educational research: identifying research problems, suggesting possible strategies, representing potential solutions, and explaining results. Looks at the process of retroduction or abduction, whereby models, theories, or characterizations from one field are applied to another, as…
Gillespie, Marilyn K.
In Chapter Three, Marilyn Gillespie provides a summary of the research on writing instruction that has taken place over the last three decades. In her survey of writing research, she describes models of the writing process such as that developed by Flower and Hayes, who viewed writing as three cognitive writing processes: planning, text generation…
Cloyes, Kristin G
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed.
Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko
This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…
Rio Salado Community Coll., AZ.
Researchers at Rio Salado Community College (Arizona) directing an educational research project, called the Southwest Advanced Learning System for Adults (SALSA), placed personal computers in the homes of production line workers as a supplement to traditional classroom basic skills training. Objectives were to determine whether this supplemental…
Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope
Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…
Life history or biographical approaches to research in lifelong learning may be particularly useful for researchers working from a social purpose and/or feminist perspective. Adult educators working from an emancipatory framework are often curious about factors that shape people's lives, both from an individualistic, biographical perspective and…
Ellsworth, Jill H.
Discusses use of the Internet for research on adult and distance education. Highlights include a description of the Internet; scholarly discussion lists; Telnet; FTP (File Transfer Protocol); scholarship and research, including access to university library catalogs and electronic journals; and online information about networks, including user…
Bingham, Mary Beth; Smith, Cristine; Stewart, Kimberly; Burnett, Anne; Devereux, Helena; Gooden, Judy; Hayes, David; LaChance, Arthur; LaMachia, Joan; Meader, Pam; Tate, Alan; Tiedeman, Kristin
To obtain practitioner input on the research agenda for adult basic education (ABE), practitioner leaders from the Practitioner Dissemination and Research Network (PRDN) conducted nine focus groups with ABE practitioners in their states. The focus groups examined three topics: issues that concern practitioners in ABE; ways practitioners see their…
Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…
McDonald, Katherine E; Keys, Christopher B; Henry, David B
Researchers and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' attitudes influence scientific knowledge about individuals with intellectual disability. We recruited 260 intellectual disability researchers and IRB members to develop a measure of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability, the Participation in Research Attitude Scale. Findings suggest three conceptual domains: Opportunity and Choice, Help in Decision Making, and Beneficence. We also examined individual differences in attitudes and the relationships between general and specific attitudes. In general, intellectual disability researchers and those with closer relationships to individuals with disabilities had attitudes consistent with disability-rights principles. Some dimensions of global attitudes toward adults with intellectual disability predictedmore specific attitudes toward their research participation. Implications are discussed.
ZAHN, JANE C.
THIS COMMENTARY ON CREATIVITY RESEARCH DEFINES THE CREATIVE RESPONSE AND THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CREATIVE PERSON, AND OUTLINES THE CREATIVE PROCESS AND THE BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS TO IT. CREATIVE WRITERS AND PAINTERS ARE USED AS EXAMPLES. CERTAIN TEACHING METHODS ENCOURAGE CREATIVITY--(1) LEADING THE STUDENT TO QUESTION, (2) USING…
This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…
Liu, Sze; Jones, Richard N.; Glymour, M. Maria
Many diseases commonly associated with aging are now thought to have social and physiologic antecedents in early life. Understanding how the timing of exposure to early life risk factors influences later-life health may illuminate mechanisms driving adult health inequalities and identify possible points for effective interventions. Recognizing chronic diseases as developing across the lifecourse also has implications for the conduct of research on adult risk factors for disease. We review alternative conceptual models that describe how the timing of risk factor exposure relates to the development of disease. We propose some expansions of lifecourse models to improve their relevance for research on adult chronic disease, using the relationship between education and adult cognitive decline and dementia as an example. We discuss the important implications each of the lifecourse conceptual models has on study design, analysis, and interpretation of research on aging and chronic diseases. We summarize several research considerations implied by the lifecourse framework, including: advantages of analyzing change in function rather than onset of impairment; the pervasive challenge of survivor bias; the importance of controlling for possible confounding by early life conditions; and the likely heterogeneity in responses of adults to treatment. PMID:24639598
Stepanov, Nikola A; Smith, Malcolm K
Medical research represents a substantial departure from conventional medical care. Medical care is patient-orientated, with decisions based on the best interests and/or wishes of the person receiving the care. In contrast, medical research is future-directed. Primarily it aims to contribute new knowledge about illness or disease, or new knowledge about interventions, such as drugs, that impact upon some human condition. Current State and Territory laws and research ethics guidelines in Australia relating to the review of medical research appropriately acknowledge that the functions of medical care and medical research differ. Prior to a medical research project commencing, the study must be reviewed and approved by a Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). For medical research involving incompetent adults, some jurisdictions require an additional, independent safeguard by way of tribunal or court approval of medical research protocols. This extra review process reflects the uncertainty of medical research involvement, and the difficulties surrogate decision-makers of incompetent adults face in making decisions about others, and deliberating about the risks and benefits of research involvement. Parents of children also face the same difficulties when making decisions about their child's research involvement. However, unlike the position concerning incompetent adults, there are no similar safeguards under Australian law in relation to the approval of medical research involving children. This column questions why this discrepancy exists with a view to generating further dialogue on the topic.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...
Marelich, G P; Cross, C E
The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation currently tracks about 20,000 Americans with cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disease that leads to multisystem complications. With the institution of better therapeutic regimens over the past 2 decades, more patients with this disease are surviving to adulthood. Within the past decade, both clinical and basic science research in the field of cystic fibrosis has progressed at a rapid rate. The intent of this review is to introduce readers to the molecular, cellular, and systemic disorders of this disease. We discuss treatment strategies involving antibiotics, nutrition, immune-response mediators, chest physiotherapy, and sputum-active agents with respect to the airway dysfunction of cystic fibrosis. Other common complications, recent developments, transplantation, and gene therapy are also reviewed. PMID:8732732
Warren, Catharine E., Ed.
The following are among the 55 papers in this volume: "Implications of Person-Environment Congruence in Adult Learning Environments" (Agee); "Reliability and Validity of the Alternate Form of the Education Participation Scale" (Boshier); "Research and Developments in the Neurosciences" (Boucouvalas); "Professional Writing Activity among Professors…
Jeon, Jin Pyeong
A better understanding of moyamoya disease (MMD), such as natural clinical course, surgical outcomes and research, has been obtained. This review article focuses on an giving an update for adult MMD in the Korean population. In this paper, we mainly discuss the results of our domestic investigations including meta-analysis, and related subjects from other countries. PMID:27847564
Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James
This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…
Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.
Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…
Darkenwald, Gordon G.
While recent research on why adults participate in continuing education programs does not provide educational planners with any easy prescriptions for programing success, it does suggest some broad directions for more effective program development, particularly in relation to needs assessment, the promotional aspect of marketing, and the design…
Reddy, Lynn, Ed.
This document presents the national plan for research and development (R&D) in adult education and literacy that was developed by the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL). The document begins by explaining the process used to develop the plan, which included conducting a literature review, obtaining input from a national steering group, and…
The problem addressed concerns the analysis of a specific genre of literature for the purpose of acquiring new knowledge about adult development and learning. A need for further study in the area of developing research principles for the analysis of literature is indicated. (Author)
Dawe, Susan, Ed.
This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…
Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel
We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…
Belzer, Alisa; Pickard, Amy
This research synthesis analyzed qualitative depictions of adult literacy learners and identified five ways in which they are typically characterized: the Heroic Victim, the Needy (Problem) Child, the Broken (but Repairable) Cog, the Pawn of Destiny, and the Capable Comrade. These types do not capture the diversity or complexity of all adult…
Sauer, Michael Paul
The purpose of this dialogical qualitative research study was to gain insight into the process of storytelling with adults diagnosed with terminal illness as a way of making meaning of their experiences and lives. The study was informed by the conceptual frameworks of story, storytelling, and story listening which are grounded in the theory of…
Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…
Hughes, Cathy; Thomas, Trang
A research review identified a range of family process variables associated with enhanced career development for adolescents and young adults. Findings were consistent with the theories of Roe (personality development and career choice) and Super (life-span, life-space) regarding the influence of family processes on career development. (Contains…
Since 1991, the U.S. has had a national research and development (R&D) center focused on programs that help adults to improve their language, literacy, and numeracy skills; to acquire a General Educational Development (GED) or other high school certification; and to transition into postsecondary education or training. For the first five years,…
American Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, DC.
This issue of the "News Research Bulletin" contains reports on two studies of media use by contemporary young adults. The first study analyzes the media behavior of 447 randomly selected respondents in Virginia Beach, Virginia in the summer of 1973. Some of the highlights of the study were that about 90 percent of the young people report doing at…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Abler, William
A detailed review of research was conducted on the relationship of social support of older adults to their general health and well being, and the findings were applied to educational outcomes and performance. The following dimensions of social support were examined: (1) an ecological framework or perspective of social support, (2) definitions and…
The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of correlational research that focused on the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model and was concerned with adult populations. A total of 8,661 participants from the 47 original investigations provided 386 individual effect sizes for this meta-analysis. The mean effect size was…
Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky
Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…
Presents fundamental concepts of the Reggio Emilia philosophy of early childhood education, focusing on the importance of "research" as a learning strategy for constructing knowledge for both children and adults. Describes the pertinent image of the child, the school, learning, and knowledge. Details components of a pedagogy of…
This article provides a synthesis and review of 41 recent research studies focusing on the population of adult English language learners (ELLs) studying in nonacademic contexts. It notes the unique qualities and importance of understanding the English-language needs of this population, provides a critical overview of the existing literature, and…
Stuss, Donald T.; Anderson, Vicki
The primary objective in this paper is to present a framework to understand the structure of consciousness. We argue that consciousness has been difficult to define because there are different kinds of consciousness, hierarchically organized, which need to be differentiated. Our framework is based on evidence from adult focal lesion research. The…
Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.
Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…
Literary analysis is approached as an atypical research modality: a modality that falls outside the parameters of experimental research usually described in the literature of educational meta-research. It is maintained that atypical research is appropriate as ancillary and complementary to typical research. Following Guba's explication of…
Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times. Conference Proceedings of the Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) (7th, Berlin, Germany, September 4-7, 2013)
Käpplinger, Bernd, Ed.; Lichte, Nina, Ed.; Haberzeth, Erik, Ed.; Kulmus, Claudia, Ed.
This book assembles over 50 papers from the 7th Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA), which was held from the 4th to the 7th of September 2013 at Humboldt-University in Berlin. The title of the conference was "Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional…
Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda
This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.
A study followed for a year or more the internal experiences of learning and change of 41 adult basic education/English as a second language learners enrolled in these 3 programs: community college, family literacy site, and workplace site. It focused on learners' meanings as the starting point for exploration and used a developmental lens to…
Ferro, Trenton R., Ed.
These 21 papers share research findings on the link between practice and research in adult, continuing, community, and distance education. Nine invited papers are "Evolution of Activists" (Baird); "Toward a Phenomenology of Adults' Learning Experiences" (Baptiste et al.); "Quest for the Grail? Searching for Critical…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...
National Center for ESL Literacy Education, Washington, DC.
This publication offers summaries of presentations from a 2001 symposium on adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) research and practice. Presentations include the following: "Reading Research Synthesis" (Miriam Burt); "How Adults Learn to Read in English" (John Strucker); "Findings, Reactions to and Practitioner Implications of the 'What Works'…
Kreitlow, Burton W.
This report, part 1 of a two-part research and development study on the education of adult educators, deals with the relationship of certain disciplines and fields of study to adult education. Material was obtained by reviewing and integrating recent adult education research with that cited in previous reviews, reviewing recent research in related…
Shah, Seema K
Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546
White, Emma L.; Morgan, Michelle F.
My name is Emma I am 28 years old and I have Down syndrome. This is an article about my story about becoming a researcher. This article has lots of photographs of me doing research. It has information about the things I did with research. It has examples of some of my research work. This article lets me share my story with other people. This…
Shore, Sue, Ed.; Trenerry, Ruth, Ed.; Coombe, Melanie, Ed.
This publication presents reports on four small-scale research projects conducted by educators that helped them explore ways of "doing literacy" and "doing literacy research." Focus of the projects was to learn more about how to do research by completing a work-based project related to literacy. "Teaching and Researching…
Snowden, Mark; Steinman, Lesley; Mochan, Kara; Grodstein, Francine; Prohaska, Thomas R; Thurman, David J; Brown, David R; Laditka, James N; Soares, Jesus; Zweiback, Damita J; Little, Deborah; Anderson, Lynda A
There is evidence from observational studies that increasing physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in older adults. Exercise intervention trials have found conflicting results. A systematic review of physical activity and exercise intervention trials on cognition in older adults was conducted. Six scientific databases and reference lists of previous reviews were searched. Thirty studies were eligible for inclusion. Articles were grouped into intervention-outcome pairings. Interventions were grouped as cardiorespiratory, strength, and multicomponent exercises. Cognitive outcomes were general cognition, executive function, memory, reaction time, attention, cognitive processing, visuospatial, and language. An eight-member multidisciplinary panel rated the quality and effectiveness of each pairing. Although there were some positive studies, the panel did not find sufficient evidence that physical activity or exercise improved cognition in older adults. Future research should report exercise adherence, use longer study durations, and determine the clinical relevance of measures used.
Page, Garnet T.; Caldwell, George
This bilingual directory of research (1963-68) in the development of adult human resources in Canada indicates types of projects undertaken, principal objectives, institutions involved, amounts and sources of funding. It also shows which areas of research have been well covered, those with little or no coverage, and those which might be given a…
Paterson, Helen L
The global growth and development of social media has had a positive impact on many individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), who use it to communicate and connect with others. Research evidence into the use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC is limited. These individuals are a heterogeneous population, who can present with a range of linguistic, cognitive and physical needs, some of which progress rapidly, making accessing social media a challenge. These issues warrant research focusing on developing interventions to support the use of social media and the impact of these interventions. For individuals with acquired conditions who have previously used social media and for those who are new to the experience, social media can offer a vital connection to friends, family and health professionals. This paper examines current gaps in knowledge in this area in the field of AAC and proposes potential methodologies for future research. These include combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies (e.g., analysis of online interactions and observational data) that would be useful tools for data collection in an under-researched field.
Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Office of Education Research.
These proceedings contain 40 presentation papers, four alternate papers, and seven symposia from the Twenty-Second Adult Education Research Conference. The 44 papers report on research, research problems, and research possibilities, including comparison of student performance in two curricular approaches, trust in small groups, overcoming…
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim; Mraz, Maryann
The National Reading Panel (NRP) reviewed quantitative reading research focusing on grades K-3 to identify methods leading to reading success. The following areas were identified as key areas in the process of beginning to read: (1) phonemic awareness; (2) phonics; (3) fluency; (4) vocabulary; and (5) comprehension. The research findings were…
Baltes, P B; Sowarka, D; Kliegl, R
Cognitive research on the plasticity of fluid intelligence has demonstrated that older adults benefit markedly from guided practice in cognitive skills and problem-solving strategies. We examined to what degree older adults are capable by themselves of achieving similar practice gains, focusing on the fluid ability of figural relations. A sample of 72 healthy older adults was assigned randomly to three conditions: control, tutor-guided training, self-guided training. Training time and training materials were held constant for the two training conditions. Posttraining performances were analyzed using a transfer of training paradigm in terms of three indicators: correct responses, accuracy, and level of item difficulty. The training programs were effective and produced a significant but narrow band of within-ability transfer. However, there was no difference between the two training groups. Older adults were shown to be capable of producing gains by themselves that were comparable to those obtained following tutor-guided training in the nature of test-relevant cognitive skills.
Admi, Hanna; Shadmi, Efrat; Baruch, Hagar; Zisberg, Anna
This review examines ways to decrease preventable effects of hospitalization on older adults in acute care medical (non-geriatric) units, with a focus on the Israeli experience at the Rambam Health Care Campus, a large tertiary care hospital in northern Israel. Hospitalization of older adults is often followed by an irreversible decline in functional status affecting their quality of life and well-being after discharge. Functional decline is often related to avoidable effects of in-hospital procedures not caused by the patient’s acute disease. In this article we review the literature relating to the recognized effects of hospitalization on older adults, pre-hospitalization risk factors, and intervention models for hospitalized older adults. In addition, this article describes an Israeli comprehensive research study, the Hospitalization Process Effects on Functional Outcomes and Recovery (HoPE-FOR), and outlines the design of a combined intervention model being implemented at the Rambam Health Care Campus. The majority of the reviewed studies identified preadmission personal risk factors and psychosocial risk factors. In-hospital restricted mobility, under-nutrition care, over-use of continence devices, polypharmacy, and environmental factors were also identified as avoidable processes. Israeli research supported the findings that preadmission risk factors together with in-hospital processes account for functional decline. Different models of care have been developed to maintain functional status. Much can be achieved by interdisciplinary teams oriented to the needs of hospitalized elderly in making an impact on hospital processes and continuity of care. It is the responsibility of health care policy-makers, managers, clinicians, and researchers to pursue effective interventions to reduce preventable hospitalization-associated disability. PMID:25973269
McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of
Falk, Ian, Ed.
The 12 chapters in this second title in the series expose and explore the following significant issues underlying schooling and its intersection with the adult world outside of school: aspects of knowledge, gender, literacy across culture, and assessing what is learned in school and in the adult world. The chapters are: "Whose Knowledge Gets…
Montreal Univ. (Quebec).
These proceedings contain 46 papers. Brief English-language titles include: "Some Research Findings on Study Methods in Adult Distance Education" (Bajtelsmit); "Self Planned Professional Learning among Public School Adult Education Directors" (Beder, et al.); "Participation in Study Circles and the Creation of Analysis" (Beder, et al.);…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Adult and Continuing Education.
These proceedings of a conference on research in the field of adult education contain the texts of 40 conference papers and 4 symposia. Included among the areas examined in the individual reports are the following: education participation scale factor structure and correlates for 12,000 learners, a comparative analysis of adult education research…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; And Others
A review of research literature pertaining to locus of control in older adults and its application to social and educational settings indicates that reliable generalizations about the self-concept of older adults require a careful consideration of both personal and situational variables. Four separate processes are useful in understanding the…
Owens, Heather, Ed.; Thompson, Carole, Ed.
This document contains papers from a Pennsylvania conference on adult and continuing education research. The following papers are included: "Violence against Women: Looking behind the Mask of Incarcerated Batterers" (Irene C. Baird); "Refocusing Faculty Development: The View from an Adult Learning Perspective" (Patricia A.…
Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R
Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.
Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240) comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance assessments are repeated at the
Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona
Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…
Sabir, Myra; Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M C; Pillemer, Karl
This article examines the dialogue that occurred within the structure of a Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop that critiqued academic research priorities regarding social isolation among community-dwelling older adults and identified practice-based suggestions for a social isolation research agenda. The investigators adapted the scientific consensus workshop model to include expert practitioners and researchers in a discussion of the current state and future directions of social isolation intervention research. The group's critique resulted in several key recommendations for future research including the need for a social isolation measure with specific capacity to identify isolated older adults during a community crisis. This study demonstrates that the Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop model can be used successfully to identify priority areas for research that have implications for community practice, construct an evidence base more relevant for community application, strengthen existing community-researcher partnerships, and build agency and practitioner capacity to take part in community-based participatory research.
Charnley, Alan H.
The 191 graduate theses and research papers (dated 1945-1974) which are summarized in this volume provide a descriptive account of the adult education movement in the British Isles as well as reflect the nature of research that has been conducted by many types of institutions. All of the research included is available on interlibrary loan. Theses…
Medlow, S; Patterson, P
The Australian Youth Cancer Service (YCS) is part of a growing international movement to provide advocacy and better targeted health-care services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. One of the key initiatives of the YCS is to determine and implement priorities within Australian AYA cancer research. The YCS used the value-weighting online survey technique of allocating 100 hypothetical units of funding across pre-determined topics of research in order to determine Australian consumers' and health professionals' AYA cancer research priorities. A total of 101 participants (26 consumers and 75 health professionals) took part in the online survey. Biomedical and Clinical Medicine Research was allocated the greatest proportion of available funding. A number of priority populations were also identified, although these were distributed across pre-treatment and post-treatment stages. The preferences of consumers and health professionals to invest available AYA cancer research funds in Biomedical and Clinical Medicine Research will be an important consideration in guiding the Australian YCS decision-making process in the immediate future. 'Prevention, screening and early detection' was also an important research funding target, along with survivorship populations.
Stevens, Marianne E; Nixon, Stephanie A
The aim of this paper is to use a scoping review to investigate the extent, range, and nature of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsychINFO) and reference lists of the included articles were searched. Authors were emailed when possible for unavailable articles. A total of 897 titles and abstracts were retrieved. Thirty-three articles were included. There were 27 different rehabilitation interventions delivered by 18 professions. The studies were completed in four different countries. Most studies were published in 2008. A randomized-controlled trial was the most used method. The nature of the studies was analyzed according to the three-core concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: 28 studies addressed impairments; six studies addressed activity limitations; and 14 studies addressed participation restrictions. This scoping study advances the knowledge of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. More research on rehabilitation interventions is needed in sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income and middle-income countries to ensure that these individuals are receiving the best possible care. There is a need for the HIV field to recognize the important contribution of rehabilitation toward the HIV care continuum.
Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly
Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. for the Study of Adult Literacy.
The goal of this research project was to create a guide on the effective use of assessment instruments and methodologies, related resources, and guidelines for measuring adult learners' attainment of basic skills and competencies to document educational gains and demonstrate program quality. The project focused on confirming current use of…
Mellard, Daryl; Hall, Jean; Leibowitz, Ruth
This report discusses the current nature, extent, and outcomes of accommodations for adults with disabilities in adult education programs. Information was gathered through a national survey of adult education programs, statewide interviews of adult education instructors, statewide interviews of adult learners with disabilities, literature reviews,…
Cook, Joan M; McCarthy, Elissa; Thorp, Steven R
Although lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events among older adults is fairly high, rates of full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are estimated at about 4.5%, a rate lower than that for middle-aged and young adults. Nevertheless, PTSD seems to be an under-recognized and under-treated condition in older adults. Assessment and treatment can be challenging in this population for various reasons, including potential cognitive or sensory decline and comorbid mental and physical disorders. This article provides highlights of the empirical research on PTSD in late life, including information on its effects on cognition and physical health. The bulk of this piece is spent on reviewing the theory, description of, and efficacy for an evidence-based psychotherapy, Prolonged Exposure (PE), for PTSD. A detailed successful application of PE with an older veteran with severe, chronic PTSD in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System is presented. Evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD can be safely and effectively used with older individuals.
Early bronchodilatory effects of budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with fluticasone/salmeterol DPI and albuterol pMDI: 2 randomized controlled trials in adults with persistent asthma previously treated with inhaled corticosteroids.
Hampel, Frank C; Martin, Paula; Mezzanotte, William S
Two identically designed, randomized, multicenter, single-dose, crossover studies were conducted in patients aged > or = 18 years with mild to moderate asthma previously treated with inhaled corticosteroids. After 2 weeks on twice-daily budesonide pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) 160 microg, patients received a randomized sequence of budesonide/formoterol pMDI 80/4.5 microg x 2 inhalations (160/9 microg), fluticasone/salmeterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) 250/50 microg x 1 inhalation, albuterol pMDI 90 microg x 2 inhalations (180 microg), and placebo pMDI (3-to 14-day washout periods). Improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) at 3 minutes were significantly (p < 0.001) greater after treatment with budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with fluticasone/salmeterol DPI and similar to that of albuterol pMDI. In addition, significantly (p < 0.001) more patients treated with budesonide/formoterol pMDI achieved a 15% improvement in FEV(1) within 15 minutes compared with patients treated with fluticasone/salmeterol DPI and placebo. Thus, the early bronchodilatory effects of budesonide/formoterol pMDI were greater than with fluticasone/salmeterol DPI.
Jacelon, Cynthia S; Imperio, Kristal
Solicited participant diaries are an excellent source of data that has not been given sufficient attention as a data collection strategy for qualitative research. In a recent grounded theory study designed to explore strategies used by older adults to manage their chronic health problems, solicited diaries, when combined with an initial and follow-up interview, provided a rich source of data about day-to-day activities of participants. There were three options for maintaining the diary: written, audiotaped, or telephone conversation. The solicited diaries were guided by a set of open-ended questions designed to encourage participants to focus on daily activities and reflect on their values. The authors provide examples of data from participant diaries and suggestions for incorporating solicited participant diaries into data collection strategies for qualitative research.
Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolish, David; McFarland Horne, Frances; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, JoAnne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth
The incidence of chronic wounds is increased among older adults, and the impact of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. It is well established that wound healing slows with age. However, the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The impact of age and accompanying multi-morbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables, lack of standardization in data collection, and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this paper, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify key research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25486905
Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolis, David; Horne, Frances McFarland; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth
Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25753048
Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Vitelli, Roberto; Scandurra, Cristiano; Picariello, Simona; Valerio, Paolo
Introduction Although attachment theory has been recognized as one of the main reference for the study of the general wellbeing, little research has been focused on the attachment styles of transgender people. Attachment styles are deeply influenced by the earliest relationships with caregivers, which, for gender nonconforming children, are often characterized by parental rejection. Consequently, transgender children and adults likely internalize societal stigma, developing internalized transphobia. The current research was aimed to explore the link between adult attachment and internalized transphobia. Method 25 male-to-female (MtF) and 23 female-to-male (FtM) transgender people participated in the survey filling in two self-report questionnaires: the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Transgender Identity Survey. A cluster analysis, T-Test and multiple regression analysis were conducted to explore the link between attachment styles and internalized transphobia. Results A greater prevalence of secure attachment styles was detected. Participants with secure attachment styles reported higher levels of positive transgender identity than those with insecure attachment styles. Secure attachment styles significantly affect positive transgender identity, while insecure attachment styles influence internalized transphobia. Conclusions A clinical focus on the redefinition of the Internal Working Models of transgender people can inform psychologically-focused interventions, which transgender people can benefit from. PMID:26937224
Stubblefield, Harold W.
Early studies of adult education in the United States included James Truslow Adams' book, "Frontiers of American Culture: A Study of Adult Education in a Democracy" (1944), an unconvincing attempt to classify adult education instructions and programs and to establish the relation of democracy to adult education; C. Hartley Grattan's "In Quest of…
Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.
D'Angelo, L; Castaldo, L; Cellerino, A; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C
Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on central nervous system neurons, regulating naturally occurring cell death, synaptic connectivity, fiber guidance and dendritic morphology. The dynamically regulated production of NGF beginning in development, extends throughout adult life and aging, exerting numerous roles through a surprising variety of neurons and glial cells. This study analyzes the localization of NGF in the brain of the teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri, an emerging model for aging research due to its short lifespan. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical experiments were performed by employing an antibody mapping at the N-terminus of the mature chain human origin NGF. Western blot analysis revealed an intense and well defined band of 20 kDa, which corresponds to proNGF of N. furzeri. Immunohistochemistry revealed NGF immunoreactivity (IR) diffused throughout all regions of telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhomboencephalon. It was detected in neurons and in glial cells, the latter mostly lining the mesencephalic and rhomboencephalic ventricles. Particularly in neurons, NGF IR was localized in perikarya and, to a less extent, in fibers. The widespread distribution of proNGF suggests that it might modulate numerous physiological functions in the adult brain of N. furzeri. The present survey constitutes a baseline study to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of NGF during aging processes.
Taylor, Kelley R.
In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…
Sigal, Stephen L.; Kliger, Alan; Smith, G.J. Walker
Infection with pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus was found in a young male suspected of having miliary tuberculosis. Problems of diagnosis and predisposing factors for these infections in the patient are discussed. The patient's clinical course and management are reviewed. Autopsy findings are presented. Alternative modes of therapy are considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6305041
Pockett, Rosalie; Dzidowska, Monika; Hobbs, Kim
The results of a literature review of social work intervention research with adult cancer patients found only a small number of studies conducted by social work researchers. The findings of the review are presented followed by a reflective discussion on the nature of knowledge-building and research knowledge for practice. Knowledge building is considered as a continuous, negotiated process within communities of practice focused on psychosocial perspectives that draw on a range of knowledge sources. Epistemology, worldviews and research orientations are considered along with the values and stance of social work, all of which create the domain of the practice-researcher.
Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R
Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified.
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Young, Sarah
Adult English language learners comprise a substantial proportion of the adult education population in the United States. In program year 2006-2007, 46% of participants enrolled in state-administered adult education programs were in English as a second language (ESL) classes. This percentage does not include English language learners enrolled in…
Delker, Paul V.
During the next twenty years, a significantly expanding adult population and decreasing youth population will cause education for adults to be an increasing concern to the educational system. Out of necessity, an increasing proportion of the resources in education will be directed towards educating adults. Challenges which present themselves are…
Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence
Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder
Richardson, Laura P; McCarty, Carolyn A; Radovic, Ana; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff
Despite the recognition that behavioral and medical health conditions are frequently intertwined, the existing health care system divides management for these issues into separate settings. This separation results in increased barriers to receipt of care and contributes to problems of underdetection, inappropriate diagnosis, and lack of treatment engagement. Adolescents and young adults with mental health conditions have some of the lowest rates of treatment for their conditions of all age groups. Integration of behavioral health into primary care settings has the potential to address these barriers and improve outcomes for adolescents and young adults. In this paper, we review the current research literature for behavioral health integration in the adolescent and young adult population and make recommendations for needed research to move the field forward.
Gerber, Paul J
It is now well established that learning disabilities (LD) persist into the adult years, yet despite a developing literature base in this area, there is a paucity of evidence-based research to guide research and practice. Consistent with the demands of the adult stage of development, autonomy and self-determination are crucial to quality-of-life issues to adults in general, and specifically to adults with LD. There are many areas of functioning in which adults need to adapt successfully, such as employment, family, social and emotional, daily living routines, community, and recreation and leisure. In essence, there are a myriad of challenges and outcomes as adults navigate the trials and tribulations of LD as it manifests itself into adulthood. This review of the extant evidence-based literature seeks to discover relevant knowledge that can be shared with practitioners who serve adults with LD in a variety of professional and volunteer roles, particularly in adult education settings.
Zeelen, Jacques; Rampedi, Makgwana; van der Linden, Josje
Mission statements of universities in developing countries usually include serving the surrounding communities. Often this service does not reach beyond lip service. This article puts into context the experience of developing an adult education research program responding to the needs of the surrounding community in a historically disadvantaged…
Leonelli, Esther, Ed.; And Others
The product of a project conducted in Massachusetts to apply the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" to adult basic education (ABE) learning environments, this volume is a collection of teacher-researchers' essays on field-based application of the adapted…
Lukes, Marguerite M.
This article discusses English-only policies as they relate to second language teaching for children and adults; explores popular perceptions and misconceptions about learning English; and discusses types of programs best suited for different students, depending on educational background. Examples from research and practice highlight the value of…
Kirby, Joshua Aaron
This basic interpretive qualitative research study explored the personal and professional backgrounds, training experiences, perspectives, and perceptions held by adult volunteers serving as crew advisors in the Venturing program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Venturing is the BSA's adventure oriented youth development program for coeds age…
Armstrong, William B.; Sticht, Thomas G.
Human cognitive system and information processing theories were used as the theoretical base that frames an interpretation of adult literacy research from World War I (WWI) through 1993. These theoretical perspectives are as follows: (1) literacy learning is grounded in a distinct developmental sequence; and (2) literacy learning is dependent on…
Coggins, Chere Campbell, Ed.
Among the 59 papers are: "Comparisons in Performance of Adults and High School Seniors on the 1988 Tests of General Educational Development (GED)" (Baldwin, Whitney); "Research Writing" (Baskett, Garrison); "Popular Education in Latin America" (Beder); "Framework for the Study of Ethical Issues in Adult…
Creusere, Marlena A.
Focuses on children's developing ability to recognize ironic and sarcastic speech acts. Reviews several theoretical approaches to examining nonliteral language processes, outlined by linguists concerned with adults' use of discourse irony. Reviews research pertaining to children's comprehension of irony and sarcasm. (Author/KB)
Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S
The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Coll. of Education.
A conference on research to practice in adult, continuing and community education included the following papers: "Education as a Community Intervention Strategy" (Ashcraft, Andrews); "Assessing Educational Needs of Adults: An Ohio Extension Example" (Bratkovich, Miller); "Questions and Issues Related to a Lack of Multicultural Research in Adult…
Gerber, Paul J.
It is now well established that learning disabilities (LD) persist into the adult years, yet despite a developing literature base in this area, there is a paucity of evidence-based research to guide research and practice. Consistent with the demands of the adult stage of development, autonomy and self-determination are crucial to quality-of-life…
Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.
The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522
Harris, Sion K; Aalsma, Matthew C; Weitzman, Elissa R; Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Wong, Charlene; Hadland, Scott E; Santelli, John; Park, M Jane; Ozer, Elizabeth M
We reviewed research regarding system- and visit-level strategies to enhance clinical preventive service delivery and quality for adolescents and young adults. Despite professional consensus on recommended services for adolescents, a strong evidence base for services for young adults, and improved financial access to services with the Affordable Care Act's provisions, receipt of preventive services remains suboptimal. Further research that builds off successful models of linking traditional and community clinics is needed to improve access to care for all youth. To optimize the clinical encounter, promising clinician-focused strategies to improve delivery of preventive services include screening and decision support tools, particularly when integrated into electronic medical record systems and supported by training and feedback. Although results have been mixed, interventions have moved beyond increasing service delivery to demonstrating behavior change. Research on emerging technology-such as gaming platforms, mobile phone applications, and wearable devices-suggests opportunities to expand clinicians' reach; however, existing research is based on limited clinical settings and populations. Improved monitoring systems and further research are needed to examine preventive services facilitators and ensure that interventions are effective across the range of clinical settings where youth receive preventive care, across multiple populations, including young adults, and for more vulnerable populations with less access to quality care.
Bushway, Lori J.; Dickinson, Janis L.; Stedman, Richard C.; Wagenet, Linda P.; Weinstein, David A.
Interest in civic engagement focused on the natural environment has grown dramatically, as has the population of older adults. Our article explores the potential for increased environmental volunteerism among older adults to enrich the lives of volunteers while benefitting the community and environmental quality. Curiously, this convergence has…
Kleiber, Pam, Comp.; Tisdell, Libby, Comp.
The proceedings contains: "Extending Equality" (Armstrong); "Phenomenology of Emergent Meaning from Dialectical Questioning and Answering in Adult Learning (AL)" (Xue-Ming Bao); "Study of Structural Dimensions and Predictive Capability of Adult Attitudes toward Continuing Education Scale and Education Participation Scale" (Blunt); "Ideological and…
Arizona State Univ., Tempe.
These proceedings contain the texts of the following 44 papers: "Adult Development in Midlife, Childless Women" (Rita Keneipp); "Analysis of the Relationship between Cognitive Style (Field Dependence-Field Independence) and Level of Learning" (Eugene Tootle); "Reconceptualizing Adult Education Participation" (Peter Cookson); "Adulthood:…
Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Degener, Sophie; Jacobson, Erik; Soler, Marta
This study investigated the relationships between: (1) two dimensions of adult literacy instruction; and (2) change in the literacy practices of adult literacy students. The two instructional dimensions investigated were: (1) degree of authenticity of the activities and texts employed in the literacy class; and (2) degree of teacher/student…
Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…
Fields, Ernest L.; And Others
Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…
Kallenbach, Silja, Ed.; Viens, Julie, Ed.
This document contains nine papers from a systematic, classroom-based study of multiple intelligences (MI) theory in different adult learning contexts during which adult educators from rural and urban areas throughout the United States conducted independent inquiries into the question of how MI theory can support instruction and assessment in…
Kimmel, Jessica C., Comp.
Among 51 papers and 3 symposia are the following: "Learning What?" (Andruske); "Stories Adult Learners Tell" (Armstrong); "Towards a Pedagogy for Disempowering Our Enemies" (Baptiste); "Teaching Scholarly Writing to Doctoral Students" (Barnett et al.); "The Outcomes and Impact of Adult Literacy Education" (Beder); "A Feminist Critique of Human…
The outcomes attained by Australian adults enrolled in competency-based Certificate in Adult Foundation Education (CAFE) courses were examined. Special attention was paid to the outcomes achieved by students in the two lowest of the CAFE program's four levels. The main data sources were as follows: literature review; enrollment data from the…
Williams Carawan, Lena; Nalavany, Blace
Reflexive photography for individual interviews and the use of art with focus groups provides a valuable method for exploring the psychosocial issues encountered by adults with dyslexia. Reflexive photography and art is particularly appropriate when interviewing adults with dyslexia who may have difficulty expressing and focusing on what they want…
This article presents a case study on the role of spirituality in adult education at a suburban senior center located in the southeast region of the country. The purpose of the case study was to understand the deeply personal role of spirituality in adult education as seen through teaching seniors and examine the personal manifestation of…
Meyer, Linda A.; And Others
To evaluate the relative effectiveness of traditional versus computer managed instruction (CMI) basic skills programs for incarcerated adults, 359 male inmates from three traditional self-paced and three PLATO/CMI programs were given pretests in the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS). Following three…
Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott
Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.
Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie
Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…
Quigley, B. Allan
Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)
Langenbach, Michael, Comp.
Papers in this volume include: "Retirement Learning" (Adair); "Effect of Literacy on Personal Income" (Blunt); "Popular Discourse Concerning Women and AIDS" (Boshier); "John Steinbeck's Learning Project" (Brockett); "Faculty Careers of Professors of Adult Education" (Caffarella); "Racism in…
Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria
Background The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. Materials and methods This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Results Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. Conclusion This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development. PMID:28203113
Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela
Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…
Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas
A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…
Freer, Kevin, Ed.; Dean, Gary, Ed.
The following are the papers presented at a research-to-practice conference: "Influence of Age on Students Perceptions of College Experience" (Bishop-Clark, Lynch); "Impact of Education on Adult Students" (Cupp); "Identifying Critical Factors of Quality" (Lund, Brown); "It's Never Too Late" (Rosenberg et al.); "Adult Vocational Student Dropout and…
Hagan, Eric J.
This qualitative case study examined the life impact of earning an online Bachelor's degree as an adult from a large private East Coast research university. As the number of adult students and the popularity of online learning continue to increase, there is a need for improved understanding of the value of online degree programs for adult…
Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.
This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…
Czisny, Ken, Ed.
These proceedings contain 19 papers and 3 symposia from a research conference on adult and continuing education. Topics of the presentations are staff development needs of Indiana adult basic and secondary instructional staff, the advocate counseling model as a teaching tool for self-advocacy, needs assessment of three age groups of adult…
Sims, Anne; Goddard, Ty
The four Open College Networks in London assessed the climate in inner London for adult students who wished to return to education and training. The research focussed on: the extent to which recent legislative changes threatened adult participation in education and training; the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and…
Ghany, Marc; Perrillo, Robert; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H.; Janssen, Harry L.A.; Terrault, Norah A.; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Lau, Daryl T-Y; Kim, W. Ray; Fried, Michael W.; Sterling, Richard K.; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Han, Steven-Huy B.; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia Milkova; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Suk-Fong Lok, Anna
Background & Aims Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide; populations that migrate to the US and Canada might be disproportionately affected. The Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN) is a cooperative network of investigators from the United States and Canada, created to facilitate clinical, therapeutic, and translational research in adults and children with hepatitis B. We describe the structure of the network and baseline characteristics of adults with hepatitis B enrolled in the network. Methods The HBRN collected data on clinical characteristics of 1625 adults with chronic HBV infection who are not receiving antiviral therapy from 21 clinical centers in North America. Results Half of the subjects in the HBRN are male, and the mean age is 42 years; 72% are Asian, 15% are Black, and 11% are White, with 82% born outside of North America. The most common HBV genotype was B (39%); 745 of subjects were negative for the hepatitis B e antigen. The median serum level of HBV DNA when the study began was 3.6 log10 IU/mL; 68% of male subjects and 67% of female subjects had levels of alanine aminotransferase above the normal range. Conclusions The HBRN cohort will be used to address important clinical and therapeutic questions for North Americans infected with chronic HBV and to guide health policies on HBV prevention and management in North America. PMID:25010003
Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre
Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…
Perceptions of success in teaching and learning adult literacy in England were examined in a study that included interviews with 30 learners and 10 tutors. The teaching approaches most often cited by the tutors as leading to success were as follows: (1) base tutoring on individual interests; (2) personal and social support for each student; (3)…
Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen
Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…
Hyams, Melanie, Comp.; And Others
The following are among the 71 papers included: "Impacts of Transformative Leadership Education in a Professional Development Context" (Adrian et al.); "Toward a Sociology of Participation in Adult Education Programs" (Babchuk, Courtney); "Race, Gender, and the Politics of Professionalization" (Bailey, Tisdell,…
Reno, Hilde, Comp.; Witte, Maria, Comp.
The following are among the 56 papers included in this proceedings: "Contextual Factors Associated with Evaluation Practices of Selected Adult and Continuing Education Providers in Malaysia" (S. Ahmad); "The Professional Ethic and the Spirit of Post-Modernism" (P. Armstrong); "Transforming the Teacher-Student…
Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca
This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…
Verner, Coolie; Davison, Catherine V.
The physiological condition of the adult learner as related to his learning capability is discussed. The design of the instructional process, the selection of learning tasks, the rate at which instruction occurs, and the nature of the instructional setting may all be modified by the instructor to accomodate the variable physiological conditions of…
Steffen, Ann M.
This paper offers a commentary on the articles in the special series on cognitive behavior therapy with older adults (Carmin, 2012-this issue), noting the commonalities found across discussions of diagnostic interviewing and cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment for late-life insomnia, depression and suicide risk, PTSD, and OCD. These case…
Inkster, Robert P., Comp.
Selected authors and titles include: "Radical Adult Education" (Armstrong); "Learning Liberation: A Comparative Analysis of Feminist Consciousness Raising and Freire's Conscientization Method" (Butterwick); "The Aging Worker's Potential and Training Practices" (Chene); "The Interaction of Teaching Style and Learning Style on Traditional and…
Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther
Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…
Throughout contemporary literature, participants in adult education courses have been reported to acquire knowledge and skills, develop understanding and enhance self-confidence, parameters that induce changes in their personal lives, while enabling them to play a more active role in their family, community or work. In this vein, a large-scale,…
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center.
These five guidebooks are designed for literacy programs to enhance the quality of services provided to adults with learning disabilities. Each guidebook answers specific questions such as handling legal issues, screening for learning disabilities, selecting curriculum options, using effective instructional methods, and creating professional…
Posey, Virginia; Myers; Diane
The authors discuss special challenges faced by older adults with intellectual disabilities. The 2004 report from The President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities (PCPID) stated that in 1970 only about eleven percent of people with intellectual disabilities in the United States were over 55. It is expected that by 2040 the…
The content, scope, and methodology of dissertations on adult mathematics education in North American were examined. The study database consisted of the abstracts of 113 dissertations written between 1980 and 2000. The topics covered in the individual dissertations were as follows: assessment/frameworks/standards (14); contexts (3); instructional…
Olesen, Henning Salling
The anniversary of the "International Journal of Lifelong Education" can participate in a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc. are abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies…
Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others
The study described in the report identifies personality characteristics and learning styles of adult basic education (ABE) students on the basis of three instruments: the Luscher Color Test, the Manzo Bestiary Inventory, and the Learning Preference Inventory. The volunteer sample consisted of 83 ABE students. Subsample comparison groups consisted…
Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer
Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…
Turk, Vicky; Leer, Geoffrey; Burchell, Sarah; Khattram, Sukhjinder; Corney, Roslyn; Rowlands, Gill
Background: This article describes the process of including people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and carers of people with ID as researchers and participants in randomised controlled trial (RCT) research. People with ID are rarely involved in research about their health, either as researchers or participants. Carers are often included as…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem; Bartholomew, Mitchell
This article is an attempt to tell the story of action research as it has developed over the last half century. Action research has become an important part of a number of research programs, especially in the field of education. Action research is a powerful idea centering on humans' ability to break free from deleterious social habits…
Gilewski, Michael J.; Schaie, K. Warner
Previous research on intelligence and aging has relied on tests developed for younger adults, which often incorporate many factors that could impede optimal performance in elderly populations. To investigate short-term longitudinal changes in memory, intelligence, and perceived competence in everyday situations among older adults, 227 adults were…
Moreno, German Alonso
This paper discusses the findings of a group of co-researchers involved in a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted with adults in a developmental education program. The co-researchers were mostly individuals of Hispanic descent, who had struggled in the past with schooling. Because the educational experiences of Hispanics often…
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl
Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.
Rodgers, B; Power, C; Hope, S
An association was found between childhood parental divorce and adult psychological distress in a British national birth cohort at ages 23 and 33. No moderating effects were found for gender, age at separation, or remarriage of the custodial parent. Participants who were young adults when their parents divorced also showed increased levels of symptomatology, whereas those who experienced parental death in childhood showed no increased risk. An interaction between parental divorce and own divorce in women, giving particularly high symptom levels, arose from a selection process in those from divorced families of origin only, with high 23-year scores predicting subsequent divorce. Own divorce was associated with an increase in distress between age 23 and 33, but this was irrespective of family of origin.
Formby, Peter M; Pavey, Gabriel J; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Mack, Andrew W; Newman, Michael T
We reviewed all articles published in three major orthopaedic journals from January 2010 to December 2014. Any article focusing on adult reconstruction of the hip or knee was reviewed for first and last authorship, institution, and level of evidence. Three institutions had authored work from arthroplasty faculty that fell within the top five most published institutions in all three journals, while one institution ranked first in all three journals. 43 of 67 (64.2%) reconstruction fellowships had at least one publication included in this study. The majority of the adult reconstruction literature published by faculty at U.S. reconstruction fellowships stems from a few academic centers with the ten most prolific institutions accounting for 65.9% of all U.S. fellowship publications.
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....
Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J
Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.
Fox, Madeline; Fine, Michelle
The authors trace the connections between multigenerational participatory action research and relational approaches to shared leadership, illustrating how the collective production of knowledge through research builds youth leadership capacity.
Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric
This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry.
Sheehan, Diana M; Dillon, Frank R; Babino, Rosa; Melton, James; Spadola, Christine; Da Silva, Nicole; De La Rosa, Mario
The authors interviewed 4 researchers to identify facilitators in recruiting and assessing Latina immigrants. The 4 researchers recruited 530 recent Latina immigrants (ages 18-23 years) for a study of social and cultural determinants of health. Consensual qualitative research methods revealed that respondent-driven sampling was an effective recruitment method. Fear of deportation was a barrier. Stigma about sensitive topics (e.g., sex, drug use) did not affect participation. Findings can help counselors conduct health disparities research.
Bhatia, S. C., Ed.; Patil, B. R., Ed.
These proceedings contain 17 papers presented at a seminar to identify and evaluate research studies conducted in the past with a view to providing guidance and ready reference for those who wish to conduct research in the future. A summary of recommendations appears first. Issues, researchable questions, and suggestions are made in three areas:…
Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister
Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…
Frazier, Bradford R.
According to the American Council on Education (2006), it is estimated that more than 41% of students enrolled in degree granting programs in higher education are nontraditional, adult students age 22 or older. Many of these 6 million students are entering graduate school as working adults. According to previous research on non-traditional…
Mercer, Kathryn; Baskerville, Neill; Burns, Catherine M; Chang, Feng; Giangregorio, Lora; Tomasson Goodwin, Jill; Sadat Rezai, Leila
Background Seniors with chronic diseases are often called on to self-manage their conditions. Mobile health (mHealth) tools may be a useful strategy to help seniors access health information at the point of decision-making, receive real-time feedback and coaching, and monitor health conditions. However, developing successful mHealth interventions for seniors presents many challenges. One of the key challenges is to ensure the scope of possible research questions includes the diverse views of seniors, experts and the stakeholder groups who support seniors as they manage chronic disease. Objective Our primary objective was to present a case-study of a collaborative research approach to the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda. Our secondary objectives were to report on the results of a nominal group technique (NGT) approach used generate research questions and to assess the success of including non-academic researchers to enrich the scope, priority, and total number of possible research questions. Methods We invited researchers and stakeholders to participate in a full day meeting that included rapid-style presentations by researchers, health care professionals, technology experts, patients and community groups followed by group discussions. An NGT was used to establish group consensus on the following question: In your opinion, what research needs to be done to better understand the effectiveness, usability and design of mobile health apps and devices for older adults? Results Overall, the collaborative approach was a very successful strategy to bring together a diverse group of participants with the same end goal. The 32 participants generated 119 items in total. The top three research questions that emerged from the NGT were related to adoption, the need for high quality tools and the digital divide. Strong sub-themes included privacy and security, engagement and design. The NGT also helped us include the perspectives information from non
Li, Ya-Min; Li, Jue-Hong; Li, Bin; Wang, Jia-Xing; Chen, Yun-Su
Objectives To investigate whether adult patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (UDDH) have pelvic asymmetry and what correlation existing between them. Methods A total of 100 adult patients with UDDH were enrolled in the retrospective observational study in Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China, between January 2012 and February 2014. The anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were reviewed and the pelvic heights and ischium heights were measured and compared between the affected and non-affected sides to find out the relationship between the pelvic morphology and hip dysplasia. Results The pelvic heights demonstrated significant differences between the non-affected side and the affected side in patients with Crowe type II-IV UDDH (p<0.05), but not in patients with Crowe type I UDDH (p=0.09). There were significant differences in the bilateral ischium heights in patients with Crowe type III and IV UDDH (p<0.05), but not in patients with Crowe type I and II UDDH (p=0.78, p=0.055). In addition, the degree of hip dysplasia was positively associated with the degrees of asymmetry of pelvis (r=0.78, p<0.001) and ischium (r=0.72, p<0.001) in UDDH patients. Conclusion The pelvic asymmetry exists in adult patients with UDDH. In addition, the degree of asymmetry has correlation with the degree of hip dysplasia. We recommend that it should be taken more cautions to use teardrops and ischial tuberosity as anatomy landmarks to balance leg-length discrepancy for unilateral DDH patients in preoperative planning and total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27874150
... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...
Fon Tacer, Klementina; Bookout, Angie L.; Ding, Xunshan; Kurosu, Hiroshi; John, George B.; Wang, Lei; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Kuro-o, Makoto; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.
Although members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and their receptors have well-established roles in embryogenesis, their contributions to adult physiology remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use real-time quantitative PCR to determine the mRNA expression patterns of all 22 FGFs, the seven principal FGF receptors (FGFRs), and the three members of the Klotho family of coreceptors in 39 different mouse tissues. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the mRNA expression data reveals that most FGFs and FGFRs fall into two groups the expression of which is enriched in either the central nervous system or reproductive and gastrointestinal tissues. Interestingly, the FGFs that can act as endocrine hormones, including FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23, cluster in a third group that does not include any FGFRs, underscoring their roles in signaling between tissues. We further show that the most recently identified Klotho family member, Lactase-like, is highly and selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue and eye and can function as an additional coreceptor for FGF19. This FGF atlas provides an important resource for guiding future studies to elucidate the physiological functions of FGFs in adult animals. PMID:20667984
This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…
Wass, Hannelore; Olejnik, Stephen F.
The research literature on aging was reviewed to determine findings with direct implications for educational programs for older persons and findings with no direct application but that raise further research questions. The focus was on cognition and learning in later life, predominantly on work published during the past two decades in major…
Stuckey, Heather L.
This action research study explores the meaning-making process using forms of creative expression for eight women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study is theoretically informed by arts-based ways of knowing and aspects of feminist poststructuralism, and explains the process of creativity used in the action research process. The findings…
Landers, Keneston, Comp.
These proceedings contain 58 papers. Selected brief titles are: "Teaching Reading in Advanced English to Adult Chinese Students" (Bao); "Analyzing the Training of Trainers and Adult Educators" (Boshier); "Knowledge Utilization in Social Work Practice" (Baskett); "Adult Education in the U.K." (Bright); "Developing Media Literacy in Adults"…
Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Teo, Irene; Epner, Daniel E.
Background Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for cancer patients as they often undergo significant changes to appearance and functioning. In this review article, our primary purpose was to identify empirically-supported approaches to treat body image difficulties of adult cancer patients that can be incorporated into high-quality comprehensive cancer care. Methods We provided an overview of theoretical models of body image relevant to cancer patients, and presented findings from published literature on body image and cancer from 2003–2013. We integrated these data with information from the patient-doctor communication literature to delineate a practical approach for assessing and treating body image concerns of adult cancer patients. Results Body image difficulties were found across patients with diverse cancer sites, and were most prevalent in the immediate postoperative and treatment period. Age, body mass index, and specific cancer treatments have been identified as potential risk factors for body image disturbance in cancer patients. Current evidence supports the use of time-limited cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions for addressing these difficulties. Other intervention strategies also show promise but require further study. We identified potential indicators of body image difficulties to alert healthcare professionals when to refer patients for psychosocial care, and proposed a framework for approaching conversations about body image that can be used by the oncologic treatment team. Conclusions Body image issues affect a wide array of cancer patients. Providers can use available evidence combined with information from the healthcare communication literature to develop practical strategies for treating body image concerns of cancer patients. PMID:24895287
Wooton, Angela Conrad
The purpose of this integrative review is to analyze the current research literature on Tai Chi (TC) and its potential effect on balance and prevention of falls in older adults. The evidence for improving balance is somewhat conflicting because few research studies identify which balance exercises are effective. The question of how TC achieves improvements in balance remains. To promote functional independence and improve quality of life in the later years of one's life, it is important to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. TC poses challenges related to the complexity of the practice. By reviewing the current research literature on TC focusing on balance and falls in older adults, strategies may be developed to incorporate TC to improve balance and modify the known risk factors for falling. This article also discusses potential applications and limitations of the current research.
There has been little exploration of emotional labor in researching the learning of adults, and emotional labor on the part of research contractors has scarcely featured in published debates. The article explores the role of emotion in this context from a critical feminist perspective, drawing on life history data from a study of the learning…
LUPTON, DANIEL E.
RESEARCH (1) ANALYZED SPECIFIC OUTCOMES OF COUNSELING, INSTRUCTION, AND DENTAL THERAPY, AND (2) DETERMINED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATIENT EDUCATION FOR RELIEF OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) DYSFUNCTION. SIXTY ADULT PATIENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS TMJ RESEARCH CENTER WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE PROGRAMS--DENTISTRY,…
Berlin, L. S., Ed.
This document contains the following papers on practical applications of research on adult and continuing education: "Elderly Criminal Behavior: Linking Research to Practice," by Donald J. Bachand and Carl I. Brahce; "Father? Teacher? Friend? Instructor-Student Relationships in a Refugee Class," by Gary J. Bekker; "The Small Group: Understanding…
... 2014 Related Products for this Topic Research Protocol Mar. 29, 2013 Disposition of Comments Report Apr. 16, ... Score (T-score) The T-score tells how far your prostate cancer has grown. T1 : The cancer ...
Lora, Wezzie; Khoo, Saye H.; Sloan, Derek J.; Mwandumba, Henry C.; Desmond, Nicola; Davies, Geraint R.
Bronchoscopy is an established research tool in Malawi, enabling collection of pulmonary samples for immunological, pharmacological, and microbiological studies. It is, however, an invasive clinical procedure that offers no direct benefit to volunteering participants when used in a research capacity alone, and thus informed consent is essential. This study aimed to explore TB patients’ understanding of research bronchoscopy, what would motivate them to participate in research bronchoscopy, and their concerns, in order to inform consenting processes for future clinical studies. We used a qualitative research design. Two focus group discussions were conducted with community members and TB patients to understand their perceptions of bronchoscopy. Transcripts were coded by multiple co-authors and thematic content analysis was used to analyse main findings. We found that Malawian patients with pulmonary TB were willing to participate in a study using research bronchoscopy for health assessment and access to improved healthcare. We identified information of value to potential participants when consenting to that may lessen some of the anxieties expressed by participants. Patient and public involvement is essential to improve informed consent and institutional trust. PMID:27792765
Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Li, Ya-Hsin
Taiwan has provided free health checks for adults since 1995. However, very little previous research has explored the use of preventive health services by physically and mentally disabled adults. The present study aimed to understand this use of preventive health services and the factors that influence it. Research participants included disabled…
Christian, Robert B; Gaynes, Bradley N; Saavedra, Lissette M; Sheitman, Brian; Wines, Roberta; Jonas, Daniel E; Viswanathan, Meera; Ellis, Alan R; Woodell, Carol; Carey, Timothy S
The use of antipsychotics, particularly second generation antipsychotics, among children and adolescents has increased markedly during the past 20 years. Existing evidence gaps make this practice controversial and hinder treatment decision-making. This article describes and prioritizes future research needs regarding antipsychotic treatment in youth, focusing on within-class and between-class drug comparisons with regard to key population subgroups, efficacy and effectiveness outcomes, and adverse event outcomes. Using as a foundation a recent systematic review of antipsychotic treatment among youth, which was completed by a different Evidence-based Practice Center, we worked with a diverse group of 12 stakeholders representing researchers, funders, health care providers, patients, and families to identify and prioritize research needs. From an initial list of 16 evidence gaps, we enumerated 6 high-priority research needs: 1) long-term comparative effectiveness across all psychiatric disorders; 2) comparative long-term risks of adverse outcomes; 3) short-term risks of adverse events; 4) differentials of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for population subgroups; 5) comparative effectiveness among those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders and common comorbidities; 6) comparative effectiveness among those with bipolar disorder and common comorbidities. In this article, we describe these future research needs in detail and discuss study designs that could be used to address them.
Watkins, Daphne C.
Rarely are within-group differences among African American men explored in the context of mental health and well-being. Though current conceptual and empirical studies on depression among African American men exists, these studies do not offer a framework that considers how this disorder manifests over the adult life course for African American men. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of an adult life course perspective in understanding the complexity of depression for African American men. The proposed framework underscores six social determinants of depression (socioeconomic status, stressors, racial and masculine identity, kinship and social support, self-esteem and mastery, and access to quality health care) to initiate dialogue about the risk and protective factors that initiate, prolong, and exacerbate depression for African American men. The framework presented here is meant to stimulate discussion about the social determinants that influence depression for African American men to and through adulthood. Implications for the utility and applicability of the framework for researchers and health professionals who work with African American men are discussed. PMID:22105067
Wood, Robin Y; Giuliano, Karen K; Bignell, Candace U; Pritham, Whitney W
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), originally designed to screen for dementia, is an instrument currently used extensively to assess cognitive status in clinical and community settings. This descriptive study compares standard MMSE scores to MMSE scores adjusted for age and education in a sample of 414 elderly Black and White women living independently in communities. After scores were adjusted, 14 participants (all Black) were moved from categories of mild cognitive impairment to unimpaired cognitive ability. However, even after scores were adjusted for age and education, White elderly adults still had higher mean scores than Black elderly adults (p = .003), suggesting that racial differences may have an effect on MMSE performance independent of age and education. Further research is needed to better understand the interaction of race and culture on MMSE outcomes. Implications are offered for appropriate use of the MMSE considering factors of age, education, and racial differences to guide evidence-based practice by gerontological nurses engaged in work with elderly populations.
Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa
Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…
Jameson, Molly M.; Fusco, Brooke R.
Adult learners comprise a significant portion of current undergraduate populations, and projections indicate steady or growing numbers of adult learners in the future. Previous research has suggested that adult learners possess lower self-confidence than and face barriers not experienced by traditional undergraduate students. These constructs have…
Hackney, Madeleine E; Wolf, Steven L
Falls in older adults, which often result from decreased balance and mobility, are an important public health issue. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends multidimensional balance and mobility training to prevent falls. In the past 20 years, Tai Chi Chu'an (tai chi) has been found to be effective in improving balance, reducing falls and fear of falling for older adults. Efficient use of time devoted to exercise is critical; therefore, more research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of balance and mobility improvements in older adults as a result of tai chi practice, so that these interventions can be most targeted and efficient. The purpose of this integrative review is twofold. First, evidence is presented to show that balance and mobility have been improved by tai chi in older adults. Second, potential mechanisms of balance improvement from research conducted in longtime tai chi practitioners, and from clinical research conducted in older adults, are offered. A PubMed search with the terms "tai chi" and "balance" entered simultaneously was conducted. Articles were included if they were systematic reviews, pilot or clinical trials, related to both balance and tai chi, and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying tai chi's effects. The systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that aspects of tai chi research findings remain equivocal. In spite of the inconclusiveness of these review findings, many researchers have considered tai chi worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, practitioners in the clinic and those who deliver exercise in the community have evidently embraced tai chi as an appropriate exercise for older adults. This review, spanning 2 decades, suggests that tai chi has impacted the health and health behaviors of many older adults. Going forward, informing novel balance and mobility rehabilitation by uncovering mechanisms of tai chi's effects definitively may be the most important area of
Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate
Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours.
Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo
Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (
Searight, H. Russell; Ratwik, Susan; Smith, Todd
Many undergraduate programs require students to complete an independent research project in their major field prior to graduation. These projects are typically described as opportunities for integration of coursework and a direct application of the methods of inquiry specific to a particular discipline. Evaluations of curricular projects have…
The aim of this paper is to reflect on past discussions in order to see how far we have travelled in terms of research over the past 12 years, identify some of the continuities and look at the significance of some of the changes that have taken place in order to inform our agenda for the future. This paper starts with some conceptual definitions…
Savage, Teresa A; Moro, Teresa Thalia; Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Brown, Allison A; Kavanaugh, Karen L
Although the 4 million+people in the U.S. with an intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD) experience the same life expectancy as those in the general population, end-of-life research including these individuals is lacking and can be difficult to implement. As will be described in this paper, it is possible to overcome barriers to successfully include people with I/DD in end-of-life research. In this paper, the implementation challenges, feasibility, and implications for successful end-of-life research with individuals with I/DD using focus groups are described. Individuals with I/DD were able to discuss their experiences and views about end-of-life care. However, while people with I/DD made valuable contributions to the focus groups, there were several modifications needed in order to execute this study. In order to gain a complete picture of end-of-life care for people with I/DD, it is imperative to include them in research to the best of their ability. By anticipating issues related to recruitment, the consent process, setting, and support needs of participants, focus groups can be successfully implemented.
Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.
With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…
Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.
Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…
Fraser, Monica; Abbott, Marilyn
The use of portable electronic reading devices in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom has the potential to positively impact learners' reading engagement and language skill development. However, due to the lack of research, few guidelines are available to inform instructors of the benefits and challenges of using these devices in ESL…
Torrence, Martha; And Others
Action research examined student and faculty responses to delivery-system changes in a university early childhood philosophy course and an assessment method. Results showed that, although students experienced performance pressure and personal discomfort, they appreciated individual attention, the trust evidenced by curriculum unit checks, and the…
Alidou, Hassana, Ed.; Glanz, Christine, Ed.
One of the greatest challenges in education today is to adapt and respond to a linguistically and culturally diverse world, and to combat social disintegration and discrimination. Participatory and collaborative action research represents an empowering and emancipatory approach to this challenge because the "target groups" become…
Jones, Vanessa; Stewart, Carmine; Galletta, Anne; Ayala, Jennifer
The chapter examines youth participation within three intergenerational collectives using participatory action research (PAR) to address educational policies youth viewed as counterproductive to their education. Outlining the complexity of youth voice, the multiple vehicles within the arts through which youth voice is expressed, and the different…
Scialfa, Charles T.; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen; Spadafora, Pat
An innovative gerontology education program was developed to advance research on aging that is interdisciplinary and promotes the translation of knowledge from lab to life. The program focuses on communication and social interaction in healthy aging. It brings together faculty mentors, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows from six…
Scialfa, Charles; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen; Spadafora, Pat
An innovative gerontology education program was developed to advance research on aging that is interdisciplinary and promotes the translation of knowledge from lab to life. The program focuses on communication and social interaction in healthy aging. It brings together faculty mentors, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows from six…
Zachrisson, H D; Sommerfeldt, B; Skårderud, F
Studies of attachment and eating disorders use different types of measures, including different coding procedures for the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Generalizability of findings across studies is therefore uncertain. We compare the Main & Goldwyn procedure with the Dynamic Maturational Method, the two most common procedures for classifying AAI in eating disorder research. The sample consists of 20 female patients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (mean age 22.9 (3.5) years). Attachment insecurity is by far most common, regardless of procedure. Within the insecure categories, there is little overlap between procedures in comparable categories. Both procedures discriminate between Anorexia subgroups (restricting vs bingeing), but do so differently. Findings suggest that comparing findings across methods, beyond the secure/insecure dichotomy, should be avoided.
Reid, M. C.; Bennett, David A.; Chen, Wen G.; Eldadah, Basil A.; Farrar, John T.; Ferrell, Bruce; Gallagher, Rollin M.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Herr, Keela; Horn, Susan D.; Inturrisi, Charles E.; Lemtouni, Salma; Lin, Yu Woody; Michaud, Kaleb; Morrison, R. Sean; Neogi, Tuhina; Porter, Linda L.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Von Korff, Michael; Weiss, Karen; Witter, James; Zacharoff, Kevin L.
Objective There has been a growing recognition of the need for better pharmacologic management of chronic pain among older adults. To address this need, the National Institutes of Health Pain Consortium sponsored an “Expert Panel Discussion on the Pharmacological Management of Chronic Pain in Older Adults” conference in September, 2010, to identify research gaps and strategies to address them. Specific emphasis was placed on ascertaining gaps regarding use of opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because of continued uncertainties regarding their risks and benefits. Design Eighteen panel members provided oral presentations; each was followed by a multidisciplinary panel discussion. Meeting transcripts and panelists’ slide presentations were reviewed to identify the gaps, and the types of studies and research methods panelists suggested could best address them. Results Fifteen gaps were identified in the areas of treatment(e.g., uncertainty regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of commonly prescribed analgesics), epidemiology (e.g., lack of knowledge regarding the course of common pain syndromes), and implementation(e.g., limited understanding of optimal strategies to translate evidence-based pain treatments into practice). Analyses of data from electronic health care databases, observational cohort studies, and ongoing cohort studies (augmented with pain and other relevant outcomes measures) were felt to be practical methods for building an age-appropriate evidence base to improve the pharmacologic management of pain in later life. Conclusions Addressing the gaps presented in the current report was judged by the panel to have substantial potential to improve the health and well being of older adults with chronic pain. PMID:21834914
Barsevick, Andrea M; Irwin, Michael R; Hinds, Pamela; Miller, Andrew; Berger, Ann; Jacobsen, Paul; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Reeve, Bryce B; Mustian, Karen; O'Mara, Ann; Lai, Jin-Shei; Fisch, Michael; Cella, David
Over the past decades, some scientific progress has been made in understanding and treating cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, three major problems have limited further progress: lack of agreement about measurement, inadequate understanding of the underlying biology, and problems in the conduct of clinical trials for CRF. This commentary reports the recommendations of a National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Planning Meeting and an ongoing National Cancer Institute working group to address these problems so that high-priority research and clinical trials can be conducted to advance the science of CRF and its treatment. Recommendations to address measurement issues included revising the current case definition to reflect more rigorous criteria, adopting the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System fatigue scales as standard measures of CRF, and linking legacy measures to the scales. With regard to the biology of CRF, the group identified the need for longitudinal research to examine biobehavioral mechanisms underlying CRF and testing mechanistic hypotheses within the context of intervention research. To address clinical trial issues, recommendations included using only placebo-controlled trial designs. setting eligibility to minimize sample heterogeneity or enable subgroup analysis, establishing a CRF severity threshold for participation in clinical trials, conducting dissemination trials of efficacious interventions (such as exercise), and combining nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions to exploit the potential synergy between these approaches. Accomplishing these goals has the potential to advance the science of CRF and improve the clinical management of this troubling symptom.
Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria
Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557
Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.
This report contains four separate articles of interest to adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) educators. "Learning Disabilities in Adult ESL: Case Studies and Directions" (Dorothy Almanza, Kate Singleton, Lynda Terrill) looks at three case studies of adult ESL students whom teachers have identified as possibly learning disabled.…
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Crogan, Neva; FNGNA; Belyea, Michael; Coon, David
Research on caregiving of elders in Mexican American families is urgently needed. We know little about family caregivers, family transitions in relation to the caregiving role, reciprocal impact of caregivers and care recipients on one another, adaptive strategies, positive benefits of caregiving (caregiver gain), specific caregiving burdens, or supportive interventions for family caregiving. Theory derivation using the concepts and structure of life course perspective provides a way to fill the knowledge gaps concerning Mexican American caregiving families, taking into account their ethnic status as an important Hispanic subgroup and the unique cultural and contextual factors that mark their caregiving experiences. PMID:18845694
Brizzi, Joan Speight
Until about two decades ago, researchers considered career maturity primarily in terms of adolescents who struggled with the tasks that, when successfully completed, resulted in a viable career choice. Previously it has been suggested that the term "career adaptability" should replace the term "career maturity" in the study of adult vocational…
The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…
Furin, J; Alirol, E; Allen, E; Fielding, K; Merle, C; Abubakar, I; Andersen, J; Davies, G; Dheda, K; Diacon, A; Dooley, K E; Dravnice, G; Eisenach, K; Everitt, D; Ferstenberg, D; Goolam-Mahomed, A; Grobusch, M P; Gupta, R; Harausz, E; Harrington, M; Horsburgh, C R; Lienhardt, C; McNeeley, D; Mitnick, C D; Nachman, S; Nahid, P; Nunn, A J; Phillips, P; Rodriguez, C; Shah, S; Wells, C; Thomas-Nyang'wa, B; du Cros, P
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing public health problem, and for the first time in decades, new drugs for the treatment of this disease have been developed. These new drugs have prompted strengthened efforts in DR-TB clinical trials research, and there are now multiple ongoing and planned DR-TB clinical trials. To facilitate comparability and maximise policy impact, a common set of core research definitions is needed, and this paper presents a core set of efficacy and safety definitions as well as other important considerations in DR-TB clinical trials work. To elaborate these definitions, a search of clinical trials registries, published manuscripts and conference proceedings was undertaken to identify groups conducting trials of new regimens for the treatment of DR-TB. Individuals from these groups developed the core set of definitions presented here. Further work is needed to validate and assess the utility of these definitions but they represent an important first step to ensure there is comparability in clinical trials on multidrug-resistant TB.
Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra
The purpose of this study was to assess the scientific and etiological status of dissociative identity disorder (DID) by examining cases published from 2000 to 2010. In terms of scientific status, DID is a small but ongoing field of study. The review yielded 21 case studies and 80 empirical studies, presenting data on 1171 new cases of DID. A mean of 9 articles, each containing a mean of 17 new cases of DID, emerged each year. In terms of etiological status, many of the central criticisms of the disorder's validity remain unaddressed. Most cases of DID emerged from a small number of countries and clinicians. In addition, documented cases occurring outside treatment were almost nonexistent. Finally, people simulating DID in the laboratory were mostly indistinguishable from individuals with DID. Overall, DID is still a topic of study, but the research lacks the productivity and focus needed to resolve ongoing controversies surrounding the disorder.
Machalińska, Anna; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K
The latest research reports revealed the presence of stem/progenitor cells located in different regions of matured eye. They are able to differentiate into retinal pigment epithelium cells as well as neural structure of retina. These cells were identified in neurosensory retina, pigment epithelium and within cilliary body and iris epithelium. Moreover, it has been proved that Muller glia possess the potential of differentiation into retinal cells. These findings indicate the presence of potential mechanisms enabling retinal cell repopulation and retinal tissue regeneration. In the present work, the recent reports documenting the presence of different stem cell populations in eye have been reviewed, particularly focusing on recently identified very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs). The potential clinical applications of the residing stem cells and limitations of such therapeutic strategies have been also discussed.
Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.
Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)
Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p < 0.001), with participants reporting higher scores on the online format than in the paper format. There was no interaction effect. For the other questionnaires were no significant main or interaction effects of format. Significant correlations between the two ways of presenting the measures was found for all questionnaires (p<0.05). The results from reliability tests showed Cronbachs α’s above .70 for all four questionnaires and differences in Cronbachs α between administration formats were negligible. Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE) a
Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.
Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085
Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.
This symposium publication consists of 26 presentations. Papers are "'How to Eat an Oreo': Using African American Research through Personal Narrative To Analyze Ethnic Dysmorphic Phenomenon" (Ashford); "Authentic Members: Uncovering Adult Children" (Barnes); "What Good Is Government? Assessment of Government Official…
This short paper will describe the details of a SSHRC/IDG-funded research program currently underway (2015-2016) that will investigate how older adults (65+) use Web 2.0 tools and Internet-based resources to establish and expand their virtual personal learning networks (PLNs) for the purposes of enriching their expertise and knowledge within the…
Orem, Richard A., Ed.
This document contains 41 papers and 11 poster session presentations from a conference on research-to-practice in adult, continuing, and community education. The following are among the papers included: "Learning in a Multicultural Environment" (Mansur Abdullah, Cory Eisenberg, Willard C. Hall Jr., Pauline Valvo); "How to Engage in…
National-Louis Univ., Evanston, IL.
This document contains 33 papers from a conference on research in adult, continuing, and community education. Representative papers include the following: "Highlander Folk School: A Commune Based on Intellectual Property" (Keith B. Armstrong, Donna J. Martin); "Women, Welfare and Mandated Education: An Analysis of Single Mothers'…
Wood, George S., Ed.; Webber, Mary Margaret, Ed.
This proceedings contains 30 papers: "What Matters in Planning a Conference" (Ahmed et al.); "Faculty Motivations for Learning To Teach at a Distance with Instructional Technology" (Armstrong); "The Use of Literature in Qualitative Research" (Austin, Babchuk); "Reading Women's Lives" (Baker-Clark); "Faculty Perceptions of Adult Students and Their…
Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Coll. of Continuing Education.
This document contains 24 research presentations: "Adult Continuing Education: Whence Came Our Roots" (Judith Gwinn Adrian); "Faculty Receptivity to Participation in Continuing Education as Instructors, Facilitators, or Group Leaders" (Mary G. Bruning); "A Sound Mind in a Sound Body: The Potential to Enhance Learning in Later Life" (Alicia C.…
Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael
Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595
Background Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious micro-organism causing systemic infections in the neonate and genital infections in the adult. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. Case Presentation We describe a case of severe pneumonia and pericarditis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a previously healthy adolescent who did not respond to initial therapy. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy. PMID:21106079
Bischof, Ledford J.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…
Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164
Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.
In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)
Lucas, John A., Ed.
Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…
Transcending the Rhetoric of "Family Values": Celebrating Families of Choice and Families of Value. The 2008 Adult Education Research Conference (AERC) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer & Allies (LGBTQ&A) Pre-Conference
Bettinger, Thomas V., Ed.
This pre-conference, held in conjunction with the 49th annual Adult Education Research Conference at the University of Missouri-St. Louis in June, 2008, brought together graduate students and adult education researchers and practitioners from a variety of academic and workplace settings to discuss issues related to sexual minorities in…
Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L
During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334
Zhang, Yang; Lorenzi, Maria F; Goddard, Karen; Spinelli, John J; Gotay, Carolyn; McBride, Mary L
To estimate the risk of late morbidity leading to hospitalization among young adult cancer 5-year survivors compared to the general population and to examine the long-term effects of demographic and disease-related factors on late morbidity, a retrospective cohort of 902 five-year survivors of young adult cancer diagnosed between 1981 and 1999 was identified from British Columbia (BC) Cancer Registry. A matched comparison group (N = 9020) was randomly selected from the provincial health insurance plan. All hospitalizations until the end of 2006 were determined from the BC health insurance plan hospitalization records. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate the rate ratios for late morbidity leading to hospitalization except pregnancy after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors. Overall, 455 (50.4%) survivors and 3,419 (37.9%) individuals in the comparison group had at least one type of late morbidity leading to hospitalization. The adjusted risk of this morbidity for survivors was 1.4 times higher than for the comparison group (95% CI = 1.22-1.54). The highest risks were found for hospitalization due to blood disease (RR = 4.2; 95% CI = 1.98-8.78) and neoplasm (RR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.41-5.33). Survivors with three treatment modalities had three-fold higher risk of having any type of late morbidity (RR = 3.22; 95% CI = 2.09-4.94) than the comparators. These findings emphasize that young adult cancer survivors still have high risks of a wide range of late morbidities.
Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne
This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…
The focus of this practitioner brief is: How do adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students manage their learning? The adult ESL instructor found that his students wanted more opportunities to speak English in class, and to practice actual oral communication skills in English, but felt too much of their time and effort was directed into rote…
King, Kathleen P., Ed.; Ferro, Trenton R., Ed.
Focusing on interactions between theory and practice in adult education, this proceedings of refereed papers (45), symposia (3) and roundtable summaries (21) include the following: "Adult Literacy Classroom as a Social System" (Beder); "Documenting Outcomes for Learners and Their Communities" (Bingman, Mincey); "Essence of…
Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.
This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…
Isosomppi, Leena; Maunula, Minna
The adult students who participate in the web-based studies of the open university have in many ways heterogeneous starting points for studying and learning, for example, the educational backgrounds, the acquired work experience, the general academic skills and the objectives of the future can vary considerably. The adult students striving from…
North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Adult and Community Coll. Education.
These proceedings contain 50 papers. Selected brief titles include: "A Comparative Analysis of Costs and Perceived Effectiveness of Postgraduate Continuing Education for Mississippi Pharmacists" (Bellande); "A Conceptual and Empirical Perspective on Adult Education Program Planning Theory" (Boshier); "Self-Directed Adult Learning" (Brookfield);…
Facility Breakwater, Hawaii .... 12 Yaquina Bay North Jetty, Oregon 14 Siuslaw River Jetties, Oregon 17 Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon 21...Facility breakwater, Hawaii 4 Yaquina Bay north jetty, Oregon 5 Siuslaw River jetties, Oregon 6 Umpqua River training jetty, Oregon 7 Crescent City...and the jetty spur head as previously discussed. Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon The Federal Navigation Project at the Umpqua River lies within
This newsletter reviews two books about family literacy in the United States. The first, "A Survey of Family Literacy in the United States" (edited by Lesley Mandel Morrow, Diane H. Tracey, and Caterina Marcone Maxwell), is a reference guide for educators and policymakers that includes the following: brief descriptions of programs for children and…
Thome, Johannes; Reddy, Duvvoor Prathap
Despite being a devastating psychiatric condition with high prevalence, ADHD has traditionally been widely under-researched, specifically in adult patients. Therefore, the recent surge in scientific projects focusing on ADHD is impressive. By reviewing selected research findings presented at the 2nd International Congress on ADHD, this paper gives an overview about current state-of-the art research in such different areas as diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and comorbidity, neurobiology (including molecular genetics, proteomics, neuroimaging and electrophysiology), environmental factors, modelling of ADHD, treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), as well as forensic and social aspects.
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Background This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. Methods A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Results Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Conclusions Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Vorstius, Christian
The present study explored the reading skills of a sample of 48 adults enrolled in a basic education program in northern Florida, United States. Previous research has reported on reading component skills for students in adult education settings, but little is known about eye movement patterns or their relation to reading skills for this…
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sepeta, Leigh; Wang, Yueyan; Marshall, Stephanie; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted
Longitudinal research into adult outcomes in autism remains limited. Unlike previous longitudinal examinations of adult outcome in autism, the twenty participants in this study were evaluated across multiple assessments between early childhood (M = 3.9 years) and adulthood (M = 26.6 years). In early childhood, responsiveness to joint attention…
Peinovich, Paula E.
Many researchers have investigated the factors that keep adults from participating in continuing education or "lifelong learning." Most of the studies have identified factors--previous educational experience, race, ethnic group, and others--that make adults less likely to be participants in schooling. However, the barriers may actually be more…
Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark
Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…
Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Gagnon, André
Although previous research indicates that both employment and adult attachment style have an influence on academic achievement, the interaction of these two factors has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of adult attachment style on the relationship between employment status and first semester…
Watson, Jennifer M.; Mazur, Joan M.; Vincent, Stacy K.
This phenomenological study explores the dimensions of youth-adult partnerships (YAPs) in agricultural mechanics classrooms in three rural schools. YAPs presume a positive learning collaboration between young people and adults who work together to achieve meaningful community-based change. Previous research on the development of YAPs has focused…
Johnson, Veronica I.
This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…
Rakoczy, Hannes; Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael
Preschoolers' selective learning from adult versus peer models was investigated. Extending previous research, children from age 3 were shown to selectively learn simple rule games from adult rather than peer models. Furthermore, this selective learning was not confined to preferentially performing certain acts oneself, but more specifically had a…
Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen
Previous research has demonstrated that the way adults interact with children with autism can have a great impact on their spontaneous communication. However, to date, few studies have focused on modifying adults' behaviour and even fewer have been conducted in school settings which actively involve teaching staff in designing the intervention.…
Foley, Griff, Ed.
This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…
Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon
Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…
Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…
Silverman, Michael J
While the music therapy profession is relatively young and small in size, it can treat a variety of clinical populations and has established a diverse research base. However, although the profession originated working with persons diagnosed with mental illnesses, there is a considerable lack of quantitative research concerning the effects of music therapy with this population. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have reported on this lack of evidence and the difficulty in conducting psychosocial research on their interventions (Choi, 1997; Silverman, 2003a). While published studies have provided suggestions for future research, no studies have provided detailed propositions for the methodology and design of meticulous high quality randomized controlled psychiatric music therapy research. How do other psychotherapies accomplish their databases and could the music therapy field borrow from their rigorous "methodological best practices" to strengthen its own literature base? Therefore, as the National Institutes of Mental Health state the treatment of choice for evidence-based psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), aspects of this psychotherapy's literature base were analyzed. The purpose of this literature analysis was to (a) analyze and identify components of high-quality quantitative CBT research for adult psychiatric consumers, (b) analyze and identify the variables and other elements of existing quantitative psychiatric music therapy research for adult consumers, and (c) compare the two data sets to identify the best methodological designs and variables for future quantitative music therapy research with the mental health population. A table analyzing randomized and thoroughly controlled studies involving the use of CBT for persons with severe mental illnesses is included to determine chief components of high-quality experimental research designs and implementation of quantitative clinical research. The table also shows the same analyzed
Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh
People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to
Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1161–1183. PMID:26194576
Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health. Citation: Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Patel SR, Quan SF, Tasali E. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):931–952. PMID:26235159
Background The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) created a new national network infrastructure to enable large-scale observational comparative effectiveness research across diverse clinical care settings. As part of testing the feasibility of this effort, each clinical data research network (CDRN) was required to construct cohorts of patients, including one of patients with overweight and obesity. Objective The aim of this paper is to report on the development of the Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) overweight and obese cohort, which includes patients from 10 health plans located across the United States. Methods Information was gathered from each plan’s electronic health records (EHR). Eligibility included 18 years of age or older, a valid height and weight in 2012 or 2013, and body mass index (BMI) greater than 22.9 kg/m2. Pre-diabetes and diabetes status was defined using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, using lab values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or fasting glucose available in the EHR. Hypertension was identified from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes. Individuals were classified into BMI categories: healthy weight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), obese class 2 (35.0-39.9 kg/m2), obese class 3 (40.0-49.0 kg/m2), and obese class 4 (>50.0 kg/m2). Results A cohort of 5,293,458 non-pregnant adults was created. Weight status was 20.39% (1,079,289/5,293,458) healthy weight, 40.40% (2,138,520/5,293,458) overweight, 22.78% (1,205,866/5,293,458) obese class 1, 9.86% (521,872/5,293,458) obese class 2, 5.59% (295,786/5,293,458) obese class 3, and 0.98% (52,125/5,293,458) obese class 4. Race/ethnicity was 49.02% (2,594,776/5,293,458) non-Hispanic white, 22.89% (1,211,677/5,293,458) Hispanic, 10.40% (550,608/5,293,458) Asian, 10.83% (573,506/5,293,458) black, and 6.59% (348,830/5,293,458) other. About 34.33% (1
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark
Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.
The article discuses the fundamental characteristics of vegetarianism as a heterogeneous and controversial practice, and tries to asses its scope in contemporary Western world. In the central part it presents the main results of the empirical study of vegetarianism and its perceptions on a representative sample of adult residents of the two largest cities in Slovenia, Ljubljana and Maribor. On this basis, the author proposes a more comprehensive design of quantitative and qualitative research on social aspects of vegetarianism and responses to it.
Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health.
Weisz, George M.; Albury, William R.
The fetal “programming of adult diseases” has been previously reviewed. The descriptions were comprehensive, dealing with the effects of nutritional deprivation on the development of adult metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. During the past decade, research into this “programming” also expanded to the development of osteoporosis. The present review deals with the imbalance of bone mineral metabolism, “programmed” by maternal/fetal/infantile nutritional deprivation, and is illustrated with a family history from the Budapest Ghetto. PMID:24498511
Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Bamburg, Jay W.
Previous research has shown that adults with intellectual disability (ID) evince communication deficits. These communication problems can be divided into problems with receptive, expressive, and written domains. While much research has been devoted to investigating communication deficits in ID in general, scant research has been conducted on…
Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.
Context Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the
de Eulate-Beramendi, Sayoa A.; Piña-Batista, Kelvin M.; Rodrigo, Victor; Torres-Rivas, Hector E.; Rial-Basalo, Juan C.
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBS) is a highly malignant glioma that rarely presents as an infratentorial tumor. Multicentric gliomas lesions are widely separated in site and/or time and its incidence has been reported between 0.15 and 10%. Multicentric gliomas involving supratentorial and infratentorial region are even more rare. In most cases, infratentorial disease is seen after surgical manipulation or radiation therapy and is usually located in the cerebellum or cervical region. Case Report: We present a rare case of symptomatic multicentric glioma in the brain, fourth ventricle, cervical as well as lumbar glioblastoma in an adult without previous therapeutic intervention. We also review the literature of this rare presentation. Conclusions: This report suggests that GBM is a diffuse disease; the more extended the disease, the worse prognosis it has. The management still remains controversial and further studies are required to understand the prognosis factors of dissemination. PMID:27512613
Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.
Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.
Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk
Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229
Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A
Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.
Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne
The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.
Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily
When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…
Stanton, Annette L.; Luecken, Linda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.
Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of cancer are highly stressful experiences that can profoundly affect emotional and physical well-being. Hundreds of longitudinal investigations that identify risk and protective factors for psychological and physical adjustment in adults living with cancer and numerous randomized controlled psychosocial…
An study investigated ways in which the political and economic development (PED) agendas of international organizations (IOs) permeated or pervaded PED agendas of the South African government's adult education and training policies. Policy documents of IOs were main data sources, and the richest data sources were country strategy papers written by…
Hobson, Charles J.; McCarthy, Heather; Murff, Sherice; Thomas, Adrienne; Rosetti, Desila; Murillo, Natalie G.
A "train-the-trainer" workshop was developed to evaluate and enhance presentational skills and offered to 14 youth in grades 6-12 and 9 administrators from youth-focused community agencies in Indiana. Upon workshop completion, 7 youth and 6 adults functioned as presenters of a 1 1/2-hour module on refusal and resistance skills to 95…
Berger, David G., Ed.; And Others
The data and findings of a four-year study designed to organize a battery of psychological tests for assessing the vocational adjustment of adult deaf and to establish the validity of the individual tests, as well as provide some information regarding their most economic and productive potential use, are presented. The study population was all…
Contrary to earlier assertions, young children do not interpret the word "different" to mean "same." Both two-and-a-half year old children and adults interpret requests for same or different objects appropriately, apparently following conventions of conversational discourse. These data offer no support for a discrete semantic feature model of…
Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia
The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…
White, Sheida; Krenzke, Tom; Sherman, Dan
In 2009, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) published a technical report titled "Indirect County and State Estimates of the Percentage of Adults at the Lowest Literacy Level for 1992 and 2003," (ED503830). NCES also published a corresponding online tool (http://nces.ed.gov/naal/estimates/index.aspx) that allows users to…
Wood, George S., Jr., Ed.; Wood, Danny, Ed.
The following papers are included: "Schoolhouse in the Factory: The Phenomenology of Literacy" (Berlin); "The Self-Directed Learning Projects of Employed, Married Mothers" (Boyce); "The Forever Plan: Adult Men Who Continue in Postsecondary Education Compared with Those Who Drop Out" (Brown); "Burnout and Associated Factors among…
Mohadjer, Leyla; Kalton, Graham; Krenzke, Tom; Liu, Benmei; Van de Kerckhove, Wendy; Li, Lin; Sherman, Dan; Dillman, Jennifer; Rao, Jan
The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of 18,500 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in private households. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). The NAAL and NALS produced direct…
Anastasi, Jeffrey S.; Rhodes, Matthew G.
Several previous studies have demonstrated that children, when compared with adults, exhibit both lower levels of veridical memory and fewer intrusions when given semantically associated lists. However, researchers have drawn these conclusions using semantically associated word lists that were normed with adults, which may not lead to the same…
Jahn, Danielle R.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.
Older adults die by suicide at very high rates, and previous research indicates that perceived burdensomeness may contribute to deaths by suicide. In this study, the impact of the nature of relationships on perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation was examined. Results indicated that older adults' perceptions of burden on younger generations…
Qasim, Samir; Ravenscroft, John; Sproule, John
Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and…
with clinical features similar to previous research about depression in neurotypical adults (e.g., brain activation in response to social stress and...related to social and academic outcomes in the special population of children with ASD by consulting stakeholders and observing students . 2) To determine...hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and
Abdullah, Muhammad Madi Bin; Koren, Sebastian Francis; Muniapan, Balakrishnan; Parasuraman, Balakrishnan; Rathakrishnan, Balan
This paper attempts to explain the various concepts related to self-directed learning and also the various theories and models regarding adult participation and also non-participation in self-directed learning programs. Because of the extensive amount of previous literature and research findings dealing with self-directed learning, it is necessary…
Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary
Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Tsai, Kuan Chen
Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…
Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning.
Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald
Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs.
Jang, Timothy B; Chauhan, Vijai; Morchi, Raveendra; Najand, Hares; Naunheim, Roseanne; Kaji, Amy H
[K+] < 3.5 mmol/L is reported to occur in approximately 4 % of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA.) Therefore, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) recommend the assessment of [K+] before the initiation of insulin treatment to avoid the precipitation of morbid hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of hypokalemia in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with DKA. This was a multicenter retrospective, cross-sectional study at EDs with a combined annual adult census of 155,000. Adult patients diagnosed with DKA in the ED, or who were admitted from the ED and subsequently diagnosed with DKA as determined from the hospital electronic database between January 2008 and December 2008, were included for analysis if they had the following initial laboratory values: (1) serum glucose >13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), (2) serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/L (18 mEq/L) or anion gap >15, and (3) evidence of ketonaemia or ketonuria. 537 patients were diagnosed with DKA in the ED at the participating institutions during the reference period. The median [K+] was 4.9 mmol/L (IQR 4.3, 5.5). There were a total of seven patients with an initial 3.3 < [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L, but none with a [K+] < 3.3 mmol/L. Thus, no patients in our study sample required potassium supplementation before the initiation of insulin treatment. The incidence of hypokalemia in our sample of patients with DKA was much less than previously reported, with no cases requiring potassium supplementation before insulin administration.
Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim
Childhood trauma has been associated with long term effects on prefrontal-limbic grey matter. A literature search was conducted to identify structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of adults with a history of childhood trauma. We performed three meta-analyses. Hedges' g effect sizes were calculated for each study providing hippocampal or amygdala volumes of trauma and non-trauma groups. Seed based differential mapping was utilised to synthesise whole brain voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies. A total of 38 articles (17 hippocampus, 13 amygdala, 19 whole brain VBM) were included in the meta-analyses. Trauma cohorts exhibited smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes bilaterally. The most robust findings of the whole brain VBM meta-analysis were reduced grey matter in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus amongst adults with a history of childhood trauma. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions showed results were moderated by age, gender, the cohort's psychiatric health and the study's definition of childhood trauma. We provide evidence of abnormal grey matter in prefrontal-limbic brain regions of adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.
Northridge, Mary E; Kum, Susan S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Greenblatt, Ariel Port; Marshall, Stephen E; Wang, Hua; Kunzel, Carol; Metcalf, Sara S
This study extends the concept of third places to include community sites where older adults gather, often for meals or companionship. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided program implementation and evaluation. Depending upon health promotion program needs, the physical infrastructure of a site is important, but a supportive director (champion) can often overcome identified deficits. Senior centers may be locally classified into four types based upon eligibility requirements of residents in affiliated housing and services offered. Participants who attend these centers differ in important ways across types by most sociodemographic as well as certain health and health care characteristics.
Silva, Alcino J; Ehninger, Dan
Recent findings in mice suggest that it is possible to reverse certain neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. Changes in development, previously thought to be irreparable in adults, were believed to underlie the neurological and psychiatric phenotypes of a range of common mental health problems with a clear developmental component. As a consequence, most researchers have focused their efforts on understanding the molecular and cellular processes that alter development with the hope that early intervention could prevent the emergent pathology. Unexpectedly, several different animal model studies published recently, including animal models of autism, suggest that it may be possible to reverse neurodevelopmental disorders in adults: Addressing the underlying molecular and cellular deficits in adults could in several cases dramatically improve the neurocognitive phenotypes in these animal models. The findings reviewed here provide hope to millions of individuals afflicted with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, since they suggest that it may be possible to treat or even cure them in adults.
Bartleson, J. D.; Krecke, Karl N.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Brown, Paul D.
We report 2 adults with a past history of radiation therapy to the head for malignancy (one with primary B-cell lymphoma confined to the skull and the other with multiple hemangioendotheliomas) who developed episodes consistent with migraine with and without aura. In addition to more typical migraine attacks and beginning many years after their radiation therapy, both patients have experienced infrequent, stereotyped, prolonged, reversible neurologic deficits associated with headache, occasional seizures, and striking, transient, cortical gadolinium enhancement of the posterior cerebral gyri on MRI. Interictal MRI brain scans show stable abnormalities consistent with the patients' previous radiation therapy. The neurologic deficits often progressed over a few days, sometimes lasted weeks, and completely resolved. Electroencephalograms did not show epileptiform activity. Thorough investigation showed no residual or recurrent tumor and no recognized cause for the patients' attacks. We postulate a causal relationship between the patients' remote radiation therapy and their prolonged, strokelike migraine attacks. Radiation-induced vascular changes could provoke the episodes, with or without an underlying migraine diathesis. Recognition of this syndrome can help avoid invasive testing. PMID:12672284
Staples, Lauren G.; Fogliati, Vincent J.; Dear, Blake F.; Nielssen, Olav
Background The Wellbeing Plus Course is an internet-delivered psychological intervention for older adults with anxiety or depression. Aims To compare the effectiveness of the Wellbeing Plus Course in a public health setting (clinic group) with its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (research group). Method Participants (n=949) were Australian adults aged 60 and above. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Results Initial symptom severity was higher in the clinic group and course completion was lower. Both groups showed significant symptom reductions at post-treatment and were satisfied with the treatment. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Within-group symptom changes were comparable between settings; there were no between-group differences on primary outcomes or satisfaction. Conclusions The Wellbeing Plus Course is as effective and acceptable in routine clinical care, as it is in controlled research trials. Declaration of interest N.T. and B.F.D developed the Wellbeing Plus Course but derived no financial benefit from it. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703794
Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.
As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…
Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.
It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…
While it is widely acknowledged that the family and childhood environments affect adult well being, why they matter is still an area of significant debate. Previous research concerned with this issue has focused on the influence of family income, family structure, and cognitive ability. Much of this research has focused on economic and social…
Colettis, Natalia C.; Snitcofsky, Marina; Kornisiuk, Edgar E.; Gonzalez, Emilio N.; Quillfeldt, Jorge A.; Jerusalinsky, Diana A.
The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MAChR) blockade with scopolamine either extended or restricted to the hippocampus, before or after training in inhibitory avoidance (IA) caused anterograde or retrograde amnesia, respectively, in the rat, because there was no long-term memory (LTM) expression. Adult Wistar rats previously exposed to one or two…
Bond, Jonathan; Marchand, Tony; Touzart, Aurore; Cieslak, Agata; Trinquand, Amélie; Sutton, Laurent; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Ifrah, Norbert; Hamel, Jean-François; Asnafi, Vahid
Gene expression studies have consistently identified a HOXA-overexpressing cluster of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but it is unclear whether these constitute a homogeneous clinical entity, and the biological consequences of HOXA overexpression have not been systematically examined. We characterized the biology and outcome of 55 HOXA-positive cases among 209 patients with adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia uniformly treated during the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL)-2003 and -2005 studies. HOXA-positive patients had markedly higher rates of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype (40.8% versus 14.5%, P=0.0004), chemoresistance (59.3% versus 40.8%, P=0.026) and positivity for minimal residual disease (48.5% versus 23.5%, P=0.01) than the HOXA-negative group. These differences were due to particularly high frequencies of chemoresistant early thymic precursor-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia in HOXA-positive cases harboring fusion oncoproteins that transactivate HOXA. Strikingly, the presence of an early thymic precursor-like immunophenotype was associated with marked outcome differences within the HOXA-positive group (5-year overall survival 31.2% in HOXA-positive early thymic precursor versus 66.7% in HOXA-positive non-early thymic precursor, P=0.03), but not in HOXA-negative cases (5-year overall survival 74.2% in HOXA-negative early thymic precursor versus 57.2% in HOXA-negative non-early thymic precursor, P=0.44). Multivariate analysis further revealed that HOXA positivity independently affected event-free survival (P=0.053) and relapse risk (P=0.039) of chemoresistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These results show that the underlying mechanism of HOXA deregulation dictates the clinico-biological phenotype, and that the negative prognosis of early thymic precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia is exclusive to HOXA-positive patients, suggesting that early treatment intensification is currently
McDonald, Andrew M; Rollins, Jason L
We report a case of spontaneous spinal epidural abscess (SEA) with initial chief complaint of shoulder pain and no appreciable neurologic symptoms. Since outcomes of SEA appear to be related to the degree of neurologic deficit at the time of intervention, we explore opportunities for earlier diagnosis.
Reid, Michael J.; Halabi, Cathra; Wietek, Natalie; LaRiviere, Alejandro; Shah, Maulik; Wilson, Michael R.; Chin-Hong, Peter; Douglas, Vanja; Kazacos, Kevin R.; Babik, Jennifer M.
After severe neurocognitive decline developed in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and enhancing lesions. The patient tested positive for antibodies to Baylisascaris spp. roundworms, was treated with albendazole and dexamethasone, and showed improvement after 3 months. Baylisascariasis should be considered for all patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:27434260
later positive for group A streptococcus . An autopsy revealed diffuse hemorrhagic pneumonia and diffuse alveolar injury. Cultures and special stains...tobacco products. Within one week of arrival, he received several standard vaccinations and benzathine penicillin G (1.2 mu intramuscularly) as...streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, with hypotension, rash, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and group A streptococcus isolated from a nonsterile site (9
Chen, Joseph C.
As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…
Rinehart, Jenny K; Nason, Erica E; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Miller, Geoffrey F
Institutional review boards (IRBs) have expressed concerns that certain individuals or groups, such as participants who are younger, ethnic minorities, or who have certain psychological or personality traits, may be particularly distressed when participating in "sensitive topics" research. This study examined the effects of several demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, sex, ethnicity, religiosity, Big Five personality traits, and baseline psychological distress levels) on reactions to participation in sensitive topics research. Participants were 504 undergraduates who completed an extensive battery of either trauma/sex questionnaires or cognitive tests and rated their positive and negative emotional reactions and the perceived benefits and mental costs of participating. They also compared research participation to normal life stressors. Our findings indicated that individual difference and demographic risk factors do not increase participant distress after participating in sex/trauma research over and above that experienced after participating in traditionally minimal-risk cognitive tasks. Participants generally found research participation less distressing than normal life stressors and even enjoyable.
Qureshi, Adam W.; Apperly, Ian A.; Samson, Dana
Previous research suggests that perspective-taking and other "theory of mind" processes may be cognitively demanding for adult participants, and may be disrupted by concurrent performance of a secondary task. In the current study, a Level-1 visual perspective task was administered to 32 adults using a dual-task paradigm in which the secondary task…
Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.
Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…
Heffernan, James M.
Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…
Costanzo, Meg Ryback
In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…
Hemsley, Bronwyn; Georgiou, Andrew; Balandin, Susan; Carter, Rob; Hill, Sophie; Higgins, Isabel; Van Vliet, Paulette; McCarthy, Shaun
To date, there is little information in the literature to guide the provision of supports for using the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) in populations with severe communication impairments associated with a range of disabilities. In this paper we will (a) outline the rationale for use of PCEHR in these populations by providing an overview of relevant research to date, and (b) present results of three integrated pilot studies aiming to investigate the barriers to and facilitators for PCEHR use by people with severe communication impairments and their service providers. Finally, we will present directions for future research on use of PCEHR by people with severe communication impairments.
Yen, Irene H.; Flood, Johnna Fandel; Thompson, Hannah; Anderson, Lynda A.; Wong, Geoff
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the environmental features that best support aging in place. Method We conducted a realist synthesis, a theory-driven interpretive method of evidence synthesis, of 120+ articles (published 1991–2011) that attempts to explain how place may influence older adults’ decisions about mobility (e.g., physical activity). We developed an initial program theory, reviewed the literature, identified outcomes, analyzed and synthesized patterns, and created a final program theory. Results Safety was a central mechanism, serving as one of the bridges between environmental components (e.g., connectivity, aesthetics, retail and services) and decisions about mobility. Population density, sidewalk presence, and park proximity did not emerge as key factors. Discussion Safety considerations are one of the most prominent influences of older adults’ decisions about mobility. Street connectivity, pedestrian access and transit, and retail and services were also important. These factors are amenable to change and can help promote mobility for older adults. PMID:24788714
Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence
The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60–95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial, and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels. PMID:24652865
Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet
By envisioning adolescence as an ideal time to promote good physical health, it is possible to save lives and set in motion a lifetime of good health outcomes. To identify programs that promote health, this brief summarizes experimental studies of health-related behaviors, and reviews more than 230 research studies to identify factors associated…
Macdonald-Ross, Michael; Smith, Eleanor B.
This bibliography is a first edition designed to aid the work of the Textual Communication Research Unit and will be followed by a further edition in two years' time. Sources relevant to textual communication, except those pertaining exclusively to broadcasting or children's texts, are arranged as either pertaining to language or to visual design.…
Miller, Elizabeth R.
This article adopts a social constructionist approach in maintaining that indeterminacy of meaning is an unavoidable aspect of interview research. It uses positioning analysis to examine how subject positions and contingently constructed meanings are produced in interview interactions. The analysis focuses on excerpts from a series of three…
The Appalachian Land Ownership Study was a participatory action research project in one of our nation's poorest regions suffering from absenteeism, poverty, powerlessness, and improper taxation. In discovering who owned the region's land, the participants sought to organize against the social, economic and environmental injustices imposed on the…
Jacobs, Ronald L.
the need to state the problem of the study based on the scholarly literature. Doctoral programs commonly require that students take a sequence of research courses that usually focus on how to carry-out a study. That is, the design, the methodology, and the…
Etnier, Jennifer L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Karper, William B; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C; Dudley, William N; Rulison, Kelli L
Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.
Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise
Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults.
Alfred, Mary V., Ed.
In a most timely volume addressing many of the connections among current fiscal and employment crises to adult education, Learning for Economic Self-Sufficiency highlights the problems and challenges that low-literate adults encounter in various environments. Moreover, this book presents strategies for addressing the chronic illiteracy among…
Giannopoulou, Christina; Sideris, Eleftherios; Wade, Ros; Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Eastwood, Alison; McKenna, Claire
.6 months compared with DTIC (13.2 vs. 9.6 months). The economic evaluation compared the costs and outcomes of ipilimumab by assuming that the 3 mg/kg dosing regimen was clinically equivalent in efficacy to an ipilimumab 10 mg/kg dosing regimen plus DTIC and by using a treatment sequencing approach that incorporated second-line active therapy and third-line best supportive care (BSC). In the first appraisal meeting, the committee recommended ipilimumab only in the context of research as part of a clinical study. This was primarily based on the lack of robust evidence to support the assumption of clinical equivalence between dosages and the absence of evidence available to inform the sequential use of treatments. Following the consultation, the manufacturer submitted additional analyses and evidence to support the cost effectiveness of ipilimumab at first line. The manufacturer's response was based on concerns relating to uncertainty surrounding the relative efficacy of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg monotherapy compared with DTIC and vemurafenib, comparability of the patient populations at first and second line, and the effects of concomitant DTIC. These additional analyses indicated that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £ 47,900 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for ipilimumab compared with DTIC and £ 28,600 per QALY gained for ipilimumab compared with vemurafenib. Following consideration of the additional evidence and the responses from a large number of consultees and commentators, the committee recommended ipilimumab as an option for adults with previously untreated advanced melanoma.
Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T
Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory.
Etnier, Jennifer L.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Karper, William B.; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T.; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M.; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C.; Dudley, William N.; Rulison, Kelli L.
Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by ApoEe4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting ApoE e4 carriers are discussed. PMID:25594264
Calamia, Matthew; Bernstein, John P. K.; Keller, Jeffrey N.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) ranks as the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, yet unlike other diseases in this category, there are no disease-modifying medications for AD. Currently there is significant interest in exploring the benefits of pharmacological treatment before the onset of dementia (e.g., in those with mild cognitive impairment); however, recruitment for such studies is challenging. The current study examined interest in pharmacological intervention trials relative to other types of clinical interventions. A total of 67 non-demented older adults enrolled in a longitudinal cognitive aging study completed a questionnaire assessing interest in participating in a variety of hypothetical research study designs. Consistent with past research, results showed that the opportunities for participants to advance science, receive feedback about their current health, and help themselves or others, were associated with increased interest in clinical trial participation. Some factors were not associated with change in interest (e.g., a doctor not recommending participation) while others were associated with decreased interest (e.g., having to come in for multiple visits each week). Relative to other types of interventions, pharmacological intervention trials were associated with the least interest in participation, despite pharmacological interventions being rated as more likely to result in AD treatment. Decreased interest was not predicted by subjective memory concerns, number of current medications, cardiovascular risk, or beliefs about the likely success of pharmacological treatments. These results highlight the challenges faced by researchers investigating pharmacological treatments in non-demented older individuals, and suggest future research could contribute to more effective ways of recruiting participants in AD-related clinical trials. PMID:27438465
... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...
Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p < 0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced price meal (FARPM) status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use.
Barnes, Vernon A; Orme-Johnson, David W
The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation(®) technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences.(®)Transcendental Meditation and TM are trademarks registered in the US. Patent and Trademark Office, licensed to Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation and are used with permission.
Barnes, Vernon A.; Orme-Johnson, David W.
The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation® technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences. ®Transcendental Meditation and TM are trademarks registered in the US. Patent and Trademark Office, licensed to Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation and are used with permission. PMID:23204989
Davey, Antoinette; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John L
This literature review focuses on what matters to young adults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of young adults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to young adults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Young adults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to young adults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards young adults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of young adults. Young adults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a young adult population as their needs may impact the future use of services.
Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud
This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)
Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L
In recent years, several studies have indicated that healthy older adults exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering compared with young adults. However, relatively little research has examined the extent to which ongoing thoughts in young and older adults are dependent on environmental stimuli. In the current study, we assessed age-related differences in frequency of stimulus-dependent thoughts (SDTs) and stimulus-independent thoughts (SITs) during a slow-paced incidental encoding task. Based on previous research suggesting that older adults rely on external information to a greater extent than young adults, we hypothesized that ongoing thoughts in older adults may be more stimulus-dependent than in young adults. We found that although older adults reported overall fewer thoughts compared to young adults, they exhibited a reduction in proportion of SITs and an increase in proportion of SDTs. In both age groups, SDTs were more frequently about the past compared with SITs, while SITs were more frequently about the future. Finally, the extent to which both young and older adults reported SDTs, but not SITs, at encoding was positively correlated with how often they reported remembering thoughts at retrieval, and SDT frequency was positively correlated with overall performance on the memory task in older adults. Our results provide evidence that ongoing thoughts in older adults may be more dependent on environmental stimuli than young adults, and that these thoughts may impact performance in recognition tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record
Brille, P; Milhaud, A
Using a spectrometer for the study of exhaled gases and a monitor of transcutaneous oxygen pressure, our purpose has been to quantify our ideas about physiological apneas in the conscious voluntary adults. We compared the apneas, concerning the duration and the induced fall of peripheric oxygen pressure, after normoventilations in air and in oxygen, then after hyperventilations in air and in oxygen. These experiences confirm the tiny interest of previous normoventilation in oxygen compared with in air, the danger of hypoxemia by previous hyperventilation in air and the possibility of prolonged but safe apnea after hyperventilations in oxygen, that we can advocate in the induction of anaesthesia for some circumstances.
This paper reports the prognostic significance of clinical and laboratory features recorded at presentation in 485 patients entered into the Medical Research Council's 3rd therapeutic trial in myelomatosis between July 1975 and August 1978. The data were complete up to 1 January 1980, with a median follow-up time of 36 months. The 3 major determinants of prognosis were the blood urea concentration (BUC), the haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and the clinical performance status. Three prognostic groups based on these determinants were specified. The groups contained 22%, 56% and 22% of the patients and gave 2-year survival probabilities of 76%, 50% and 9% respectively. Patients in the good-prognosis group had a BUC less than or equal to 8 mM. [Hb] greater than or equal to 100 g/l, and no or minimal symptoms. Those in the poor-prognosis group had either [Hb] less than or equal to 75 g/l or a BUC greater than 10 mM and restricted clinical activity. Patients who had combinations of the 3 determinant features which excluded them from these 2 groups were classified into an intermediate prognosis group. PMID:7459218
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.405 Use of highest previous rate. (a)(1) Subject to the... new grade which does not exceed the employee's highest previous rate. (2) However, if the...
Shore, Sue; Searle, Jean; Falk, Ian; Johnston, Betty; Ovens, Carolyn; Riddell, Christine
In 2001-2002, the Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium conducted 26 national investigations with findings in the following areas: (1) population competence; (2) linking literacy and numeracy into training; (3) professional support for educators and trainers; and (4) policy and systemic issues. All the projects were intended…
Murad, Mohammad H.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B.; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rubin, Bruce K.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W.; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez
BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients’ values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality. PMID:25856777
Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald
A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.
de Andrade Bastos, Afranio; Salguero, Alfonso; González-Boto, René; Marquez, Sara
The present investigation examined the validity and reliability of a questionnaire which assessed motives of Brazilian adults for participation in physical activities, compared motives for participation in walking and fitness programs, and examined differences by sex, age, and education. Participants were 100 men and 138 women, ages 16 to 60 years (M=30.5, SD=11.4). Factor analysis identified four factors which were fairly consistent with previous research. Improvement in physical appearance and enjoyment were rated significantly more important reasons for participants in fitness programs than for walkers. Men were more motivated by social experience than women. Young adults rated importance lower in health and fitness and rated enjoyment, social experience, and improvement in appearance of higher importance. Health and fitness were considered more important by participants with more education. These results are consistent with previous research on the factors underlying motives for regular exercise and support the importance of considering differences associated with culture.
Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R
Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.
Olson, Katherine E; O'Brien, Marita A; Rogers, Wendy A; Charness, Neil
OBJECTIVES: When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, "Silver Surfers", whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a "used" or "not used" standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). METHODS: The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. RESULTS: We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. CONCLUSION: This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults' technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences.
Pollard, Mary Ward; McKinney, Cliff
Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Cellular Diagnosis, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Hull, Mark; Shafran, Stephen; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Barrett, Lisa; Haider, Shariq; Conway, Brian; Klein, Marina; Cooper, Curtis
Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20-30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.
Hull, Mark; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Barrett, Lisa; Haider, Shariq; Conway, Brian; Klein, Marina; Cooper, Curtis
Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document. PMID:27471521
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y
The Digital Sexual Life History Calendar (d/SLHC) is a Web-based platform for collecting young adults' sexual histories. In addition to collecting diverse data, the d/SLHC was designed to benefit participants by enabling reflection on their sexual and relationship experiences in the context of other life events and circumstances. In a pilot study of the d/SLHC, survey data were collected to test whether creating a d/SLHC timeline had any impact on sexual well-being. A sample of 18- to 25-year-old participants recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) completed an online survey about sexuality and relationships. Of those, 113 also completed d/SLHC timelines and 262 served as a comparison group. Six months later, participants from both groups were invited to complete a follow-up survey (total N = 249). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that participants who completed d/SLHC timelines exhibited higher sexual esteem immediately following d/SLHC completion and at follow-up. No changes in sexual esteem were observed in the comparison group, and there were no differences between the groups with regard to sexual health behaviors and outcomes. These findings suggest that sexuality studies may have the potential to yield not only rich data for researchers but also rich experiences for participants.