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Sample records for adults read sentences

  1. Reading Development Electrified: Semantic and Syntactic Integration during Sentence Comprehension in School-Age Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Justine M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults are able to access semantic and syntactic information rapidly as they hear or read in real-time in order to interpret sentences. Young children, on the other hand, tend to rely on syntactically-based parsing routines, adopting the first noun as the agent of a sentence regardless of plausibility, at least during oral comprehension. Little is…

  2. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. PMID:26866589

  3. Sentence Combining and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    Research on the effects of two modes of sentence combining instruction on writing skills was conducted from 22 September through 17 December 1976, at Evans School in Tempe, Arizona. Subjects were 40 students in two fifth grade classes designated the individualized class and the group class. The individualized class followed a sentence combining…

  4. Individual Cognitive Training of Reading Disability Improves Word Identification and Sentence Comprehension in Adults with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Lanthier, Odile; Chauvin, Dominique; Hambourg, Nicole; Wilson, Anna J.; Basquin, Michel; Mazet, Philippe; Riviere, Jean Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Reading therapy has been shown to be effective in treating reading disabilities (RD) in dyslexic children, but little is known of its use in subjects with mild mental retardation (MR). Twenty adult volunteers, with both RD and mild MR, underwent 60 consecutive weeks in a cognitive remediation program, and were compared with 32 untreated control…

  5. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Barber, Horacio A; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation. PMID:20580772

  6. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation. PMID:20580772

  7. Same Same, but Different: Word and Sentence Reading in German and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, Anne K.; Moll, Kristina; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Snowling, Margaret J.; Landerl, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared eye fixation patterns during word and sentence processing in a consistent and an inconsistent alphabetic orthography. German and English children as well as adults matched on word reading ability read matched sentences while their eye fixation behavior was recorded. Results indicated that German children read in a more…

  8. Brain Activity of Regular and Dyslexic Readers while Reading Hebrew as Compared to English Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia; Oren, Revital; Shaul, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences among "regular" and dyslexic adult bilingual readers when processing reading and reading related skills in their first (L1 Hebrew) and second (L2 English) languages. Brain activity during reading Hebrew and English unexpected sentence endings was also studied. Behavioral and…

  9. Parafoveal preview during reading: Effects of sentence position

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah J.; Warren, Tessa; Reichle, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined parafoveal preview for words located in the middle of sentences and at sentence boundaries. Parafoveal processing was shown to occur for words at sentence-initial, mid-sentence, and sentence-final positions. Both Experiments 1 and 2 showed reduced effects of preview on regressions out for sentence-initial words. In addition, Experiment 2 showed reduced preview effects on first-pass reading times for sentence-initial words. These effects of sentence position on preview could result from reduced parafoveal processing for sentence-initial words, or other processes specific to word reading at sentence boundaries. In addition to the effects of preview, the experiments also demonstrate variability in the effects of sentence wrap-up on different reading measures, indicating that the presence and time course of wrap-up effects may be modulated by text-specific factors. We also report simulations of Experiment 2 using version 10 of E-Z Reader (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009), designed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying parafoveal preview at sentence boundaries. PMID:21500948

  10. Prosody of Syntactically Complex Sentences in the Oral Reading of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Justin; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    Prosodic, or expressive, reading is considered to be one of the essential features of the achievement of reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the degree to which the prosody of syntactically complex sentences varied as a function of reading speed and accuracy and (b) the role that reading prosody might play in mediating individual differences in comprehension. Spectrographic analysis of 80 third graders' and 29 adults' reading of a syntactically complex text was carried out. Oral reading skill was measured through standardized assessments. Pitch changes (changes in fundamental frequency) and pause duration were measured for sentence-final words of basic declarative sentences, basic declarative quotatives, wh questions, and yes–no questions; words preceding commas in complex adjectival phrases; and words preceding phrase-final commas. Children who had quick and accurate oral reading had shorter and more adultlike pause structures, larger pitch declinations at the end of basic declarative sentences, and larger pitch rises at the end of yes–no questions. Furthermore, children who showed larger basic declarative sentence declinations and larger pitch rises following yes–no questions tended to demonstrate greater reading comprehension skills. PMID:19777079

  11. Is children's reading "good enough"? Links between online processing and comprehension as children read syntactically ambiguous sentences.

    PubMed

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Joseph, Holly S S L; Adelman, James S; Nation, Kate

    2016-05-01

    We monitored 8- and 10-year-old children's eye movements as they read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity to obtain a detailed record of their online processing. Children showed the classic garden-path effect in online processing. Their reading was disrupted following disambiguation, relative to control sentences containing a comma to block the ambiguity, although the disruption occurred somewhat later than would be expected for mature readers. We also asked children questions to probe their comprehension of the syntactic ambiguity offline. They made more errors following ambiguous sentences than following control sentences, demonstrating that the initial incorrect parse of the garden-path sentence influenced offline comprehension. These findings are consistent with "good enough" processing effects seen in adults. While faster reading times and more regressions were generally associated with better comprehension, spending longer reading the question predicted comprehension success specifically in the ambiguous condition. This suggests that reading the question prompted children to reconstruct the sentence and engage in some form of processing, which in turn increased the likelihood of comprehension success. Older children were more sensitive to the syntactic function of commas, and, overall, they were faster and more accurate than younger children. PMID:25774745

  12. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children's sentence reading fluency.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Telse; Korinth, Sebastian P; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Lonnemann, Jan; Rump, Björn; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension). In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of 3 weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children. PMID:25713554

  13. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children's sentence reading fluency

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Telse; Korinth, Sebastian P.; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Lonnemann, Jan; Rump, Björn; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension). In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of 3 weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children. PMID:25713554

  14. Children’s and Adults’ On-Line Processing of Syntactically Ambiguous Sentences during Reading

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children’s syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults’ syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, ‘The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage’ in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, ‘I think I’ll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It’s really nice’ in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children. PMID:23349807

  15. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  16. Reading Mechanisms in Orally Educated Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Ana-Belen; Alegria, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the reading mechanisms used by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Our main hypothesis was that they used a reading strategy consisting of identifying (some of) the key words of sentences and deriving an overall representation of their meaning. All the predictions derived from this…

  17. Tracking reading: dual task costs of oral reading for young versus older adults.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2014-02-01

    A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors such as speaker age or working memory capacity predicted reading and tracking performance. In addition, sentence-by-sentence variation in tracking performance was examined during the production of individual sentences and during the pauses before upcoming sentences. The results suggest that dual tasking has a greater impact on older adults' reading comprehension and tracking performance. At the level of individual sentences, young and older adults adopt different strategies to deal with grammatically complex and propositionally dense sentences. PMID:23463405

  18. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  19. Sentence Perception in Listening and Reading. Technical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Coots, James H.

    Noting that the lack of prosodic information in printed text may be a source of difficulty for children who are learning to read, this paper explores the features of language underlying the acoustic and perceptual segmentation of sentences into meaningful units. Using evidence from studies in speech production and perception, the paper addresses…

  20. Do Not Resonate with Actions: Sentence Polarity Modulates Cortico-Spinal Excitability during Action-Related Sentence Reading

    PubMed Central

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. Methods and Findings We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS) was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP) was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. Conclusions Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language. PMID:21347305

  1. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  2. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  3. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  4. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or...

  5. Monitoring Local Comprehension Monitoring in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Mayer, Michael B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    on ways to improve children's reading comprehension. However, processes and mechanisms underlying this skill are currently not well understood. This article describes one of the first attempts to study comprehension monitoring using eye-tracking methodology. Students in…

  6. Recognizing Words and Reading Sentences with Microsecond Flash Displays

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Strings of dots can be used to construct easily identifiable letters, and these in turn can be used to write words and sentences. Prior work found that respondents could identify individual letters when all the dots were simultaneously flashed for an ultra-brief duration. Four of the experiments reported here constructed five-letter words with these dot-letters and a fifth experiment used them to write complete sentences. Respondents were able to recognize individual words that were displayed with a single, simultaneous ultra-brief flash of all the letters. Further, sentences could be efficiently read with a sequence of simultaneous flashes at a frequency that produced perceptual fusion. One experiment determined the frequency range that would produce flicker-fusion. Two experiments established the relation of intensity to probability of recognition with single flashes and with fused-flicker frequencies. Another established the intensities at which flicker-fused and steady displays were judged to be equal in brightness. The final experiment used those flicker-fused and steady intensities to display sentences. The two display conditions were read with equal efficiency, even though the flicker-fused displays provided light stimulation only 0.003% of the time. PMID:26800027

  7. Neural networks mediating sentence reading in the deaf.

    PubMed

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A; Dye, Matthew W G; Hauser, Peter C; Supalla, Ted R; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the neural bases of sentence reading in deaf populations. To better understand the relative role of deafness and spoken language knowledge in shaping the neural networks that mediate sentence reading, three populations with different degrees of English knowledge and depth of hearing loss were included-deaf signers, oral deaf and hearing individuals. The three groups were matched for reading comprehension and scanned while reading sentences. A similar neural network of left perisylvian areas was observed, supporting the view of a shared network of areas for reading despite differences in hearing and English knowledge. However, differences were observed, in particular in the auditory cortex, with deaf signers and oral deaf showing greatest bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) recruitment as compared to hearing individuals. Importantly, within deaf individuals, the same STG area in the left hemisphere showed greater recruitment as hearing loss increased. To further understand the functional role of such auditory cortex re-organization after deafness, connectivity analyses were performed from the STG regions identified above. Connectivity from the left STG toward areas typically associated with semantic processing (BA45 and thalami) was greater in deaf signers and in oral deaf as compared to hearing. In contrast, connectivity from left STG toward areas identified with speech-based processing was greater in hearing and in oral deaf as compared to deaf signers. These results support the growing literature indicating recruitment of auditory areas after congenital deafness for visually-mediated language functions, and establish that both auditory deprivation and language experience shape its functional reorganization. Implications for differential reliance on semantic vs. phonological pathways during reading in the three groups is discussed. PMID:24959127

  8. Neural networks mediating sentence reading in the deaf

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter C.; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the neural bases of sentence reading in deaf populations. To better understand the relative role of deafness and spoken language knowledge in shaping the neural networks that mediate sentence reading, three populations with different degrees of English knowledge and depth of hearing loss were included—deaf signers, oral deaf and hearing individuals. The three groups were matched for reading comprehension and scanned while reading sentences. A similar neural network of left perisylvian areas was observed, supporting the view of a shared network of areas for reading despite differences in hearing and English knowledge. However, differences were observed, in particular in the auditory cortex, with deaf signers and oral deaf showing greatest bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) recruitment as compared to hearing individuals. Importantly, within deaf individuals, the same STG area in the left hemisphere showed greater recruitment as hearing loss increased. To further understand the functional role of such auditory cortex re-organization after deafness, connectivity analyses were performed from the STG regions identified above. Connectivity from the left STG toward areas typically associated with semantic processing (BA45 and thalami) was greater in deaf signers and in oral deaf as compared to hearing. In contrast, connectivity from left STG toward areas identified with speech-based processing was greater in hearing and in oral deaf as compared to deaf signers. These results support the growing literature indicating recruitment of auditory areas after congenital deafness for visually-mediated language functions, and establish that both auditory deprivation and language experience shape its functional reorganization. Implications for differential reliance on semantic vs. phonological pathways during reading in the three groups is discussed. PMID:24959127

  9. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  10. Sentence Comprehension in Young Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on written sentence comprehension in compensated adults with dyslexia. Because working memory (WM) plays a key role in processing complex sentences, and individuals with dyslexia often demonstrate persistent deficits in WM, we hypothesized that individuals with dyslexia would perform more…

  11. Analysis of Reading Comprehension Levels of Fifth Grade Students Who Learned to Read and Write with the Sentence Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagirli, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…

  12. Inhibitory control during sentence reading in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    van der Schoot, Menno; Licht, Robert; Horsley, Tako M; Aarts, Letty T; van Koert, Barbara; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2004-09-01

    The present study focused on the nature of the reading disability of children with the guessing subtype of dyslexia (who read fast and inaccurately). The objective was to separate the excitatory account of their reading disturbance (i.e., in guessers the words' resting levels of activation are oversensitive to semantic context) from the inhibitory account (i.e., guessers tend to react prematurely to (false) candidate words that are activated in the lexicon). To disentangle the above accounts, guessers and normal readers were presented with a sentential priming task (SPT). In the SPT, subjects had to determine whether the final word of a sentence was semantically congruent or incongruent with the sentence, but had to inhibit their 'congruent' or 'incongruent' response in case of an occasionally presented pseudoword. To evoke guessing, each pseudoword closely resembled either a valid congruent or incongruent word. Guessing referred to prematurely accepting a pseudoword as a word that either appropriately or inappropriately completed the sentence. The extent to which subjects guessed at word meaning was evidenced by the false recognition rates (FRR) of the misspelled terminal words. Analyses on the FRRs of the pseudowords showed that guessers had significantly more difficulty in suppressing the 'go tendency' triggered by the pseudowords. It was concluded that the impulsive reading style of guessers should be ascribed to a less efficient suppression mechanism rather than to excessive reliance on contextual information. Specifically, the data were explained by assuming that the availability of the pseudoword's candidate meaning activated the hand to respond with, and that guessers found difficulty in suspending this response until they analyzed all letters in the stimulus and they could be sure of its spelling. PMID:15590496

  13. Do Beginners Learn to Read Function Words Better in Sentences or in Lists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Wilce, Lee S.

    First grade students practiced reading ten unfamiliar function words; half studied the words embedded in printed sentences and half studied the words in unstructured lists and then listened to sentences comprised of the words. Posttest measures revealed that those who studied the sentences learned more about the syntactic/semantic identities of…

  14. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension. PMID:26652170

  15. Usage of Statistical Cues for Word Boundary in Reading Chinese Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Radach, Ralph; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.; Tsai, Jie-Li

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the use of statistical cues for word boundaries during Chinese reading. Participants were instructed to read sentences for comprehension with their eye movements being recorded. A two-character target word was embedded in each sentence. The contrast between the probabilities of the ending character (C2) of the target…

  16. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  17. Reading during the composition of multi-sentence texts: an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Mark; Johansson, Roger; Johansson, Victoria; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-09-01

    Writers composing multi-sentence texts have immediate access to a visual representation of what they have written. Little is known about the detail of writers' eye movements within this text during production. We describe two experiments in which competent adult writers' eye movements were tracked while performing short expository writing tasks. These are contrasted with conditions in which participants read and evaluated researcher-provided texts. Writers spent a mean of around 13 % of their time looking back into their text. Initiation of these look-back sequences was strongly predicted by linguistically important boundaries in their ongoing production (e.g., writers were much more likely to look back immediately prior to starting a new sentence). 36 % of look-back sequences were associated with sustained reading and the remainder with less patterned forward and backward saccades between words ("hopping"). Fixation and gaze durations and the presence of word-length effects suggested lexical processing of fixated words in both reading and hopping sequences. Word frequency effects were not present when writers read their own text. Findings demonstrate the technical possibility and potential value of examining writers' fixations within their just-written text. We suggest that these fixations do not serve solely, or even primarily, in monitoring for error, but play an important role in planning ongoing production. PMID:26120046

  18. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.2 Eligibility for parole;...

  19. Online Sentence Reading in People With Aphasia: Evidence From Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Knilans, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a lot of evidence that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding structurally complex sentences (e.g., object clefts) than simpler sentences (subject clefts). However, subject clefts also occur more frequently in English than object clefts. Thus, it is possible that both structural complexity and frequency affect how people with aphasia understand these structures. Method Nine people with aphasia and 8 age-matched controls participated in the study. The stimuli consisted of 24 object cleft and 24 subject cleft sentences. The task was eye tracking during reading, which permits a more fine-grained analysis of reading performance than measures such as self-paced reading. Results As expected, controls had longer reading times for critical regions in object cleft sentences compared with subject cleft sentences. People with aphasia showed the predicted effects of structural frequency. Effects of structural complexity in people with aphasia did not emerge on their first pass through the sentence but were observed when they were rereading critical regions of complex sentences. Conclusions People with aphasia are sensitive to both structural complexity and structural frequency when reading. However, people with aphasia may use different reading strategies than controls when confronted with relatively infrequent and complex sentence structures. PMID:26383779

  20. Effects of Individual Differences in Verbal Skills on Eye-Movement Patterns during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy-one non-college-bound 16-24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye-movements were monitored.…

  1. Sentence Interpretation Strategies in Emergent Bilingual Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Iliana; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sentence processing in emergent bilingual children and young adults in both English (second language -- L2) and Spanish (first language -- L1). One hundred participants from five different age groups (5;4-7;11, 8;0-10;11, 11;2-13;11, 14;0-16;8 years, and college-age adults) participated in this study. An online sentence…

  2. Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young versus Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2013-01-01

    A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors such as speaker age or working memory capacity predicted reading and tracking performance. In addition, sentence-by-sentence variation in tracking performance was examined during the production of individual sentences and during the pauses before upcoming sentences. The results suggest that dual tasking has a greater impact on older adults’ reading comprehension and tracking performance. At the level of individual sentences, young and older adults adopt different strategies to deal with grammatically complex and propositionally dense sentences. PMID:23463405

  3. Oscillatory Brain Dynamics during Sentence Reading: A Fixation-Related Spectral Perturbation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Lorenzo; Himmelstoss, Nicole A; Hawelka, Stefan; Richlan, Fabio; Hutzler, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated oscillatory brain dynamics during self-paced sentence-level processing. Participants read fully correct sentences, sentences containing a semantic violation and "sentences" in which the order of the words was randomized. At the target word level, fixations on semantically unrelated words elicited a lower-beta band (13-18 Hz) desynchronization. At the sentence level, gamma power (31-55 Hz) increased linearly for syntactically correct sentences, but not when the order of the words was randomized. In the 300-900 ms time window after sentence onsets, theta power (4-7 Hz) was greater for syntactically correct sentences as compared to sentences where no syntactic structure was preserved (random words condition). We interpret our results as conforming with a recently formulated predictive-coding framework for oscillatory neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension. Additionally, we discuss how our results relate to previous findings with serial visual presentation vs. self-paced reading. PMID:27199713

  4. The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

  5. Prosodic Boundaries Delay the Processing of Upcoming Lexical Information during Silent Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yingyi; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic boundaries can be used to guide syntactic parsing in both spoken and written sentence comprehension, but it is unknown whether the processing of prosodic boundaries affects the processing of upcoming lexical information. In 3 eye-tracking experiments, participants read silently sentences that allow for 2 possible syntactic interpretations…

  6. Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and the Timeline of Word Recognition: Event-Related Potentials during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Braun, Mario; Wille, Kristin; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Three ERP experiments examined the effect of word presentation rate (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) on the time course of word frequency and predictability effects in sentence reading. In Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented word-by-word in the screen center at an SOA of 700 and 490ms, respectively. While these rates are typical…

  7. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  8. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…

  9. Processing Advantages of Lexical Bundles: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading and Sentence Recall Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Antoine; Derwing, Bruce; Libben, Gary; Westbury, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which lexical bundles (LBs; i.e., frequently recurring strings of words that often span traditional syntactic boundaries) are stored and processed holistically. Three self-paced reading experiments compared sentences containing LBs (e.g., "in the middle of the") and matched control sentence fragments (e.g., "in…

  10. Effect of Sentence Combining on Fifth Grade Reading and Writing Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Deurelle

    A study investigated the effects of sentence combining instruction on the reading comprehension and writing maturity of fifth grade children. The sample consisted of an experimental and a control group with 25 children in each group. For 6 weeks the experimental group received instruction in sentence combining, defined for purposes of the study as…

  11. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  12. Oscillatory Brain Dynamics during Sentence Reading: A Fixation-Related Spectral Perturbation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Lorenzo; Himmelstoss, Nicole A.; Hawelka, Stefan; Richlan, Fabio; Hutzler, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated oscillatory brain dynamics during self-paced sentence-level processing. Participants read fully correct sentences, sentences containing a semantic violation and “sentences” in which the order of the words was randomized. At the target word level, fixations on semantically unrelated words elicited a lower-beta band (13–18 Hz) desynchronization. At the sentence level, gamma power (31–55 Hz) increased linearly for syntactically correct sentences, but not when the order of the words was randomized. In the 300–900 ms time window after sentence onsets, theta power (4–7 Hz) was greater for syntactically correct sentences as compared to sentences where no syntactic structure was preserved (random words condition). We interpret our results as conforming with a recently formulated predictive-coding framework for oscillatory neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension. Additionally, we discuss how our results relate to previous findings with serial visual presentation vs. self-paced reading. PMID:27199713

  13. Parafoveal perception during sentence reading?: An ERP paradigm using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) with flankers

    PubMed Central

    Bentin, Shlomo; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new procedure using event related brain potentials to investigate parafoveal word processing during sentence reading. Sentences were presented word-byword at fixation, flanked two degrees bilaterally by letter strings. Flanker strings were pseudowords, except for the third word in each sentence, which was flanked by either two pseudowords, or a pseudoword and a word, one on each side. Flanker words were either semantically congruent or incongruent with the sentence context. P2 (175-375 ms) amplitudes were less positive for contextually incongruent than congruent flanker words but only with flanker words in the right visual field for English, and in the left visual field in Hebrew. Flankered word presentation thus may be a suitable method for the electrophysiological study of parafoveal perception during sentence reading. PMID:21361965

  14. Lip-reading the BKB sentence lists: corrections for list and practice effects.

    PubMed

    Foster, J R; Summerfield, A Q; Marshall, D H; Palmer, L; Ball, V; Rosen, S

    1993-08-01

    Two groups of 21 adult subjects with normal hearing viewed the video recordings of the Bamford-Kowal-Bench standard sentence lists issued by the EPI Group in 1986. Each subject viewed all of the 21 lists and attempted to write down the words contained in each sentence. One group lip-read the lists with no sound (the LR:alone condition). The other group also heard a sequence of acoustic pulses which were synchronized to the moments when the talker's vocal folds closed (the LR&Lx condition). Performance was assessed both by loose (KW(L)) and by tight (KW(T)) keyword scoring methods. Both scoring methods produced the same pattern of results: performance was better in the LR&Lx condition; performance in both conditions improved linearly with the logarithm of the list presentation order number; subjects who produced higher overall scores also improved more with experience of the lists. The data were described well by a logistic regression model which provided a formula which can be used to compensate for practice effects and for differences in difficulty between lists. Two simpler, but less accurate, methods for compensating for variation in inter-list difficulty are also described. A figure is provided which can be used to assess the significance of the difference between a pair of scores obtained from a single subject in any pair of presentation conditions. PMID:8312846

  15. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  16. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  17. Identifying Engineering Students' English Sentence Reading Comprehension Errors: Applying a Data Mining Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chang, Yukon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a diagnostic approach to identify engineering students' English reading comprehension errors. Student data were collected during the process of reading texts of English for science and technology on a web-based cumulative sentence analysis system. For the analysis, the association-rule, data mining technique…

  18. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers' eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  19. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  20. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause. PMID:25711096

  1. Detecting the Ambiguity of Sentences: Relationship to Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Helen Smith; Waltzman, Dava; Schlisselberg, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a preliminary study of 18, 4- and 5-year-old children, followed by a longitudinal study of 44 children, who were tested in the first, second, and third grades. The children's ability to detect the ambiguity of lexically ambiguous sentences (e. g., "The children saw the bat lying by the fence") and structurally…

  2. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  3. Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

    2001-01-01

    Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

  4. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951

  5. Parafoveal-on-Foveal Effects of Emotional Word Semantics in Reading Chinese Sentences: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known influence of emotional meaning on cognition, relatively less is known about its effects on reading behavior. We investigated whether fixation behavior during the reading of Chinese sentences is influenced by emotional word meaning in the parafovea. Two-character target words embedded into the same sentence frames provided…

  6. Sentence Repetition Accuracy in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Interactions of Participant Capacities and Sentence Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We asked whether sentence repetition accuracy could be explained by interactions of participant processing limitations with the structures of the sentences. We also tested a prediction of the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) that adjuncts are more difficult than arguments for individuals with developmental…

  7. ERP evidence for the online processing of rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2010-02-01

    Prosodic information has been found to have immediate impact upon spoken sentence comprehension. However, it is not clear to what extent such information could constrain neuro-cognitive processes in silent reading. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigate whether a particular prosodic constraint in Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-noun combination, affects sentence reading and whether neural markers of rhythmic pattern processing are similar to those of prosodic processing in the spoken domain. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different lengths, with some combinations (e.g., the [2+1] pattern; numbers in brackets stand for the number of syllables of the verb and of the noun respectively) disallowed and some combinations (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]) preferred. We manipulated the well-formedness of rhythmic pattern as well as the semantic congruency between the verb and the noun and we visually presented sentences, segment by segment, to readers who were required to make acceptability judgment to each sentence. In two experiments in which the verb and the noun were presented either separately or as one segment, we found that the abnormal rhythmic pattern evoked an N400-like effect in the 400- to 600-ms time window and a late positivity effect in semantically congruent sentences; however, the abnormal rhythmic pattern elicited a posterior positivity effect in the 300- to 600-ms time window in semantically incongruent sentences. These findings suggest that information concerning rhythmic pattern is used rapidly and interactively to constrain semantic access/integration during Chinese sentence reading. PMID:19833211

  8. Impacting re-arrest rates among youth sentenced in adult court: an epidemiological examination of the Juvenile Sentencing Advocacy Project.

    PubMed

    Mason, Craig A; Chapman, Derek A; Chang, Shau; Simons, Julie

    2003-06-01

    Examines the impact of a program aimed at reducing re-offending among juveniles transferred to adult court in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Initiated in 1998, the Juvenile Sentencing Advocacy Project (JSAP) worked to increase the degree to which defense lawyers, prosecutors, judges, and police officers considered the developmental status of youth charged with crimes, as well as the contextual basis for their behavior and their potential for rehabilitation. Through such activities, the goal was to increase the use of juvenile sanctions, rather than traditional adult sentences. Based on previous research, it was predicted that increased use of juvenile sanctions would be associated with fewer youth re-offending. This article examines 162 youth who were transferred to and sentenced in adult court during 1999. Re-offense patterns were monitored through June 2001. Analyses using epidemiological measures of effect found that the use of juvenile sanctions significantly increased following implementation of JSAP and that youth receiving adult probation or boot camp were 1.74 to 2.29 times more likely to re-offend than were youth receiving juvenile sanctions. The increased use of juvenile sanctions following implementation of JSAP corresponded to an 11.2% to 15.3% decrease in the number of youth one would have anticipated would re-offend had previous patterns of sentencing continued. PMID:12679278

  9. Perceptual Span Depends on Font Size during the Reading of Chinese Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual span (i.e., the physical extent of an area from which useful visual information is extracted during a single fixation) during the reading of Chinese sentences in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the rightward span can go beyond 3 characters when visually similar masks were used. Results…

  10. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  11. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  12. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  13. Eye movements of Young and Older Adults while Reading with Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used eye-tracking technology to examine young and old adults’ on-line performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences, single word distracters were presented in either italic or red font. Distracters could be related or unrelated to the target text. On-line measures including probability of fixation, fixation duration, and number of fixations to distracting text revealed no age differences in text processing. However, young adults did have an advantage over older adults in overall reading time and text comprehension. These results provide no support for an inhibition deficit account of age differences in the reading in distraction paradigm, but are consistent with Dywan and Murphy’s (1995) suggestion that older adults are less able than young to distinguish target and distracter information held in working memory. PMID:16594789

  14. Adult Age Differences in the Effects of Goals on Self-Regulated Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Shake, Matthew C.; Miles, Joseph R.; Noh, Soo Rim

    2008-01-01

    We examined age differences in the allocation of effort when reading text for either high levels of recall accuracy or high levels of efficiency. Older and younger adults read a series of sentences, making judgments of learning before recalling the information they had studied. Older adults showed less sensitivity than the young to the accuracy goal in terms of both reading time allocation and memory performance. Memory monitoring (i.e., the correspondence between actual and perceived learning) and differential allocation of effort to unlearned items were age-equivalent, so that age differences in goal adherence were not attributable to these factors. However, comparison with data from a judgment task neutral with respect to memory monitoring showed that learning gains among the old across trial were reduced relative to young by memory monitoring, suggesting that active memory monitoring may be resource-consuming for older learners. Regression analysis was used to show that age differences in the responsiveness to (cognitive/information-acquisition) goals could be accounted for, in part, by independent contributions from working memory and memory self-efficacy. Our data suggest that both processing capacity (“what you have”) and beliefs (“knowing you can do it”) can contribute to individual differences in engaging resources (“what you do”) to effectively learn novel content from text. PMID:17201498

  15. Effects of individual differences in verbal skills on eye-movement patterns during sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy one non-college-bound 16–24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye movements were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed to establish what tests of reading abilities were predictive of eye-movement patterns across this population and how strong the effects were. We found that individual scores in rapid automatized naming and word identification tests (i) were the only participant variables with reliable predictivity throughout the time-course of reading; (ii) elicited effects that superceded in magnitude the effects of established predictors like word length or frequency; and (iii) strongly modulated the influence of word length and frequency on fixation times. We discuss implications of our findings for testing reading ability, as well as for research of eye-movements in reading. PMID:21709808

  16. THE EFFECT OF PLAUSIBILITY ON SENTENCE COMPREHENSION AMONG OLDER ADULTS AND ITS RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jungmee; Campanelli, Luca; Goral, Mira; Marton, Klara; Eichorn, Naomi; Obler, Loraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Older adults show age-related decline in complex-sentence comprehension. This has been attributed to a decrease in cognitive abilities that may support language processing, such as working memory (e.g., Caplan, DeDe, Waters, & Michaud, 2011,Psychology and Aging, 26, 439–450). The authors examined whether older adults have difficulty comprehending semantically implausible sentences and whether specific executive functions contribute to their comprehension performance. Methods Forty-two younger adults (aged 18–35) and 42 older adults (aged 55–75) were tested on two experimental tasks: a multiple negative comprehension task and an information processing battery. Results Both groups, older and younger adults, showed poorer performance for implausible sentences than for plausible sentences; however, no interaction was found between plausibility and age group. A regression analysis revealed that inhibition efficiency, as measured by a task that required resistance to proactive interference, predicted comprehension of implausible sentences in older adults only. Consistent with the compensation hypothesis, the older adults with better inhibition skills showed better comprehension than those with poor inhibition skills. Conclusion The findings suggest that semantic implausibility, along with syntactic complexity, increases linguistic and cognitive processing loads on auditory sentence comprehension. Moreover, the contribution of inhibitory control to the processing of semantic plausibility, particularly among older adults, suggests that the relationship between cognitive ability and language comprehension is strongly influenced by age. PMID:25978447

  17. Reading Skill and the Minimum Distance Principle: A Comparison of Sentence Comprehension in Context and in Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R.

    The comprehension of the Minimum Distance Principle was examined in three experiments, using the "tell/promise" sentence construction. Experiment one compared the listening and reading comprehension of singly presented sentences, e.g. "John tells Bill to bake the cake" and "John promises Bill to bake the cake." The comprehension question asked for…

  18. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  19. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A.; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented. PMID:25628557

  20. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  1. Action-related semantic content and negation polarity modulate motor areas during sentence reading: an event-related desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Alemanno, F; Houdayer, E; Cursi, M; Velikova, S; Tettamanti, M; Comi, G; Cappa, S F; Leocani, L

    2012-11-12

    Our study evaluated motor cortex involvement during silent reading of sentences referring to hand actions. We aimed at defining whether sentential polarity (affirmative vs. negative) would modulate motor cortex activation using the event-related desynchronization (ERD) analysis of the mu rhythm. Eleven healthy volunteers performed a reading task involving 160 sentences (80 affirmative: 40 hand-related, 40 abstract; 80 negative: 40 hand-related, 40 abstract). After reading each sentence, subjects had to decide whether the verb was high or low frequency in Italian. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded with 32 surface electrodes and mu ERD analyses were performed for each subject. Hand-action related sentences induced a greater mu ERD over the left premotor and motor hand areas compared to abstract sentences. Mu ERD was greater and temporally delayed when the hand-related verbs were presented in the negative versus affirmative form. As predicted by the "embodied semantic" theory of language understanding, motor areas were activated during sentences referring to hand actions. In addition, motor cortex activation was larger for negative than affirmative motor sentences, a finding compatible with the hypothesis that comprehension is more demanding in the specific case of motor content negation. PMID:23010314

  2. La lecture et les adultes (Reading and Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, Benigno

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods used to help adults improve their reading skills and read with more enjoyment. Particular attention is paid to the Reading Club method. An illustration is given of a particular exercise used at a center in Paris. (AMH)

  3. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26767907

  4. Perceptual span depends on font size during the reading of Chinese sentences.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual span (i.e., the physical extent of an area from which useful visual information is extracted during a single fixation) during the reading of Chinese sentences in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the rightward span can go beyond 3 characters when visually similar masks were used. Results showed that Chinese readers needed at least 4 characters to the right of fixation to maintain a normal reading behavior when visually similar masks were used and when characters were displayed in small fonts, indicating that the span is dynamically influenced by masking materials. In Experiments 2 and 3, we asked whether the perceptual span varies as a function of font size in spaced (German) and unspaced (Chinese) scripts. Results clearly suggest perceptual span depends on font size in Chinese, but we failed to find such evidence for German. We propose that the perceptual span in Chinese is flexible; it is strongly constrained by its language-specific properties such as high information density and lack of word spacing. Implications for saccade-target selection during the reading of Chinese sentences are discussed. PMID:25329081

  5. The Write Way. Book I. The Simple Sentence. Writing and Grammar Instruction for Indian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Tahlequah.

    This workbook is designed to teach American Indian adults how to write grammatically correct sentences by using mathematical-type formulae for writing and by recognizing the strong visual learning style exhibited by American Indians. It is particularly designed for Cherokee adult basic education students, incorporating their experiences, culture,…

  6. The Fruitless Effort of Growing a Fruitless Tree: Early Morpho-Orthographic and Morpho-Semantic Effects in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Simona; Marelli, Marco; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In this eye-tracking study, we investigated how semantics inform morphological analysis at the early stages of visual word identification in sentence reading. We exploited a feature of several derived Italian words, that is, that they can be read in a "morphologically transparent" way or in a "morphologically opaque" way…

  7. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence, and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively, but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence, and text levels. Latent change score models were used to…

  8. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia. Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  9. MATERIALS FOR TEACHING ADULTS TO READ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORD, DAVID; OTTO, WAYNE

    AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY AND REVIEW OF THE MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR TEACHING ILLITERATE ADULTS TO READ WAS CONDUCTED BY QUESTIONING PUBLISHERS ABOUT THE LITERATURE THEY PUBLISHED FOR THE ADULT BASIC LITERACY MARKET. BASED ON THE PUBLISHERS' REPLIES, THE FOLLOWING SIX ANNOTATED LISTS OF ADULT READING MATERIALS WERE COMPILED AND ARE PRESENTED--BASIC…

  10. An event-related potential investigation of sentence processing in adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Murase, Shinobu; Kawashima, Takashi; Satake, Hirotaka; Era, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of the semantic processing of sentences' final verbs in stutterers using event-related potential (ERP). ERPs elicited from semantically violating and non-violating verbs in Japanese sentences were compared between 13 adults who stutter (AWS) and 13 adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The stimulus sentences elicited the N400 and the late positive component (LPC) in both groups. The amplitude of the N400, however, was attenuated in AWS. Regarding the LPC, the LPC in the 450-700ms time window (the early LPC) was evident in both groups, but the LPC in the 700-850 time window (the late LPC) was only apparent in AWS. Because AWS judged sentence congruency as accurately as AWNS did, it is assumed that AWS depended more on the LPC for semantic processing, resulting in the enhancement of the late LPC. We speculate that semantic processing of sentences for AWS is more time consuming than that for AWNS. PMID:26477716

  11. Adult Development and Adult Beginning Reading Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…

  12. Reading Practices among Adult Education Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl; Patterson, Margaret Becker; Prewett, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the relation between reading practices and individual characteristics of participants in adult education who have low literacy skills. Reading practices describe individuals' reading frequency for different types of written material, such as books, newspapers, magazines, technical materials, and work documents.…

  13. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  14. Correctional Sentence Plan: A Pathway to Adult Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokoele, Matata

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Matata Mokoele reflects on the importance of prisoner education, and notes that what is missing is official recognition of this or adult-specific components outlining an upper secondary school adult education diploma entitling holders to apply for higher education. Studies reporting a correlation between greater education and lower…

  15. Using Eye Movements to Investigate Word Frequency Effects in Children's Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Nation, Kate; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    skilled adult readers process written language, relatively little research has used this methodology with children. This is unfortunate as, as we discuss here, eye-movement studies have significant potential to inform our understanding of children's reading development. We…

  16. How Do Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some frequent content words and ignoring the function words. The present results show that deaf children, including those wearing CIs from an early age, do use the KWS. It is also shown that this tendency is related with a linguistic deficiency, especially with a poor ability to deal with function words. Furthermore, the age of implantation, and the degree of hearing loss for children without CIs, plays an important role in using the KWS. Some pedagogical consequences of this situation are considered. PMID:27151899

  17. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  18. Time for prediction? The effect of presentation rate on predictive sentence comprehension during word-by-word reading.

    PubMed

    Wlotko, Edward W; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-07-01

    Predictive processing is a core component of normal language comprehension, but the brain may not engage in prediction to the same extent in all circumstances. This study investigates the effects of timing on anticipatory comprehension mechanisms. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read two-sentence mini-scenarios previously shown to elicit prediction-related effects for implausible items that are categorically related to expected items ('They wanted to make the hotel look more like a tropical resort. So along the driveway they planted rows of PALMS/PINES/TULIPS.'). The first sentence of every pair was presented in its entirety and was self-paced. The second sentence was presented word-by-word with a fixed stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of either 500 msec or 250 msec that was manipulated in a within-subjects blocked design. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component are taken as a neural index of demands on semantic processing. At 500 msec SOA, implausible words related to predictable words elicited reduced N400 amplitudes compared to unrelated words (PINES vs TULIPS), replicating past studies. At 250 msec SOA this prediction-related semantic facilitation was diminished. Thus, timing is a factor in determining the extent to which anticipatory mechanisms are engaged. However, we found evidence that prediction can sometimes be engaged even under speeded presentation rates. Participants who first read sentences in the 250 msec SOA block showed no effect of semantic similarity for this SOA, although these same participants showed the effect in the second block with 500 msec SOA. However, participants who first read sentences in the 500 msec SOA block continued to show the N400 semantic similarity effect in the 250 msec SOA block. These findings add to results showing that the brain flexibly allocates resources to most effectively achieve comprehension goals given the current processing environment. PMID:25987437

  19. Polanyi's Philosophy and Adult Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing Michael Polanyi's theory of knowledge as a framework, the author outlines an approach in which illiterate adults might increase their motivation and chances of success in developing reading skill. (EM)

  20. Adults' Reading as a Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazhe, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study examining the reading attitudes of the Russian people. This study also investigates the motives that guide adults in their choice of literature. Researchers have noted that two motives stand out: (1) "normative" or "pragmatic" reading (for school, exams, and reports; for carrying out specific…

  1. A TEACHER'S GUIDE TO TEACHING ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, PRESCO

    THIS HANDBOOK IS DESIGNED FOR NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS OF ADULT READING IMPROVEMENT COURSES. PRIMARILY, IT SUGGESTS COURSE CONTENT, READING SKILLS TO BE MASTERED, SPECIFIC METHODS OF INSTRUCTION, DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TEACHING AND TESTING MATERIALS, AND CLASSROOM RECORD FORMS FOR USE IN EVALUATING STUDENT PROGRESS. THE…

  2. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects of emotional word semantics in reading Chinese sentences: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Sommer, Werner

    2015-07-01

    Despite the well-known influence of emotional meaning on cognition, relatively less is known about its effects on reading behavior. We investigated whether fixation behavior during the reading of Chinese sentences is influenced by emotional word meaning in the parafovea. Two-character target words embedded into the same sentence frames provided emotionally positive, negative, or neutral contents. Fixation durations on neutral pretarget words were prolonged for positive parafoveal words and for highly frequent negative parafoveal words. In addition, fixation durations on foveal emotional words were shorter than those on neutral words. We also found that the role of emotional words varied as a function of their valence during foveal and parafoveal processing. These findings suggest a processing advantage for emotional words relative to emotionally neutral stimuli in foveal and parafoveal vision. We discuss implications for the notion of attention attraction due to emotional content. PMID:25581226

  3. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  4. How older adults use cognition in sentence-final word recognition.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Spiro, Avron; Sayers, Jesse T; Oveis, Abigail C; Higby, Eve; Ojo, Emmanuel A; Duncan, Susan; Goral, Mira; Hyun, Jungmoon; Albert, Martin L; Obler, Loraine K

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of executive control and working memory on older adults' sentence-final word recognition. The question we addressed was the importance of executive functions to this process and how it is modulated by the predictability of the speech material. To this end, we tested 173 neurologically intact adult native English speakers aged 55-84 years. Participants were given a sentence-final word recognition test in which sentential context was manipulated and sentences were presented in different levels of babble, and multiple tests of executive functioning assessing inhibition, shifting, and efficient access to long-term memory, as well as working memory. Using a generalized linear mixed model, we found that better inhibition was associated with higher accuracy in word recognition, while increased age and greater hearing loss were associated with poorer performance. Findings are discussed in the framework of semantic control and are interpreted as supporting a theoretical view of executive control which emphasizes functional diversity among executive components. PMID:26569553

  5. Reading Expressively and Understanding Thoroughly: An Examination of Prosody in Adults with Low Literacy Skills.

    PubMed

    Binder, Katherine S; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes and how long readers paused at various points while reading. Finally, for the adults with low literacy skills, we collected information on decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension. We found several interesting results. First, adults with low literacy skills paused longer than skilled readers and paused at a substantially greater number of punctuation marks. Second, while adults with low literacy skills do mark the end of declarative sentences with a pitch declination similar to skilled readers, their readings of questions lack a change in pitch. Third, decoding and word recognition skills were related to pauses while reading; readers with lower skills made longer and more frequent and inappropriate pauses. Finally, pausing measures explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension among the adults with low literacy skills. PMID:23687406

  6. Is Semantic Processing During Sentence Reading Autonomous or Controlled? Evidence from the N400 Component in a Dual Task Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The present study contributes to the discussion on the automaticity of semantic processing. Whereas most previous research investigated semantic processing at word level, the present study addressed semantic processing during sentence reading. A dual task paradigm was combined with the recording of event-related brain potentials. Previous research at word level processing reported different patterns of interference with the N400 by additional tasks: attenuation of amplitude or delay of latency. In the present study, we presented Spanish sentences that were semantically correct or contained a semantic violation in a critical word. At different intervals preceding the critical word a tone was presented that required a high-priority choice response. At short intervals/high temporal overlap between the tasks mean amplitude of the N400 was reduced relative to long intervals/low temporal overlap, but there were no shifts of peak latency. We propose that processing at sentence level exerts a protective effect against the additional task. This is in accord with the attentional sensitization model (Kiefer & Martens, 2010), which suggests that semantic processing is an automatic process that can be enhanced by the currently activated task set. The present experimental sentences also induced a P600, which is taken as an index of integrative processing. Additional task effects are comparable to those in the N400 time window and are briefly discussed. PMID:26203312

  7. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  8. Reading Skills and Activities for the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite Royjier-Poncefonte

    This book contains more than 200 one-page exercises designed to give adults practice in basic reading and handwriting skills. The exercises are arranged according to the areas with which they deal: visual discrimination; letter recognition; manuscript practice and sequence; script practice; numeral writing; initial consonants; final consonants;…

  9. Jefferson County Adult Reading Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    The 1980-81 Jefferson County (Kentucky) Adult Reading Program served 601 students functioning below 6.0 grade level during the 1980-81 year. The project's instructional methods and materials were developed based on the experiences of the program for the previous two years. The program was considered a success not only from the viewpoint of the…

  10. The Binding Problem for Syntax, Semantics, and Prosody: H.M.'s Selective Sentence-Reading Deficits under the Theoretical-Syndrome Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Donald G.; James, Lori E.

    2001-01-01

    A "hippocampal amnesiac" (H.M.) and memory-normal controls of similar age, background, intelligence, and education read novel sentences aloud in tasks where fast and accurate reading was or was not the primary goal. H.M produced more misreadings than normal and cerebellar controls, usually without self-correction. Results support a theoretical…

  11. Attention Blinks for Selection, Not Perception or Memory: Reading Sentences and Reporting Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Wyble, Brad; Olejarczyk, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In whole report, a sentence presented sequentially at the rate of about 10 words/s can be recalled accurately, whereas if the task is to report only two target words (e.g., red words), the second target suffers an attentional blink if it appears shortly after the first target. If these two tasks are carried out simultaneously, is there an…

  12. Can Bilinguals See It Coming? Word Anticipation in L2 Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucart, Alice; Martin, Clara D.; Moreno, Eva M.; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late…

  13. Visual Attention During Sentence Verification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Peter A.

    Eye movement data were collected for 28 college students reading 32 sentences with sentence verification questions. The factors observed were target sentence voice (active/passive), probe voice, and correct response (true/false). Pairs of subjects received the same set of stimuli, but with agents and objects in the sentences reversed. As expected,…

  14. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners. PMID:27626080

  15. Anticipating Words and Their Gender: An Event-related Brain Potential Study of Semantic Integration, Gender Expectancy, and Gender Agreement in Spanish Sentence Reading

    PubMed Central

    Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.; Moreno, Eva M.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the human brain attends to and uses grammatical gender cues during sentence comprehension. Here, we examine the nature and time course of the effect of gender on word-by-word sentence reading. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to an article and noun, while native Spanish speakers read medium- to high-constraint Spanish sentences for comprehension. The noun either fit the sentence meaning or not, and matched the preceding article in gender or not; in addition, the preceding article was either expected or unexpected based on prior sentence context. Semantically anomalous nouns elicited an N400. Gender-disagreeing nouns elicited a posterior late positivity (P600), replicating previous findings for words. Gender agreement and semantic congruity interacted in both the N400 window—with a larger negativity frontally for double violations—and the P600 window—with a larger positivity for semantic anomalies, relative to the prestimulus baseline. Finally, unexpected articles elicited an enhanced positivity (500–700 msec post onset) relative to expected articles. Overall, our data indicate that readers anticipate and attend to the gender of both articles and nouns, and use gender in real time to maintain agreement and to build sentence meaning. PMID:15453979

  16. Changes in Reading Habits by Low Literate Adults through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the…

  17. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  18. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  19. Long-range neural synchronization supports fast and efficient reading: EEG correlates of processing expected words in sentences

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Word reading is heavily influenced by the information provided by previous context. In this study, we analyzed the neurophysiological bases of sentence reading through the EEG activity elicited during reading the same word embedded in differently constraining contexts: a) a low-constraining context; b) a high-constraining semantic compositional context; c) a high-constraining collocational context in which the item was in final position of a multi-word fixed-order expression. Cloze-probability of the two high-constraining contexts was equated. Before reading the target word we observed increased EEG gamma phase synchronization for the high-constraining compositional context and increased EEG theta synchronization for the collocational context (both compared to the low-constraining condition). After reading the target word we observed increased frontal positive EEG evoked activity (~220 ms) for the high-constraining compositional context but an even earlier (~120 ms) effect for the high-constraining collocational condition that was distributed over the scalp. A positive correlation was found only between the increased theta synchronization and the early EEG effect for the high-constraining collocational condition. Results indicate that long-range frontal-occipital interactions in the theta band - indexing working memory operations - support early visual-orthographic analysis of an incoming stimulus (such as the expected word); gamma-phase synchronization better represents binding operations between feed-forward activation and matching feedback. These data suggest that internal linguistic knowledge stored in long-term memory - if unambiguously pre-activated - supports the low-level perceptual processes involved in reading. PMID:23357072

  20. No Limits--READ! Young Adult Reading Club and Programming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Lisa

    This manual provides strategies for developing young adult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for young adults, suggests promotional ideas for the young adult reading club and young adult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…

  1. Reading Practices and Profiles of Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study presents findings regarding older adults' reading practices with respect to newspapers, magazines, books, and Internet information. The study also identifies four reading profiles defined by the frequency and diversification of the material read: the nonreaders, the less diversified…

  2. Is Adult Reading a Guide to Educational-Vocational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading is theorised as a key aspect of one's educational and vocational adjustment. The reading scores on the "Wide-Range Achievement Test 3" of 465 adult vocational assessment clients were examined. Reading varied across a range of social factors and the overall results were consistent with earlier studies, especially the "Adult Literacy and…

  3. The Saskatchewan Reading Experiment in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    "The Reading Project" in adult basic education (ABE), designed by the Province of Saskatchewan, consists of 14 sections containing 512 exercises in listening, reading, and spelling skills. This study compares the effectiveness of the project with conventional teaching of reading in ABE classes. A total of 257 adults participated in the…

  4. Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fronius, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

  5. Eye Movement Behaviour during Reading of Japanese Sentences: Effects of Word Length and Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Hirotani, Masako; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that examine how the visual characteristics of Japanese words influence eye movement behaviour during reading. In Experiment 1, reading behaviour was compared for words comprising either one or two kanji characters. The one-character words were significantly less likely to be fixated on first-pass, and had…

  6. Procedural versus Narrative Cross-Language Priming and Bilingual Children's Reading and Sentence Sequencing of Same Genre and Opposite Genre Text in the Other Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital, Hedva; Karniol, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    How bilingual children represent procedural versus narrative text is important for both pedagogical and theoretical reasons. To examine this issue, bilingual children and children learning English as a Second Language (ESL) read Hebrew sentences comprising either a procedural (i.e., "how to") or a narrative text (i.e., description of "doing") and…

  7. Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

  8. Reading in French-Speaking Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; Cole, Pascale; Leuwers, Christel; Casalis, Severine; Zorman, Michel; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reading and reading-related skills of 15 French-speaking adults with dyslexia, whose performance was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CA) and reading-level controls (RL). Experiment 1 assessed the efficiency of their phonological reading-related skills (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term…

  9. Let's Read Together: Improving Literacy Outcomes with the Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Everyone knows how important it is to read to young children--but it is the "quality" of shared reading that really affects emergent literacy. How well are adults engaging and teaching children as they read together? How well are children listening and responding? The first and only tool to measure the quality of adult and child interactions…

  10. A comparative analysis of vertical and horizontal fixation disparity in sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, S; Blythe, H I; Nikolova, M; Jones, M O; Liversedge, S P

    2015-05-01

    Humans have two, frontally placed eyes and during reading oculomotor and sensory processes are needed to combine the two inputs into a unified percept of the text. Generally, slight vergence errors, i.e., fixation disparities, occur but do not cause double vision since disparate retinal inputs fall into Panum's fusional area, that is, a range of disparity wherein sensory fusion of the two retinal images is achieved. In this study, we report benchmark data with respect to the mean magnitude and range of vertical compared to horizontal fixation disparities for natural reading. Our data clearly fit to an elliptical pattern of Panum's fusional area that corresponds with theoretical estimates. Furthermore, when we examined disparity-driven vergence adjustments during fixations by comparing monocular with binocular reading conditions, we found that only horizontal fixation disparities increased significantly under conditions of monocular stimulation. Also, no significant vertical fine-tuning (vergence adjustment) was observed for vergence eye movements during reading fixations. Thus, horizontal and vertical fixation disparities and vergence adjustments during reading showed quite different characteristics, and this dissociation is directly related to the functional role of vergence adjustments: vertical fusion - and vertical vergence - subserve the maintenance of a single percept and stereopsis by keeping the eyes in register and allowing for horizontal fusional processes to successfully operate over a vertically aligned input. A reliable and stable vertical alignment is, thus, a pre-requisite over which horizontal fusional responses (and depth perception) can work most efficiently - even in a task like reading. PMID:25839421

  11. Enhancing the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Children with Reading Disabilities in an Orthographically Transparent Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Blok, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of children with reading disabilities and whether results…

  12. Adult Basic Education Teacher Training Project. Teaching Adults to Read. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Maryjane A.

    Based on adult learning and reading acquisition theories, the model forming the basis of a one-semester graduate course resulted in increased competencies of thirty-five presently employed or future adult basic education teachers each of whom taught reading to one adult illiterate during the course. The model consisted of assessment of reading by…

  13. Developmental Sentence Scoring as a Measure of Readability for First Grade Reading Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Wanda Chason

    This study was designed to determine whether the content of selected beginning reading textbooks is comparable in syntactic complexity to the oral language of normal first-grade children and whether there was a predictable progression of syntactic complexity within the textbooks examined. The ten samples were taken from the primary levles of the…

  14. The National Reading Conference: The College and Adult Reading Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Norman A.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika

    1999-01-01

    Delves into the birth, childhood, and adolescence of the National Reading Conference, with direct attention given to the germination of the "Journal of Reading Behavior," the former title of this journal. Notes the National Reading Conference has a long and honored history spanning a period of nearly 50 years. (RS)

  15. Reading aids for adults with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently

  16. Second-language experience modulates eye movements during first- and second-language sentence reading: evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word processing decreases. Here, we investigate whether current L2 exposure also relates to more general aspects of reading performance, including global eye movement measures and how bilinguals use parafoveal information to the right of fixation during L1 and L2 sentence-level reading, through use of a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). We found that bilinguals with high versus low current L2 exposure exhibited increased L2 reading fluency (faster reading rates, shorter forward fixation durations), but decreased L1 reading fluency (slower reading rates, longer forward fixation durations). We also found that bilinguals with high versus low current L2 exposure were more affected by reductions in window size during L2 reading (indicative of a larger L2 perceptual span), but were less affected by reductions in window size during L1 reading (indicative of a smaller L1 perceptual span). Taken together, these findings suggest that individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals also modulate more general aspects of reading behavior, including global measures of reading difficulty and the allocation of visual attention into the parafovea during both L1 and L2 sentence-level reading. PMID:25528098

  17. Reading Habits of Elderly Adults: Implications for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Biggs, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Elderly adults responded to the Survey of Elderly Reading Attitudes instrument. Most felt they had time to read, more married than single subjects reported buying magazines and daily newspapers, and more females than males reported reading advertisements without difficulty. (Author/KS)

  18. Complex Word Reading in Dutch Deaf Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…

  19. Advanced Mind-Reading in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…

  20. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  1. Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Touron, Dayna R

    2015-12-01

    Concerning age-related effects on cognitive skill acquisition, the modal finding is that older adults do not benefit from practice to the same extent as younger adults in tasks that afford a shift from slower algorithmic processing to faster memory-based processing. In contrast, Rawson and Touron (2009) demonstrated a relatively rapid shift to memory-based processing in the context of a reading task. The current research extended beyond this initial study to provide more definitive evidence for relative preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading tasks for older adults. Younger and older adults read short stories containing unfamiliar noun phrases (e.g., skunk mud) followed by disambiguating information indicating the combination's meaning (either the normatively dominant meaning or an alternative subordinate meaning). Stories were repeated across practice blocks, and then the noun phrases were presented in novel sentence frames in a transfer task. Both age groups shifted from computation to retrieval after relatively few practice trials (as evidenced by convergence of reading times for dominant and subordinate items). Most important, both age groups showed strong evidence for memory-based processing of the noun phrases in the transfer task. In contrast, older adults showed minimal shifting to retrieval in an alphabet arithmetic task, indicating that the preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading was task-specific. Discussion focuses on important implications for theories of memory-based automaticity in general and for specific theoretical accounts of age effects on memory-based automaticity, as well as fruitful directions for future research. PMID:26302027

  2. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  3. Sizzling Summer Reading Programs for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Katharine L.

    A summer reading program can be designed to attract not just those teenagers who love to read, but also nonreaders who have yet to experience the joy of reading. This book gathers from library literature and previously unpublished accounts of recent programs and provides information about different kinds of summer reading programs designed…

  4. Parafoveal processing in reading Chinese sentences: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Niefind, Florian; Wang, Suiping; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Natural reading involves the preprocessing of upcoming words, resulting in shorter fixations on words visible in the parafovea during preceding fixations. While this preview benefit is established in behavior, its brain-electric correlates have only recently been investigated. Using fixation-related potentials, an attenuation of the occipitotemporal N1 component for words that were parafoveally visible during preceding fixations has been demonstrated. In contrast, another study, using an RSVP paradigm with parafoveal flanker words, observed no such general preview benefit in ERPs, but instead reported N400 effects triggered by semantically incongruous parafoveal words. To follow up on these discrepant findings and to extend them to a nonalphabetic writing system, we conducted two ERP experiments with Chinese readers using the RSVP-with-flankers paradigm and rigorous fixation control via eye tracking. We replicate robust parafoveal N400 semantic congruency effects in Chinese participants. Additionally, we found that, once a word was directly looked at, words after a valid preview elicited a smaller N1 and a weaker N400 than those after an invalid preview. Results underline the importance of considering parafoveal vision in ERP studies on reading. PMID:26289548

  5. Reading Aloud in Lewisham: An Exploration of Adult Reading-Aloud Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses initial findings of a qualitative pilot study of the reading-aloud practices of 17 adults in the London Borough of Lewisham. Although the dominant contemporary image of reading is that of a silent activity and within literacy provision it is frequently assumed that reading aloud is not a "natural" "real…

  6. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  7. Reading Motivation, Reading Amount, and Text Comprehension in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…

  8. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  9. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  10. Semantic Encoding of Spoken Sentences: Adult Aging and the Preservation of Conceptual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Prentice, Kristen J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Traditional models of human memory have postulated the need for a brief phonological or verbatim representation of verbal input as a necessary gateway to a higher level conceptual representation of the input. Potter has argued that meaningful sentences may be encoded directly in a conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) running parallel in time to…

  11. Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

  12. College-Adult Reading--Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spache, George D.

    College-adult reading research trends are discussed. The reading process; the influence of vision, perception, and personality; and program outcomes are noted as major trends of past studies, and a list of mistaken assumptions in these earlier studies is given. Present research shifts to the study of the role of both teacher and student…

  13. Adult age differences in information foraging in an interactive reading environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Chin, Jessie; Payne, Brennan R; Fu, Wai-Tat; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2016-05-01

    When learning about a single topic in natural reading environments, readers are confronted with multiple sources varying in the type and amount of information. In this situation, readers are free to adaptively respond to the constraints of the environment (e.g., through selection of resources and time allocation for study), but there may be costs of exploring and switching between sources (e.g., disruption of attention, opportunity costs for study). From an ecological perspective, such properties of the environment are expected to influence learning strategies. In the current study, we used a novel reading paradigm to investigate age differences in the effects of information richness (i.e., sentence elaboration) and costs of switching between texts (i.e., time delay) on selection of sources and study time allocation. Consistent with the ecological view, participants progressed from less informative to more informative texts. Furthermore, increased switch cost led to a tendency to allocate more effort to easier materials and to greater persistence in reading, which in turn, led to better memory in both immediate and delayed recall. Older adults showed larger effects of switch cost, such that the age difference in delayed recall was eliminated in the high switch cost condition. Based on an ecological paradigm of reading that affords choice and self-regulation, our study provided evidence for preservation with age in the ability to adapt to changing learning environments so as to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963481

  14. Improving Writing with Sentence Combining Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Norma; Safran, Joan

    1984-01-01

    Sentence-combining exercises, which require students to combine simple sentences in any way they wish, have helped learning disabled elementary children improve skills in writing, reading, and spelling. The exercises are flexible, motivating, and simple to design. (CL)

  15. College and Adult Reading XI: The Eleventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    This yearbook contains selected papers presented at the twenty-third and twenty-fourth annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, held in October of 1981 and 1982. Papers in the yearbook include: "History of Adult Reading Programs" (Clarence Anderson); "About Creativity and Study Skills" (Mark E. Thompson); "Recent Changes in…

  16. Tracking Reading: Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young versus Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2014-01-01

    A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors…

  17. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  18. Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

  19. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  20. Complex word reading in Dutch deaf children and adults.

    PubMed

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-03-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to monomorphemic words. The results show that deaf children are delayed in reading both derivational words and compounds as compared to hearing children, while both deaf and hearing adults performed equally well on a lexical decision task. However, deaf adults generally showed slower reaction times than hearing adults. For both deaf and hearing children, derivational words were more difficult than compounds, as reflected in hearing children's slower reaction times and in deaf children's lower accuracy scores. This finding likely reflects deaf children's lack of familiarity with the meaning of the bound morphemes attached to the stems in derivational words. Therefore, it might be beneficial to teach deaf children the meaning of bound morphemes and to train them to use morphology in word reading. Moreover, these findings imply that it is important to focus on both monomorphemic and polymorphemic words when assessing word reading ability in deaf children. PMID:23314248

  1. Text exposure predicts spoken production of complex sentences in eight and twelve year old children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Jessica L.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2015-01-01

    There is still much debate about the nature of the experiential and maturational changes that take place during childhood to bring about the sophisticated language abilities of an adult. The present study investigated text exposure as a possible source of linguistic experience that plays a role in the development of adult-like language abilities. Corpus analyses of object and passive relative clauses (Object: The book that the woman carried; Passive: The book that was carried by the woman) established the frequencies of these sentence types in child-directed speech and children's literature. We found that relative clauses of either type were more frequent in the written corpus, and that the ratio of passive to object relatives was much higher in the written corpus as well. This analysis suggests that passive relative clauses are much more frequent in a child's linguistic environment if they have high rates of text exposure. We then elicited object and passive relative clauses using a picture-description production task with eight and twelve year old children and adults. Both group and individual differences were consistent with the corpus analyses, such that older individuals and individuals with more text exposure produced more passive relative clauses. These findings suggest that the qualitatively different patterns of text versus speech may be an important source of linguistic experience for the development of adult-like language behavior. PMID:25844625

  2. Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

  3. Clarifying Linguistic Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: The Influence of Word-, Sentence-, and Discourse-Level Linguistic Skills on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Julie Kay

    2012-01-01

    There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…

  4. Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

  5. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels. PMID:9923461

  6. Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

    2014-07-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

  7. Parafoveal preprocessing of word initial trigrams during reading in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ascensión; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2016-03-01

    Although previous research has shown that letter position information for the first letter of a parafoveal word is encoded less flexibly than internal word beginning letters (Johnson, Perea & Rayner, 2007; White et al., 2008), it is not clear how positional encoding operates over the initial trigram in English. This experiment explored the preprocessing of letter identity and position information of a parafoveal word's initial trigram by adults and children using the boundary paradigm during normal sentence reading. Seven previews were generated: Identity (captain); transposed letter and substituted letter nonwords in Positions 1 and 2 (acptain-imptain); 1 and 3 (pactain-gartain), and 2 and 3 (cpatain-cgotain). Results showed a transposed letter effect (TLE) in Position 13 for gaze duration in the pretarget word; and TLE in Positions 12 and 23 but not in Position 13 in the target word for both adults and children. These findings suggest that children, similar to adults, extract letter identity and position information flexibly using a spatial coding mechanism; supporting isolated word recognition models such as SOLAR (Davis, 1999, 2010) and SERIOL (Whitney, 2001) models. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348198

  8. Priming in Sentence Comprehension: Strategic or Syntactic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments and two self-paced reading experiments investigated processing of sentences containing reduced relative clauses. Processing of a reduced relative is facilitated when it is preceded by a sentence that has the same syntactic structure, as long as the preceding sentence contains the same critical verb as the target…

  9. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  10. PATHWAYS: An Adult Basic Skills Reading Workbook, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Rosemeri; And Others

    Utilizing Southwestern Indian myths, legends, history, information on religious beliefs, architecture, fine arts, and social practices, the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Reading Skills workbook presents well-researched information about the rich heritage of the Indian culture of the Southwest, whilst offering a sequential, systematic approach to…

  11. Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

  12. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  13. Quality of Adult Book Reading Affects Children's Emergent Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Cox, Adell

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the relative benefits of three styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. Measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills after exposure to one style. Found that the describer style resulted in the greatest benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills; a performance-oriented…

  14. Writing Versus Reading in Traditional and Functional Adult Literacy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, C.

    1971-01-01

    The author suggests a novel approach to adult literacy education - stressing expressive writing instead of primer reading, and relating the basic spelling patterns of the written language to the already possessed corresponding sound patterns of the spoken language rather than teaching alphabets and letters. (AN)

  15. Training Adult ESL Learners in Metacognitive Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    This article is written as a practical guide to aid teachers in metacognitive reading strategy instruction. The nature of metacognitive strategies is explored, followed by specific procedures for implementing effective metacognitive strategy instruction in the adult ESL classroom. Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) five-phase strategy instruction…

  16. Information Needs and Reading Interests of Adult Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sandra

    The reading interests and information needs of adult prisoners were investigated. Questionnaires were completed by 314 residents of three New Mexico prisons, 290 men and 24 women, representing 20% of the total male incarcerated population and 41% of the total female incarcerated population. Background information generally revealed that the…

  17. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Factors Affecting the Reading Media Used by Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudiras, Dimitrios B.; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios Ch.; Papageorgiou, Virginia E.; Stergiou, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reading media (braille, cassettes, screen-reader, screen-magnifier, large print, low vision aids, CCTV) used by visually impaired adults. This article reports the results of a research project involving 100 people with visual impairment. The participants were interviewed and asked to fill in a questionnaire to…

  19. Adult Literacy. A Compendium of Articles from the Journal of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radencich, Marguerite C., Ed.

    The following articles are included: "Reconceptualizing the Language of Adult Literacy" (Ilsley, Stahl); "Expanding the Definition of Literacy for Adult Remedial Readers" (Heathington); "Adult Literacy Programs" (Davis); "Stages in the Reading Development of Adults" (Norman, Malicky); "Reading Concepts and Strategies of Adult Nonreaders" (Malicky,…

  20. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  1. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind’s mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  2. Adult Dyslexic Readers Do Not Demonstrate Regularity Effects in Sentence Processing: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon Wyn; Kelly, M. Louise; Corley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We report an eye-movement study that demonstrates differences in regularity effects between adult developmental dyslexic and control non-impaired readers, in contrast to findings from a large number of word recognition studies (see G. Brown, 1997). For low frequency words, controls showed an advantage for Regular items, in which…

  3. The Multilingual Reader: Advantages in Understanding and Decoding German Sentence Structure when Reading German as an L3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyer, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Irmtraud; Berthele, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Italian and French students' grammatical problems while reading in German as an L3 or L4. For the study, we developed a reading test which consists of invented encyclopaedia articles on imaginary animals. These articles enabled us to test various grammatical structures for their receptive difficulty. This paper discusses…

  4. The Relationship Between Expressed Interests and Reading Achievements in Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Laveria

    In order to determine whether lessons addressed to the expressed personal interest of functionally illiterate adult students would improve their reading skills, 40 such students attending an urban adult education center were divided into two reading classes. All were tested on a silent reading subtest of the Adult Basic Learning Examination and…

  5. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  6. Beyond decoding: phonological processing during silent reading in beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-07-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. PMID:25528096

  7. Knowing a lot for one's age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L; Fernald, Anne

    2012-08-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults. We explore this question by comparing the degree to which an upcoming sentential theme is anticipated by combining information from a prior agent and action. 48 children, aged of 3 to 10, and 48 college-aged adults' eye-movements were recorded as they heard a sentence (e.g., The pirate hides the treasure) in which the object referred to one of four images that included an agent-related, action-related and unrelated distractor image. Pictures were rotated so that, across all versions of the study, each picture appeared in all conditions, yielding a completely balanced within-subjects design. Adults and children quickly made use of combinatory information available at the action to generate anticipatory looks to the target object. Speed of anticipatory fixations did not vary with age. When controlling for age, individuals with higher vocabularies were faster to look to the target than those with lower vocabulary scores. Together, these results support and extend current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language. PMID:22632758

  8. Reading Habits of Senegalese Adults and College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Burley, JoAnne E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to high level of illiteracy in Senegal. Reports on study of Senegalese reading habits--participants enjoy reading, read newspapers often, would like to read better, and would take reading improvement courses if they were offered. (CMG)

  9. Applying Research in Reading Instruction for Adults: First Steps for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This book is a resource for adult education teachers who want to build and strengthen adults' reading skills. It aims first to build background knowledge about reading and scientifically based reading instruction, but the focus is in applying the research on modeling thinking, planning, and problem solving in the context of fictional adult…

  10. A Report on Adult Reading, Library Use, Viewing, and Learning Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKoff, Mildred

    This paper reviews the literature on the habits and preferences of American adults in four areas: reading, library use, television viewing, and adult learning. Within these areas, research results are reported for: (1) the demographic characteristics of readers and nonreaders, the reasons given for reading, time spent reading, the places where…

  11. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  12. A path analysis of reading comprehension for adults with low literacy

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L.

    2010-01-01

    Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions. PMID:20179309

  13. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  14. Understanding Oral Reading Fluency among Adults with Low Literacy: Dominance Analysis of Contributing Component Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…

  15. Changes in Reading Practices and Perceptions in Low-Literacy-Level Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Jane R.; Sabatini, John P.; Lentini, Jennifer; Holtzman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on pre to post changes found in learners who participated in the Relative Effectiveness of Adult Literacy (REAL) reading interventions study (n = 81). Changes reported cover the types of texts learners read, the frequency of self-reported reading, perceptions of how well they read the texts, and their perceptions of how…

  16. The role of temporal cues in word identification by younger and older adults: Effects of sentence context

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace; Fitzgibbons, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Prior investigations, using isolated words as stimuli, have shown that older listeners tend to require longer temporal cues than younger listeners to switch their percept from one word to its phonetically contrasting counterpart. The extent to which this age effect occurs in sentence contexts is investigated in the present study. The hypothesis was that perception of temporal cues differs for words presented in isolation and a sentence context and that this effect may vary between younger and older listeners. Younger and older listeners with normal-hearing and older listeners with hearing loss identified phonetically contrasting word pairs in natural speech continua that varied by a single temporal cue: voice-onset time, vowel duration, transition duration, and silent interval duration. The words were presented in isolation and in sentences. A context effect was shown for most continua, in which listeners required longer temporal cues in sentences than in isolated words. Additionally, older listeners required longer cues at the crossover points than younger listeners for most but not all continua. In general, the findings support the conclusion that older listeners tend to require longer target temporal cues than younger normal-hearing listeners in identifying phonetically contrasting word pairs in isolation and sentence contexts. PMID:19045808

  17. A Bilingual Advantage in Controlling Language Interference during Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippi, Roberto; Leech, Robert; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Green, David W.; Dick, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the comprehension of syntactically simple with more complex sentences in Italian-English adult bilinguals and monolingual controls in the presence or absence of sentence-level interference. The task was to identify the agent of the sentence and we primarily examined the accuracy of response. The target sentence was signalled by…

  18. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  19. The Two Sides of Sensory–Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory–cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  20. STAR: An Adult Education Teacher's Journey with Evidence-Based Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her journey with evidence-based reading instruction. Her experience with evidence-based reading instruction (as the adult basic education coordinator at Windham Adult Education in Windham, Maine) has been a journey of change both professionally and programmatically, and the students at Windham Adult Education are…

  1. Reading Profiles for Adults with Low-Literacy: Cluster Analysis with Power and Speeded Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Mark, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The United States' National Institute for Literacy's (NIFL) review of adult literacy instruction research recommended adult education (AE) programs assess underlying reading abilities in order to plan appropriate instruction for low-literacy learners. This study developed adult reading ability groups using measures from power tests and speeded…

  2. Development and Validation of an Assessment of Adult Educators' Reading Instructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C. A.; Coleman, MariBeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the "Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults" ("ARIK-A"), the only nationally normed (n?=?468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data…

  3. Major Sentence, Minor Sentence, Fragment: What Really "Is" a Sentence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Charles R., Jr.

    Rhetorical and linguistic concepts of the sentence are reviewed in the course of introducing the concept of the "minor sentence" (sentence fragments which may occur alone as complete linguistic utterances or which may be combined by parataxis or coordinators with a major sentence). Rather than restraining beginning writers from using minor…

  4. Aging and individual differences in binding during sentence understanding: evidence from temporary and global syntactic attachment ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brennan R; Grison, Sarah; Gao, Xuefei; Christianson, Kiel; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2014-02-01

    We report an investigation of aging and individual differences in binding information during sentence understanding. An age-continuous sample of adults (N=91), ranging from 18 to 81 years of age, read sentences in which a relative clause could be attached high to a head noun NP1, attached low to its modifying prepositional phrase NP2 (e.g., The son of the princess who scratched himself/herself in public was humiliated), or in which the attachment site of the relative clause was ultimately indeterminate (e.g., The maid of the princess who scratched herself in public was humiliated). Word-by-word reading times and comprehension (e.g., who scratched?) were measured. A series of mixed-effects models were fit to the data, revealing: (1) that, on average, NP1-attached sentences were harder to process and comprehend than NP2-attached sentences; (2) that these average effects were independently moderated by verbal working memory capacity and reading experience, with effects that were most pronounced in the oldest participants and; (3) that readers on average did not allocate extra time to resolve global ambiguities, though older adults with higher working memory span did. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of lifespan cognitive development, working memory, language experience, and the role of prosodic segmentation strategies in reading. Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience. PMID:24291806

  5. Aging and Individual Differences in Binding During Sentence Understanding: Evidence from Temporary and Global Syntactic Attachment Ambiguities

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Grison, Sarah; Gao, Xuefei; Christianson, Kiel; Morrow, Daniel G.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report an investigation of aging and individual differences in binding information during sentence understanding. An age-continuous sample of adults (N = 91), ranging from 18 to 81 years of age, read sentences in which a relative clause could be attached high to a head noun NP1, attached low to its modifying prepositional phrase NP2 (e.g., The son of the princess who scratched himself / herself in public was humiliated), or in which the attachment site of the relative clause was ultimately indeterminate (e.g., The maid of the princess who scratched herself in public was humiliated). Word-by-word reading times and comprehension (e.g., who scratched?) were measured. A series of mixed-effects models were fit to the data, revealing: (1) that, on average, NP1-attached sentences were harder to process and comprehend than NP2-attached sentences; (2) that these average effects were independently moderated by verbal working memory capacity and reading experience, with effects that were most pronounced in the oldest participants and; (3) that readers on average did not allocate extra time to resolve global ambiguities, though older adults with higher working memory span did. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of lifespan cognitive development, working memory, language experience, and the role of prosodic segmentation strategies in reading. Collectively, these data suggest that aging brings differences in sentence understanding, and these differences may depend on independent influences of verbal working memory capacity and reading experience. PMID:24291806

  6. Literacy through Literature: A Reading Club with Imprisoned Youth and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budweg, Peter; Schins, Marie-Therese

    1991-01-01

    A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and young adults. (SK)

  7. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  8. The Impact of Phonological-Awareness and Rapid-Reading Training on the Reading Skills of Adolescent and Adult Neoliterates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, James M.; Abadzi, Helen; Kinda, Jules

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the reading performance of adolescent and adult neoliterates in Burkina Faso who participated in one of three experimental educational programs with the reading performance of neoliterates who took part in a standard (control) educational program. The experimental programs involved training in phonological awareness, training in the rapid identification of reading material and an approach that involved both phonological-awareness and rapid-reading training. Results show that students enrolled in the experimental programs made greater gains in reading skills than did students enrolled in the standard educational programs.

  9. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: A Review of the Research. Series on Preparing Adult English Language Learners for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Adams, Rebecca

    This book summarizes the research on adult English language learners (ELLs) reading English, offering English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers and administrators suggestions for instruction and noting areas where further research is needed. It is based on an annotated bibliography of research on reading development for adult learners of English…

  10. The Effects of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction on Reading Performance of Adult ESL Learners with Limited English and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…

  11. An fMRI Study of Sentence-Embedded Lexical-Semantic Decision in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Parks, Erin Nicole; Burns, Erin L.; Bazzill, Rebecca; Levy, Sarah; Posada, Valerie; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-semantic knowledge is a core language component that undergoes prolonged development throughout childhood and is therefore highly amenable to developmental studies. Most previous lexical-semantic functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been limited to single-word or word-pair tasks, outside a sentence context. Our objective was to investigate…

  12. Lexical ambiguity in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    An event-related fMRI paradigm was used to investigate brain activity during the reading of sentences containing either a lexically ambiguous word or an unambiguous control word. Higher levels of activation occurred during the reading of sentences containing a lexical ambiguity. Furthermore, the activated cortical network differed, depending on: (1) whether the sentence contained a balanced (i.e., both meanings equally likely) or a biased (i.e., one meaning more likely than other meanings) ambiguous word; and, (2) the working memory capacity of the individual as assessed by reading span. The findings suggest that encountering a lexical ambiguity is dealt with by activating multiple meanings utilizing processes involving both hemispheres. When an early interpretation of a biased ambiguous word is later disambiguated to the subordinate meaning, the superior frontal cortex activates in response to the coherence break and the right inferior frontal gyrus and the insula activate, possibly to suppress the incorrect interpretation. Negative correlations between reading span scores and activation in the right hemisphere for both types of ambiguous words suggest that readers with lower spans are more likely to involve show right hemisphere involvement in the processing of the ambiguity. A positive correlation between reading span scores and insula activation appearing only for biased sentences disambiguated to the subordinate meaning indicates that individuals with higher spans were more likely to initially maintain both meanings and as a result had to suppress the unintended dominant meaning. PMID:17433891

  13. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically under-studied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children’s literature, and the implications for researchers and Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  14. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  15. Children's Interpretation of Ambiguous Focus in Sentences with "Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.; White, Diane; Filik, Ruth; Jaz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    We report 3 studies investigating children's and adults' interpretation of ambiguous focus in sentences containing the focus-sensitive quantifier only. In each experiment, child and adult participants compared sentences with only in a preverbal position and counterpart sentences without only against a series of pictures depicting events that…

  16. The Development of Sentences in Japanese Narrative Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Patricia M.

    Sentences produced by children and adults in telling stories are analyzed, with particular emphasis on developmental trends in sentence length, the degree of cohesion between clauses, and the internal coherence of sentence content. Subjects for the study were 10 adults and 60 Japanese children in six different age groups. Each subject was…

  17. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  18. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The Role of the First Language. ERIC Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This brief describes how literacy in the first language (L1) can affect the acquisition of reading skills in English, examining ways that instruction should be developed. It explains that learning to read is especially difficult for adults learning to read in a second language. According to the research, all English language learners (ELLs),…

  19. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  20. Reading Expressively and Understanding Thoroughly: An Examination of Prosody in Adults with Low Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Katherine S.; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes…

  1. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  2. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  3. Young Adult Reading Project. Pre-Vocational Skills, 16-21 Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwein, Connie

    This procedures manual reports on the Young Adult Reading Project, which provides a combination of job preparation, literacy skills, and self-esteem to improve reading, math, and job readiness skills for Lexington, Kentucky residents aged 16-21 who read below the eighth-grade level. Tutors are trained to design lessons based on students' goals.…

  4. Sentence Analysis in Modern Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Blanche

    The author suggest that this book, written primarily as a working textbook for second-year university students reading Malay, may also be used by those "interested in the application of a formal grammatical framework to the sentences of a language which belongs to the Austronesian family." Basing her analysis on the principles of structural…

  5. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  6. Incorporating a Computer Assisted Reading Program into an Adult Vocational Basic Skills Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescial, Ann; And Others

    A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…

  7. Development of an Evidence-Based Reading Fluency Program for Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Jane; Sabatini, John; Lentini, Jennifer; Holtzman, Steven; McNeil, Adjua

    2015-01-01

    Fluency is an essential part of skilled reading that has only recently begun to receive its deserved attention. However, programs that meaningfully engage adult learners in fluency training have not been widely explored in research. In this article, the authors describe an evidence-based adult Guided Repeated Reading program developed for…

  8. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  9. We Spent Our Summer Chasing Unicorns: A Young Adult Reading Game Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Cathi

    1986-01-01

    Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)

  10. Relation and interactions among reading fluency and competence for adult education learners

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of reading competence suggest that adult literacy instructors should emphasize fluency instruction to a greater or lesser degree depending on whether the major goal of instruction is academic reading (e.g., being able to comprehend a textbook) or functional reading (e.g., being able to fill out a job application). PMID:23935242

  11. Sergeant sentenced.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    Sgt. [Name removed] was sentenced to two years in prison for forcible sodomy and other charges. [Name removed], who is HIV-positive, sexually assaulted another male sergeant at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. [Name removed] was also convicted of breaking and entering, and disobeying an order by his commander to refrain from sexual contact unless he informed his partner of his HIV status first. He will receive a dishonorable discharge, be demoted, and lose pay. A court martial acquitted him of aggravated assault likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm. PMID:11367220

  12. Space information is important for reading.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana

    2009-07-01

    Reading a text without spaces in an alphabetic language causes disruption at the levels of word identification and eye movement control. In the present experiment, we examined how word discriminability affects the pattern of eye movements when reading unspaced text in an alphabetic language. More specifically, we designed an experiment in which participants read three types of sentences: normally written sentences, regular unspaced sentences, and alternatingbold unspaced sentences. Although there was a reading cost in the unspaced sentences relative to the normally written sentences, this cost was much smaller in alternatingbold unspaced sentences than in regular unspaced sentences. PMID:19463847

  13. Relative Effectiveness of Reading Intervention Programs for Adults with Low Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the seventh grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to one of three supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The three intervention programs were based on or adapted from instructional programs that have been shown to benefit children with reading levels similar to those of the adult sample. Each program varied in its relative emphasis on basic decoding versus reading fluency instruction. A repeated measures MANOVA confirmed small to moderate reading gains from pre- to post-testing across a battery of targeted reading measures, but no significant relative differences across interventions. An additional 152 participants who failed to complete the intervention differed initially from those who persisted. Implications for future research and adult literacy instruction are discussed. PMID:22303487

  14. Becoming a Fluent Reader: Reading Skill and Prosodic Features in the Oral Reading of Young Readers

    PubMed Central

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Anne Marie; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Prosodic reading, or reading with expression, is considered one of the hallmarks of fluent reading. The major purpose of the study was to learn how reading prosody is related to decoding and reading comprehension skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured in 2nd- and 3rd-grade children (N = 123) and 24 adults. Reading comprehension and word decoding skills were assessed. Children with faster decoding speed made shorter and less variable intersentential pauses, shorter intrasentential pauses, larger sentence-final fundamental frequency (F0) declinations, and better matched the adult prosodic F0 profile. Two structural equation models found evidence of a relationship between decoding speed and reading prosody as well as decoding speed and comprehension. There was only minimal evidence that prosodic reading was an important mediator of reading comprehension skill. PMID:19777077

  15. College and Adult Reading II; Second Annual Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raygor, Alton L., Ed.

    This yearbook contains the papers presented at the Fifth Annual Meeting of the North Central Reading Association. The titles and authors of the papers included are: "Speed Reading vs. Effective Developmental Reading" by Lester Van Gilder; "Counseling and Reading, Their Interrelationship" by Boyd Jackson; "Recent Research in College and Adult…

  16. Children’s and adults’ processing of anomaly and implausibility during reading: Evidence from eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Blythe, Hazel I.; White, Sarah J.; Gathercole, Susan E.; Rayner, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The eye movements of 24 children and 24 adults were monitored to compare how they read sentences containing plausible, implausible, and anomalous thematic relations. In the implausible condition the incongruity occurred due to the incompatibility of two objects involved in the event denoted by the main verb. In the anomalous condition the direct object of the verb was not a possible verb argument. Adults exhibited immediate disruption with the anomalous sentences as compared to the implausible sentences as indexed by longer gaze durations on the target word. Children exhibited the same pattern of effects as adults as far as the anomalous sentences were concerned, but exhibited delayed effects of implausibility. These data indicate that while children and adults are alike in their basic thematic assignment processes during reading, children may be delayed in the efficiency with which they are able to integrate pragmatic and real-world knowledge into their discourse representation. PMID:17853235

  17. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance

    PubMed Central

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. Methods 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain “sentence optotypes” with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. Results The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189 ± 26 wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. PMID:25323641

  18. Professional Writers Teaching Professional Writing: Transcending the Borders between Professional Writers and Academic Scholars, Harmonizing Throught and Reality: A Text Arguing for Teaching Sentences First, Last, and Foremost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beene, LynnDianne

    Good writing is good sentences. It is a simple truth that many in the business of teaching writing have strayed from. Good writing is a first sentence that makes a reader want to read the second sentence, a second sentence that makes a reader want to read the third, and so on. Erika Lindemann suggests that certain types of sentence instruction can…

  19. Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

  20. Age Differences in the Effects of Conceptual Integration Training on Resource Allocation in Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Noh, Soo Rim; Shake, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined age differences in the accommodation of reading strategies as a consequence of explicit instruction in conceptual integration. In Experiment 1, young, middle-aged, and older adults read sentences for delayed recall using a moving window method. Readers in an experimental group received instruction in making conceptual links during reading while readers in a control group were simply encouraged to allocate effort. Regression analysis to decompose word-by-word reading times in each condition isolated the time allocated to conceptual processing at the point in the text at which new concepts were introduced, as well as at clause and sentence boundaries. While younger adults responded to instructions by differentially allocating effort to sentence wrap-up, older adults allocated effort to intrasentence wrap-up and on new concepts as they were introduced, suggesting that older readers optimized their allocation of effort to linguistic computations for textbase construction within their processing capacity. Experiment 2 verified that conceptual integration training improved immediate recall among older readers as a consequence of engendering allocation to conceptual processing. PMID:19941199

  1. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Main, Keith L; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Visual processing in the magnocellular pathway is a reputed influence on word recognition and reading performance. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. To explore this concept, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rates but only for real words, not pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlations between contrast detection thresholds and the reading rates. We also found no correlations between speed discrimination or contrast detection and WASI subtest scores. These findings indicate that familiarity is a factor in magnocellular operations that may influence reading rate. We suggest this effect supports the idea that the magnocellular pathway contributes to word reading through an analysis of letter position. PMID:25278418

  2. Children and Adults Reading Interactively: The Social Benefits of an Exploratory Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Harmon, Mary Towle

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory Intergenerational Program (IGP) focused on reading to determine whether it affects mood and communication in older adults with mild dementia and neurocognitive deficits, and if it influences school-aged children's perceptions of older adults over time. Six older adults with cognitive-communication deficits and 12 school-aged…

  3. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  4. Relative Effectiveness of Reading Intervention Programs for Adults with Low Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the 7th-grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The 3 intervention…

  5. Improving Reading Attitudes of Adult Native Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, William Ross

    1984-01-01

    Describes an effort to improve reading attitudes of Native student teachers during field center participation in the University of British Columbia's Native Indian Teacher Education Program through a developmental reading course requiring a daily 20-30 minute uninterrupted, sustained silent reading period. Evaluation shows significant positive…

  6. Assessment and instruction of oral reading fluency among adults with low literacy

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl; Woods, Kari; Fall, Emily

    2011-01-01

    We statistically examined 295 low-literacy adults’ oral reading fluency measured by total word and word error rates with connected prose. Based on four fluency ability groupings in relation to standardized assessments of reading-related skills (e.g., phonemic awareness, word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension, and general ability) the results suggest that adults that read at comparable correct word rates vary significantly in the number of total words and word errors. These differences were independent of assessed general ability level. Total word and word error rates, thus, offer a picture of learner reading ability that can help instructors emphasize instruction in deficit reading components. PMID:23795231

  7. Sentence-Combining Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Judy O'Neal

    1978-01-01

    Sample sentence-combining lessons developed to accompany the first-year A-LM German textbook are presented. The exercises are designed for language manipulation practice; they involve breaking down more complex sentences into simpler sentences and the subsequent recombination into complex sentences. All language skills, and particularly writing,…

  8. Younger and Older Adults' Use of Verb Aspect and World Knowledge in the Online Interpretation of Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking was used to explore the role of grammatical aspect and world knowledge in establishing temporal relationships across sentences in discourse. Younger and older adult participants read short passages that included sentences such as "Mrs. Adams was knitting/knitted a new sweater"..."She wore her new garment...". Readers had greater…

  9. Effects of Age, Animacy and Activation Order on Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kemper, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The current study examines whether young and older adults have similar preferences for animate-subject and active sentences, and for using the order of activation of a verb's arguments to determine sentence structure. Ninety-six participants produced sentences in response to three-word stimuli that included a verb and two nouns differing in…

  10. Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study--Teachers' and Administrators' Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Alamprese, Judith A.; Knight, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    "Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study" is an evidence-based course of study designed to teach adult learners to decode and spell words more accurately and fluently. It is designed to be used as one component of a comprehensive adult reading course. The target population for the course is adult basic education…

  11. College and Adult Reading XIV: The Fourteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills" (Bruce A.…

  12. Revisiting the Scrambling Complexity Hypothesis in Sentence Processing: A Self-Paced Reading Study on Anomaly Detection and Scrambling in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh K.; Pandey, Aparna; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The scrambling complexity hypothesis based on working memory or locality accounts as well as syntactic accounts have proposed that processing a scrambled structure is difficult. However, the locus of this difficulty in sentence processing remains debatable. Several studies on multiple languages have explored the effect of scrambling on sentence…

  13. Adult Reading in a Foreign Language: A Necessary Competence for Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Treviño, Marta Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents several "tips" for Spanish speaking adults who start a reading comprehension course in English. The document is the product of my twenty-five years of experience as a language teacher. By using these practical pieces of advice, learners understand the differences between English and their own language, are able read,…

  14. Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

  15. Profiles of Cognitive Precursors to Reading Acquisition. Contributions to a Developmental Perspective of Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Christian; Moretti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual and empirical elements concerning the development of cognitive processes that function as precursors of reading, and their association with the acquisition of reading skills in an adult population participating in literacy courses. It connects emergent literacy research with historical-cultural and bioecological…

  16. Mind-Reading in Young Adults with ASD: Does Structure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand

    2008-01-01

    This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic…

  17. Swallows and Amazons Forever: How Adults and Children Engage in Reading a Classic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Fiona; Waller, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the nature of reading engagement, taking a reader response approach to analysing and discussing the experiences and perspectives of real readers. The paper reports a collaborative research project in which a group of five primary-age children and a group of five adults of different ages were asked to read and…

  18. Relation and Interactions among Reading Fluency and Competence for Adult Education Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of…

  19. Sustained Silent Reading and Young Adult Short Stories for High School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Terry L.; Jensen, Valarie S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a version of Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), called the DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) program, throughout their school. Presents their experience with the program in the KWL format (what we KNOW, what we WANTED to know, and what we LEARNED). Provides a bibliography of 12 young adult short stories used in the…

  20. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects. PMID:22577843

  1. Effects of humor on sentence memory.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R

    1994-07-01

    Memory for humorous and nonhumorous versions of sentences was compared. Humorous sentences were better remembered than the nonhumorous sentences on both free- and cued-recall tests and on measures of sentence recall and word recall. These effects persisted when subjects were warned that they were about to read a humorous sentence but were attenuated in incidental learning and limited to within-subjects manipulations. In incidental learning, recall was also scored as a function of subjective ratings of humor. Subjective humor affected memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Attention, arousal, rehearsal, retrieval, and surprise explanations were explored. Results suggest that humorous material receives both increased attention and rehearsal relative to nonhumorous material. PMID:8064254

  2. Adults with reading disabilities: converting a meta-analysis to practice.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on measures of vocabulary, math, spelling, and specific cognitive process related to naming speed, phonological processing, and verbal memory. The results also showed that adults with high verbal IQs (scores > 100) but low word recognition standard scores (< 90) yielded greater deficits related to their average reading counterparts when compared to studies that included adults with RD with verbal IQ and reading scores in the same low range. Implications of the findings related to assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:22057199

  3. Adults Who Read Like Children: The Psycholinguistic Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles

    A study examined basic reading skills among men in prison, comparing poor and adequate readers with respect to comprehension, decoding, short-term memory, and speech perception. Subjects, 88 inmates of normal intelligence, normal hearing, and no significant speech abnormalities, at a minimum-security prison, were given reading comprehension tests…

  4. Sizzling Summer Reading Programs for Young Adults: Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Katharine L.

    2006-01-01

    Summer reading programs are a staple in libraries nationwide and provide a valuable service: keeping teens productive and occupied when they are no longer busy in school. Producing creative programs at the library can be challenging when faced with this easily distracted teen demographic; that's where "Sizzling Summer Reading Programs" steps in.…

  5. Our Repressed Reading Addictions: Teachers and Young Adult Series Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Louann; Cline, Ruth K. J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the role of pleasure reading in the development of young readers and, more specifically, the role of series books, such as Nancy Drew and the Hardy Boys. Provides suggestions for teachers on their role in cultivating series books as a form of pleasure reading. (TB)

  6. Verbal Ability and the Processing of Scientific Text with Seductive Detail Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Corkill, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of seductive detail sentences (i.e., highly interesting, yet unimportant sentences) on reading time and recall for readers with higher and lower verbal ability. College students (n = 81) read a 967-word text that included seductive detail sentences. Participants with higher and lower verbal ability displayed similar…

  7. Competency Based Reading and Math Program for Adult Students Entering Vocational Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palagi, Robert G.

    The Testing and Assessment Department of Dawson Technical Institute (Illinois) determined that approximately 25-30 percent of the students taking the entrance Test of Adult Basic Education do not meet the academic level required to start a training program. A competency-based adult reading and math program was developed, and the decision was made…

  8. Motivation and the Adult New Reader: Becoming Literate at the Bob Steele Reading Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrion, George

    A study examined the sources of motivation of adults participating in the adult literacy program at the Bob Steele Reading Center (BSRC) in Hartford, Connecticut. The "life cycle" approach used to explore motivation throughout the stages of the literacy learning process included brief case studies focusing on the importance of socioemotional…

  9. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  10. Why Johnny's Dad Can't Read: The Elusive Goal of Universal Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Meredith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses efforts to achieve higher rates of adult literacy and pedagogical approaches to learning to read. Describes definitions of literacy, school standards, and possible reasons for high rates of adult illiteracy. Discusses teaching methods, particularly the Nellie Thomas method, which has had success in prison literacy programs. (JB)

  11. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Adult and Student Deaf Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which…

  12. Adult Basic & Literacy Education as Storytelling: A Reading/Writing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Intermediate Unit No. l2, New Oxford, PA.

    A curriculum was developed that is intended to be a practical interpretation of Francis Kazemek's metaphor of adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) as storytelling. The curriculum, which is intended to encourage adult basic education (ABE) students to develop literacy skills by reading/writing about their experiences and visions, is designed…

  13. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  14. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  15. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418

  16. What, Why, and How They Read: Reading Preferences and Patterns of Rural Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Kim; Moeller, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the reading patterns and preferences of rural teen readers and the cultures of reading that do or do not exist in the rural communities in which the teens reside. In addition, the researchers sought to discover, by conducting a series of focus groups, whether rural teen readers felt connected to…

  17. College and Adult Reading X: The Tenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Including sections on research, programs, and professional problems and issues, this yearbook contains presentations given at the 1978 and 1979 meetings of the North Central Reading Association. Papers include: "The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension" (David Wark and others); "Some Effects of Anxiety on University Students" (J. Michael…

  18. The neural underpinnings of reading skill in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Weisberg, Jill

    2016-09-01

    We investigated word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=19.5years) and less skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=12years) who were all highly proficient users of American Sign Language. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). No significant group differences were observed with the full participant set. However, an analysis with the 10 most and 10 least skilled readers revealed that for the semantic task (vs. control task), proficient deaf readers exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri than less proficient readers. No group differences were observed for the phonological task. Whole-brain correlation analyses (all participants) revealed that for the semantic task, reading ability correlated positively with neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and in a region associated with the orthography-semantics interface, located anterior to the visual word form area. Reading ability did not correlate with neural activity during the phonological task. Accuracy on the semantic task correlated positively with neural activity in left anterior temporal lobe (a region linked to conceptual processing), while accuracy on the phonological task correlated positively with neural activity in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (a region linked to syllabification processes during speech production). Finally, reading comprehension scores correlated positively with vocabulary and print exposure measures, but not with phonological awareness scores. PMID:27448530

  19. Sentence Production in Parkinson Disease: Effects of Conceptual and Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troche, Michelle S.; Altmann, Lori J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of sentence production in Parkinson disease (PD) are rare. This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and performance on two sentence production tasks, sentence repetition, and sentence generation, in which complexity was manipulated. Thirty-eight older adults aged 60 to 85, half with PD, completed the…

  20. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27465210

  1. Improved reading measures in adults with dyslexia following transcranial direct current stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia. PMID:25701796

  2. Coordinating Right to Read with Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, James Bob; Morgan, Alice S.

    The project, conducted in five Alabama counties, was concerned with identifying and recruiting nonreading young adults and providing home-based instruction to those who could not attend adult basic education classes. Paraprofessionals and volunteers were recruited and trained in order to meet this objective. As of May 31, 1975, over 40 community…

  3. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  4. Beyond Single Syllables: The Effect of First Syllable Frequency and Orthographic Similarity on Eye Movements during Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawelka, Stefan; Schuster, Sarah; Gagl, Benjamin; Hutzler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the eye movements of 60 adult German readers during silent reading of target words, consisting of two and three syllables, embedded in sentences. The first objective was to assess whether the inhibitory effect of first syllable frequency, which was up to now primarily shown for isolated words, generalises to natural reading. The…

  5. Incremental comprehension of spoken quantifier sentences: Evidence from brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Freunberger, Dominik; Nieuwland, Mante S

    2016-09-01

    Do people incrementally incorporate the meaning of quantifier expressions to understand an unfolding sentence? Most previous studies concluded that quantifiers do not immediately influence how a sentence is understood based on the observation that online N400-effects differed from offline plausibility judgments. Those studies, however, used serial visual presentation (SVP), which involves unnatural reading. In the current ERP-experiment, we presented spoken positive and negative quantifier sentences ("Practically all/practically no postmen prefer delivering mail, when the weather is good/bad during the day"). Different from results obtained in a previously reported SVP-study (Nieuwland, 2016) sentence truth-value N400 effects occurred in positive and negative quantifier sentences alike, reflecting fully incremental quantifier comprehension. This suggests that the prosodic information available during spoken language comprehension supports the generation of online predictions for upcoming words and that, at least for quantifier sentences, comprehension of spoken language may proceed more incrementally than comprehension during SVP reading. PMID:27346365

  6. Writing and Reading with Art: Adult Literacy, Transformation, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    Especially in a time of economic and social crisis, besides poverty and social segregation, immigrants face an additional difficulty to get integrated in a new society: lack of oral and written knowledge of the language of the country they are now living in. This paper describes an on-going research project--Writing and Reading with Art (WRAP)…

  7. Factors Underlying Second Language Reading Motivation of Adult EAP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komiyama, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…

  8. Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

  9. Aspects of the Reading Process: Reading Comprehension in Adult (French) Learners of English as a Foreign Language: A Comparison of Reading Aloud and Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menasche, Lionel

    An experiment was conducted with twenty native French speakers using a set of four reading passages, each followed by five multiple choice comprehension questions. Each subject was tested twice when reading aloud and twice when reading silently. Other test materials included a pre-test designed to check whether certain lexical items from the…

  10. Does Extra Interletter Spacing Help Text Reading in Skilled Adult Readers?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading. PMID:27210581

  11. College and Adult Reading XII: The Twelfth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Consisting of a selection of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on computers, research, professional issues, and programs. Papers include: "The Computerized Broom Will Sweep Our Future Classrooms: But Not Necessarily Clean" (George E. Mason); "Beyond the…

  12. College and Adult Reading XIII: The Thirteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections of the papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "Twenty-Five Years of Professional Progress" (James E. Walker); "A Study of Student Alienation…

  13. College and Adult Reading VII: The Seventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M., Ed.

    Spanning the annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association from 1971 to 1974, this yearbook presents papers dealing with programs and centers, materials and techniques, a new research field, and in honor of Roger S. Pepper. Papers include: "Attitudinal Factors among Marginal Admission Students" (Roger S. Pepper and John A. Drexler,…

  14. College and Adult Reading IX: The Ninth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Drawn from presentations at the 1977 meeting of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on programs and centers; professional training; clinical problems and methods; research; the Roger Pepper Research Award presentation; and the invitational address. Papers include: "Use of Galvanic Skin Response, Heart Rate,…

  15. College and Adult Reading VIII: The Eighth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Drawn from the presentations at the eighteenth and nineteenth annual conferences of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on programs and centers; materials and techniques; evaluation; and professional growth and issues. Papers include: "Successfully Effecting Change on Personality Variables through Academic Skills…

  16. The Role of Sentence Context in Processing Prepositional Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.

    This paper investigated if prior context was used by readers to resolve temporarily ambiguous prepositional phrases. The paper addresses two issues, referring to two competing approaches to sentence processing and testing the predictability of each approach in two online reading experiments. The issues focus on the Human Sentence Processing…

  17. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  18. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  19. Ethnographic Research on Reading Instructional Strategies for Adult Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; And Others

    A project was undertaken to develop, field test, and revise strategies for adult beginning readers (ABRs). During the first phase of the study, the researchers identified roadblocks to use of word recognition clues by ABRs. Based on data and feedback from local and state piloting and general principles of learning, the project staff developed the…

  20. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. PMID:26460674

  1. An Evaluation of Words in Color or Morphologico-Algebraic Approach to Teaching Reading to Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Lillian R.

    Seventy Cleveland, Ohio, inner city adult illiterates, 33 from an experimental group and 37 from a contrast group, were studied to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of Words in Color or the Morphologico-Algebraic approach to teaching reading. Results indicated that the reading achievement gain of functionally illiterate adults taught by…

  2. Are Phonological Processes the Same or Different in Low Literacy Adults and Children with or without Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Garcia, Eduardo; Venegas, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether phonological processes are the same or different in low literacy adults and children with or without reading disabilities in a consistent orthography. A sample of 150 subjects was selected and organized into four different groups: 53 low literacy adults, 29 reading disabled…

  3. What component of executive functions contributes to normal and impaired reading comprehension in young adults?

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Das, J P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to examine what component of executive functions (EF) - planning and working memory - predicts reading comprehension in young adults (Study 1), and (b) to examine if less skilled comprehenders experience deficits in the EF components (Study 2). In Study 1, we assessed 178 university students (120 females; mean age=21.82 years) on planning (Planned Connections, Planned Codes, and Planned Patterns), working memory (Listening Span, Digit Span Backward, and Digit Memory), and reading comprehension (Nelson-Denny Reading Test). The results of structural equation modeling indicated that only planning was a significant predictor of reading comprehension. In Study 2, we assessed 30 university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit (19 females; mean age=23.01 years) and 30 controls (18 females; mean age=22.77 years) on planning (Planned Connections and Crack the Code) and working memory (Listening Span and Digit Span Backward). The results showed that less skilled comprehenders performed significantly poorer than controls only in planning. Taken together, the findings of both studies suggest that planning is the preeminent component of EF that is driving its relationship with reading comprehension in young adults. PMID:26704777

  4. Secondary English Students' Engagement in Reading and Writing about a Multicultural Young Adult Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Valerio, Paul Cantu; Senior, Helen Money; White, Fern

    This study explored 22 ninth-grade English students' reading engagement and interpretation of a young adult multicultural novel dealing with biethnic identity development. The descriptive multicase study charted students' literary engagement in an urban technology magnet school and a rural Hawaii high school. The research question was: What are…

  5. Closing the Gap: Using Reading Workshop with Adult Basic Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannow, Beverley

    The reading workshop approach provided the method for creating a literate environment in an adult basic education classroom. The students were able to experience the principles of time, ownership, and response. Story maps were used to introduce the basic elements of a fictional story. Character webs were introduced to help students think of words…

  6. PATHWAYS: An Adult Basic Education Reading Skills Workbook, Level I. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Rosemeri; And Others

    Developed to facilitate the teaching/learning process, this guide corresponds to the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Reading Skills Workbook Level I, and may be used as an answer book, as well as a reference manual. It contains concise explanations of the various skills presented, suggested teaching strategies, answers to workbook exercises, and a…

  7. The Association between Music Training, Background Music, and Adult Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haning, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether music training is correlated with increased reading comprehension skills in young adults. In addition, an attempt was made to replicate Patson and Tippett's (2011) finding that background music impairs language comprehension scores in musicians but not in nonmusicians. Participants with musical…

  8. Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on Expository Reading Comprehension of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…

  9. Curriculum for the Adult Beginning Reader. 0-3 Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Sandy; And Others

    This curriculum offers an eclectic, multisensorial, holistic, and flexible approach to reading. Sections I and II are an introduction and information on using the curriculum. Section III offers strategies for working with adults. Section IV describes means of formal and informal assessment of the learner. Section V presents an overview of ways…

  10. ADHD and Reading Disability in Male Adults: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, S.; Lundberg, I.; Herkner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) in male adults. Participants were 120 men, of whom 24 were classified as having ADHD. The basis for the diagnosis was two self-report scales validated by interviews and background data. An extensive battery was used to…

  11. The Cognitive Profile of Adult Dyslexics and Its Relation to Their Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…

  12. Adult Fans of Comic Books: What They Get out of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzakis, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    This interview study is an exploration of the popular cultural and lifelong literacy practices of adult readers of comic books. Focusing on 4 participants from a pool of 12, the researcher used Kvale's (1996) method of meaning interpretation to analyze utterances and speak to the various uses reading held for these people. Aaron, Kyle, Peter, and…

  13. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  14. Gaps in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinis, Theodore; Roberts, Leah; Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Four groups of second language (L2) learners of English from different language backgrounds (Chinese, Japanese, German, and Greek) and a group of native speaker controls participated in an online reading time experiment with sentences involving long-distance "wh"-dependencies. Although the native speakers showed evidence of making use of…

  15. Functional Sentence Perspective and Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) is a theory that predicts how units of information should be distributed in a sentence and how sentences should be related in a discourse. A binary topic-comment structure is assigned to each FSP sentence. For most English sentences, the topic is associated with the subject or the left-most noun phrase, and…

  16. Literal, Fictive and Metaphorical Motion Sentences Preserve the Motion Component of the Verb: A TMS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciari, C.; Bolognini, N.; Senna, I.; Pellicciari, M. C.; Miniussi, C.; Papagno, C.

    2011-01-01

    We used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to assess whether reading literal, non-literal (i.e., metaphorical, idiomatic) and fictive motion sentences modulates the activity of the motor system. Sentences were divided into three segments visually presented one at a time: the noun phrase, the verb and the final part of the sentence. Single…

  17. Improvement of the Error-detection Mechanism in Adults with Dyslexia Following Reading Acceleration Training.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2016-05-01

    The error-detection mechanism aids in preventing error repetition during a given task. Electroencephalography demonstrates that error detection involves two event-related potential components: error-related and correct-response negativities (ERN and CRN, respectively). Dyslexia is characterized by slow, inaccurate reading. In particular, individuals with dyslexia have a less active error-detection mechanism during reading than typical readers. In the current study, we examined whether a reading training programme could improve the ability to recognize words automatically (lexical representations) in adults with dyslexia, thereby resulting in more efficient error detection during reading. Behavioural and electrophysiological measures were obtained using a lexical decision task before and after participants trained with the reading acceleration programme. ERN amplitudes were smaller in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers before training but increased following training, as did behavioural reading scores. Differences between the pre-training and post-training ERN and CRN components were larger in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers. Also, the error-detection mechanism as represented by the ERN/CRN complex might serve as a biomarker for dyslexia and be used to evaluate the effectiveness of reading intervention programmes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27072047

  18. Second-Language Experience Modulates Eye Movements during First- and Second-Language Sentence Reading: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word…

  19. Comparative Studies on the Roles of Linguistic Knowledge and Sentence Processing Speed in L2 Listening and Reading Comprehension in an EFL Tertiary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Eunjou

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative contributions of vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, and processing speed to second language listening and reading comprehension. Seventy-five Korean university students participated in the study. Results showed the three tested components had a significant portion of shared variance in explaining…

  20. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  1. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  2. Overt sentence production in event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Haller, Sven; Radue, E W; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo

    2005-01-01

    The use of syntactic structures on a sentence level is a unique human ability. Functional imaging studies have usually investigated syntax comprehension. However, language production may be performed by different neuronal resources. We have investigated syntax generation on a sentence level with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). BOLD contrast was measured while subjects articulated utterances aloud. In the active condition 'sentence generation' (SG), subjects had to produce subject verb object (SVO) sentences (e.g. "The child throws the ball") according to syntactically incomplete stimuli (e.g. "throw ball child") presented visually. In the control condition 'word reading' (WR), subjects had to read identical stimuli without completing the syntactic structure, while in a second control condition 'sentence reading' (SR), subjects had to read complete sentences. The semantic meaning of all expressions was obvious despite the syntactically incomplete structure in conditions SG and WR. In both contrasts, SG minus WR and SG minus SR, activation was mainly present in the left inferior frontal (BA 44/45) and medial frontal (BA 6) gyri, the superior parietal lobule (BA 7) and the right insula (BA 13). A region of interest analysis revealed significantly stronger left-dominant activation in BA 45 compared to BA 44. Our data illustrates the crucial involvement of the left BA 45 in syntactic encoding and is in line with more recent imaging and brain lesion data on syntax processing on a sentence level, emphasizing the involvement of a distributed left and right hemispheric network in syntax generation. PMID:15721193

  3. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  4. Production of sentence-final intonation contours by hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Allen, G D; Arndorfer, P M

    2000-04-01

    Studies of intonation in the hearing impaired (HI) are often concerned with either objective measures or listener perceptions. Less often has the focus been on how these two aspects of communication interrelate. This study examined the relationship between certain acoustic parameters and listeners' perceptions of intonation contours produced by HI children. Six severe-to-profound HI children and 6 normal-hearing (NH) children, ages 7;9 to 14;7, were individually tape recorded while reading 10 declarative sentences and 10 phonemically matched interrogative sentences within the context of a script. Each sentence ended with a carefully chosen disyllabic (target) word. Twelve adult listeners, inexperienced with the speech of the HI, listened to a randomized audio tape presentation of all of these productions and categorized each one as a statement, question, or other. Fundamental frequency (F0) and duration measurements were obtained for the target (final) word of each sentence, and intensity measures were recorded for each entire sentence. Acoustic analysis showed that all 6 of the NH children and 4 of the 6 HI children produced acoustically different intonation contours for declarative versus interrogative sentences. The HI children's productions were, in general, similar to the NH children, in that they used F0, duration, and intensity cues to mark the distinction. Their contrastive use of these acoustic cues, however, was less pronounced than for the NH children. Analysis of listener responses indicated that, although listeners were able to differentiate between some of the declarative and interrogative sentences produced by these 4 HI children, judgments corresponded with their intended type less often for the HI than for the NH children. (Judgments of NH children's utterances were 100% correct.) Multiple logistic regression of listeners' responses to the HI children's utterances showed that 4 acoustic measures, all derived from the sentence-final word, were

  5. Comprehending how visual context influences incremental sentence processing: insights from ERPs and picture-sentence verification

    PubMed Central

    Knoeferle, Pia; Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    To re-establish picture-sentence verification – discredited possibly for its over-reliance on post-sentence response time (RT) measures - as a task for situated comprehension, we collected event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as participants read a subject-verb-object sentence, and RTs indicating whether or not the verb matched a previously depicted action. For mismatches (vs matches), speeded RTs were longer, verb N400s over centro-parietal scalp larger, and ERPs to the object noun more negative. RTs (congruence effect) correlated inversely with the centro-parietal verb N400s, and positively with the object ERP congruence effects. Verb N400s, object ERPs, and verbal working memory scores predicted more variance in RT effects (50%) than N400s alone. Thus, (1) verification processing is not all post-sentence; (2) simple priming cannot account for these results; and (3) verification tasks can inform studies of situated comprehension. PMID:20701712

  6. Negative Sentences in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…

  7. Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and nonreversible sentences in 41 healthy participants to identify how semantic reversibility influences neuronal activation. By including several linguistic and nonlinguistic conditions within our paradigm, we were also able to test whether the processing of semantically reversible sentences places additional load on sentence-specific processing, such as syntactic processing and syntactic-semantic integration, or on phonological working memory. Our results identified increased activation for reversible sentences in a region on the left temporal–parietal boundary, which was also activated when the same group of participants carried out an articulation task which involved saying “one, three” repeatedly. We conclude that the processing of semantically reversible sentences places additional demands on the subarticulation component of phonological working memory. PMID:19445603

  8. Brain routes for reading in adults with and without autism: EMEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC. Furthermore, a lack of differences between semantic word categories was consistent with previous suggestion that people with ASC may lack a 'default' lexical-semantic processing mode. These results are discussed with reference to dual-route models of reading. PMID:23748435

  9. Representing sentence information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Walton A., III

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes a computer-oriented representation for sentence information. Whereas many Artificial Intelligence (AI) natural language systems start with a syntactic parse of a sentence into the linguist's components: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, etc., we argue that it is better to parse the input sentence into 'meaning' components: attribute, attribute value, object class, object instance, and relation. AI systems need a representation that will allow rapid storage and retrieval of information and convenient reasoning with that information. The attribute-of-object representation has proven useful for handling information in relational databases (which are well known for their efficiency in storage and retrieval) and for reasoning in knowledge- based systems. On the other hand, the linguist's syntactic representation of the works in sentences has not been shown to be useful for information handling and reasoning. We think it is an unnecessary and misleading intermediate form. Our sentence representation is semantic based in terms of attribute, attribute value, object class, object instance, and relation. Every sentence is segmented into one or more components with the form: 'attribute' of 'object' 'relation' 'attribute value'. Using only one format for all information gives the system simplicity and good performance as a RISC architecture does for hardware. The attribute-of-object representation is not new; it is used extensively in relational databases and knowledge-based systems. However, we will show that it can be used as a meaning representation for natural language sentences with minor extensions. In this paper we describe how a computer system can parse English sentences into this representation and generate English sentences from this representation. Much of this has been tested with computer implementation.

  10. Sentence Production in Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Lombardino, Linda J.; Puranik, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Background: While spoken language deficits have been identified in children with developmental dyslexia, microanalysis of sentence production proficiency in these children is a largely unexplored area. Aims: The current study examines proficiency of syntactic production in children and young adults with dyslexia and typically developing…

  11. Children's Interpretation of Sentence-Internal Anaphora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Werner; Koster, Jan

    The acquisition of two types of anaphora, reflexive and non-reflexive personal pronouns, was investigated. It was hypothesized that the two types of anaphora are acquired at different developmental stages. The three experiments involved Dutch children of age 6 and 7 and adults. Interpretations of sentences containing third person reflexive…

  12. Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and…

  13. Processing Strategies and the Comprehension of Sentence-Level Input by L2 Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carrie N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how L2 learners of German (English L1) process structural and semantic information when reading German sentences. In a timed comprehension task, intermediate and advanced L2 learners of German read sentences that varied according to word order (subject-first versus object-first) and subject animacy (inanimate subject versus…

  14. Development of Lexical and Sentence Level Context Effects for Dominant and Subordinate Word Meanings of Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Harasaki, Yasuaki; Burman, Douglas D.

    2006-01-01

    Nine-ten-and twelve-year-old children (N = 75) read aloud dominant, subordinate or ambiguous bias sentences (N = 120) that ended in a homonym (BALL). After the sentence (1,000 ms), children read aloud targets that were related to the dominant (BAT) or subordinate (DANCE) meaning of the homonym or control targets. Participants were also divided…

  15. Nonword repetition and nonword reading abilities in adults who do and do not stutter

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the present study a nonword repetition and a nonword reading task were used to investigate the behavioral (speech accuracy) and speech kinematic (movement variability measured as lip aperture variability index; speech duration) profiles of groups of young adults who do (AWS) and do not stutter (control). Method Participants were 9 AWS (8 males, Mean age = 32.2, SD = 14.7) and 9 age- and sex-matched control participants (Mean age = 31.8, SD = 14.6). For the nonword repetition task, participants were administered the Nonword Repetition Test (Dolloghan & Campbell, 1998). For the reading task, participants were required to read out target nonwords varying in length (6 vs. 11 syllables). Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to compare the groups in percent speech accuracy for both tasks; only for the nonword reading task, the groups were compared in movement variability and speech duration. Results The groups were comparable in percent accuracy in nonword repetition. Findings from nonword reading revealed a trend for the AWS to show a lower percent of accurate productions compared to the control group. AWS also showed significantly higher movement variability and longer speech durations compared to the control group in nonword reading. Some preliminary evidence for group differences in practice effect (seen as differences between the early vs. later 5 trials) was evident in speech duration. Conclusions Findings suggest differences between AWS and control groups in phonemic encoding and/or speech motor planning and production. Findings from nonword repetition vs. reading highlight the need for careful consideration of nonword properties. PMID:24238389

  16. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  17. The Efficacy of Cloze Procedure for Estimating Reading Ability of Students and Readability of Materials in Adult Fundamental Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Catherine Isabella Rogers

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cloze procedure could be used in adult literacy programs serving those students reading from about fourth grade reading equivalent level through high school equivalency level. This research investigated three questions: (1) Is cloze procedure acceptable for this group? (2) Can cloze procedure be…

  18. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  19. Participants in Adult Basic Skills Classes Using Intertextual and Metacognitive Skills and Strategies to Aid Reading Comprehension and Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMonagle, William Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to seek evidence of awareness of metacognitive processes and intertextuality in the reading comprehension of students in an adult basic education class. Its purpose was to interweave several strands of research investigation and theory to explain the reading and writing capabilities of a representative population…

  20. PROUD Adult Readers 1-4. People Reading Their Own Unique Dictations [and] A Guide for Teachers and Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a guide for teachers and tutors and four "readers" for adults. These readers are intended to eliminate the problems associated with book-centered, one-to-one tutoring, such as the following: (1) uninteresting, irrelevant materials focusing on single reading skills rather than reading as communication; (2) materials that…

  1. Metacognitive Awareness and Strategy Use in Academic English Reading among Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    This mixed method research study explored the role of metacognitive awareness in reading among adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students of various academic levels enrolled in a university in the southeastern part of the United States of America while engaged in academic reading. In addition, this study examined metacognitive reading…

  2. Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…

  3. Practice in Reading Values: Reflections on Adult Literacy Teaching. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia, Ed.

    These 15 papers cover a wide range of topics and perspectives on the work of Adult Literacy and Basic Education (ALBE) practitioners in Victoria, Australia, in the contemporary ideological and political context. A preface (John Wilson) and introduction (Delia Bradshaw) begin the anthology. The papers are as follows: "...A Critical-Transformative…

  4. Relative-size Magnification versus Relative-distance Magnification: Effect on the Reading Performance of Adults with Normal and Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovie-Kitchen, Jan; Whittaker, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This Australian study compared effects of relative-size magnification and relative-distance magnification on the reading rates of 24 adults with normal vision and 22 adults with low vision. For the subjects with low vision, the magnification method did not affect their reading rates, although subjects with normal vision showed slower reading at…

  5. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  6. "I Just Didn't Have Enough Time..." Assisting the Busy Adult Learner Develop Critical Reading and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Lefebvre, Rene

    Several factors are related to adult students' completion or noncompletion of reading assignments before class--lack of study time, their motivation for taking college classes, their need to feel involved in the learning process, and their expectations for success in the classroom. One of the biggest fears of adults returning to a school…

  7. Analysis and Assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's Adult Tutorial Reading Program: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.; Silvestri, Kenneth

    An assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's (NLC's) Adult Tutorial Reading Program studied 20 long-term (in the program for at least 1 year) and 20 new adult learners; all but 2 were African-Americans. The following data sources were used: in-depth interviews with learners, logs completed by tutors, follow-up interviews 6-8 months later,…

  8. Neural correlates of single word reading in bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Arturo E; Woods, Elizabeth A; Bradley, Kailyn A L

    2015-04-01

    The present study compared the neural correlates of language processing in children and adult Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants were asked to perform a visual lexical processing task in both Spanish and English while being scanned with fMRI. Both children and adults recruited a similar network of left hemisphere "language" areas and showed similar proficiency profiles in Spanish. In terms of behavior, adults showed better language proficiency in English relative to children. Furthermore, neural activity in adults was observed in the bilateral MTG. Age-related differences were observed in Spanish in the right MTG. The current results confirm the presence of neural activity in a set of left hemisphere areas in both adult and child bilinguals when reading words in each language. They also reveal that differences in neural activity are not entirely driven by changes in language proficiency during visual word processing. This indicates that both skill development and age can play a role in brain activity seen across development. PMID:25728012

  9. The Interplay of Discourse Congruence and Lexical Association during Sentence Processing: Evidence from ERPs and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, C. Christine; Gordon, Peter C.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2007-01-01

    Five experiments used ERPs and eye tracking to determine the interplay of word-level and discourse-level information during sentence processing. Subjects read sentences that were locally congruent but whose congruence with discourse context was manipulated. Furthermore, critical words in the local sentence were preceded by a prime word that was…

  10. C.U.B.E. Reading. Goal III. A Reading Program for Adult Basic Education. 0-6 Grade Students. Book 2 of Three Books in This Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincennes Univ., IN.

    A part of the adult basic education teaching/learning management system called CUBE (Continuity and Unity in Basic Education), this manual is designed to help those teaching students with "splinter skills" to piece together the students' deficient skills and develop an individualized reading program. It consists of three sections. Addressed in…

  11. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  12. Repeating Words in Sentences: Effects of Sentence Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, Linda R.; Smith, Mark C.; Apperly, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    An online picture description methodology was used to investigate the interaction between lexical and syntactic information in spoken sentence production. In response to arrays of moving pictures, participants generated prepositional sentences, such as "The apple moves towards the dog," as well as coordinate noun phrase sentences, such as "The…

  13. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    PubMed Central

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  14. Explaining English Middle Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kabyong

    2009-01-01

    The current paper attempts to account for the formation of English middle sentences. Discussing a set of previous analyses on the construction under investigation we show, following the assumptions of Oosten(1986) and Iwata(1999), that English middle constructions should be divided into two types: generic middle constructions and non-generic…

  15. On Processing Conditional Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Philip J.

    Thirty informants were presented with sets of clauses punctuated as in the pattern "S1. If S2. S3" and asked which clause, S1 or S3, the "if" clause modified. Independently, several linguists judged the sentences "S1, if S2" and "S2, if S3" acceptable. Missing intonational clues or improper punctuation, which frequently occurs in advertising,…

  16. Sentences as Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, David

    A study of the speech process was conducted. The process is described as one closely linked to the one involved in the problem of the serial order in behavior. It is pointed out that in the speech of young children the grammatical relations that are properties of elementary underlying sentences appear in the grammatical meanings. Six examples of…

  17. Polysemy in Sentence Comprehension: Effects of Meaning Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Foraker, Stephani; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Words like church are polysemous, having two related senses (a building and an organization). Three experiments investigated how polysemous senses are represented and processed during sentence comprehension. On one view, readers retrieve an underspecified, core meaning, which is later specified more fully with contextual information. On another view, readers retrieve one or more specific senses. In a reading task, context that was neutral or biased towards a particular sense preceded a polysemous word. Disambiguating material consistent with only one sense followed, in a second sentence (Experiment 1) or the same sentence (Experiments 2 & 3). Reading the disambiguating material was faster when it was consistent with that context, and dominant senses were committed to more strongly than subordinate senses. Critically, following neutral context, the continuation was read more quickly when it selected the dominant sense, and the degree of sense dominance partially explained the reading time advantage. Similarity of the senses also affected reading times. Across experiments, we found that sense selection may not be completed immediately following a polysemous word but is completed at a sentence boundary. Overall, the results suggest that readers select an individual sense when reading a polysemous word, rather than a core meaning. PMID:23185103

  18. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility. PMID:27014152

  19. Sentence Combining: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sylvia E.

    Sentence combining--a technique of putting strings of sentence kernels together in a variety of ways so that completed sentences possess greater syntactic maturity--is a method offering much promise in the teaching of writing and composition. The purpose of this document is to provide a literature review of this procedure. After defining the term…

  20. Effects of irrelevant sounds on phonological coding in reading comprehension and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R; Coltheart, V

    1996-05-01

    The effects of irrelevant sounds on reading comprehension and short-term memory were studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adults judged the acceptability of written sentences during irrelevant speech, accompanied and unaccompanied singing, instrumental music, and in silence. Sentences varied in syntactic complexity: Simple sentences contained a right-branching relative clause (The applause pleased the woman that gave the speech) and syntactically complex sentences included a centre-embedded relative clause (The hay that the farmer stored fed the hungry animals). Unacceptable sentences either sounded acceptable (The dog chased the cat that eight up all his food) or did not (The man praised the child that sight up his spinach). Decision accuracy was impaired by syntactic complexity but not by irrelevant sounds. Phonological coding was indicated by increased errors on unacceptable sentences that sounded correct. These errors rates were unaffected by irrelevant sounds. Experiment 2 examined effects of irrelevant sounds on ordered recall of phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists. Phonological similarity impaired recall. Irrelevant speech reduced recall but did not interact with phonological similarity. The results of these experiments question assumptions about the relationship between speech input and phonological coding in reading and the short-term store. PMID:8685391

  1. Reading in a Root-Based-Morphology Language: The Case of Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the reading process in Arabic as a function of vowels and sentence context. Reviews reading accuracy and reading comprehension results in light of cross-cultural reading to develop a more comprehensive reading theory. Presents the phonology, morphology and sentence context of Arabic in two suggested reading models for poor/beginner Arabic…

  2. Using Higher-Order Thinking To Improve Reading Comprehension. Rx [Grades 6-Adult]. Reading Detective[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cheryl; Broz, Christine; Hockett, Margaret; White, David

    Part of a series, the purpose of this low-readability/high interest book is to provide instruction and practice in using higher order thinking to develop students' reading comprehension skills. The comprehension skills addressed in the book meet state standards for secondary students grades six and up, and the reading level is fourth and fifth…

  3. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  4. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  5. Short-Term and Working Memory Differences in Language/Learning Disabled and Normal Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Plante, Elena

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen adults who reported a childhood history of speech-language and/or learning disability were tested on two verbal memory tasks. Their performance on sentence repetitions and reading span measures was compared to a control group. Results indicated statistically significant group performance differences on both short-term and working memory…

  6. Efficacy of Attention to Commas (A2C) Strategy for Sentence Comprehension in English Language Learners (ELLs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Rivera, Wilma I.

    2013-01-01

    Reading is an active process where readers sometimes have difficulty understanding what they read. Ultimately, readers are required to combine the meaning of each sentence in a text in order to achieve text-level comprehension. Otherwise, the reader is going to have great difficulty with text-level comprehension. Factors such as sentence length…

  7. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  8. Prototypicality in Sentence Production

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Bock, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Three cued-recall experiments examined the effect of category typicality on the ordering of words in sentence production. Past research has found that typical items tend to be mentioned before atypical items in a phrase—a pattern usually associated with lexical variables (like word frequency), and yet typicality is a conceptual variable. Experiment 1 revealed that an appropriate conceptual framework was necessary to yield the typicality effect. Experiment 2 tested ad-hoc categories that do not have prior representations in long-term memory and yielded no typicality effect. Experiment 3 used carefully matched sentences in which two category members appeared in the same or in different phrases. Typicality affected word order only when the two words appeared in the same phrase. These results are consistent with an account in which typicality has its origin in conceptual structure, which leads to differences in lexical accessibility in appropriate contexts. PMID:17631877

  9. Using Young Adult Literature To Promote Recreational Reading in a Senior Basic English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Mitzi K.

    Students in a senior (grade 12) basic English class were not motivated to read books unless required to do so by their teacher; they did little or no reading for pleasure. To increase recreational reading and instill a love of reading in the 17 subjects, a practicum, in the form of a reading program lasting about 2 months, developed strategies…

  10. Uncertainty and Expectation in Sentence Processing: Evidence From Subcategorization Distributions.

    PubMed

    Linzen, Tal; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-08-01

    There is now considerable evidence that human sentence processing is expectation based: As people read a sentence, they use their statistical experience with their language to generate predictions about upcoming syntactic structure. This study examines how sentence processing is affected by readers' uncertainty about those expectations. In a self-paced reading study, we use lexical subcategorization distributions to factorially manipulate both the strength of expectations and the uncertainty about them. We compare two types of uncertainty: uncertainty about the verb's complement, reflecting the next prediction step; and uncertainty about the full sentence, reflecting an unbounded number of prediction steps. We find that uncertainty about the full structure, but not about the next step, was a significant predictor of processing difficulty: Greater reduction in uncertainty was correlated with increased reading times (RTs). We additionally replicated previously observed effects of expectation violation (surprisal), orthogonal to the effect of uncertainty. This suggests that both surprisal and uncertainty affect human RTs. We discuss the consequences for theories of sentence comprehension. PMID:26286681

  11. Sentence by Sentence Self-Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buettner, Edwin G.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses how a reader draws upon three major sources of information, or cueing systems: graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic. Discusses how effective reading instruction, at all levels, fosters independence in the use of these cueing systems that allow developing readers to remain squarely in control of their own learning. Presents a teaching…

  12. Cognitive skills and reading in adults with Usher syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Cecilia; Lidestam, Björn; Lyxell, Björn; Möller, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate working memory (WM), phonological skills, lexical skills, and reading comprehension in adults with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Design: The participants performed tests of phonological processing, lexical access, WM, and reading comprehension. The design of the test situation and tests was specifically considered for use with persons with low vision in combination with hearing impairment. The performance of the group with USH2 on the different cognitive measures was compared to that of a matched control group with normal hearing and vision (NVH). Study Sample: Thirteen participants with USH2 aged 21–60 years and a control group of 10 individuals with NVH, matched on age and level of education. Results: The group with USH2 displayed significantly lower performance on tests of phonological processing, and on measures requiring both fast visual judgment and phonological processing. There was a larger variation in performance among the individuals with USH2 than in the matched control group. Conclusion: The performance of the group with USH2 indicated similar problems with phonological processing skills and phonological WM as in individuals with long-term hearing loss. The group with USH2 also had significantly longer reaction times, indicating that processing of visual stimuli is difficult due to the visual impairment. These findings point toward the difficulties in accessing information that persons with USH2 experience, and could be part of the explanation of why individuals with USH2 report high levels of fatigue and feelings of stress (Wahlqvist et al., 2013). PMID:25859232

  13. EEG Theta and Gamma Responses to Semantic Violations in Online Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta ([Approximately]3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or contained a semantically…

  14. Ultimate Attainment in Second Language Acquisition: Near-Native Sentence Processing in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2010-01-01

    A study of near-native sentence processing was carried out using the self-paced reading method. Twenty-three near-native speakers of Spanish were identified on the basis of native-like proficiency, age of onset of acquisition after 15 years, and a minimum of three years ongoing residency in Spanish-speaking countries. The sentence comprehension…

  15. Sentence Processing in an Artificial Language: Learning and Using Combinatorial Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Michael S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    A study combining artificial grammar and sentence comprehension methods investigated the learning and online use of probabilistic, nonadjacent combinatorial constraints. Participants learned a small artificial language describing cartoon monsters acting on objects. Self-paced reading of sentences in the artificial language revealed comprehenders'…

  16. Lexical or Syntactic Control of Sentence Formulation? Structural Generalizations from Idiom Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopka, Agnieszka E; Bock, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To compare abstract structural and lexicalist accounts of syntactic processes in sentence formulation, we examined the effectiveness of nonidiomatic and idiomatic phrasal verbs in inducing structural generalizations. Three experiments made use of a syntactic priming paradigm in which participants recalled sentences they had read in rapid serial…

  17. A Multiple-Channel Model of Task-Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logacev, Pavel; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton (1998) found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called "ambiguity advantage" has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension (parsing) because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model…

  18. Activations of "Motor" and Other Non-Language Structures during Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Laurie A.; Paans, Anne M. J.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Zwarts, Frans

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment in which subjects read syntactically unambiguous and ambiguous sentences which were disambiguated after several words to the less likely possibility. Understanding such sentences involves building an initial structure, inhibiting the non-preferred structure, detecting that later input is…

  19. Novel Word Learning of Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start Regular and Bilingual Classrooms: Impact of Adult Vocabulary Noneliciting Questions during Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study employed quantitative methods to investigate the impact of adult questioning styles on children's novel vocabulary acquisition during shared storybook reading. In an effort to examine adult qualitative variations in shared storybook readings, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of noneliciting questions…

  20. Effects of Vocabulary Instruction Using Constant Time Delay on Expository Reading of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Scheidecker, Bethany J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using constant time delay (CTD) with young adults with intellectual disability on their vocabulary acquisition and retention, as well as expository reading comprehension. Four learners, ages 19 to 21 years, from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study.…

  1. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    PubMed Central

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.; Talavage, Thomas M.; Olulade, Olumide A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli. PMID:24009572

  2. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  3. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  4. S.T.A.R. Junior First Aid. An Easy-To-Read Manual for Children and Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Sheila

    This book, stressing safety and prevention of accidents, is designed for children and adults to read together. Each chapter uses a Stop, Think, Act, and Remember (S.T.A.R.) formula to guide children through common situations that require first aid skills. Each first aid topic begins by presenting one or more problem situations that are solved by…

  5. Taxonomy of Reading Skills and Materials for Youths and Adults. A System of Prescribing for Individual Skill Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Helen Solana; And Others

    This Taxonomy was designed to assist the instructor or reading specialist in the identification and location of specific instructional materials that can be used for remediation of skill deficiencies. The Taxonomy was developed by the White Plains Adult Education Center, and a description of the Center's program and method of integrating the…

  6. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  7. The Influence of Reading and Writing Habits Associated with Education on the Neuropsychological Performance of Brazilian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…

  8. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples. PMID:21132592

  9. Use of Semantic Information to Interpret Thematic Information for Real-Time Sentence Comprehension in an SOV Language

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sentence comprehension in languages other than European languages has been investigated from a cross-linguistic perspective. In this paper, we examine whether and how animacy-related semantic information is used for real-time sentence comprehension in a SOV word order language (i.e., Japanese). Twenty-three Japanese native speakers participated in this study. They read semantically reversible and non-reversible sentences with canonical word order, and those with scrambled word order. In our results, the second argument position in reversible sentences took longer to read than that in non-reversible sentences, indicating that animacy information is used in second argument processing. In contrast, for the predicate position, there was no difference in reading times, suggesting that animacy information is NOT used in the predicate position. These results are discussed using the sentence comprehension models of an SOV word order language. PMID:23409134

  10. Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2016-03-28

    The past several years have seen a surge of interest in using risk assessment in criminal sentencing, both to reduce recidivism by incapacitating or treating high-risk offenders and to reduce prison populations by diverting low-risk offenders from prison. We begin by sketching jurisprudential theories of sentencing, distinguishing those that rely on risk assessment from those that preclude it. We then characterize and illustrate the varying roles that risk assessment may play in the sentencing process. We clarify questions regarding the various meanings of "risk" in sentencing and the appropriate time to assess the risk of convicted offenders. We conclude by addressing four principal problems confronting risk assessment in sentencing: conflating risk and blame, barring individual inferences based on group data, failing adequately to distinguish risk assessment from risk reduction, and ignoring whether, and if so, how, the use of risk assessment in sentencing affects racial and economic disparities in imprisonment. PMID:26666966

  11. Conflict Resolution in Sentence Processing by Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Wodniecka, Zofia; Alain, Claude

    2010-01-01

    The present study pursues findings from earlier behavioral research with children showing the superior ability of bilinguals to make grammaticality judgments in the context of misleading semantic information. The advantage in this task was attributed to the greater executive control of bilinguals, but this impact on linguistic processing has not been demonstrated in adults. Here, we recorded event-related potentials in young adults who were either English monolinguals or bilinguals as they performed two different language judgment tasks. In the acceptability task, participants indicated whether or not the sentence contained an error in either grammar or meaning; in the grammaticality task, participants indicated only whether the sentence contained an error in grammar, in spite of possible conflicting information from meaning. In both groups, sentence violations generated N400 and P600 waves. In the acceptability task, bilinguals were less accurate than monolinguals, but in the grammaticality task which requires more executive control, bilingual and monolingual groups showed a comparable level of accuracy. Importantly, bilinguals generated smaller P600 amplitude and a more bilateral distribution of activation than monolinguals in the grammaticality task requiring more executive control. Our results show that bilinguals use their enhanced executive control for linguistic processing involving conflict in spite of no apparent advantage in linguistic processing under simpler conditions. PMID:21057658

  12. Effects of sentencing options and strict / lenient instructions on convicting suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Berman, Mitchell; Embry, Tippins

    2003-11-01

    Sentence and strictness of instructions influence juries' willingness to convict. To see whether this result holds for suicide attempters, 240 undergraduates read jury instructions for a suicide attempt that varied sentence (jail term, fine, community service, or mandatory counseling) and instructions, voted guilty / not guilty, and rated their certainty and effectiveness. With sentences of 25 hours mandatory counseling, or strict instructions, more respondents voted guilty. Sentence did not impact certainty or effectiveness, but strictness enhanced certainty. Overall, respondents were neutral that convicting a suicide attempter would reduce future attempts. Consistent with terror management theory, present students were willing to punish regardless of whether they thought that the punishment was preventive. PMID:14577449

  13. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole. PMID:25665207

  14. Sentence Complexity and Working Memory Effects in Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both…

  15. A Time Course View of Sentence Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Stephen T.; Kellas, George

    2004-01-01

    Meaning activation was estimated during (standard naming) and after (delayed naming) target presentation to chart the time course of priming effects during reading comprehension. Using sentences biasing homographs toward their dominant and subordinate meanings, two experiments evaluated context effects across three naming-cue delays: immediate,…

  16. Metaphoric Investigation of the Phonic-Based Sentence Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Birsen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the views of prospective teachers with "phonic-based sentence method" through metaphoric images. In this descriptive study, the participants involve the prospective teachers who take reading-writing instruction courses in Primary School Classroom Teaching Program of the Education Faculty of Pamukkale University. The…

  17. Whole Report versus Partial Report in RSVP Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Strohminger, Nina

    2008-01-01

    A sentence is readily understood and recalled when presented one word at a time using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) at 10 words/s [Potter, M. C. (1984). Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP): A method for studying language processing. In D. Kieras & M. Just (Eds.), "New methods in reading comprehension research" (pp. 91-118).…

  18. The Timing of Island Effects in Nonnative Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felser, Claudia; Cunnings, Ian; Batterham, Claire; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Using the eye-movement monitoring technique in two reading comprehension experiments, this study investigated the timing of constraints on wh-dependencies (so-called island constraints) in first- and second-language (L1 and L2) sentence processing. The results show that both L1 and L2 speakers of English are sensitive to extraction islands during…

  19. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  20. [TEFREP: repeating sentences Test in France and Quebec. Development, validation and standardization].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, Josiane; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Forest, Martin; Monetta, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Sentence repetition is part of the assessment tasks used to better characterise aphasic patients' oral production. Moreover, impaired sentence and phrase repetition is a core feature of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study is to present the TEFREP (TEst Français de RÉpétition de Phrases), a French sentence repetition task that manipulates psycholinguistic variables known to affect the performance of aphasic patients. The final version of the TEFREP consists of 24 sentences in which length, semantic reversibility and type of sentence have been manipulated. The task shows good psychometric properties (validity and reliability). Norms according to age and education level have been developed from a sample of 80 healthy adults and older adults. In conclusion, the TEFREP fulfills the current need for a reliable assessment tool of sentence repetition in Canadian French-speaking populations and contributes to the differential diagnosis of language impairment. PMID:26077947

  1. Learn to Read. A Project to Serve Functionally Illiterate English-Dominant Adults and Limited English Proficient Adults, Involving Instructors, Tutors and Students Interacting to Try New Approaches, Techniques and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    A 310 Project, Learn to Read, was conducted by Oakton Community College in suburban Chicago to teach reading to functionally illiterate and limited English speaking (LEP) adults using a variety of approaches. Participants included two groups. One group consisted of American-born adults who had basic oral competency but had failed to acquire…

  2. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  3. The Degree of Predictability of Four Types of Sentences as Measured by the Eye-Voice Span of Graduate Student Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagotic, Diana Lynn

    In a study using eye-voice span (EVS) measures to determine the relationship between the types and numbers of transformations in sentences and the predictability of the sentences for readers, sentences with varying types and numbers of transformations were embedded in paragraphs projected onto a screen and read aloud by the subjects, 20 graduate…

  4. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  5. "The Spotty Cow Tickled the Pig with a Curly Tail": How Do Sentence Position, Preferred Argument Structure, and Referential Complexity Affect Children's and Adults' Choice of Referring Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theakston, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 5-year-olds and adults described scenes that differed according to whether (a) the subject or object of a transitive verb represented an accessible or inaccessible referent, consistent or inconsistent with patterns of preferred argument structure, and (b) a simple noun was sufficient to uniquely identify an inaccessible referent.…

  6. Examining the N400m in affectively negative sentences: A magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Linden; Perry, Conrad; Goodin, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoencephalography was used to examine the effect on the N400m of reading words that create emotional violations in sentences. The beginnings of the sentences were affectively negative and were completed with either a negative congruous, positive incongruous, or neutral incongruous adjective (e.g., "My mother was killed and I felt bad/great/normal"). The task conditions were also manipulated to favor semantic over affective processing. Compared to the sentences with the congruous negative adjectives, the results of sensor space analysis showed that there was an N400m effect with the sentences with the neutral but not positive adjectives, despite both types of sentences containing an emotional violation. Source localization results showed a similar pattern where the sentences with the incongruous positive versus congruous negative adjectives showed no significant N400m effect in the temporal and frontal areas examined, but the sentences with the incongruous neutral versus incongruous positive adjectives in the temporal areas did, particularly the left middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that (a) the N400m effect was likely to be caused by the incongruous neutral adjectives being comparatively harder to integrate into a negative emotional context than the incongruous positive ones, (b) emotional context created by the negative sentence stems caused deeper semantic processing of the incongruous positive adjectives to be bypassed, and (c) negative affective context was generated from reading the sentences even in task conditions where it has not been generated with isolated words. PMID:26787447

  7. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    DeDe, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using on-line measures of sentence processing. Methods People with aphasia and non-brain-damaged controls participated in the experiment (n=8 per group). Twenty-one sentence pairs containing high and low frequency words were presented in self-paced listening and reading tasks. The sentences were syntactically simple and differed only in the critical words. The dependent variables were response times for critical segments of the sentence and accuracy on the comprehension questions. Results The results showed that word frequency influences performance on measures of sentence comprehension in people with aphasia. The accuracy data on the comprehension questions suggested that people with aphasia have more difficulty understanding sentences containing low frequency words in the written compared to auditory modality. Both group and single case analyses of the response time data also pointed to more difficulty with reading than listening. Conclusions The results show that sentence comprehension in people with aphasia is influenced by word frequency and presentation modality. PMID:22294411

  8. Effects of Context Type on Lipreading and Listening Performance and Implications for Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Stacey; Tye-Murray, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the use of 2 different types of contextual cues (sentence based and situation based) in 2 different modalities (visual only and auditory only). Method Twenty young adults were tested with the Illustrated Sentence Test (Tye-Murray, Hale, Spehar, Myerson, & Sommers, 2014) and the Speech Perception in Noise Test (Bilger, Nuetzel, Rabinowitz, & Rzeczkowski, 1984; Kalikow, Stevens, & Elliott, 1977) in the 2 modalities. The Illustrated Sentences Test presents sentences with no context and sentences accompanied by picture-based situational context cues. The Speech Perception in Noise Test presents sentences with low sentence-based context and sentences with high sentence-based context. Results Participants benefited from both types of context and received more benefit when testing occurred in the visual-only modality than when it occurred in the auditory-only modality. Participants' use of sentence-based context did not correlate with use of situation-based context. Cue usage did not correlate between the 2 modalities. Conclusions The ability to use contextual cues appears to be dependent on the type of cue and the presentation modality of the target word(s). In a theoretical sense, the results suggest that models of word recognition and sentence processing should incorporate the influence of multiple sources of information and recognize that the 2 types of context have different influences on speech perception. In a clinical sense, the results suggest that aural rehabilitation programs might provide training to optimize use of both kinds of contextual cues. PMID:25863923

  9. Reading in the brain of children and adults: A meta‐analysis of 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anna; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used quantitative, coordinate‐based meta‐analysis to objectively synthesize age‐related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23–34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7–12 years). The separate meta‐analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading‐related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito‐temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta‐analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading‐related activation clusters in children and adults are provided. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1963–1981, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PMID:25628041

  10. Effects of orthographic consistency on eye movement behavior: German and English children and adults process the same words differently.

    PubMed

    Rau, Anne K; Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Landerl, Karin

    2015-02-01

    The current study investigated the time course of cross-linguistic differences in word recognition. We recorded eye movements of German and English children and adults while reading closely matched sentences, each including a target word manipulated for length and frequency. Results showed differential word recognition processes for both developing and skilled readers. Children of the two orthographies did not differ in terms of total word processing time, but this equal outcome was achieved quite differently. Whereas German children relied on small-unit processing early in word recognition, English children applied small-unit decoding only upon rereading-possibly when experiencing difficulties in integrating an unfamiliar word into the sentence context. Rather unexpectedly, cross-linguistic differences were also found in adults in that English adults showed longer processing times than German adults for nonwords. Thus, although orthographic consistency does play a major role in reading development, cross-linguistic differences are detectable even in skilled adult readers. PMID:25462034

  11. The Misinterpretation of Noncanonical Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    Research on language comprehension has focused on the resolution of syntactic ambiguities, and most studies have employed garden-path sentences to determine the system's preferences and to assess its use of nonsyntactic sources information. A topic that has been neglected is how syntactically challenging but essentially unambiguous sentences are…

  12. Computer Instruction on Sentence Combining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Ann

    This description of an interactive instructional computer program in sentence combining for upper elementary and middle school students begins by summarizing the content of the program, which focuses on the instructional technique in which students are given two or more short simple sentences to combine into one longer, complex and/or compound…

  13. INTRAVERBAL ASSOCIATIONS IN SENTENCE BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PRENTICE, JOAN L.

    PRE-EXISTING ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WORDS WAS HYPOTHESIZED TO BE A VARIABLE INFLUENCING CHOICE OF WORDS DURING THE PROCESS OF SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, 32 SS (SUBJECTS) ENGAGED IN A PACED-RECALL TASK. MATERIALS WERE SETS OF THREE SENTENCES WHICH VARIED ONLY IN TWO NON-ASSOCIATED EMBEDDED ADJECTIVES WHICH COULD BE INTERCHANGED…

  14. Context Effects in Sentence Verification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiger, John I.; Glass, Arnold L.

    1981-01-01

    Three experiments examined what happens to reaction time to verify easy items when they are mixed with difficult items in a verification task. Subjects verification of simple arithmetic equations and sentences took longer when placed in a difficult list. Difficult sentences also slowed the verification of easy arithmetic equations. (Author/RD)

  15. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

  16. Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

  17. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  18. Adult Learners: New Norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for Healthcare Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for healthcare-professional students. Notes that it is generally accepted that professional and graduate schools require students with good reading ability because of the quantity of material to be read. Presents standard scores, percentile ranks, and stanine scores as revised norms based on test…

  19. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  20. Integration of Partial Information within and across Modalities: Contributions to Spoken and Written Sentence Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which partial spoken or written information facilitates sentence recognition under degraded unimodal and multimodal conditions. Method: Twenty young adults with typical hearing completed sentence recognition tasks in unimodal and multimodal conditions across 3 proportions of preservation. In the unimodal…

  1. Effects of Context Type on Lipreading and Listening Performance and Implications for Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spehar, Brent; Goebel, Stacey; Tye-Murray, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the use of 2 different types of contextual cues (sentence based and situation based) in 2 different modalities (visual only and auditory only). Method: Twenty young adults were tested with the Illustrated Sentence Test (Tye-Murray, Hale, Spehar, Myerson, & Sommers, 2014) and the Speech Perception in Noise Test…

  2. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  3. Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard L; Vasishth, Shravan; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2006-10-01

    Understanding a sentence requires a working memory of the partial products of comprehension, so that linguistic relations between temporally distal parts of the sentence can be rapidly computed. We describe an emerging theoretical framework for this working memory system that incorporates several independently motivated principles of memory: a sharply limited attentional focus, rapid retrieval of item (but not order) information subject to interference from similar items, and activation decay (forgetting over time). A computational model embodying these principles provides an explanation of the functional capacities and severe limitations of human processing, as well as accounts of reading times. The broad implication is that the detailed nature of cross-linguistic sentence processing emerges from the interaction of general principles of human memory with the specialized task of language comprehension. PMID:16949330

  4. A probabilistic model of semantic plausibility in sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Padó, Ulrike; Crocker, Matthew W; Keller, Frank

    2009-07-01

    Experimental research shows that human sentence processing uses information from different levels of linguistic analysis, for example, lexical and syntactic preferences as well as semantic plausibility. Existing computational models of human sentence processing, however, have focused primarily on lexico-syntactic factors. Those models that do account for semantic plausibility effects lack a general model of human plausibility intuitions at the sentence level. Within a probabilistic framework, we propose a wide-coverage model that both assigns thematic roles to verb-argument pairs and determines a preferred interpretation by evaluating the plausibility of the resulting (verb, role, argument) triples. The model is trained on a corpus of role-annotated language data. We also present a transparent integration of the semantic model with an incremental probabilistic parser. We demonstrate that both the semantic plausibility model and the combined syntax/semantics model predict judgment and reading time data from the experimental literature. PMID:21585487

  5. Broca's Area Plays a Role in Syntactic Processing during Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Suiping; Zhu, Zude; Zhang, John X.; Wang, Zhaoxin; Xiao, Zhuangwei; Xiang, Huadong; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI) was adopted to examine brain activation of syntactic processing in reading logographic Chinese. While fMRI data were obtained, 15 readers of Chinese read individually presented sentences and performed semantic congruency judgments on three kinds of sentences: Congruous sentences (CON),…

  6. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation. PMID:26277018

  7. Effects of Pronouns on Children's Memory for Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesgold, Alan M.

    Do children integrate pronoun sentences in memory as adults seem to do, i.e., processing anaphoric reference between two propositions into a form in which their common element is represented only once (jointly) for the two propositions? Data from two experiments involving third and fourth grade students revealed that a few very vivid sentences…

  8. Markedness Considerations in the Acquisition of Conditional Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two experiments which assessed the ability of adult second language (L2) learners to produce and comprehend real, unreal, and past unreal English conditional sentences. Developmental differences are analyzed in relation to distinctive features. The analyses lend support to the explanatory power of markedness theory in explaining L2…

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Critical Reading to Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschall, Sabrina; Davis, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of postsecondary programs for working adults is not surprising, given the importance of a bachelor's degree to employment and higher earnings. However, the demographics of adult learners have changed significantly over the past 30 years, when degrees for adults targeted a middle-class population. Adults now return to college…

  10. Exploring Methods to Investigate Sentencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrall, Elizabeth L. C.; Dhami, Mandeep K.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of sentencing are of much interest in criminal justice and legal research. Understanding the determinants of sentencing decisions is important for ensuring transparent, consistent, and justifiable sentencing practice that adheres to the goals of sentencing, such as the punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation of…

  11. The Accentuation of Intransitive Sentences in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, David

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the accentuation of two types of sentence in English: (1) straightforward intransitive sentences, and (2) intransitive sentences embedded in the frame "It's just NP noun phrase[ V verb[-ing." Modifications to Gussenhoven's (1983) Sentence Accent Assignment Rule (SAAR) are suggested based on large groups of exceptions of the SAAR.…

  12. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  13. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  14. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  15. Establishing causal coherence across sentences: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Kuperberg, Gina R.; Paczynski, Martin; Ditman, Tali

    2011-01-01

    This study examined neural activity associated with establishing causal relationships across sentences during online comprehension. ERPs were measured while participants read and judged the relatedness of three-sentence scenarios in which the final sentence was highly causally related, intermediately related and causally unrelated to its context. Lexico-semantic co-occurrence was matched across the three conditions using a Latent Semantic Analysis. Critical words in causally unrelated scenarios evoked a larger N400 than words in both highly causally related and intermediately related scenarios, regardless of whether they appeared before or at the sentence-final position. At midline sites, the N400 to intermediately related sentence-final words was attenuated to the same degree as to highly causally related words, but otherwise the N400 to intermediately related words fell in between that evoked by highly causally related and intermediately related words. No modulation of the Late Positivity/P600 component was observed across conditions. These results indicate that both simple and complex causal inferences can influence the earliest stages of semantically processing an incoming word. Further, they suggest that causal coherence, at the situation level, can influence incremental word-by-word discourse comprehension, even when semantic relationships between individual words are matched. PMID:20175676

  16. Developmental differences in visual and auditory processing of complex sentences.

    PubMed

    Booth, J R; MacWhinney, B; Harasaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Children aged 8 through 11 (N = 250) were given a word-by-word sentence task in both the visual and auditory modes. The sentences included an object relative clause, a subject relative clause, or a conjoined verb phrase. Each sentence was followed by a true-false question, testing the subject of either the first or second verb. Participants were also given two memory span measures: digit span and reading span. High digit span children slowed down more at the transition from the main to the relative clause than did the low digit span children. The findings suggest the presence of a U-shaped learning pattern for on-line processing of restrictive relative clauses. Off-line accuracy scores showed different patterns for good comprehenders and poor comprehenders. Poor comprehenders answered the second verb questions at levels that were consistently below chance. Their answers were based on an incorrect local attachment strategy that treated the second noun as the subject of the second verb. For example, they often answered yes to the question "The girl chases the policeman" after the object relative sentence "The boy that the girl sees chases the policeman." Interestingly, low memory span poor comprehenders used the local attachment strategy less consistently than high memory span poor comprehenders, and all poor comprehenders used this strategy less consistently for harder than for easier sentences. PMID:11016560

  17. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value. PMID:26244719

  18. Is Broca's Area Involved in the Processing of Passive Sentences? An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…

  19. The role of working memory in inferential sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana Isabel; Paolieri, Daniela; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Existing literature on inference making is large and varied. Trabasso and Magliano (Discourse Process 21(3):255-287, 1996) proposed the existence of three types of inferences: explicative, associative and predictive. In addition, the authors suggested that these inferences were related to working memory (WM). In the present experiment, we investigated whether WM capacity plays a role in our ability to answer comprehension sentences that require text information based on these types of inferences. Participants with high and low WM span read two narratives with four paragraphs each. After each paragraph was read, they were presented with four true/false comprehension sentences. One required verbatim information and the other three implied explicative, associative and predictive inferential information. Results demonstrated that only the explicative and predictive comprehension sentences required WM: participants with high verbal WM were more accurate in giving explanations and also faster at making predictions relative to participants with low verbal WM span; in contrast, no WM differences were found in the associative comprehension sentences. These results are interpreted in terms of the causal nature underlying these types of inferences. PMID:24668068

  20. Reading and Spelling in Adults: Are There Lexical and Sub-Lexical Subtypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.

    2012-01-01

    The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…

  1. Reading and Writing; Adult Education in Comprehensive Combined Addiction Treatment: Needs, Problems, and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karl A.; And Others

    This paper describes the results of the first year of the Eagleville Reading Academy and Satellite Program, a demonstration project funded by the U.S. Office of Education, Right to Read. Eagleville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center treats addicts and alcoholics in a combined abstinent therapeutic community program setting. The goals of the…

  2. Effects of Combined Repeated Reading and Question Generation Intervention on Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Therrien, William J.; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ries, Pamela S.; Shaw, Julia W.

    2012-01-01

    The combined repeated reading and question generation procedure is a reading intervention designed to target both fluency and comprehension for students with disabilities. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention for school age children with learning disabilities. This study extended the research by utilizing the…

  3. Integration of Sentence-Level Semantic Information in Parafovea: Evidence from the RSVP-Flanker Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjia; Li, Nan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    During text reading, the parafoveal word was usually presented between 2° and 5° from the point of fixation. Whether semantic information of parafoveal words can be processed during sentence reading is a critical and long-standing issue. Recently, studies using the RSVP-flanker paradigm have shown that the incongruent parafoveal word, presented as right flanker, elicited a more negative N400 compared with the congruent parafoveal word. This suggests that the semantic information of parafoveal words can be extracted and integrated during sentence reading, because the N400 effect is a classical index of semantic integration. However, as most previous studies did not control the word-pair congruency of the parafoveal and the foveal words that were presented in the critical triad, it is still unclear whether such integration happened at the sentence level or just at the word-pair level. The present study addressed this question by manipulating verbs in Chinese sentences to yield either a semantically congruent or semantically incongruent context for the critical noun. In particular, the interval between the critical nouns and verbs was controlled to be 4 or 5 characters. Thus, to detect the incongruence of the parafoveal noun, participants had to integrate it with the global sentential context. The results revealed that the N400 time-locked to the critical triads was more negative in incongruent than in congruent sentences, suggesting that parafoveal semantic information can be integrated at the sentence level during Chinese reading. PMID:26418230

  4. Constructive Processes in Skilled and Less Skilled Comprehenders' Memory for Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Investigated seven eight-year-old children's memory for aurally presented sentences. Used a recognition-memory task to probe constructive memory processes in two groups differentiated by reading comprehension. Results indicated the tendency to construct meanings was greater in children who scored higher on reading comprehension. (Author)

  5. Punctuation and Intonation Effects on Clause and Sentence Wrap-Up: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirotani, Masako; Frazier, Lyn; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Three eye movement studies examined the role of punctuation in reading. In Experiment 1, although a comma at the end of a clause facilitated overall reading times for the sentence, first pass times were longer at the end of comma-marked clauses than clauses without a comma (or the same material in clause medial position). The data supported the…

  6. A Reading Skills Development Program for Adult Non-Readers. Featuring: Supplementary Graphics and Sound (Voice Tutorials). Volumes 1 and 2. The TRS-80 Computer Assisted Instruction Series for Adult Basic Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio State Hospital, TX. Office of Education Services.

    This instructional manual consists of materials for use in implementing a computer-assisted instructional program in reading skills development for adult nonreaders. Discussed first are the project during which this instructional program and manual were developed and the goals of the computer-assisted beginning reading program, a major feature of…

  7. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Levels 7 and 8 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the 9 publications constituting the fourth stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  8. Theory of Mind Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating the Influence of Peer Coaches and Mind Reading Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated Theory of Mind in young adults with autism. The young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consisted of four students between the ages of 18 and 19 from an on-campus program for students with autism located at Marywood University in Northeastern Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that "Mind Reading",…

  9. The Relationship of the Component Skills of Reading to IALS Performance: Tipping Points and Five Classes of Adult Literacy Learners. NCSALL Reports #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strucker, John; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kirsch, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    This study's aim was to understand the relationship of the component skills of reading, such as word recognition, vocabulary, and spelling, to large-scale measures of literacy, such as the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) (Kirsch, Jungleblut, Jenkins, & Kolstad, 1993) and the closely related International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)…

  10. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…

  11. What Work of Adult Fiction or Nonfiction Do You Recommend to Other Teachers for Summer Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susanne; Isaac, Megan; Watts, Linda S.; Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Includes four teachers' recommendations of summer reading for other teachers. Details Anita Shreve's "The Last Time They Met"; Barbara Kingsolver's "Small Wonder"; Lynda Barry's "Cruddy"; and Ina Rilke's "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress." (PM)

  12. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  13. Development of lexical and sentence level context effects for dominant and subordinate word meanings of homonyms.

    PubMed

    Booth, James R; Harasaki, Yasuaki; Burman, Douglas D

    2006-11-01

    Nine-ten-and twelve-year-old children (N = 75) read aloud dominant, subordinate or ambiguous bias sentences (N = 120) that ended in a homonym (BALL). After the sentence (1,000 ms), children read aloud targets that were related to the dominant (BAT) or subordinate (DANCE) meaning of the homonym or control targets. Participants were also divided into three reading skill groups based on an independent measure of single word oral reading accuracy. There were three main developmental and reading skill findings. First, 9-year-olds and low skill readers showed lexical level facilitation in accuracy. Second, 9- and 10-year-olds or low and moderate skill readers showed lexical level facilitation in reaction time. Third, 12-year-olds or high skill readers showed sentence level facilitation in reaction time with high skill readers additionally showing sentence level inhibition in reaction time. These results show that lexical level context effects decreased and that sentence level context effects increased with development and skill. These results are discussed in terms of connectionist models of visual word recognition that incorporate distributed attractor principles. PMID:17053964

  14. The status of 'canonical SVO sentences' in French: a developmental study of the on-line processing of dislocated sentences.

    PubMed

    Charvillat, A; Kail, M

    1991-10-01

    This on-line study investigates the processing of word order by 30 French children (6;6, 8;6, 10;6) and 10 adults. Its main objective is to show that the privileged status granted to 'canonical SVO sentences' is inadequate to account for the on-line processing of pronominal utterances in spoken French. Using a word monitoring task, we showed that word order (NVN vs NNV): (1) is a significant factor in sentences containing no clitic pronoun; (2) stops being significant when sentences contain either one or two clitic pronouns. These results suggest that processing complexity depends upon co-reference ('linear', 'crossed' or 'embedding') assignment constraints rather than upon word order per se. We conclude that, in French, word-order processing always interacts with acceptability considerations provided by cliticization. PMID:1761615

  15. Computerized Silent Reading Rate and Strategy Instruction for Fourth Graders at Risk in Silent Reading Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedo, Jasmin; Lee, Yen-Ling; Breznitz, Zvia; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders whose silent word reading and/or sentence reading rate was, on average, two-thirds standard deviation below their oral reading of real and pseudowords and reading comprehension accuracy were randomly assigned to treatment ("n" = 7) or wait-listed ("n" = 7) control groups. Following nine sessions combining…

  16. The effects of auditory and visual vowel training on speech reading performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane

    2003-10-01

    Speech reading, the use of visual cues to understand speech, may provide a substantial benefit for normal-hearing listeners in noisy environments and for hearing-impaired listeners in everyday communication. However, there exists great individual variability in speech reading ability, and studies have shown that only a modest improvement in speech reading ability is achieved with training. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a novel approach to speech reading training on word and sentence identification tasks. In contrast to previous research, which involved training on consonant recognition, this study focused on vowels. Two groups of normal-hearing adults participated in auditory-visual (AV) conditions with added background noise. The first group of listeners received training on the recognition of 14 English vowels in isolated words, while the second group of listeners received no training. All listeners performed speech reading pre- and post-tests, on words and sentences. Results are discussed in terms of differences between groups, dependent upon whether training was administered, and a comparison is made between this and other speech reading training methods. Finally, the potential benefit of this vowel-based speech reading training method for the rehabilitation for hearing-impaired listeners is discussed. [Work supported by NIHDCD-02229.

  17. The Relation of Knowledge-Text Integration Processes and Reading Comprehension in 7th- to 12th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Ahmed, Yusra; Barth, Amy; Francis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of knowledge during reading was tested in 1,109 secondary school students. Reading times for the second sentence in a pair (Jane's headache went away) were compared in conditions where the first sentence was either causally or temporally related to the first sentence (Jane took an aspirin vs. Jane looked for an aspirin).…

  18. A Multiple-Channel Model of Task-Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Logačev, Pavel; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-03-01

    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton (1998) found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension (parsing) because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model (URM), assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira (2008) have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. When disambiguation is required, however, readers assign sentences full structure-and Swets et al. provide experimental evidence to this end. On the basis of their findings, they argue against the URM and in favor of a model of task-dependent sentence comprehension. We show through simulations that the Swets et al. data do not constitute evidence for task-dependent parsing because they can be explained by the URM. However, we provide decisive evidence from a German self-paced reading study consistent with Swets et al.'s general claim about task-dependent parsing. Specifically, we show that under certain conditions, ambiguous sentences can be read more slowly than their unambiguous counterparts, suggesting that the parser may create several parses, when required. Finally, we present the first quantitative model of task-driven disambiguation that subsumes the URM, and we show that it can explain both Swets et al.'s results and our findings. PMID:25823920

  19. The Efficacy of "Chunking" Reading Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Ronald P.

    In a series of three experiments involving 104 individuals, the effect of chunking sentences (the spatial separation of sentences into small groups of meaningfully related words) upon the reading rate and comprehension of mature readers was investigated. Passages and questions from a standardized reading test were displayed via an…

  20. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  1. BASIC TEST OF READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN

    THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…

  2. Japanese: Katakana Reading Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This exercise book has been designed to give beginning students an opportunity to practice the reading Katakana. Sixteen readings, each transcribed in Katakanese calligraphy, are presented. The selections are compositions by students of Katakana and assure familiarity with vocabulary and sentence patterns. (RL)

  3. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  4. Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

  5. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  6. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spor, Mary W.

    2005-01-01

    Reading is fundamental to learning from textbooks and other written materials in all content areas. Unfortunately, most children are brought up on a diet of narrative literature, but by the time they get to third grade, their textbooks are mainly informational (expository) instead of narrative, and sentence structures evolve from simple to…

  7. Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Herman Enoch

    The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

  8. How Do Adult New Readers Locate High-Interest, East-To-Read Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scates, Denni Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how the needs of adult new readers are being met in five North Texas public library systems using the PLA's (Public Library Association) list of recommended titles for "Adult New Readers" for 1993-97 as the comparative sample. All the libraries had titles from the sample, though there was considerable variance. Only one library has an…

  9. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  10. Transitions and Pathways: Self-Help Reading and Informal Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Vermeylen, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Through presenting empirical research exploring the connections between popular culture and informal learning, we argue that, as predicted by concepts such as self-directed learning and transformational learning, the experience of transition has a meaningful impact on adult learning. Specifically, transitions encourage adults to engage in learning…

  11. Test Review: The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) Life Skills Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…

  12. Reading Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a reading lab for a broad group of workers ranging from nonreaders to persons reading at a fifth-grade level. Presented first is a course overview that includes the following: information on the course's targeted population, student selection process, and demographics; strategies for adult remediation;…

  13. Integration of moral values during L2 sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Foucart, Alice; Moreno, Eva; Martin, Clara D; Costa, Albert

    2015-11-01

    This study reports an event-related potential (ERP) experiment examining whether valuation (i.e., one's own values) is integrated incrementally and whether it affects L2 speakers' online interpretation of the sentence. We presented Spanish native speakers and French-Spanish mid-proficiency late L2 speakers with visual sentences containing value-consistent and value-inconsistent statements (e.g., 'Nowadays, paedophilia should be prohibited/tolerated across the world.'). Participants' brain activity was recorded as they were reading the sentences and indicating whether they agreed with the statements or not. Behaviourally, the two groups revealed identical valuation. The ERP analyses showed both a semantic (N400) and an affect-related response (LPP) to value-inconsistent statements in the native group, but only an LPP in the non-native group. These results suggest that valuation is integrated online (presence of LPP) during L2 sentence comprehension but that it does not interfere with semantic processing (absence of N400). PMID:26431751

  14. Reading, Writing, and Friendship: Adult Implications of Effective Literacy Instruction for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forts, Ann M.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Reading and literacy are important not only for instrumental reasons such as knowing exit signs and recognizing initial consonants but also have tremendous human functioning implications in areas such as initiating and sustaining friendships, communicating care and affection, and enhancing work, leisure, and play. Many people with intellectual…

  15. Adult Learners: Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    This study examined the possible relationship between scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G and H) and performance on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 examination scores. Participants were 730 medical students at a mid-Atlantic university, and for 572…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  17. Statistical Learning Is Related to Reading Ability in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Simpson, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence showing a direct link between a capacity for statistical learning (SL) and proficiency with natural language. Moreover, discussion of the role of SL in language acquisition has seldom focused on literacy development. Our study addressed these issues by investigating the relationship between SL and reading ability…

  18. Brain Routes for Reading in Adults with and without Autism: EMEG Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically "sounding out"…

  19. Project DyAdd: Phonological Processing, Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic in Adults with Dyslexia or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Lehtinen, Maisa; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in phonological processing and reading that characterize developmental dyslexia have been suggested also to affect those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not known to what extent various intervening factors, such as low intelligence quotient or age, explain the observed difficulties. In this study,…

  20. Topography of Syllable Change-Detection Electrophysiological Indices in Children and Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommet, Caroline; Vidal, Julie; Roux, Sylvie; Blanc, Romuald; Barthez, Marie Anne; De Becque, Brigitte; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bruneau, Nicole; Gomot, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a frequent language-based learning disorder. The predominant etiological view postulates that reading problems originate from a phonological impairment. Method: We studied mismatch negativity (MMN) and Late Discriminative Negativity (LDN) to syllables change in both children (n = 12; 8-12 years) and…

  1. 77 FR 31071 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send applications to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle NE., Suite...

  2. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  3. Sentence Combining: A Rhetorical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiker, Donald A., Ed.; And Others

    The 23 original essays on sentence combining in this volume range in focus from classroom methodology and effectiveness, through theoretical issues and syntactic constructions, to current issues in the field. The essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "The Role of the Elaborated Dominant Nominal in the Measurement of Conceptual and Syntactic…

  4. Acceptable Ungrammaticality in Sentence Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel; Matsuo, Ayumi; Roberts, Leah

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new set of experiments using the "sentence-matching paradigm" (Forster, 1979; Freedman and Forster, 1985; see also Bley-Vroman and Masterson, 1989), investigating native speakers' and second language (L2) learners' knowledge of constraints on clitic placement in French. Our purpose is three-fold: (1) to shed more light on…

  5. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  6. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-10-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposure phase. At test adults read the novel words in semantically neutral sentences. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout exposure and test. Adults also completed a surprise memory test in which they had to match each novel word with its definition. Results showed a decrease in reading times for all novel words over exposure, and significantly shorter [corrected] total reading times at test for early than late novel words. Early-presented novel words were also remembered better in the offline test. Our results show that order of presentation influences processing time early in the course of acquiring a new word, consistent with partial and incremental growth in knowledge occurring as a function of an individual's experience with each word. PMID:25058413

  7. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  8. Parallel Mechanisms of Sentence Processing: Assigning Roles to Constituents of Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Kawamoto, Alan H.

    This paper describes and illustrates a simulation model for the processing of grammatical elements in a sentence, focusing on one aspect of sentence comprehension: the assignment of the constituent elements of a sentence to the correct thematic case roles. The model addresses questions about sentence processing from a perspective very different…

  9. Tracking Passive Sentence Comprehension in Agrammatic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    People with agrammatic aphasia often experience greater difficulty comprehending passive compared to active sentences. The Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Grodzinsky, 2000) proposes that aphasic individuals cannot generate accurate syntactic representations of passive sentences and, hence, use an agent-first processing strategy which leads to at-chance performance. We tested this claim using the eyetracking-while-listening paradigm in order to reveal online processing routines. Ten agrammatic aphasic participants and 10 age-matched controls listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture matching task (i.e., selecting between two pictures with reversed thematic roles), while their eye movements were monitored. Control participants’ performance was at ceiling, whereas accuracy for the aphasic participants was above chance for active sentences and at chance for passive sentences. Further, for the control participants, the eye movement data showed an initial agent-first processing bias, followed by fixation on the correct picture in the vicinity of the verb in both active and passive sentences. However, the aphasic participants showed no evidence of agent-first processing, counter the predictions of the TDH. In addition, in active sentences, they reliably fixated the correct picture only at sentence offset, reflecting slowed processing. During passive sentence processing, fixations were at chance throughout the sentence, but different patterns were noted for correct and incorrect trials. These results are consistent with the proposal that agrammatic sentence comprehension failure involves lexical processing and/or lexical integration deficits. PMID:22043134

  10. Interference Effects in Memory for Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Janet H.

    The two studies reported here examined processes involved in learning and remembering sentences. Experiment one identified processes in sentence acquisition, and experiment two analyzed memory for sentences one week after initial learning. Subjects for the experiments were students in a college educational psychology class. The experiments…

  11. 32 CFR 16.3 - Available sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Available sentences. (a) General. 32 CFR part 9 permits a military commission wide latitude in sentencing... prerequisites detailed in 32 CFR part 9 are met. Detention associated with an individual's status as an enemy... person making a final decision on the sentence in accordance with of 32 CFR 9.6(h). (c)...

  12. 32 CFR 16.3 - Available sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Available sentences. (a) General. 32 CFR part 9 permits a military commission wide latitude in sentencing... prerequisites detailed in 32 CFR part 9 are met. Detention associated with an individual's status as an enemy... person making a final decision on the sentence in accordance with of 32 CFR 9.6(h). (c)...

  13. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  14. 32 CFR 16.3 - Available sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Available sentences. (a) General. 32 CFR part 9 permits a military commission wide latitude in sentencing... prerequisites detailed in 32 CFR part 9 are met. Detention associated with an individual's status as an enemy... person making a final decision on the sentence in accordance with of 32 CFR 9.6(h). (c)...

  15. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  16. Does Prosody Support or Direct Sentence Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lesley; Wales, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines, through two studies, how prosodic information affects syntactic processing in locally ambiguous sentences. The first study dealt with people's judgments of the continuation of locally ambiguous sentence fragments of differing lengths. The second concerned ratings of normality of sentence types with differing contours. (27 references)…

  17. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer…

  18. Effects of Intensive Remedial Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, John; Algozzine, Bob; Lockavitch, Joseph F.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates implementation of the "failure free" reading program. Adequate repetition, appropriate sentence structure, and meaningful story content are incorporated in directed instruction, talking software, and print materials. Improvements were noted in attitudes, curriculum-based performance, and standardized tests. (MMU)

  19. Incrementality and Prediction in Human Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Gerry T. M.; Mirković, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    We identify a number of principles with respect to prediction that, we argue, underpin adult language comprehension: (a) comprehension consists in realizing a mapping between the unfolding sentence and the event representation corresponding to the real-world event being described; (b) the realization of this mapping manifests as the ability to predict both how the language will unfold, and how the real-world event would unfold if it were being experienced directly; (c) concurrent linguistic and nonlinguistic inputs, and the prior internal states of the system, each drive the predictive process; (d) the representation of prior internal states across a representational substrate common to the linguistic and nonlinguistic domains enables the predictive process to operate over variable time frames and variable levels of representational abstraction. We review empirical data exemplifying the operation of these principles and discuss the relationship between prediction, event structure, thematic role assignment, and incrementality. PMID:20396405

  20. Task Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence…